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😷 | "Ikebana people, now is the time to convey the power of flowers" Ikebana Ikebana Ikenobo Ikenobo


Photo "Rokukakudo", the birthplace of flower arrangement

"Ikebana people, now is the time to convey the power of flowers" Ikebana Ikebana Ikenobo

 
If you write the contents roughly
I couldn't do club activities at university, and I couldn't practice ikebana, but I'm glad I was able to face flowers for the first time in a while at the first-time ceremony. "
 

At the flower arrangement Iemoto "Ikenobo" (Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto City), the annual "first-generation ceremony" was held, which is said to have continued since the Muromachi period. ... → Continue reading

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Long time flower

Club activities

Club activities(Club Katsudoo, club activity), orExtracurricular activities(Bukkado, extracurricular activity),Circle activityAt (Circle Katsudo), friends with common hobbies and interests gathered together.GroupActivities in Japan.In schoolBesides, there are many activities within the company and as a citizen's circle.

Overview

There are various types of club activities, club activities, and club activities, and the types of activities are different for each school/group. Depending on the activity content, it is often roughly divided into "exercise (physical education)" and "cultural". The sports department is called the sports department (or the physical education department), and the culture department is called the culture department.

In school education activitiesJapanIn some cases, there is a strict definition such as "club activity" (described later). “Club activity” is also a term used in the curriculum guidelines, but it disappeared in 2002 when middle schools and in high schools revised in 2003.

Usually in Japanprimary school,Valais, SwitzerlandorUniversity,University-Junior collegeIn many cases, the same club activities are carried out until graduation (in some cases, if the school allows participation in multiple club activities, one person may participate in multiple club activities). But,AmericaThen often belong to different club activities depending on the season[1].. I rarely belong to the same club all year round, so I can enjoy various sports and cultural experiences.

In Western countries, Australia, New Zealand, etc.Club teamOften belong to.Olympic,サ ッ カ ーIt is because there are local club teams that produce top-notch players, etc., because there are also professional players who can practice highly. Even in Japan, in some sports such as soccer, it is not a club activity,Youth teamYou can see examples that belong to.

Socialist countryIn order to raise the national prestige, however, there were many cases in which athletes were trained by the national government.

Japanese school education club activities

Definition

There is a definition in "club activity" of Japanese school education,Course of Study"In club activities, as a part of school education activities, students with similar interest who are interested in sports, culture, and scholarship, etc.Voluntary and voluntary activities'[2]As for the contents of the curriculum, it is said that "they are familiar with sports, culture and science, etc., and contribute to the improvement of motivation for learning, a sense of responsibility, and the development of a sense of solidarity. Be careful so that they are related."[3]Is instructed.

Club activitiesprimary school-Junior high school-high school-University-Junior college-College of technology-Vocational schoolIs a commonly used name inClub activitiesAbbreviated as (Bukatsu).

At schoolunit,Club,Love partyIt is related to a system that divides groups into groups, such as, and in a narrow sense, it refers to the activities of a group called a club. In this case, at the time of new establishment, some schools may act as a lovers' club or club, and the system may be promoted to a club after a certain amount of activity record is evaluated. In this case, by being promoted to the club, for example, the operating expenses of the club will be recognized as a budget by the student council.

On the other hand, in a broad sense, it refers to the activities of all organizations that carry out activities such as clubs, and it is customary that the scope is defined by each school.

加入

Of 2007TochigiThe enrollment rate in junior high school and high school is 90.8%, the sports club is 73.6%, and the culture club is 17.2%. According to statistics, the admission rate of the Ministry of Culture has been increasing year by year, and the choice of male students has expanded compared to the past, which has led to an increase.[4].

As of 2013,NaganoThen, the participation rate of the sports club itself is 7.7% lower than the national average. On the other hand, the fact that most schools practice mornings throughout the year is said to be higher than in other prefectures.[5].. An exercise (so-called “morning training”) is conducted from early morning to secure time for club practice, and some students devote themselves to regular activity classes, such as naps, to practice club activities, compete, and perform.[6].

