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😷 | Two people including Niigata City staff are infected with the new coronavirus in Niigata City


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Two people including Niigata City staff are infected with the new coronavirus in Niigata City

 
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After that, a PCR test was also conducted in Niigata City, and it was found to be positive on the 15th.
 

Niigata City announced on the XNUMXth that two new patients with coronavirus infection have been confirmed.XNUMX, XNUMX cases in the city ... → Continue reading

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction(Polymerase Rensa Hanno,English: polymerase chain reaction) IsDNAA reaction or technique that amplifies a specific region of a sample by millions to billions of times. Take the initials in EnglishPCR method, Or simplyPCRIt is also called "Polymerase Chain Reaction" in English.

DNA polymeraseと 呼 ば れ る酵素Utilizing the function of, any cycle through a series of temperature changesgeneArea orgenomeCopy spaceExponentialTarget (Mouse arithmeticThe objective is to amplify from a small sample of DNA to a sufficient amount to study its details.[1][2][3].Medical,Molecular biology,Forensic medicineIt is a useful technology that is widely used in fields such asCarrie MarisInvented by (Kary Mullis)[4][5],Nobel PrizeWas awarded.

Since the PCR method was established,Sequencing, Experiments such as gene mutation induction become possible,Molecular genetics,Physiology,TaxonomyIn addition to being utilized in research fields such as, analysis of ancient DNA samples,Forensic medicine,Paternity testUsed inDNA typingIdentification of infectious agentsInfectionTechnology development related to diagnosis (Nucleic acid amplification test), etc. have advanced dramatically. Also, from the PCR methodReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,Real-time PCR,DNA sequencingEtc. are derived and developed. Therefore, today the PCR methodBiology,Medical scienceIt is the basis of gene analysis in a wide range of fields including[6][7].

principle

The PCR method operates by a series of thermal cycles of raising and lowering the temperature of a DNA solution containing a mixture of reagents. In the repeated cycle of heating and cooling of this DNA sample, dissociation of double-stranded DNA, binding of primer,酵素Three reactions, DNA synthesis by reaction, proceed, and finally a large amount of DNA fragments in a specific region are replicated.

In the PCR method, in addition to the DNA sample to be amplified (template), a large amount ofPrimer(In the target DNA regionComplementaryShort single-stranded DNA with sequence (Oligonucleotide)) and free, a component of DNAnucleotideAndPolymeraseIs a type ofDNA synthase(DNA polymerase) ThreereagentTo use.

  1. The first step is to heat the double-stranded DNA of the DNA double helix at high temperature.DegenerationAnd physically separate into single-stranded DNA. The temperature at which denaturation occurs depends on the base composition and length (number of bases) of DNA, and generally longer DNA requires higher temperature.
  2. Next, the solution containing the single-stranded DNA is cooled, and the primer is bound to the complementary sequence site of the single-stranded DNA to partially form the double strand (annealing). When the cooling is rapid, it is difficult for long DNAs to recombine into double strands, but short DNA fragments (Oligonucleotide) Takes advantage of the fact that they can be easily combined. As a result, a primer is bound to a part of the target long single-stranded DNA. By keeping the primer overwhelmingly more than the DNA, the tendency of the DNA and the primer to bind becomes more predominant than the tendency of the DNA and the DNA to bind.
  3. Next, heat the solution slightly to remove this double-stranded DNA site.templateAsDNA polymeraseBy making the primer act as a starting point and releasenucleotideDNA that is complementary to the single-stranded part酵素Are synthesized. After the DNA is synthesized, the temperature is raised again to return to the first step, and this cycle is repeated from the first DNA denaturation to promote the amplification. As the PCR reaction progresses, the generated DNA itself is used as a template for replication, and the original DNA template isExponentialIs amplified toChain reactionAdvances.

As described above, the PCR method utilizes the difference in the rate of denaturation and annealing depending on the DNA chain length to repeat DNA synthesis simply by repeatedly raising and lowering the temperature of the reaction solution, and amplifying a partial region of any DNA. Is.

If the DNA polymerase used is heat-sensitive, the polymerase will denature along with the DNA at the high temperature of the denaturation step,DeactivationResulting in. Therefore, when the PCR method was first developed, DNA polymerase was added as an enzyme every time DNA was denatured, which was time-consuming and expensive.[8].. Currently,Thermus aquaticusTo sayThermophileIs a thermostable DNA polymerase derived fromTaq polymeraseBy using such as, it is possible to continuously proceed the reaction without adding an enzyme in the middle.

procedure

ready

The nucleotide sequences at both ends of the DNA region to be amplified are determined, and corresponding primers are artificially synthesized. At this time, the primer is a complementary sequence that binds to the 2'side of each strand of the double-stranded DNA to be amplified, and usually has about 3 bases. They are often custom made in the lab or can be purchased from a commercial biochemical supplier.

Reaction solution preparation

Amplification target DNA, primer, DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis material (Substrate)Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP), And a buffer solution to create an optimal salt concentration environment in which the enzyme works, and a PCR device (Thermal cycler). For the buffer solution included in the distributed PCR reagent kit,BivalentCationIs often included[9].NormallymagnesiumIon (Mg2+), but PCR-mediated DNA mutagenesis is highmanganeseIon (Mn2+) Can also be used to increase the error rate during DNA synthesis.[10].Taq In the case of DNA polymerase,As a monovalent cationpotassiumIon (K+) May be included[11].. In some casesAmmonium sulfateMay be added.Ammonium ion(NH4+) Has the effect of destabilizing the weak hydrogen bond between the mismatched primer and the template base pair, and can increase the specificity.[11].

PCR cycle

  1. 94 reaction solution° CHeat to about 30 seconds to 1 minute to keep double-stranded DNA into single strands (Fig. 2).
  2. 60° CRapidly cool to a certain degree (slightly different depending on the primer) andPrimerAnneal (Fig. ②).
  3. No separation of primersDNA polymeraseReheat to the optimum temperature range for the activity of. Depending on the experimental purpose, its temperature is 60-72° CIt is set to a degree. This temperature is usually maintained for 1 to 2 minutes depending on the length of time required for DNA synthesis and the length of amplification (Fig. XNUMX).
  4. Up to this point is one cycle, and by repeating the steps from ① to ③, a specific DNA fragment is amplified.

When the PCR treatment is repeated n times, 1 double-stranded DNAn-Amplify 2n times.However, since the maximum of 2 cycles is usually performed, the term of XNUMXn is approximately negligible.If the number of cycles is further increased, the DNA polymerase loses its activity over time and reagents such as dNTPs and primers are consumed, so that the reaction is limited and the series of reactions is finally stopped.

Points to remember

The success or failure of this reaction depends on the base sequences of the DNA to be amplified and the primer, each set temperature and time during the cycle, and the like. If they are inappropriate, they may amplify irrelevant DNA sequences or may show no amplification. In addition, there is a possibility that mutation will occur during the synthesis process, so it is necessary to check the nucleotide sequence of the product depending on the purpose of use.

Application of PCR

Amplification and quantification of DNA

PCR is a technique for dramatically amplifying a region of target DNA, and even a very small amount of DNA sample may be analyzed by passing through PCR. This proves that only trace amounts of DNA are availableForensic medicineIt is especially important in such fields.Or, for example, tens of thousands of years agoAncient DNAPCR is also effective for analysis of[12].

Quantitative PCR(Also called real-time PCR, or simply qPCR.RT-PCRNote that the amount of a specific DNA sequence present in a sample can also be estimated by[13].. this is,Gene expressionIt is used for purposes such as quantitatively determining levels. In quantitative PCR, the abundance of the target DNA region that originally existed is quantified by measuring the concentration of the PCR product that is amplified during the PCR cycle in real time during the PCR cycle process. can do. There are two major methods, one is non-specifically retained between the duplexes.fluorescenceAnother method is to use a dye, and the other method is to use a probe to which a fluorescent label is added in advance and which encodes a specific sequence. In the latter method, fluorescence can be detected only when the probe and its complementary DNA are hybridized.

Combined real-time PCR and reverse transcriptionRT-qPCR(Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), the method calledRNAIt is possible to quantify. In this technique, mRNA is the firstcDNAAnd the cDNA is quantified by qPCR. This method is often used to detect genes related to genetic diseases such as cancer and to measure expression levels.[14].

Application to biological research

PCRMolecular biology,GeneticsIt has been applied to various research fields including.

