Portal field news

Portal field news

in

😷 | Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake 26 years “What is different from the“ crack ”and“ misalignment ”of the plate” Learning from the three major earthquakes Hiroshi Nishikage…


Photo The first floor of this house was crushed, and many people sleeping there were crushed to death. <* Image courtesy of Yuichi Nishikage, taken on February 1, 1995 in Kobe City>

26th year of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake "Different from" cracks "and" deviations "on plates" Learning from the three major earthquakes Hiroshi Nishikage ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
This is called a plate boundary type earthquake, and a huge earthquake with a magnitude (M) of 8 to 9 occurs.
 

The spread of the new corovirus, the virus is small and invisible, but has the power to kill people, 2020 ... → Continue reading

 Radio kansai

Distribute radio Kansai and local Hyogo Prefecture topics.
We deliver radio programs, personalities, guest appearances, radio events in Kansai and local Hyogo prefecture, news, sports, and various topics. Recommended for curators who are looking for entertainment, sports and local information.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics(British: plate tectonics) IsPlate theoryAlso good (plate tectonics theory is more common),1960 eraDeveloped after the second halfEarth science Oftheory.地球The surface of the rock is some hard rock as shown in the figure on the right (""plateIt is explained that the movement of these plates causes continental drift and the like.TraditionalContinental migration theory-Mantle convection theory-Ocean floor expansion theoryIt was further systematized by using the concept of "plate" as a basis.theoryAnd brought about a great transformation in earth science[1].

What is a plate

The earth has a radius of about 6,400 kilometers, but if the internal structure is materially classified, it will be as follows in order from the outside.[2].

  1. To a depth of about 5-40 kilometers: 地殻
  2. Up to a depth of about 670 kilometers: Upper mantle --Top layer, low velocity layer (asthenosphere, rock basin), transition zone
  3. Up to a depth of about 2,900 kilometers: Lower mantle --Mesosphere (hard rock layer)
  4. Up to a depth of about 5,100 kilometers: Outer core(External core)
  5. Center: Kernel(Internal core)

With the crustMantle TherockConsists ofNuclear The金属Quality.The rocks that make up the mantleSeismic waveForsolidBehaves as, but if you look at it in long time unitsLiquidityHave.Its fluidity varies significantly with depth, with the top of the upper mantle (up to a depth of about 100 km) being stiff and almost non-flowing, with relatively fluidity up to about 100-400 km.Align the hard part of the crust with the top of the upper mantleLithosphereIt is called (lithosphere), and the fluid part below it is called.AsthenosphereIt is classified as (Asthenosphere).This hard lithosphere, about 100 kilometers thick, covers the surface of the earth, but there are some lithospheres.plateIt is divided into a huge board called "[3].

The fact that the earth's surface consists of two types of plates means that the earth's surfaceheightIt also appears in the proportion of the distribution of depth and depth.The surface of the earthContinentとcontinental shelfConsists of an altitude of 1,500 meters-a part with a depth of 500 meters and a depth of 2,000-6,000 metersSeafloor spreadingThere are many parts called, and the proportion of the seabed at a depth of 500-2,000 meters in the middle is small.

The plate can be divided into more than a dozen plates when viewed broadly, and each plate is moved in its own direction at a speed of several centimeters a year.Large plates include major parts of Eurasia and western JapanEurasia plate, North America, Greenland, Eastern Japan, etc.North American plate, Occupy most of the bottom of the Pacific OceanPacific plate, India and the continent of AustraliaIndo-Australian Plate, Centered on the African continentAfrican plate, Carrying South AmericaSouth American plate, Including Antarctica and surrounding watersAntarctic plateThere is.In addition, on the Arabian PeninsulaArabic plateAnd off the coast of California, USAJuan de Fuca Plate, Located on the Pacific side of Central AmericaCocos plate, CaribbeanCaribbean plate, Off the coast of PeruNazca plate, Extends to the vicinity of the Izu Islands, Ogasawara Islands, and Izu Peninsula, centering on the Philippine SeaPhilippine Sea PlateSpreads over the Scotia Sea between South America and the Antarctic OceanScotia plateThere are also some small plates such as.