Originally, entering club activities was not "compulsory",Voluntary and voluntary participationHowever, most junior and senior high schools do not follow the guidelines of the Ministry of Education and Culture, and forcibly belong to some club activities (without parental consent). Students who are not forced to belong to club activities by school rules and leave the school as soon as the regular lesson on the day endsReturn home departmentThere is a custom that is called.

In addition, I often refer to members who are "enrolled but not participating in the club",Ghost memberCall. Behind the appearance of ghost members, for example, there are no desired departments due to compulsory entrance (in accordance with school rules), but in terms of appearance, the results of "filling in a survey (internal report)/resume" In fact, for the purpose of securing theReturn home departmentIt is a style called.

Depending on the club activity, for reasons such as preventing excellent students from being pulled out,Transfer(Transfer) There may be cases where activities are prohibited or restricted (such as participation in competitions) for a certain period of time (for example, if there is a reason that attendance at the original school cannot be continued, or if you join the department at the original school). If you have not, you may be allowed to participate in special cases). As wellPast studentHowever, due to physique and other reasons, the period of activity may be limited to a period shorter than the minimum training period of the school.

In addition, there are many advisors and students who feel burdened with club activities.A survey conducted by Morinaga & Co., Ltd. for teachers of club advisorsAccording to the report, more than 7% of the teachers answered that they "feel their club activities a burden."[7]The burden of club activities affects not only the teacher but also the students. Of the Sports AgencyFY29 "Survey on sports club activities, etc."According to the report, when asked about "worries about club activities and school life" among students attending a public junior high school belonging to the athletic club, "there are long club activities and days" (19.9%) was the most frequent. Next, answers such as "Compatibility with schoolwork" (16.3%) and "I'm tired" (16.0%) gathered votes.[8]

Athletic and cultural

Club activities, club activities, and club activities are divided into athletic and cultural activities. In Japan, it is said that athletic club activities were first created.

Motor system
It is generally important for the athletic system to win a competitive match and achieve higher results. There are many places in Japan that engage in spiritual activities in the hope that human formation will take place through sports. Recently, some departments emphasize the spirituality while incorporating scientific methods into the practice menu to reduce the activity time and improve the effect.
Sports club activities under school management areAs a part of school education activities, students of similar interest who are interested in sports voluntarily and voluntarily play sports under the guidance of teachers, and challenge higher-level skills and records. Which has the significance of enjoying the enjoyment and joy of sports and enhancing school life(MEXT)[9].
Cultural system
Cultural systems are considered to be important depending on how they set their purpose. It may be the result of a competition or the like, or it may be the achievement of a service activity in a school or community, mutual assistance in academics, arts, or technology, or the achievement of research. Performance groups such as the brass band, chorus and drama areAll Japan Band Competition-NHK National School Music CompetitionIn order to obtain excellent results in competitions such asMarching contestParticipants who participate in may be physically trained to be almost the same as the exercise system.
There are many school-specific elements in the content of activities, and some departments may not have a corresponding department in a cultural federation such as the National High School Cultural Federation. Many of those departments aim to make presentations in the school or in the community.
General Affairs Department
Among the cultural systems, the broadcasting club and brass band clubs that carry out activities related to the events of the entire school may be classified as the "general affairs department" or may be regarded as committee activities. In addition, there is a similar tendency in cheering groups and the like, which are often classified as athletic.
Outer office
Many high schools in Hokkaido set up activities related to "wind music", "broadcasting", and "books" not as club activities but as an external office of the student council. Schools that introduce the external station system use names such as "wind band station", "broadcast station", and "library station".

Activities by stage

primary school,Junior high school,high school,UniversityとPublic educationThe situation of club activities, club activities, and club activities changes little by little as the stage progresses. In many elementary schools, club activities are the main focus, and in junior high and high schools, club activities are the main focus. When it comes to college,StudentOften the shackles are loose. BigPublic interest-It is divided into two groups, one is a field-oriented group and the other is a person-oriented group, but there are some groups that do not clarify what they value.