  • PCR can be used to selectively amplify and isolate specific DNA regions in the genome. Such use of PCR isSouthern blotting,Northern blottingIs widely used for the production of such hybridization probes and for DNA cloning that requires a large amount of DNA fragments derived from a specific DNA region.
  • PCRDNA sequenceIs often important in doing.. By various PCR, for example, a gene sequence or a DNA region to be analyzed can be extracted from a completely unknown genome and amplified.
  • PCRClassic experiments such as DNA cloningIt is often used in the process. For example, it is used when inserting a specific genomic region from a large genome into a vector. It can also be used to analyze or amplify DNA fragments already inserted in the vector. By partially changing the PCR protocol,mutationCan be artificially induced.
  • PCR is often used for research on ancient DNA. Most of such ancient DNA has been decomposed by ultraviolet rays and hydrolysis, and there is often only a trace amount of double-stranded DNA, so it is possible to analyze only by applying amplification by PCR. .. As an example of research that actually used PCR,NeanderthalsThe bone, 4 years oldMammothFrozen tissue ofEgypt OfmummyThere is a brain, etc.ロシアemperorAnd British KingRichard IIIIs being identified[12].. In some cases, it may be possible to restore the original DNA sequence to some extent by applying PCR amplification even to a DNA sample that has been considerably degraded.
  • Gene expressionPCR is also used to study the pattern. You can analyze body tissues and individual cells at various time-series stages to see which genes were activated/deactivated,Quantitative PCRCan also be used to quantify the actual expression level in detail.
  • PCRGenetic linkageIs also used for research. For example,Amplifies several loci from individual sperm simultaneously,MeiosisAfterChromosome crossoverStudies have been reported[15].. In this study, rare rare crossover events between very close loci were directly observed by analyzing thousands of sperm. Similarly, aberrant deletions, insertions, translocations, or inversions can be analyzed.
  • PCR can be used to induce site-directed mutagenesis of any gene or genomic region. By investigating these mutants, it is possible to elucidate, for example, the function of the protein, or to proceed with research for altering or improving the function of the protein.

Prenatal diagnosis

Whether a PCR is a carrier of a particular inheritance before the child is born, or actuallysickTest whether you are affected byPrenatal diagnosisCan be used for[16].Prenatal examinationDNA sample forAmniocentesisbyChorionic villus sampling, Or can be obtained by analysis of a very small amount of fetal cells circulating in the mother's bloodstream. PCR analysisPre-implantation diagnosisIs also essential and can test mutations in individual cells of the developing embryo.

Organ transplant tissue typing

PCROrgan transplantationEssential toOrganizational typingIt can also be used as a highly sensitive test.Blood TypeA proposal to replace the traditional antibody-based test with a PCR-based test against was also made in 2008[17].

Cancer genetic analysis

Many forms of cancer are associated with various types of cancer development.gene(Oncogene) ArrayWith variations, PCR technology could be used to analyze this mutation to tailor treatment strategies to patients. PCR alsoleukemia,LymphomaSuch asMalignantEnables early diagnosis of disease. It is being developed in the field of cancer research, and PCR is now routinely used. It has been reported that direct PCR assay of genomic DNA samples can detect translocation-specific malignant cells at least 10,000 times more sensitive than other methods[18].. PCR also allows the isolation and amplification of tumor suppressors. For example, it is possible to quantify single cells using quantitative PCR and analyze the abundance and combination of DNA, mRNA, and protein.[19].

Diagnosis of infectious disease

PCR aids in sensitive and rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses[20].. In PCR,Mycobacteria ,Anaerobic bacteria, ま た はTissue cultureAssayAnimal modelfromウ イ ル スIt is also possible to quickly identify microorganisms that cannot be cultured or microorganisms that grow slowly. In addition, PCR diagnosis can distinguish between non-pathogenic strains and pathogenic strains by not only detecting infectious pathogens but also determining whether the bacterium has a specific gene[20][21].. On the other hand, various defects have been reported (Later).

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Is a difficult target to discover and eradicate. The initial diagnosis of infection is the virus circulating in the bloodstream.antibodyHowever, the antibody does not appear until weeks after infection, the maternal antibody masks the infection of the newborn, and the amount of antibody does not change when treated with an HIV therapeutic agent. was there. Therefore, a high-sensitivity PCR method that can detect only one viral genome from over 50,000 cellular DNA samples was developed.[22].. This method enables early detection of infectious diseases, virus testing of donated blood, rapid infection testing of newborns, and quantification of antiviral treatment effects.
  • tuberculosis OfSome disease-causing microbes such as these are known to be difficult to sample from patients and grow slowly in the laboratory,cultureA lot of time and effort was spent in the base diagnosis. Tests by PCR can detect disease-causing microorganisms in samples, and from genetic analysisAntibiotic resistanceIt is possible to detect the presence or absence, etc., which may lead to the setting of an effective treatment policy and the evaluation of the treatment effect.
  • 家畜orwildThrough a group of animalsdiseaseBiology Diffusion and emergence of new toxic subtypes can be monitored by PCR testing.
  • By using a primer specific to the target sequence of viral DNA, viral DNA can be detected by PCR and also used for DNA sequencing. Due to the high sensitivity of PCR, virus detection may be possible immediately after infection and before the onset of disease[23].. Early detection may give the physician a significant lead time for treatment. The viral load contained within the patient can also be quantified by PCR-based DNA quantification techniques.
  • Social Services LizardIs caused by a bacterium called B. pertussis. This bacterium is characterized by a serious acute respiratory tract infection affecting a wide variety of animals and humans, leading to the death of many young children.Communicate and LizardBinds to cell receptors by two dimers and plays a role in cell immunityT lymphocyteIs a protein toxin that reacts with[24].. Since the sequence in the pertussis toxin gene can be detected by PCR, pertussis can be diagnosed very efficiently compared to the culture method.[25].

Application to forensics

PCR-basedDNA typing(Fingerprinting)Forensic medicineWidely applied in the field.

  • DNA typing is世界It is a technology that can uniquely distinguish one person from the entire population. Applying this technology, a small amount of DNA sampleCrime sceneIn some cases, suspects can be identified by collecting, analyzing, and comparing prisoners. A simpler method of use is to quickly exclude suspects during criminal investigations. Alternatively, test crime evidence decades ago to confirm the perpetration of convicted people, orImmunityIt also leads to doing.
  • Forensic DNA typing (forensic DNA typing) is an effective way to identify or exclude suspected crimes from the analysis of evidence found at crime scenes. The human genome has many repeat regions found within gene sequences or in noncoding regions of the genome. Specifically, up to 40% of human DNA is known to be repetitive[26].. There are two types of these repetitive non-coding regions in the genome, one called variable length tandem repeat (VNTR), which is 2-10 base pairs long, while the other is short tandem repeat (STR). It is called a repeat section of 100-2 base pairs. Then, PCR amplification can be performed using the primers flanking each repeat region. A statistically high probability of uniquely identifying each individual can be obtained by examining the size distribution of several STR fragments obtained from each individual.[26].. Furthermore, the complete sequence of the human genome has already been determined, and since this sequence information can be easily accessed from the NCBI website, various applications have been made. For example, the FBI has compiled a set of DNA marker sites used for identification, which are called the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) DNA database.[26].. This database can be used to statistically determine the probability that a DNA sample will match. PCR is a very powerful and important analytical tool for forensic DNA typing because it requires very small amounts of target DNA for analysis. For example,Hair follicleHuman hair to which is attached contains enough DNA, if any, to perform the analysis. Similarly, severalspermA skin sample from under the fingernails, or a small amountbloodCan provide enough DNA for definitive analysis[26].
  • On the other hand, on the contrary, due to the format with low discriminationDNA fingerprintingIt is,Paternity testIs utilized for.. In this case, the subject, such as the body of an unidentified human, is compared to the DNA of the expected relatives, ie parents, siblings, children, etc. To identify the biological parents of the adopted (kidnapped) child,NewbornOf the actual biological father ofConfirm (Or excluded) is also used.
  • AmelogeninGene-based PCR enables real-time male and female sex determination from forensic bone samples. This allows you to determine the sex of ancient specimens and suspected criminals.[27].

PCR technical limitations

PCR has many advantages: the principle and the actual work are very simple, the results can be obtained quickly, and they are very sensitive.Quantitative PCR(qPCR, quantitative PCR) also has the advantage of being able to quantify the targeted DNA region.On the other hand, PCR is also known to have various technical restrictions and limitations.

One of the technical limitations of PCR is that it requires a priori knowledge of the sequence of the target region in order to generate primers that allow selective amplification.[28]..That is, the PCR practitioner usually needs to know the sequence information before and after the target DNA region in advance so that the primer and the template bind properly.Therefore, in principle, it is impossible to perform PCR on a target whose sequence information is completely unknown.Also, like any other enzyme, DNA polymerase itself is prone to errors during DNA synthesis and may mutate the sequence of the PCR amplification product produced.[29].. Furthermore, since PCR can amplify even a small amount of DNA, amplification may occur based on erroneously mixed DNA, resulting in ambiguous or erroneous results.