Plates often have both continental and oceanic parts, but there are also plates in which the continental and oceanic parts each occupy the majority.[4]..When the ocean and continental parts of different plates collide, mainlygraniteThe continental part, which has a light specific gravity, emerges, mainlybasaltThe heavy ocean part consisting of is subducted.[5]..Plates have a long history, and it is believed that plate tectonics as they are today existed at least 38 billion years ago.[6]..With the progress of plate tectonics, orogenic belts were established in various places, and the small terrain formed by them collided and gradually expanded, and eventually continental land appeared in various places.[7].

The plate isRidgeBorn in, slowly moving like a conveyor beltTrenchSink into.Continents repeatedly separate, gather, and disperse as the plates move, often integrating all continents on Earth.SupercontinentHas appeared.Tuzo Wilson advocates that the continent's divergence and dispersal form a cycle approximately every 3 million years.Wilson cycleCame to be called[8].

There are two theories that cause the plate to move: the theory that the plate sinks into the trench under its own weight, and the theory that the plate also moves according to the movement of the lower mantle.In the past, the former theory was the predominant theory[9]But in 2014 JapanJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyThe investigation found traces of the movement of the crust along with the movement of the mantle off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, and the latter theory also provided a strong basis.[10].

Plates may be born again, and older plates may sink under the trench and disappear.As an example, it once existed in the northwestern Pacific OceanIzanagi plateDisappeared about 2500 million years ago[11]..It is impossible to observe the inside of the plate, especially the mantle part, but it is the wreckage of the former ocean plate.OphioliteExists all over the world, and it is possible to observe from here.Above allOmanNorthern(English edition)The world's largest ophiolite layer is spreading in Japan, and it is being actively investigated.[12].

Although it is said that plate tectonics will eventually end due to the temperature drop inside the earth, there are various theories about the timing.[13].

Plate movement

Each plate carries out its own unique movement, riding on the movement of the asthenosphere beneath it.The mantle, including the asthenosphere, is constantly convective and rises, moves, and sinks at certain locations.The plate is moving along with its movement, but at the plate boundary,Mountain building,Volcano,Fault,EarthquakeAnd so onCrustal movementIs occurring.Plate tectonics of thesephenomenonGave a clear explanation.

Global plate movement is all easySphereupperGeometryRepresented by.Also, the local plate movementflatThe geometry above can be fully explained. The point where the three plates meet ((English edition)) Are classified into 16 types according to the types of plate boundaries (divergent type, convergent type, transform type) that form them, but all of them are elementary geometry and completely describe their stability, moving speed, and direction. can do.

In general, plate motion is only represented by relative motion between two adjacent plates.However, by finding the relative motion of adjacent plates one after another, it is possible to describe the relative motion between any two plates on the earth.in recent years,準星Applied the observation ofUltra long baseline radio interferometry A method called (VLBI),Global Positioning System "Global" such as (GPS)Satellite positioning navigation system, (GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System) ”makes it possible to directly observe the absolute motion of the plate.[14].

Plate boundaries

Divergent boundary (spreading boundary)

Corresponds to the rising part of the mantle, in the opening figure aboveThe Pacific OceanEastern part大西洋It corresponds to the boundary line running north and south in the center.This boundary extends east to west by several centimeters each year.From the basement to the open crackbasaltQuality magma is supplied and a new crust is being created.This part rises considerably from the seafloor spreading,RidgeIt is called[15]..The expansion speed of each ridge is different, and the center of the slow expansion ridge forms a deep canyon.[16]..Also, near the ridge, it is called a chimney.Hot water spoutHave been found in large numbers[17].

Most divergent boundaries are located on the deep sea floor, but rarely on land.アイス ランドIs the part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that emerged above sea level, where active volcanic activity is occurring.[18]..Also in eastern AfricaGreat Rift ValleyConsists of deep canyons in the central axis and rows of alpine surroundings, similar in terrain to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge[19],Hot plumeIs believed to be the part of the African Plate being torn by[20].