Primary Education,Secondary educationAccompanied by stage club activitiesCompetitionRegarding the clarification of the organizer,victoryNational basic standards such as elimination of supremacy and respect for willingness to participate have been established.[10], Based on this eachEducation Agency,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,GroupEtc. are also detailedStandard,SafeCreate measures,responsibilityClarification ofChildren-student OfHealth,SchoolworkActivities are supposed to be carried out within the range that does not hinder the operation.

Primary Education

Club activities are compulsory in primary education such as elementary school. this is,Course of StudyThere is a provision inSpecial activityThis is because it is considered as one area. Clubs are established in their own way, with each school or multiple schools collaborating. Although the organizational rate is low, optional club activities and club activities are also organized,chorusTeambrass bandIs organized as a beginning. In addition, in order to distinguish the required club activities from the selected club activities, they may be referred to as "required clubs" and "selected clubs", respectively.

Elementary school club activities are often divided into classrooms at 6 o'clock every week. In addition, recently, many schools basically do not carry out club activities during times other than the name "club activities". However, regarding mandatory club activities,Course of StudyDue to the revision ofYutori educationAs part of2002From degreeSaturdayIs allHolidayAs a result, the number of schools in which weekly club activities have been reduced to about one hour per month has increased. It can be said that this is a measure to secure class time. In practice, the practice time is irregular due to the actual conditions of each club, and there are also places where the students practice for presentations after school.ChildOur requests and localvolunteer(Often the originalGuardian) May come to teach, but the actual management depends on individual teachers.

However,Elementary, middle and high school consistent educationElementary school club activities are often divided into classrooms at 6 o'clock every week, and the number of schools where the weekly club activity time is increased to about 2 hours per month has increased. Club activities run from the 5th week of April to the 1nd week of March.

KyotoKyoto CityNow, club activities have also started in recent years,cultureThere are also club activities.After classDifferent toschool year,classThe children ofcommunicationIt is highly desirable in terms of development. However, securing instructors is very difficult,TeacherThere are more and more cases in which it is not possible to deal with it by itself. In the current decline of local educational ability, it is essential for teachers to actively engage in protecting the reality of parents and children.EnglishIn some fields, such as clubs, where teachers are not good at teaching, some clubs are run only by parents. In primary education,head teacherTeachers should form the basis of club activities under the guidance of, but it often does not reach the goal. On the other hand, considering the burden on children and teachers, abolishing club activities that were once carried out,Local clubs and circles and sports clubsThe number of elementary schools outsourced to such organizations is increasing.

For elementary school studentsSports boysIs active in elementary school units, for example, a club teamサ ッ カ ーSection",Youth baseballThe club teambaseballThe sports boys' group may be implicitly recognized as synonymous with the club activities of the elementary school, such as being called a "club," and the boundaries between "school clubs" and "regional clubs" may be blurred. Training campIs generally not done.

Secondary education

Junior high school,high schoolSuch asSecondary educationIn club activities and club activitiesExtracurricular activities.

According to the 1958 Course of Study, it was said that activities were carried out by the voluntary participation of students as one of the special education activities. The activity isSpecial activityIt was considered as a compulsory area. In the curriculum guidelines revised in 1993 for junior high schools and 1992 for high schools, it was stipulated that "participation in club activities can replace some or all of club activities." However, in junior high school 2002 and in high school 2003, the required club activities areComprehensive learning timeIt was abolished in the form of being absorbed and integrated in the current curriculum guidelines, and the current curriculum guidelines states that “club activities are conducted as part of school education activities by students of similar interest who have an interest in sports, culture, learning, etc. Below, mainly those who voluntarily and voluntarily work after school etc."[2]It is said that. Currently, students voluntarily and voluntarily participate according to the actual conditions of each school.[11]Club activities are being conducted as a part of extracurricular activities.

In many schools, club activities arestudent councilOperate under the umbrella of, or in a collaborative or cooperative relationship.

Approximately 5% of teachers who teach athletic club activities in junior high school and high school have experience in competition.[12].

Higher education

University-Junior college-College of technologySuch asHigher educationIn the field, all these activitiesExtracurricular activitiesIs. For this reason, the categories of activity groups differ from school to school, but it is generally said that they can be broadly divided into groups that emphasize public interests and fields and groups that emphasize human interaction, depending on the student's intention. In addition, we are active across multiple schoolsInter College(Generally,IncareThere is also a form called "circle".