Many techniques and procedures have been developed to avoid these problems and optimize PCR conditions.[30][31].. For example, in order to minimize the possibility that the sample will be contaminated by the contamination of foreign DNA, by using separate rooms for each step of reagent preparation and PCR processing/analysis, they can be spatially separated. Separation is effective[32]..In addition, it is effective to always use disposable new tubes and pipette tips with filters to operate samples and reagents, thoroughly clean the workbench and equipment, and always work in a clean space.[33].. Reconsidering primer design and investigating the types of buffers and polymerase enzymes is also important in improving the yield of PCR products and avoiding the formation of spurious products. To the buffer systemFormamideAddition of reagents such as may increase PCR specificity and yield[34].. Computer simulation of theoretical PCR results (Electronic PCR) has also been developed to support primer design.[35].

Characteristics of PCR in diagnosis of infectious diseases

PCR is a very powerful and practical research tool, and indeed, in many infectious diseases, the etiology sequencing has been elucidated using PCR. This method is knownウ イ ル スIt also helps identify unknown viruses and contributes greatly to understanding the disease itself. If the procedure can be further simplified and a highly sensitive detection system can be developed, PCR will becomeClinical examinationIt is believed that it will take an important position in the room[36].. However, the use of PCR in the diagnosis of infectious diseases has been pointed out to have various disadvantages as well as advantages.

利 点

  • Human capital OfgenomeOnly specific DNA fragments (hundreds to thousands of base pairs) can be selectively amplified from a sample containing a long DNA molecule such as (30 billion base pairs).[1].
  • The purpose can be achieved with a very small amount of DNA.
  • Amplification reaction can be completed in a short time[2]..The time required for amplification is as short as 2 hours or less.
  • Testing is possible by using primers specific for each pathogen while keeping the equipment (PCR machine) used in common.[2].
  • Even if the pathogen is dead (even if it loses its infectivity), it can be amplified if the target nucleic acid is preserved, and even dangerous pathogens can be inactivated before testing.[2].
  • Sensitivity can be increased by using Nested PCR, real-time PCR, etc.[2].

Disadvantage

  • When biomaterials such as organs and tissues are used as samples, the detection rate differs depending on the sampling site and pretreatment of the material, and even if the result is negative, the presence of pathogens in the living body cannot always be denied.[2].
  • There is a limit to the amplification of nucleic acid due to the decrease in reaction efficiency due to generation of reaction inhibitors, etc., and the result will be negative if the nucleic acid cannot be amplified to a detectable amount. Cannot deny the existence of pathogens[2].
  • Testing of biomaterials such as blood and feces may be affected by the inhibitory substances in the test materials, so purification work is required, but it is not said to be complete.[2].. In addition, the storage condition of test materials, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and the methods and conditions for nucleic acid purification can have a large impact on test efficiency and test results.[2].
  • Contamination from positive controls during testing, contamination from previous tests and experiments, and contamination of reagents with nucleic acids can lead to false positives (contamination)[2].

History and background

With Kjell KleppeH. Gobind KhoranaEt al. used an enzyme assay with primers and a short DNA template.vitroIn 1971Journal of Molecular BiologyFirst published in (Molecular Biology Journal)[37].. This was to explain the basic principle of PCR, but it did not receive much attention at that time, and the invention of the polymerase chain reaction was generally found in 1983.Mullis penaltiesIs considered to be due to[38].

When Mullis developed PCR in 1983, heCaliforniaEmeryvilleSo the firstBiotechnologyA company that is one of the companies (Cetus Corporation) Was working. Mullis said, "One night,Pacific coast highwayWhile driving in the car, I came up with the idea of ​​PCR."[39].. When he was thinking about a new method to analyze changes (mutations) in DNA, he tried to amplify a partial region of nucleic acid by repeating the DNA synthesis reaction using the already known oligonucleotide and DNA polymerase at that time. Came up with[39].

Mullis named this method "polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction",Nature,ScienceI submitted it as a paper to a famous scientific journal such as, but it was not published. On the other hand, the PCR method itself was made by a colleague of Cetus.Sickle cell diseaseIt was applied to a rapid diagnostic method for inherited diseases. It was reported as "Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia" in Science magazine, and it attracted the attention of scientists around the world before the original paper.[5].. Finally in 1987, Mullis's paper Methods in Enzymology Published as "Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction."[40].. Later MullisScientific Americanso,"PCR can start with a single molecule of genetic material DNA and produce 1,000 billion similar molecules in the afternoon. The reaction is easy to perform. It requires a test tube, some simple reagents, and a heat source. It is only"[41].. DNA fingerprinting in 1988Paternity testFirst used in[42].

In recognition of this achievement, Mullis worked with his colleagues at Cetus in 7, seven years after demonstrating PCR technology.Nobel Prize in ChemistryWon[43].. In addition, “Enzymatic Amplification of β-globin Genomic Sequences and Restriction Site Analysis for Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia” by RK Saiki and HA Erlich in 1985 (“Enzymatic amplification of β-globin genomic sequence for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia”). And restriction site analysis'')American Chemical SocietyReceived Chemistry Breakthrough Award in the History of Chemistry category[44][45].. However, some controversy remains regarding the contributions of other scientists to Mullis' work and whether he was the only inventor of the PCR principle, as described below.

PCR was initiallyE. coli5'-3' exonuclease activity was removed by subtilisin treatment of DNA polymerase IKlenow FragmentMost of them used to cause a reaction. However, this enzymecopyThis enzyme had to be added manually after each thermal cycle because it could not withstand the high temperatures required to separate post-cycling DNA double helices and deactivate the DNA polymerase.[46].. As a result, the initial steps of DNA replication were very inefficient and time consuming, requiring large amounts of DNA polymerase and continuous treatment throughout the process. The Cetus research group lives in a high temperature environment (hot spring) of 50 to 80°C to solve this drawback.Thermophilic bacteriumIsThermus aquaticus[47]As a thermostable DNA polymeraseTaq polymeraseWas purified and the PCR method using this was published in Science magazine in 1976.[6].T. aquaticusDNA polymerase isolated from ° C (194 ° F) Stable at high temperature, and maintains activity even after DNA denaturation[48]Eliminates the need to add new DNA polymerase after each cycle[49].. This has opened the way to the simplification and automation of PCR reactions, and has led to the development of a widely applicable method.

In this way, the Cetus Group (including initially Maris) played a large role in the application and development of the PCR method.

However, it was Carey Maris who first conceived this method and showed direction, so MarisNobel Prize in ChemistryWas awarded in 1993. PCR technologyMullis penalties PatentWas acquired and was assigned to work in 1983 when Mullis invented the technology.TaqThe polymerase enzyme is also patent protected.DupontThere were several well-known lawsuits related to this technology, including the unsuccessful lawsuits filed. Swiss pharmaceutical companyEf Hoffman La RochePurchased a patent right in 1992, but the patent right now expires[50].

PCR types and application methods

Conventional PCR
Normal PCR that repeats the reaction for 1 to 25 cycles with one set of primers[2].
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR,Real-time PCR
A method of drawing an amplification curve in real time by emitting light from a nucleic acid fragment and detecting it using a dedicated optical instrument.It is used when quantitative rather than qualitative is required.[2].
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR,Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
A method in which RNA is converted to cDNA by reverse transcriptase and then PCR is performed.[2].
Nested polymerase chain reaction(Nested PCR)
A method in which the PCR product amplified by PCR is used as a template for the next reaction and another PCR is repeated using another primer pair.[2].
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR,Multiplex PCR
A method to simultaneously perform PCR reactions for multiple target nucleic acids (DNA) in a single reaction tube[2].
Amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP)
A method in which genomic DNA containing target nucleic acid (DNA) is cleaved with a restriction enzyme, a short double-stranded DNA (adapter) is bound to the cleaved end, and PCR is performed using its complementary primer.[2].
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP method
A method based on a completely different principle from conventional PCR[2][51].

References

  1. ^ a b PCR (polymerase chain reaction)National Cancer CenterCancer Information Service Glossary
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Precautions when using PCR in disease diagnosis”. Agricultural Research Organization. 2020/3/12Browse.
  3. ^ Garibyan, Lilit; Avashia, Nidhi (2013-03-01). “Polymerase Chain Reaction”. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 133 (3): 1–4. two:10.1038 / jid.2013.1. PMC: 4102308. PMID 23399825. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4102308/. 
  4. ^ Mullis, Kary B. (1998). Dancing naked in the mind field (1st ed ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-44255-3. OCLC 38081821. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/38081821 
  5. ^ a b Saiki, R .; Scharf, S .; Faloona, F .; Mullis, K .; Horn, G .; Erlich, H .; Arnheim, N. (1985). “Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia ”. Science 230 (4732): 1350–1354. two:10.1126 / science.2999980. PMID 2999980. 
  6. ^ a b Saiki, R .; Gelfand, D .; Stoffel, S .; Scharf, S .; Higuchi, R .; Horn, G .; Mullis, K .; Erlich, H. (1988). DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase ”. Science 239 (4839): 487–491. bibcode1988 Sci ... 239 ..487S. two:10.1126 / science.2448875. PMID 2448875. 
  7. ^ "Opinion and PCR test toward the realization of the basic policy for new type coronavirus infection control”February 2020, 2 New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts Meeting, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
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  11. ^ a b "Thermo Fisher: Six Factors to Consider in PCR Setup". 2020/3/20Browse.
  12. ^ a b "Chemical Synthesis, Sequencing, and Amplification of DNA (class notes on MBB / BIO 343)”. Arizona State University. As of October 1997, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/10/29Browse.
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  15. ^ Boehnke, M .; Arnheim, N .; Li, H .; Collins, FS (1989). “Fine-structure genetic mapping of human chromosomes using the polymerase chain reaction on single sperm: Experimental design considerations”. American Journal of Human Genetics 45 (1): 21–32. PMC: 1683385. PMID 2568090. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1683385/. 
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Related item

Niigata

Camera-photo Upload.svgImage request: Horiwaricho and willow in Niigata cityImage providedplease.(2020/3

Niigata(Niigata) isNiigataNortheastern part ofShimoetsu district) Located inCity..Niigata PrefecturePrefectural office locationso,Government-designated cityIs. The population is about 79.2.