Convergent boundary (separate boundary)

At the convergent boundary, the plates collide with each other and are compressed, but the phenomenon that occurs depends on the characteristics of the colliding plates.However, at either boundaryMountain buildingHappened,Alpide beltIs forming[21].

Subduction型
When a continental plate and an ocean plate or ocean plates collide with each other, the plate with a high specific gravity sinks under the plate with a low specific gravity and is deep.TrenchTo form.Since the continental plate has a lighter specific gravity than the oceanic plate, if the two collide, the oceanic plate will subduct under the continental plate.The repulsion of the upper plate dragged in by this subductionEarthquakeOccurs.Earthquakes that occur at the boundaries of these plates are called interplate earthquakes, but there are also intra-slab earthquakes that occur in plates (slabs) that sink under the plates.[22]..In addition, the water separated from the deep underground plate of the surrounding rocksMelting pointIn the depths of the continental plate to lowermagmaOccurs and manyVolcanoTo generate[23]..Since the magma generation point is not the point where the ocean plate subducts into the continental plate, but the point where it enters the continental plate side further, a certain distance from the subducting trench is kept parallel to the trench.Volcanic lineWill be formed.Since there are no volcanoes on the trench side of this volcanic array, this is called a volcanic front.[24]..Due to this volcanic activity and the folds caused by collisions between continents, an Mt. Ooyama vein called a land arc may be formed on the continental plate side.The hinterland of the land arc collapsedBack-arc basinIs often formed, in which case the land arc is separated from the continent.Island arcBecome[25]..Also, when the ocean plate collides with the ocean plate, the old plate is colder and heavier, so it slips under the new plate.At this time, an island arc may be formed due to collisions between ocean plates.[26]..This island arc and trench exist as a set and are called the island arc / trench system.[27].
Plates that have moved to the bottom of the sea over a long period of time since they were made on the ridgechart,Limestone,sandstone,MudstoneManySedimentWhen the plate sinks, the phenomenon of sticking to the plate on the land side may occur.This is called addition, and the result isAdductCall.Japanese archipelagoThere are many parts made in this way[28]..On the other hand, there are almost no accretionary prisms, and on the contrary, there are many types of boundaries that sink while eroding and scraping a part of the upper plate, and 57% of the subduction type boundaries are of this type.Whether the boundary becomes an accretionary prism or an erosion type depends on the speed of subduction, and the slower the speed, the more the sediment does not subduct and becomes an accretionary prism.[29]..The wreckage of the subducted ocean plate is called a slab, and because it is cold and heavy, it subducts further into the mantle, and some reach the boundary between the outer core and the mantle.[30].
The sea near Japan is one of the regions where the subduction movement of the plates is intense because the boundaries of the four plates, the North American Plate in the north, the Pacific Plate in the east, the Philippine Sea Plate in the south, and the Eurasian Plate in the west, are close to each other.[31].Northeastern japanBorn in the eastern Pacific Ocean about 1 million years ago in the sea east ofPacific plate(proportionBigMarine plate) Posted northeastern JapanNorth American plate(Small specific gravityContinental plate) Is colliding.The heavy Pacific plate hits the light North American plate,Japan TrenchIt is sunk diagonally downward at an angle of 40-50 °.The water separated from the deep underground Pacific plate is of the surrounding rocks.Melting pointLowermagmaOccurs and many on the North American Plate sideVolcanoTo generate[32]..The lava erupted from the volcano eventually formed land, forming behind the volcanic line from 2000 to 1500 million years ago.Back-arc basinIsSea of ​​JapanSeparated from the Asian continent byIsland arcFormed[33]..The North American Plate, which was hit and pushed by the Pacific Plate, was cracked by compressive stress, causing many faults.Kitakami MountainsEtc. were born.Similarly, it is on the south sea of ​​JapanNankai TroughNow the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasian Plate,Izu/Ogasawara TrenchThe Pacific plate is subducting under the Philippine Sea plate[34]..As a result, on the Philippine Sea Plate sideIzu, Ogasawara, Mariana Island ArcA large-scale volcanic island arc called is formed[35].TrenchThen,Japan TrenchIt has also been observed that the sun is sinking.[36].
Collision type
When continental plates collide with each other, subduction does not occur due to their light specific gravity, and Mt. Ooyama veins are formed because the boundary continues to rise.[37]..The most active and large-scale continental collision is currently occurringHimalayaIs.originally,AntarcticaWas withIndian plateSeparated and moved north, about 4,500 million years agoEurasia plateIt collided with and continued to move north slowly.Due to the collision between the continental plates, the one-sided subduction like the sea near Japan did not occur, and the Indian plate pushed up while partially digging under the Eurasian plate.As a result, sediments between the two continents became accretionary prisms and swelled, reaching a level of 8,000 meters.(I.e.Are lined upHimalayasOr vastTibetan PlateauDeveloped[38].
Although the scale is small, it is an area where collision movements are still in progress.New Zealand(South Island) AndTaiwanCan be mentioned.These are the fastest growing in the worldMountainAnd the uplift rate in Taiwan iscoastlineBut it exceeds 5 millimeters a year.
In Japan,Hidaka Mountains,Tanzawa areaIs a collision-type orogenic belt[39]..Especially in the Tanzawa MountainsIzu PeninsulaIt was created by the collision of, and this collision process is still in progress.[40]..However, the Hidaka Mountains are no longer active.
Many traces of large-scale continental collisions in the past have been found.The famous one isEuropean Alps,Appalachian Mountains,Ural mountainsSuch.There are many unknowns left in the process of continental collision.The reason is that in the subduction type boundary, the underground plate shape can be estimated from the position of the earthquake that occurs in the deep part, whereas in the continental collision zone, the earthquake does not occur in the deep part.