There are often self-governing bodies such as sports clubs and cultural associations that are in charge of club activities and club activities. With athletic meet and cultural associationStudent associationRelationships vary from school to school. In addition, there are cases where club activities are conducted without belonging to an organization for each of these activity fields.

In particular, there are many certified clubs in schools that are classified as universities that started from a pioneering position in the field in Japan, and especially in outpatient athletics, it is important from the initial stage of the event in Japan. There is an example that plays a role, and as a result, unlike other school education sites, there is no method of operation such as a general physical education competition that controls all disciplines. (In some areas, such a form can be seen, but it cannot be said to be general.) Rather, individual associations or associations for each discipline have been established from early on, and most have developed in a form in which the number of member schools has increased. (Reference: Partial introduction to related items below)

Organization/Convention

Athletic organization/meeting

Cultural organizations and competitions

Issues/problems and countermeasures

It has been pointed out that club activities play an important role in students' self-actualization and growth in Japanese schools, while some activities, including teachers, place an excessive burden on the mind and body. Such a so-called "Black club"The Society for Club Activities, Japan" was launched in December 2017 to study club activities academically and make recommendations, including countermeasures for problems.[13] [14].

As one of the reasons why these problems came to be recognized in August 2016NHKThe program "Close-up modern +』, the issue of club activities that perform unreasonable harassment behavior during practice was addressed. With such content as "abusive language that denies the student's personality, and long-term restraint enough to get sick,"Black clubThe voice of a brass band instructor cursing a student or kicking a chair was played, and the actual situation was broadcast.[15].

Even if you don't go to "black club", club activities that require long and hard practice for the purpose of recording and winning will be an excessive burden for students who are not good at exercise or want to keep up with other club activities. There is a side. For this reason, some schools have "light sports clubs" that are easy to participate,Sports AgencyHas established guidelines for sports club activities[16].

Also, due to club activities, casualties and outdoorsDistressMay occur.Nasu avalanche accident(March 2017) Later, Fuyuyama as a club activityClimbingThe high school which does is halved[17].. Of other teachers who instruct club activitiesService overtime(overtime work) Becomes too long,Death from overworkThere are also examples that have reached[18].

Gifu Commercial High SchoolOf the baseball clubBlacksmith"Leaders with few withdrawals want to fit students into the mold. If you respect individuality and give it away, you won't be able to handle it," he said.

Many teachers are appointed as advisors to club activities who have no experience in competition.

As far as the hair of high school ball children is concerned, the stereotypes around them are strong. When the team in Kyushu stood in Koshien, the manager liberalized the hair of the players, and OBs and fans complained that it was not like a ball child. Forced curl is defined as explicit corporal punishment (violence)[19].. Tsuyoshi KawadaStanford University(USA) American football coach said, "Japanese people think it's great to keep going through injuries."[20].

Consultation counter/related organizations
UV protection

In many cases, outdoor exercise activities under school control do not have protection measures against UV exposure (or teachers prohibit personal protection, etc.).

heatstroke

Under the supervision of schools, outdoor exercise activities are often carried out toward the summer tournament, and cases of heat stroke group outbreaks and fatal accidents under the scorching sun often occur.

Western school education club activities

In the United States and the United Kingdom, club activities are not regarded as pure school activities as in Japan, but are generally carried out jointly by schools and communities.[21]..In countries such as Germany, Italy, and Scandinavia, there are regional sports clubs, but there is no equivalent to club activities as school activities.[21].

America

America's educational and sports policies are different in each state[1].

In California, junior high school and high school have club activities after school, but in many cases you need to pass a tryout as a condition to join the club.[1].. It has become a difficult system to join the club if you have no experience in popular games such as baseball, basketball, and American football.[1].. There are also many students who belong to different disciplines depending on the season[1].

The United Kingdom

The history of British club activities (school sports) originated from public schools in the 19th century[1].. Sports club activities are in both primary and secondary schools and are often taught by physical education teachers.[1].. The club activity participation rate is about 50%, and many children and students participate once or twice a week.[1].