Honshu Sea of ​​Japan sideIt is the only ordinance-designated city and has a vast habitable area.Large scaleAgriculture:As a reform base forNational Strategic Special ZoneIs specified in.

For the notation of "Niigata", see "Niigata Prefecture # About the character of "gata"See.

Overview

1889(Meiji22 years)May 4 OfMunicipal systemOne of the cities set up by.In the center of the cityShinano RiverThe estuary has been around for a long timeHarborWas opened, Shinano RiverAgano RiverIn addition to functioning as a node where water-based river traffic and maritime traffic networks intersect,Bakumatsu OfUS-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyOpening Five PortsIt became one of.Even nowTransportationIt is a key point of.

Metropolitan population of about 100 million (Urban employment area) And the city population2005(Heisei17 years)Wide area mergerSince it exceeded 81 people,2007(Heisei19 years)May 4For the first time on the Sea of ​​Japan side of HonshuGovernment-designated cityMigrated to.In the city areaLater8Administrative districtIs provided.

1950 eraUntil the left bank of the Shinano RiverNiigata IslandIn the centermoatIs stretched around, and along with itwillowWas planted.for that reason,"City of Water""YanagiIt has a synonym such as "(Ryuto)".Also, manymanga artistAnd thatBypass networkIs known for its development. Bandai Bridge,NEXT21,Toki Messe,Denka Big Swan Stadium,Niigata Daily Media ShipIs a symbolic existence.

Origin of city name

About the place name "Niigata" which is the name of the cityEisei17 years(1520[1] Although the notation of Niigata remains as a historical record, there are various theories about the origin because there is no record of the origin of the place name.

  • Originally called "Niigata" at the mouth of the Shinano RiverThe theory that there was
  • It is named after the formation of a new inner bay, or new lagoon, between the sandbars of the Shinano River.The theory[2]
  • The theory that "Niigata" was used to read the settlements that were created on new islands due to changes in the topography of the mouth of the Shinano River as "Niigata".
  • OriginallyNiigata IslandThe current village was on the coast ofFurumachiWhen I moved to the area around, it came to be called (Niigata) that the relocation destination was read as "Niigata" for the coastal villages. The theory that it became "Niigata" by guessing the character

City emblem

Make

In NiigataCity emblemIt is,1908(Meiji41) It was enacted on March 3th.

Meaning of city emblem

The "City Emblem Setting Case" announced on the same day states as follows.

Niigata City's HaXNUMX Port Noichi Toshite is the most popular port of the world.Immediately
  1. Anchor port
  2. Goha Goko no meaning
  3. Snow ring Ha Echigo no meaning
This is the meaning of Echigo no Goko, Niigata, and the front page.

That is, "Anchor"1858 OfUS-Japan Amity and Trade Treaty"Five ports" designated by", AndEchigoSymbol of "Snow ringIs combined to represent Niigata City, which is one of the five open ports.


Geography

The land of NiigataEchigo PlainIs located in.Shinano RiverAgano River Sea of ​​JapanIn the place where it flows into the river basin, it is low humidity平野And manylagoonBut again along the coastlineNiigata coastNiigata sand dunesと 呼 ば れ る砂丘Is formed.Wet fields and lagoons in the suburbsReclamationVastPaddy fieldIs spreading, but even nowToriya Nogata,Sagata,FukushimagataLagoon lakes such as are left.Of these, for Sagata1997(9),Ramsar ConventionRegistration湿 地It has become.

The old city is locatedShinano RiverSekiya diversionThe area surrounded byNiigata IslandIt was called the island in 1972.Sekiya diversionDue to the opening of.

terrain

climate

Precipitation increases in winterSea of ​​Japan side climateHowever, the coastal areas are warm for the latitude. Winter:Because it is near the coast, the northwest wind from the Sea of ​​Japan is strong, but because it is far from the mountains, it is often possible to see sunny days even in the forecast of one-day snow (so-called "mountain snow" phenomenon).For this reason, it is the area with the least snow in Niigata prefecture, excluding the islands, and it is not sufficiently prepared for heavy snowfall of 50 cm or more, and traffic paralysis may occur contrary to the image of heavy snowfall prefecture.in recent years2010Although 2 centimeters of snow was observed on February 5, the observatory in Chuo Ward has not covered more than 81 meter of snow for more than half a century since 1.However, even if the amount of snow in coastal areas such as Chuo Ward and Higashi Ward is small, there may be a large amount of snow in inland areas such as Nishikan Ward, Minami Ward, and Akiha Ward.Therefore, it is not uncommon for snow to pile up in the suburbs even if the city center is not piled up at all.

The chill in the coastal areaTokyoIt is not as strict as in the suburbs, and in recent years it has rarely recorded below freezing.From spring to summer, the temperature is higher than that on the northeastern Pacific side of the same latitude, and when the pressure distribution is high north and low, it occurs when the south wind crosses the Echigo Mountains.Fern phenomenonIt may become hot due to the influence ofGeography of Niigata City #ClimateSee).

population

Demography15100.svg
Population distribution by age in Niigata City and the whole country (2005)Niigata City's population distribution by age and gender (2005)
Purple-Niigata City
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Niigata City (corresponding area)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Health

  • Average age: 43.3 years (2000
  • Average age of men: 41.5 years (2000)
  • Average age of women: 44.9 years (2000)

dialect

In the area centered on Niigata City,Niigata dialectIs used.

Administrative district / city composition

Administrative district

BYR color wheel.svgIn this itemColorIs dealing with Depending on the viewing environment, the colors may not be displayed properly.

Niigata City is currently composed of eight administrative districts.The central functions of city administration, including the city hall, are located in Chuo Ward.An image color is set for each ward.[3]..Color selection is decided by the "image color adjustment meeting" by the representative of the citizens and the ward mayor, referring to the ward inhabitant questionnaire and expert advice.2007(19)May 9Published in.

Ward nameImage colorWard nameImage color
Kita Nature greenAkiba Floral green
Higashi Ward Aqua blueSouth ward Breeze blue
Chuo-ku Waterfront blueNishi-ward Sunset orange
Konan ward Spring greenNishikan Ward Harvest Yellow

City center

The area positioned as the "city center" is located in Chuo Ward, straddling both banks of the Shinano River.[City 1]..From around Niigata StationMany generationsThroughFurumachiThe area along the "city center axis" leading up to is nicknamed "Niigata 2 km" by the city, and as of February 2021Urban regeneration emergency maintenance areaPreparations are underway for designation[4].

FurumachiLeft bank side centered onNiigata Island) Is1655Relocation of (first year of Meireki)[5] Since then, it has been a complex center for business, product sales, and eating and drinking in Niigata.Furumachi Dori,Honmachidori,Nishibori-doriEtc. are areas where commercial facilities and shopping districts gather.Flower StreetThere is also an entertainment district that has continued since the time ofFurumachi HanamachiSee).on the other hand,Hakusan ParkCity hall andNiigata Prefecture Public Hall,RyutopiaPublic facilities and cultural facilities such as are lined up.The Niigata Island area is an old city and is large-scaleAir raidNot receivedWar disaster recovery city planningWas not done (butNiigata FireBecause many of the buildings were burnt down)motorizationIt is difficult to deal withNiigata University,Niigata Prefectural OfficeSuburbs relocation, population decline of Niigata Island itself (about 1965 in 13, halved to about 2005 in 6[6]), Due to the impact of changes in the population distribution of the entire city due to the development of residential land on the right bank of the Shinano River, commercial functions are being transferred to other areas such as Mandai.

Bandai on the right bank is a district located approximately halfway between the aforementioned Furumachi / Honmachi and the Bandai Exit of Niigata Station.At the end of the Taisho eraOhkozu Diversion ChannelIn the area where the trace of the Shinano River, which was narrowed by water flow, was developed as a landfill.1929(Showa 4)Bandai BridgeHowever, urban development began with the replacement of the current third-generation bridge, and full-scale development began after the war. From the early 3sNiigata TransportationAdjacent as part of the redevelopment project for the site of the bus service baseYachiyo"A commercial area where large commercial facilities are concentrated across the ground.Bandai City"When"Bandai City Bus CenterHas been developed, and it has become a commercial area mainly for young people.