Transform type boundary (deviation boundary)

Clear between the boundaries that pass each otherStrike-slip fault(Transform fault) Is formed.Western United StatesSan Andreas FaultAndトルコ OfNorth Anatolian FaultIs famous and is very active.The San Andreas Fault is on the continent, but with a series of ridges (Mid-Atlantic Ridge,East Pacific RidgeEtc.), most of which connect individual ridges and ridges[41]..Theoretically, it passes through the relative motion axis between the two platesGreat circleToOrthogonalAnd orthogonal to the ridge[42]..Also, huge earthquakes are likely to occur at transform-type boundaries.[43].

Development of plate tectonics theory

1912ToGermany OfAlfred WegenerAdvocated byContinental migration theoryWas once on earthPangea continentOne calledSupercontinentOnly exists and this isMesozoicIt is assumed that it separated and moved from the end and became the current distribution of continents.As proof of that, across the Atlantic OceanNorth America-South AmericaとEurope-African continentThe coastline is similar and excavated on both banksPaleontology OffossilIt was a hypothesis that it was originally one continent because it also agrees.[44].. Until thenPaleontology OfMythIt is,PaleozoicUntil then, there was a small land area between Africa and South America.Overpass theoryIt was, but Wegener did thisIsostasyDenied by theory[45].

The theory of continental drift had various evidences such as paleontology, geology, and glacier distribution, but people at that time could not think of the movement of the continent itself, and in Wegener's theory of continental drift, the continent moved. The driving force of the earthrotationbyCentrifugal forceとTidal forceAs a result,equatorialIt was supposed to move in the direction and west[46], This explanation was unreasonable and was severely attacked, and it was not a theory that attracted attention while Wegener was alive.[47].

on the other hand,Alexander du Toit,Arthur HolmesThere are a small number of scholars who support the theory of continental drift, especially Arthur Holmes announced in 1944.Mantle convection theoryIs the driving force of continental drift inside the earthThermal convectionMade it possible to ask[48].1950 eraWhen you enterPaleomagnetismResearch progresses in the field and remains in rocks on each continentPaleomagnetismBy comparingMagnetic northA trajectory of movement was derived, but the trajectory was different for each continent.However, by thinking that the continent will move, a rational explanation became possible, and the continental drift theory was revived here.[49].