There are about 50 sports offered in English schools, with an average of 18.2 at each school.[1].

The English national curriculum has a policy goal of 2 hours a week for primary and secondary schools, with 3 hours of physical education per week and 5 hours of club activity or local sports activity per week.[1].

France

In France, apart from physical education, activities called “sport scolaire” are provided to children and students.[1].. Education and sports are conducted in a joint partnership between the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Sports[1].

In France, school sports non-profit associations (AS) have been established to promote educational sports.[1].

  • Although there is no obligation to create an AS in primary education, there are 13,200 member schools in the Association of Primary Education and Sports (USEP), the governing body of AS in primary education.[1].
  • In secondary education, there is an obligation to create an AS, and junior high and high school students who wish to join can belong to AS and participate in competitions.[1].

According to a 2006 survey, about 20% of students participate in AS and participate in sports, and about 52% of students participate in sports club and participate in sports. About 68% of the students (duplicate surveys with multiple answers)[1].

Germany

There is no equivalent to athletic club activities in Germany, but out-of-class sports activities are active.[1].. In Hesse, full-time programs and conferences are held as out-of-class sports activities.[1].

Footnote/Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. “Overseas survey in a research study on accident prevention during physical education activities (report)” Ministry of education
  2. ^ a b Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, High School Learning Guideline Commentary on Special Activities, 46. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/micro_detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/01/05/1234912_014.pdf
  3. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, middle school learning guideline commentary, 84. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/micro_detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/01/05/1234912_001.pdf
  4. ^ Tokyo Shimbun-Increase in admission rate for both middle and high school students Club activities
  5. ^ Controversy of club activities "Asaren"-Nagano's decision to "abolish" Concerns over burnout syndrome of junior high school students (page 2-2) -MSN Sankei News, 2013.11.14
  6. ^ Masaki Maezono (former professional soccer player) is a member of Kagoshima Jitsugyo High School soccer club. Shijiri-sensei Don't be like me 3 hours SP TV Asahi 2015 Guest appearance
  7. ^ "#What you can do for club activities”. Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd. 2020/7/7Browse.
  8. ^ "29 fact-finding report about sports club activities”. Japan Sports Agency. 2020/7/7Browse.
  9. ^ Educational measures in Japan Ministry of education]
  10. ^ "Standards for athletic competitions for children and students" (about the handling of athletic competitions for new children and students following the abolition of "about athletic competitions for children and students")Heisei 13 years 12th company No. 6,Ministry of educationSports-teensBureau planningphysical education(Notice from section manager "About athletic competition for children and students" attached).
  11. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Current Guidelines for Learning Chapter 1 General Rules 4 Matters that should be considered when preparing teaching plans, etc. (XNUMX)
  12. ^ Survey Report on Actual Conditions of School Athletic Club Activity LeadersJapan Physical Education Association Leader Development Special Committee July 26 (PDF)
  13. ^ Japanese club activity society(Retrieved September 2017, 12)
  14. ^ "Japan Club Activity Society" is launched Memorial meeting in NagoyaMainichi Newspaper News Site (December 2017, 12)
  15. ^ ""Die! Stupid!" Is this a guidance? ~ Spread "Black club"~"- NHK Close-up Hyundai+, 2016.8.1
  16. ^ A few times a month, enjoyable exercise / club activities have begun``Tokyo Shimbun'' evening edition March 2018, 3
  17. ^ High school winter mountain climbing halved in half High school activities after the accident Safety measures AnguishNihon Keizai Shimbun evening edition March 2018, 3 (researchKyodo Newsby)
  18. ^ Overtime death certified by club activities Overtime work, XNUMX hours a month Teacher in Toyama Mainichi Newspaper March 2018, 7
  19. ^ June 2018, 6 Chunichi Shimbun 7 pages
  20. ^ June 2018, 6 Chunichi Shimbun 9 pages
  21. ^ a b Regulatory Reform Promotion Council Public Discussion Materials Cabinet Office, viewed January 2021, 1.

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