From the south exit of Niigata StationToriya NogataArea to the surrounding area (Sasade Line,Purple bird line,Benten Line, Along the bypass)Niigata BypassOpened1970 eraUrban development began in earnest.Of the area around Niigata Station, the area around the Bandai Exit on the north side1958Development progressed at a stretch after the relocation of Niigata Station1964 OfNiigata National Athletic MeetIn the meantime, it rapidly became an urban areaHigashi OdoriOffice buildings were lined up around the station, but at the beginning there wasn't even an entrance to the station building at the south exit.1982 OfJoetsu ShinkansenBefore and after the south exit was opened in line with the openingPLAKA NiigataIt became a commercial base due to rapid urbanization such as the opening of the business. In the 2000s, to coincide with the 2002 World CupNiigata City Road Benten Line,Niigata Stadium(Big Swan) was maintained, and thenAeon Mall Niigata Minami(Konan ward),Niigata Prefectural Baseball StadiumEtc. opened one after another.

The central axis from Furumachi to the Bandai Exit of Niigata StationSoya Valley-Mandaibashi DoriAlong the route that connects these,Main busof"Mandaibashi LineHowever, as mentioned above, it is difficult to go directly to the south side of the station, which has a large young population, because the north and south urban areas have developed separately with Niigata Station as the boundary.For this reason, the continuous grade crossing project at Niigata Station and the reorganization of the bus network and main roads are being carried out.

Incidentally,FukutoshinAlthough no official designation has been given, the "Niigata Island" side is the city center and the right bank side (formerly).Nuttari TownThe side) is sometimes called the subcenter.In recent years, the Niigata Prefectural Office and the national joint government building have been the main focus.Shinkocho・ Administrative and business functions are concentrated in the Misaki-cho area, which is sometimes called the subcenter.

Chuo Ward and the suburbsUrban highwayFree of charge with facilities equivalent toBypass networkConnected byInterchangeThere are many suburban commercial bases mainly in the vicinity.

City area in general

In the entire city area, wetlands occupy most of the inland area before the start of reclamation and dry rice fields, and habitable areas were limited, so all parts of the city areaHometownAnd villages around dunes and riversNatural embankmentDeveloped in line with.However, due to the progress of drainage in the inland area due to reclamation and conversion to dry fields, reclamation of wet fields and small-scale lagoons has progressed.Back swampSince it has been devoted to urbanization, residential land has been created in various places in Kita Ward.Hayadori StationSurroundings, etc.Bed townIn areas whereResidential estate-New townWas also built.

From these circumstances, the range of habitable land in the city area is wider than that of other local cities, and the area is large.HokkaidoBetsukai TownIs second only to[7]..In Niigata City, residential areas are scattered in the suburbs, so there is not much population concentration in one place.

In the suburbsFarmlandMany, along the coast砂丘There are many fields in the area, but from the above-mentioned background, the inland areaPaddy field(About farmland compositionNiigata City Economy #AgricultureSee).

Became a base for river transport in the suburbsHometownMany old towns and towns derived from[City 3], Even now, in many areas, regular markets (Rokusai City) Is open[8]In the shopping district as well as other areas in the prefectureKarikiIt is also noteworthy that many cantilevered arcades are formed.

The area in Niigata city Niigata City City Planning Basic Policy InCity center, Regional bases, living bases, neighborhood bases, functional bases, etc.[City 4]..One regional base is designated for each administrative district except Chuo Ward and Higashi Ward, and multiple living bases are designated for each administrative district.Regional bases and living bases excluding Chuo Ward, Higashi Ward, and Nishi Ward2005(17)Great Heisei mergerIt is the center of the municipalities that were incorporated in.

Administrative districtCity centerRegional baseLiving baseNeighboring baseBases by function
Kita---KuzutsukaMatsuhamaNiizaki,HayadoriNiigata University of Health and Welfare,Niigata East Port
Higashi Ward------Under the mountain, Kodo,Kido-Large,Ishiyama---Niigata West Port,Niigata Airport
Chuo-kuFurumachi・ Hakusan,Many generations,Around Niigata Station---------Shinkocho-Misaki Town,Southern Toriya Nogata
Konan ward---KamedaOeyama,Yokogoshi,Ryokawa,Sonoki---Niigata Central Wholesale Market
Akiba---XinjinOgikawa,Kosudo------
South ward---ShironeAlly,Tsukigata------
Nishi-ward---Small needle,TeraoSakai Wa-infield,KurosakiAkatsukaDistribution center
Nishikan Ward---roll,Sone,Flag shop,Nakanokuchi,WanoIwamuro hot spring

Adjacent municipalities

Niigata Prefecture FlagNiigata
(Adjacent across the sea)

History

Primitive to ancient

The beginning of people's activities in the current Niigata city area began around the hills and foothills in the Paleolithic era about 2 years ago.In the early Kofun periodYamato kingshipUnder the power of647(Dahua3 years) in the northEzoAs a base of controlToe fenceWas installed.
In the first half of the 8th century, when the Nara period began, a local system was established with the unit of country-county-town.At the mouth of the Shinano RiverGamaharazuAs Kunizu in Echigo Province, Gamaharazu has become a key point of transportation where people and goods gather.Production of Sue pottery and iron began in the Niitsu hills, and salmon were caught and processed in the lowlands on the left bank of the Shinano River.Also, salt was made in the coastal dunes.[9]

中 世

During the Warring States period1520(EiseiIn 17), the place name "Niigata" came to appear in the record.NiigataIs on the left bank of the mouth of the Shinano RiverGamaharazu-Numata MinatoTogether with that, it was called "Mikatsu" at that time.After the appearance of Niigata Tsu, Kambara Tsu declined, and Niigata Tsu became the central minato of the mouths of the Shinano and Agano rivers.
1580(Tensho8 years).Warlord of Agakita (north of Agano River),Shibata ShigeyaOccupies Niigata TsuUesugi KagekatsuThe conflict with (the successor of Kenshin Uesugi) has begun, but1586In (Tensho 14), the townspeople of Niigata and Nuttari, who were on the side of Shibata, turned over to Uesugi, and Uesugi was able to control Niigata and Nuttari.Mr. Shibata who lost Niigata Tsu is the next1587It was destroyed in (Tensho 15), and Echigo was unified by Uesugi Kagekatsu.[9]

The early modern period

1598(Keicho3 years), Uesugi KagekatsuHideyoshi ToyotomiThe country was changed to Aizu (Fukushima Prefecture) by the order of, and became the Nagaoka domain and Shibata Minato became the Shibata domain.Nagaoka Domain established Niigata Town Daikan in NiigataNiigata TownWill be.After that, the topography of the mouths of the Shinano and Agano rivers changed, and Niigata Minato1655(TomorrowXNUMXst year) on the left bank of the Shinano River, nowFurumachiAfter moving to the land of1676By the Nagaoka Domain in (4th year of Enpo)Niigata Machi BugyoWas installed.At the same time, the productivity of the Echigo Plain increased.KitamaebuneNiigata Minato, who completed the relocation by the time the westbound shipping became stable,1697(GenrokuIn 10), it had developed into one of the best Minato on the Sea of ​​Japan side.
1768(Meiwa5 years), it is a rebellion caused by the money paid by the Nagaoka domain.Niigata Akiwa riotOccurs.In the latter half of the Edo period, smuggling of karamono (Chinese products) and bales (Hokkaido products) was carried out in Niigata Minato, so the shogunate caught smuggling.1843(TempoIn 14), Niigata Town became the shogunate territory. (Niigata Kamichi
1858(Ansei5 years)US-Japan Amity and Trade Treatyso,BakumatsuToOpen portNiigata Minato became an open port on the Sea of ​​Japan side as one of the five open ports.But,1868(Keio4 years), between the new government army and the old Shogunate sideBoshin WarOutbreak.In July of the same yearHokuetsu WarNiigata Town became a battlefield, and the Meiji Restoration was celebrated with the city area burned down by the war.[9]