At the same time, seafloor spreading research progressed from 1961 to 1962.Harry Hammond Hess,Robert Dietz Ocean floor expansion theoryAnd said that the oceanic crust is created in the ridge and disappears in the trench.[50]..Around the ridgeGeomagnetismOccurs every tens of thousands of years according to the surveyGeomagnetic reversal phenomenonHowever, it was known that it was recorded completely symmetrically on the left and right sides of the ridge, but in 1963(English edition)と(English edition)Theorized as a tape recorder model by[51], Evidence of new crust production centered on ridges[52].. In 1965,Tuzo WilsonProposed the concept of transform faults[53].

When the premise theory was prepared in this way, it was discovered that the occurrence of earthquakes was almost limited to ridges, trenches, and transform faults, and there was an earthquake occurrence area surrounding a stable part where earthquakes hardly occur. It became clear to do.This stable bedrock is called a plate, and it was discovered that it was moving, so Tuzo Wilson and(English edition),William Jason Morgan,Xavier Le PichonBy multiple scholars such as1968Plate tectonics theory was completed[54][55].

Plate tectonicsconcept TheWestern countriesIt spread quickly, and by 1970 it was generally accepted and became earth science.パ ラ ダ イ ム シ フ トWoke up.On the other handEastern countriesWas heavily involved in the theory constructionNorth America,Western EuropeBecause it was on the west side, this theoryImperialismIt is accepted as a ideological idea and completely acceptedSoviet Union collapsesIt took until the 90's.In Japan, plate tectonics was introduced in high school earth science textbooks from 1973.[56]That is the bestseller of the same yearSakyo Komatsuof"Japan sinking』In some cases plate tectonics was used, and it became popular in the general society[57]..In the Japanese geological worldMarxismThe idea was strong and the Soviet Union recommendedGeosyncline orogenyBecause of the fact that I was devoted toSemmelweis reflexIt took more than 10 years for the reaction to occur and to be accepted by academic societies after it became widespread in the general public.[58].