Modern

Niigata Port1869April (MeijiOpened in November of the first year).1870Became the prefectural capital in (Meiji 3)Hakusan ParkOpeningFourth bankModernization was promoted, such as the establishment of the Niigata Prefectural Assembly.Also,1870In (Meiji 3), the branch domain of the Nagaoka domainMineyama DomainWas in need of the Boshin WarNagaoka DomainToRelief rice XNUMX balesWas given.
Niigata Town1879Incorporated Yorii Village in (Meiji 12)Niigata WardAnd,1889In (Meiji 22), Niigata Ward and Sekiya Villagemergerdo itMunicipal systemEnforced,NiigataWill be.The city area at that time was "Niigata IslandCorresponds to.In the 30's of the Meiji eraNiitsu oil fieldMachine excavation is in full swing.In the Taisho era, Shinzu-cho prospered as an "oil town" and became the largest oil field in Japan, and the oil industry developed in Niigata City and Nuttari Town.
1931The Joetsu Line was fully opened in (Showa 6).Next time1932In (Showa 7), in northeastern China, "ManchuriaIs founded.Niigata Port will be the closest port on the Sea of ​​Japan side of Tokyo by rail, and the government willGovernment command routeOpened the Nichiman route to and from Niigata.Niigata Port has become a base port for expanding into the opposite bank.
194112 of the monthAttack on Pearl HarborStarted the war byPacific WarThe battlefield has deteriorated.B-29Was not subjected to a large-scale air raid by1945(Showa 20) September 8,Atomic bombCitizens were declared urgently evacuated because there was a high risk of being dropped, and the city ended the war in a nearly unmanned state.[9]..In fact, Niigata was one of the candidate sites, but "Niigata is not suitable for this kind of attack because the area where industry is concentrated and the residential area including small factories are far from each other. Was removed as "yes"[10].

modern

Pacific War10 years after the end1955(Showa 30),Niigata FireOccurs.1964(Showa 39) June, magnitude 6Niigata earthquakeThere has occurred.Also, by collecting natural gasNiigata IslandThe ground in the center, includingAgano RiverIn the basin, poisoning by organic mercury is a strange disease (Four major pollution diseases OfNiigata Minamata disease)There has occurred.1985By (60), 690 people were recognized as patients.
High economic growthPeriodNatural disastersI was busy with environmental administration issues such as reconstruction from Japan and pollution control.1963As one of the national land development in (Showa 38)Niigata East PortConstruction work has begun.1969Niigata East Port opened in (44) and became a trading center on the Sea of ​​Japan side.
1973(Showa 48)Niigata AirportThe Khabarovsk line was opened in Northeast Asia, and the number of international flights is increasing.1982(Showa 57)Joetsu ShinkansenIs open.Also,1997By (9)Kanetsu Expressway-Hokuriku Expressway-Banetsu ExpresswayWas opened, and became a node on the Sea of ​​Japan side of the high-speed transportation network.[9]

Transition of administrative districts / merger of municipalities

Niigata City has been in operation since 1889.1914 On the right bank of the Shinano River in (Taisho 3)Nuttari TownIt was merged with the surrounding area in the wake of the merger withHigh economic growthThere was no merger after the period.21st centuryImmediately after enteringKurosaki TownIncorporated.After that, the surrounding 13 municipalities were incorporated and on April 2007, 4.Government-designated cityThe administrative district was established.

Politics

Administration

Mayor

Administrative organization

Municipal enterprise
Transition of the city hall

Special area

finance

In NiigatafinanceAccording to the financial results for FY2012 (FY24), the revenue is 3,576 billion yen and the expenditure is 3,532 billion yen.[City 5]。歳入決算の主な項目の構成比は、地方税33%、地方債17.2%、国庫支出金12.9%、地方交付税12.7%、諸収入8.6%、都道府県支出金3.4%などとなっている。また、歳出決算の主な構成比は、義務的経費が計43.9%(扶助費18.2%、人件費15%、公債費10.7%)、その他経費が計38%(物件費12%、補助費9.7%など)、投資的経費が計18.1%(普通建設事業費18%、災害復旧事業費0.1%)である[City 5].Act on Financial Soundness of Local Governments (Financial Soundness Act)Of the indicators specified inReal debt service ratioIs 11.3% and the future burden ratio is 113.5%, which are below the early restoration standards, etc.[City 5].Financial capability indexIs 0.70, which is the 20th value among 17 ordinance-designated cities.[12].

Parliament

City council

Niigata Prefectural Assembly

As of 2019

  • Niigata City constituency (constant 15)
Parliamentary group in Niigata Prefectural Assembly
Parliamentary nameNumber of seats
LDP7
In the future3
Social Democratic Prefectural Union0
Komeito1
Japan Communist Party0
Independent4
vacancy0
meter15
Niigata City constituency elected member
ConstituencyElected memberPolitical party
Constituencyconstant
Kita Ward constituency2Shin IinoIndependent
Masashi AoyagiLDP
East constituency2Atsushi WatanabeLDP
Wako WatanabeIndependent
Central constituency3Takashi KojimaLDP
Tomoyuki UesugiIn the future (National Democratic Party)
Koji IchimuraKomeito
Gangnam constituency1Jun SatoLDP
Akiha Ward constituency2Kobayashi KazuhiroLDP
Goro UchiyamaIn the future (Democratic Party for the People)
Minami Ward constituency1Yoshimune KasaharaLDP
West constituency3Naoki TakahashiLDP
Ken ObuchiIn the future (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Taichiro AokiIndependent
Nishikan Ward constituency1Takahiro ShigekawaIndependent

House of Representatives

Small districtElected memberPolitical partyProportional representation
ConstituencyregionElected memberPolitical party
Niigata Prefecture second wardChuo Ward, East Ward, Nishi Ward (excluding Yotsugoya), Gangnam Ward and part of Kita WardChinami NishimuraConstitutional Democratic PartyTohru IshizakiIndependent
Niigata Prefecture second wardNishikan Ward, Minami Ward (Ajikata / Tsukigata), Nishi Ward (Yotsugoya)Eiichiro WashioLDPKenichi HosodaLDP
Niigata Prefecture second wardKita Ward (Toyosaka)Kuroiwa UyoConstitutional Democratic PartyHiroaki SaitoLDP
Niigata Prefecture second wardAkiha Ward, Minami Ward (Shirone), Konan Ward (Kameda / Yokogoshi), Kita Ward (Junimae)Makiko KikutaConstitutional Democratic Party(None)

National agency

Administrative agency

* For some government agenciesNiigata Misaki Joint Government BuildingSee also

Judiciary

Independent administrative agency

Facility

Policemen

In the city, as followsNiigata Prefectural PoliceThere are 9 police stations.In addition, it is installed in the prefectural police headquartersNiigata City Police DepartmentHowever, it is in charge of commanding and supervising 9 police stations in the city and contacting and coordinating with Niigata City.

For police boxes and police boxes, refer to the articles of each administrative district.

Police signatureLocationJurisdiction
Niigata Kita Police StationKizaki, Kita-kuKita Ward,Kitabamabara-gunSeiromachiA part of
Niigata East Police StationShimokido, Higashi-kuHigashi Ward
Niigata Chuo Police StationYorii-cho, Chuo-kuChuo Ward (Niigata Island)
Niigata Police StationChuo Ward KamitokoroChuo Ward (excluding Niigata Island)
Gangnam Police StationUnoko, Konan WardKonan ward
Akiha Police StationNiitsu, Akiha WardAkiba
Niigata Minami Police StationNoto, Minami-kuSouth ward
Niigata Nishi Police StationNishi-ku KoshinNishi-ward
Nishikan Police StationNishikan Ward AkasabiNishikan Ward,Nishikanbara-gunYahiko Village
Incident/accident

Fire

Fire department

Firefighting activities in the cityNiigata City Fire DepartmentThere are a total of eight fire stations, one for each administrative district.

About each fire station, it is as follows.About the branch officeNiigata City Fire Department # Fire DepartmentSee.

Administrative districtFire departmentLocation
KitaNorth fire stationKita Ward Kuzutsuka
Higashi WardEast Fire DepartmentYamakido, Higashi-ku
Chuo-kuCentral fire stationChuo Ward Shumoku
Konan wardGangnam Fire DepartmentFunatoyama, Konan Ward
AkibaAkiha Fire DepartmentHodojima, Akiha Ward
South wardSouth fire departmentShinwacho, Minami-ku
Nishi-wardWest Fire DepartmentNishi-ku Makio
Nishikan WardNishikan Fire StationMaeda, Nishikan Ward

Medical

Main hospital

* "☆" is a designated emergency hospital

Cultural facility

In Niigata City, there are 1 prefectural library and 18 municipal libraries, as well as museums, aquariums, and botanical gardens.Regarding zoos, there are several small animal-related facilities, but there are no zoos that breed large animals.

post office

In the city,Japan PostThere are 11 post offices that carry out collection and delivery operations.The collection and delivery stations in the city are as follows.

Collection and delivery post office
(Yu Yu window・ Collection Bureau)
Zip CodeJurisdiction
Hoei Post Office950-33xxKita Ward (Toyosaka District)
Matsuhama Post Office
(Niigata Chuo)
950-31xxKita Ward (North District)
Niigata Central Post Office950-00xx, 950-01xx
950-08xx, 950-09xx
The entire area of ​​Higashi Ward, part of Chuo Ward, Gangnam Ward (Kameda District, Oeyama District)
Niigata Central Post Office951-80xx, 951-81xxPart of Chuo Ward (Niigata Island), Nishi Ward (Sekiya, Sekiya Horiwaricho)
Japan Post
(Niigata Chuo)
950-02xx, 950-03xxGangnam-gu (Yokogoshi district, Ryokawa district)
Niitsu Post Office956-00xx, 956-01xx, 956-08xxThe whole area of ​​Akiha Ward
Shirone Post Office950-12xx, 950-13xx, 950-14xxAll over Minami Ward, Nishikan Ward (Nakanokuchi district)
Niigata Nishi Post Office950-20xx, 950-21xx, 950-22xxPart of Nishi Ward
Onomachi Post Office
(Niigata Nishi)
950-11xxNishi Ward (Kurosaki District), Konan Ward, Chuo Ward (Sonoki District)
Maki Post Office
(swallow
953-00xx, 953-01xxNishikan Ward (Maki district, Iwamuro district)
Nishikawa Post Office
(swallow)
959-04xx, 959-05xxNishikan Ward (Nishikawa district, Garahigashi district)

park

More than 1,500 locations in Niigata CityparkExists[City 6]..Only those with articles are listed below.For others, refer to the articles in each ward.

Social infrastructure

In the cityinfrastructure,life lineDescribed the maintenance status of.

Tel

Landline area code

In Niigata cityFixed-line phoneThere are threeMessage Area (MA)Are mixed, and there are three, 025, 0250, and 0256.Area codeExists.Each MA includes all or part of the surrounding municipalities, and what is the municipality within the MA?Local callAvailable at.

The range of the three MAs is as follows.[13]

  • "Niigata MA" 025 -2DE, -3DE
    • Kita Ward, Higashi Ward, Chuo Ward, Gangnam Ward, Minami Ward, Nishi Ward, Akiha Ward (Kakurozu), Nishikan Ward (Nakanokuchi District, Makiohara, Gonokami), part of Seiro Town
  • "Niitsu MA"  0250 -2E, -3E, -4E, -5E, -6E
    • Akiha Ward (excluding Kakurozu), Gangnam Ward (Agano [Accommodation Bureau / Kyogase]), Kita Ward (Part of Junimae [Accommodation Bureau / Kyogase]), Almost the entire area of ​​Gosen City, All areas of Agano City
  • "Volume MA" 0256 -7E, -8E, -9E
    • Nishikan Ward (excluding Nakanokuchi District, Makiohara, Gonokami), Nishi Ward (part of Kiba), the entire area of ​​Yahiko Village, part of Tsubame City, part of Nagaoka City

Niigata MA1986(Showa61 years)May 11The area code was first converted to 3 digits in Niigata prefecture.The area of ​​0252-DE, 0253-DE, 02537-E, 02538-E, 025385-was unified to "025-CDE" in order to take measures against tight phone numbers and to enable calls within MA without adding an area code. did.In addition, Niitsu MA1985(60)May 3, Volume MA1984(59)May 12The area code was unified.

There are several areas in Niigata prefecture that use the area code "025", of which the city code 200/300 is assigned to Niigata MA.In addition, the city code 3s was also assigned to Niigata MA in order to set the weather forecast number "025-177" from outside the city to "025 Niigata MA" at the time of digitization.However, later, because "100 area" other than Niigata MA occurred in the prefecture, it became impossible to identify it as Niigata MA in "025-025", and the weather forecast number from outside the city was returned to the former "177-0252". It was.From this background (Niigata MA's "177 series" is still NTT'sSquare compartmentNotation List of area codes, etc. by unit charge area ・ Eastern Japan Although it is assigned as the Niigata MA number band in the list), as of 2011, dialing "025-177" will result in "Shimoetsu / Niigata region 0252-177", "Uonuma / Minami Uonuma / Tokamachi region 0257-177", and "Joetsu / Joetsu / Each number of "Itoigawa district 0255-177" will be voice-guided with no call charges.

In addition, the call charge distance classification between each MA on the subscriber phone is "adjacent area" between Niigata MA and Niitsu MA / Maki MA (90 yen excluding tax every 10 seconds in the daytime), and "20km" between Niigata MA and Maki MA. It is classified as "up to 30km" (weekday daytime, 60 yen excluding tax every 10 seconds).

Unification of area code

The area code of the city area is divided into threeToll callBecause it is inconvenient, citizens' voices calling for the early unification of area codes may be sent to "letter to the mayor".The city has stated in the "Letter to the Mayor" on the Niigata City website that it will make a request to NTT and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, which is the main business entity, at the stage when discussions from citizens have increased.[City 7].

Akiha Ward and Nishikan Ward Autonomy Council held in October 2008[City 8][City 9] In December, the Niigata City Planning and Coordination Division conducted a "questionnaire on telephone area code".The target area of ​​the questionnaire is Akiha Ward[City 10] And Nishikan Ward[City 11] only.This will be most affected by the change in area code, and the opinions of the residents of Akiha Ward, where most of the area belongs to "0250 Niitsu MA", and Nishikan Ward, which belongs to "0256 Volume MA", are important. Because the city side decided that there was.In each ward, 1000 general households and 1000 business establishments were randomly selected, and a total of 4000 questionnaire surveys were conducted in both wards.Result of investigation[City 12][City 13], "I oppose unifying the area code on the business establishment side" exceeded half, so the city decided that it was appropriate to keep it as it is for the time being.As for the breakdown, more than half of the households in both wards agreed, but more than half of the business establishments disagreed with both wards.In an interview article of Niigata Nippo before the questionnaire, the city said, "If the approval exceeds half, it will be unified, and if it is less than the majority, it will not be unified. We will make a comprehensive judgment after looking at the whole." , He said he was not particular about "majority".However, in the end, the unification of the area code was postponed based on the judgment that "more than half disagree."

electricity

Send and distribute power to Niigata cityGeneral power transmission and distribution business TheTohoku Electric Power(From February 2020, 4Tohoku Electric Power Network).

Major power plants in and around the city
Power plantbusiness personLocationTotal output
Higashi Niigata Thermal Power StationTohoku Electric PowerSeiro Town Higashiko XNUMX-chome481 kW
Niigata Thermal Power StationTohoku Electric PowerXNUMX-chome, Momoyama-cho, Higashi-ku39.3 kW
Niigata Snow Country Mega Solar Power PlantShowa Shell SekiyuHeiwacho, Higashi-ku1000kW

City Gas

Within the city limitsCity GasIs supplied by the following businesses.There are no areas that carry out public gas projects, and all are privately owned.

business personHead office locationSupply area within the city area
Hokuriku gasXNUMX-chome, Higashiodori, Chuo-kuNorth Ward, Higashi Ward, Chuo Ward, Gangnam Ward (excluding Yokogoshi District), Nishi Ward
Echigo natural gasNiitsu, Akiha WardGangnam-gu (Yokogoshi district), Akiha-ku
Shirane gasXNUMX-chome, Suidocho, Tsubame-shiMinami Ward (excluding Tsukigata area)
Gamahara gasNishikan Ward MakikoMinami Ward (Tsukigata District), Nishikan Ward

Water supply facility

Water supply

Within the city limitsWater supplyIs distributed by the Niigata City Waterworks Bureau, with some exceptions.

Water purification plantLocationMain water distribution areas in the city area
East Port Water Purification Plant
(Niigata East Port Area Water Supply Company Group)[Note 1]
Sasayama, Kita-kuAlmost the entire area of ​​Kita Ward
* For water distribution operations in the area around East Port (including Tarodai)Meiwa KogyoOperated by Niigata East Port Waterworks Division
Omuro Water Purification Plant
(Agano City Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau)
Agano City OmuroKita Ward (Junimae), Gangnam Ward (Agano)
* Water is sent from Agano City, and the water distribution business in the area is operated by the Niigata City Waterworks Bureau.
Agano River Water Purification PlantXNUMX-chome, Yokogoshikamicho, Konan WardPart of Kita Ward, whole East Ward, part of Chuo Ward, Gangnam Ward (Kameda district, Yokogoshi district, Oeyama district)
Shinanogawa Water Purification PlantKonan Ward OjigoyaPart of Chuo Ward, part of Nishi Ward, Gangnam Ward (Sonoki district, Ryokawa district)
Manganji Water Purification PlantManganji, Akiha WardAkiha Ward
Togashira water purification plantMinami Ward TogashiraAll over Minami Ward, Nishikan Ward (Garahigashi district, Nakanokuchi district)
Aoyama Water Purification PlantNishi-ku Aoyama SuidoPart of Chuo Ward (Niigata Island), part of Nishi Ward
Maki water purification plantNishikan Ward WashinokiNishi Ward (Yotsugoya), Nishikan Ward (Maki District, Nishikawa District, Iwamuro District)

All water distribution operations in areas other than those mentioned above are operated by the Niigata City Waterworks Bureau.

Sewer

Niigata City's sewage treatment population penetration rate is 86.0% (2014(As of the end of 26). Penetration rate is in urban areas, etc.SewerThe population of areas where facilities and village drainage facilities such as rural areas are maintained,Merged processing septic tankIt is based on the number of users of, and is ranked 30nd and lower in all 22 municipalities in Niigata prefecture.[14]..Of these, the sewerage treatment population penetration rate, which indicates the ratio of the population in the sewerage treatment area to the total population, is 83.4% (as of the end of the same fiscal year).