Other

rockMainlyTerrestrial planetAnd somesatelliteSome of them have high heat inside, and some have volcanoes, but the existence of plate tectonics has not been confirmed, and the earth is the only one currently known to have plate tectonics. It is a celestial body[59].. For example火星There used to be volcanic activity in the area, but the volcano did not move due to plate movement.Hot spotThe erupted lava continued to accumulate in the same place without moving from above[60]..Because of this on MarsMount OlympusIs the largest volcano in the solar system with an altitude of 27 km, and is also dotted with huge volcanoes such as Arsia (19 km), Ascraeus (18 km), and Pavonis (14 km).[61].VenusThere are no topographical features caused by plate tectonics, and it is believed that plate tectonics does not exist.[62].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Basic Earth Sciences 2nd Edition" p32-34 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  2. ^ "How to deal with "natural disaster"" p16-17 Hiroki Kamata Supervised and authored Minerva Shobo December 2015, 12 First edition 15st edition
  3. ^ "How to deal with "natural disaster"" p16-17 Hiroki Kamata Supervised and authored Minerva Shobo December 2015, 12 First edition 15st edition
  4. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p34 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  5. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p35 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  6. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p141 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  7. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p142 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  8. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p111-113 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  9. ^ "Basic Earth Sciences 2nd Edition" p94-95 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  10. ^ http://www.jamstec.go.jp/j/about/press_release/20140331/ "Why does the plate move? -A new discovery about the driving force of the plate movement-" Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology March 2014, 3 Retrieved March 31, 2020
  11. ^ http://www.jamstec.go.jp/j/about/press_release/20140331/ "Why does the plate move? -A new discovery about the driving force of the plate movement-" Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology March 2014, 3 Retrieved March 31, 2020
  12. ^ https://www.jamstec.go.jp/j/about/press_release/quest/20170714/index.html "Oman Drilling Project-Digging the Former Ocean Plate!-" Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology July 2017, 7 Retrieved March 14, 2020
  13. ^ https://natgeo.nikkeibp.co.jp/atcl/news/16/b/083100222/?P=1 "[Commentary] Plate tectonics of the earth, end theory after 14.5 billion years" National Geographic Japan version 2018.09.03 Retrieved June 2020, 6
  14. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p110-111 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  15. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p36 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  16. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p176-177 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  17. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p102-104 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  18. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p105 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  19. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p88 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  20. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p123-124 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  21. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p113 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  22. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p194 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  23. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p156-158 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  24. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p192-194 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  25. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p118 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  26. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p172-173 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  27. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p192 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  28. ^ "How to deal with the "natural disaster" of praying" p26 by Hiroki Kamata, Minerva Shobo December 2015, 12 First edition, first edition
  29. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p10-11 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  30. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p72 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  31. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p191-192 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  32. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p156-158 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  33. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p172 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  34. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p172-173 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  35. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p173 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  36. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p202 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  37. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p114 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  38. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p128-132 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  39. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p128 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  40. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p132 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  41. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p38 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  42. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p110 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  43. ^ "Illustrated Earth Science Encyclopedia" p110 Mitsuhiro Toriumi Editor-in-Chief Asakura Shoten April 2018, 4 First Edition First Edition
  44. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p73 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  45. ^ "History of Geology" p284-287 by Gabriel Goo Translated by Akira Sugaya Misuzu Shobo Published June 1997, 6
  46. ^ "History of Geology" p289 by Gabriel Goo Translated by Akira Sugaya Misuzu Shobo Published June 1997, 6
  47. ^ "History of Geology" p290 by Gabriel Goo Translated by Akira Sugaya Misuzu Shobo Published June 1997, 6
  48. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p80-81 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  49. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p82-84 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  50. ^ "Basic Earth Sciences 2nd Edition" p86-87 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  51. ^ "Basic Earth Science 2nd Edition" p88 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  52. ^ "Solar System Exploration Guide: 50 Extreme Places" p18 by David Baker and Todd Ratcliff Translated by Junichi Watanabe Translated by Mariko Goto Asakura Shoten October 2012, 10 First Edition First Edition
  53. ^ "Basic Earth Sciences 2nd Edition" p89-90 Yuji Nishimura Ed. Asakura Shoten November 2010, 11 Second Edition First Edition
  54. ^ "History of Geology" p307-308 by Gabriel Goo Translated by Akira Sugaya Misuzu Shobo Published June 1997, 6
  55. ^ "How can mountains be made? A dynamic introduction to earth science" p97-99 Kantaro Fujioka Kodansha January 2012, 1 20st print
  56. ^ Combined use with geosyncline orogeny.The geosyncline theory disappeared from textbooks after the 90's.
  57. ^ http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/keigen/torikumi/ssh19013.html "Movie" Sinking of Japan "and Q & A Corner on Earth Sciences (Efforts for Disaster Mitigation)" Japan Cabinet Office / Disaster Prevention Information Page Viewed June 2020, 6
  58. ^ Shin Iyohara (September 2018, 9). “Scientists who refused plate tectonics". gendai.ismedia.jp. Weekly Hyundai. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  59. ^ http://www.eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/epphys/solid/plate.html "Plate Tectonics" Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tokyo Retrieved June 2020, 6
  60. ^ "Solar System Exploration Guide: 50 Extreme Places" p5 by David Baker and Todd Ratcliff Translated by Junichi Watanabe Translated by Mariko Goto Asakura Shoten October 2012, 10 First Edition First Edition
  61. ^ "Newton Separate Volume All about the Solar System Revealed by the Spacecraft" p42 Newton Press Published November 2006, 11
  62. ^ http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/column/inner_planet/12.shtml "Final: 6800km ditch topography carved by Venus lava / Inferior planet exploration" Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS News September 2004 No.9) Retrieved June 282, 2020

References

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close