Niigata City's sewerage business1952(Showa 27) January, laterNiigata IslandMaintenance was started from the eastern part of the area (Funami processing area).1958From (Showa 33), the maintenance area was expanded as part of measures against land subsidence, and the Funami Sewage Treatment Plant became1964(39) Processing started in May, but in the same yearMay 6 OfNiigata earthquakeDue to the catastrophic damage, the restoration work of the Funami processing area1967(Showa 42) It extended to spring.

In addition to this Niigata earthquake, the maintenance cost of Niigata City increased due to the original location condition of soft ground, and the maintenance of the sewerage network was significantly delayed compared to other cities.The sewerage treatment area in the city area1970 eraUntil the second half, there is only Funami processing area,1979The sewage treatment population penetration rate in Niigata City (54) was 14.8%, which was far below the national average of 28.0% at that time.Toriya NogataIt caused problems such as serious water pollution.

In the old city area of ​​Niigata City and the later transfer city area1980Since (55), new construction of sewage treatment plants has progressed.Also in Niigata City1991(3), as a result of formulating the "3th Sewerage Development Five-Year Plan" aiming to increase the annual sewerage treatment population penetration rate by 7% and proceeding with sewerage development at a rapid pace, before the merger of 5 municipalities of2003The sewage treatment population penetration rate in (15) was 72.7%, which exceeded the national average of 66.7% at that time.[City 14].

However, there are still areas where sewerage development has not progressed in some of the incorporated city areas.In particular, the penetration rates of Minami Ward and Nishikan Ward are only around 30%, which is far below the national average.Since both areas are dotted with areas where it is difficult to improve the sewerage network, such as occupying a large amount of farmland, the city is also considering the introduction of village drainage facilities and merged treatment septic tanks to treat sewage throughout the city. The aims.

Sewerage treatment population penetration rate of 8 administrative districts in Niigata City (end of 2014)
Administrative districtAdministrative population (people)Sewerage treatment population (people)Penetration(%)
All over Niigata City801,270668,23383.4
Kita76,29055,33572.5
Higashi Ward138,435136,80298.8
Chuo-ku175,923172,13197.8
Konan ward69,30661,59888.9
Akiba77,97674,17995.1
South ward46,37016,43035.4
Nishi-ward157,168131,50583.7
Nishikan Ward59,80220,25333.9
Niigata prefecture as a whole
Sewerage treatment population penetration rate
  72.3
National average
Sewerage treatment population penetration rate

(End of 2014)
  77.6
Sewage treatment plant and treatment area
Name of facilityLocationSewerage treatment area in the city
Shimami Purification CenterKitaShimamichoKita Ward (part of the Minamihama area of ​​the Kita district)
Niigo River Purification Center
(Niigata Sewerage Corporation)[Note 2]
Kita Ward Nametokoro XNUMX-chomeKita Ward (entire area excluding Shimami Treatment Zone)
Niigata Purification Center
(Niigata Sewerage Corporation)
Higashi-ku Shitayama XNUMX-chomeEast Ward, Chuo Ward (part of East District), Gangnam Ward (Kameda District, Yokogoshi District, Oeyama District)
Funami sewage treatment plantXNUMX-chome, Funami-cho, Chuo-kuChuo Ward (eastern Niigata Island)
Central sewage treatment plantTaemon Nitta, Chuo-kuChuo Ward (entire area excluding Niigata and Funami processing areas), Gangnam Ward (Sonoki area, Ryokawa area)
Nishi Ward (Sakaiwa district, part of the West district)
Niitsu Purification Center
(Niigata Sewerage Corporation)
Akiha Ward Kodanouchi Onobi KaiAkiba
Shirane Central Purification CenterNegishi, Minami-kuMinami Ward (Shirone district)
Nishikawa Purification Center
(Niigata Sewerage Corporation)
Nishi-ku KasagiNishi Ward (entire area excluding Chubu Treatment Zone), Minami Ward (Friend District, Tsukigata District), Nishikan Ward

At the Chubu Sewage Treatment Plant2013(25)May 1Occurs during the processing processmethane gasIs operating a power generation system that uses the main component "sludge digestion gas" as fuel.It is the first power generation facility in Niigata Prefecture as a sewerage business, with an output of 560kW and an annual total power generation of about 440 million kWh (for about 1400 ordinary households), and can cover about 4% of the power consumption of the treatment plant.[15].

Processing facility

The waste treatment facilities under the jurisdiction of Niigata City are as follows.

Garbage disposal facility

Waste intermediate treatment facility

The following seven facilities are provided as facilities for intermediate treatment such as incineration, sorting, and crushing of waste.

Name of facilityLocationCollection area for burnable garbage (ordinary garbage)
Hoei Environmental Center
(Hoeikyo Cleaning Facility Processing Association)[Note 3]
Uranoiri, Kita-kuKita Ward (Toyosaka District)
Resource Recycling Center
(Echo Plaza)
Shimokido XNUMX-chome, Higashi-ku(Aggregation / sorting of oversized garbage, crushing / sorting of recyclable waste only)
Kameda Cleaning CenterKameda, Konan WardNorth Ward (North District), East Ward, Chuo Ward, Gangnam Ward
Niitsu Clean CenterAkiha Ward OguchiAkiha Ward (Niitsu District)
Shirane Green TowerUsui, Minami-kuAkiha Ward (Kosudo District), Minami Ward, Nishikan Ward (Nakanokuchi District)
(Waste accumulation / crushing / sorting only. Incineration work is carried out at Nitta Cleaning Center, etc.)
Nitta Cleaning CenterNishi-ku KasagiNishi Ward (excluding Yotsugoya)
Yoroigata Clean CenterNishikan Ward YoroigataNishi-ku (Yotsugoya), Nishikan-ku (excluding Nakanokuchi area)

Waste is incinerated at five facilities except the Resource Recycling Center and Shirane Green Tower.

Landfill site

Final landfill disposal of incineration ash, etc. is carried out at the following 5 facilities.

Name of facilityLocation
Municipal waste final disposal site Ekaedeen
(Hoeikyo Cleaning Facility Processing Association)
Kita Ward Maeshinden
Tayuhama landfill site (XNUMXrd term)Shimami-cho, Kita-ku
Kameda Third Landfill Disposal SiteKameda, Konan Ward
Fourth Akatsuka landfill siteNishi-ku Higashiyama
Fukui landfill siteFukui, Nishikan Ward

Human waste treatment facility

Treatment of human waste, septic tank sludge, etc. in the city area is carried out at the following four facilities.

Name of facilityLocationHuman waste / sludge carry-in area
Cleaning center and urine treatment plant
(Agakita Wide Area Association)[Note 4]
Agano City FunaiKita Ward (Toyosaka District)
Maihei Processing CenterHiraga, Konan WardThe entire city except the collection areas of Agakita, Niitsu, and Maki
Niitsu Purification Center
(Niigata Sewerage Corporation)
Akiha Ward Kodanouchi Onobi KaiAkiha Ward (Niitsu District)
Roll processing centerFukui, Nishikan WardAkiha Ward (Kosudo District), Minami Ward, Nishi Ward (Yotsugoya), Nishikan Ward

Foreign relations

Sister city/affiliated city

Overseas

The overseas sister cities are as follows.

sister city
Friendship city
Exchange agreement city
A city with friendly exchanges

As described above,Circular Sea of ​​JapanThere is a deep connection with the area, and on the information board in the cityEnglish,ChineseOthersKorean,RussianThe notation is conspicuous.Also,Circular Sea of ​​JapanBesides being a regionPort townBeing and soccerFIFA World CupThere is something in common, such as holding.

Niigata
Niigata
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Vladivostok
Vladivostok
Birobidzhan
Birobidzhan
Harbin
Harbin
Ulsan
Ulsan
Location of Niigata City
Enlarged view of the area around Japan

Domestic

As of May 2015, Niigata City has no sister cities in Japan, but has signed cooperation agreements with many cities inside and outside the prefecture regarding administrative cooperation in the event of a disaster, tourist attraction, cultural exchange, etc. It is concluded.

Policy cooperation agreement
  • Joetsu ShinkansenRevitalization Alliance (Niigata Prefecture, Prefectural Assembly, 18 municipalities along and around the Joetsu Shinkansen, each municipal assembly, etc.)
  • Northern Kanto-Niigata Regional Cooperation Axis Promotion Council (Niigata City,Kamo City,Nagaoka,Kashiwazaki,Yuzawa Town5 cities and towns in the prefecture,Gunma7 municipalities,Tochigi5 municipalities,Ibaraki3 cities and towns)
Mutual support agreements in the event of a disaster have also been concluded with these 20 cities and towns.
  • Banetsu ExpresswayCity exchange conference along the railway line (Niigata Prefecture andFukushima16 cities and towns along the same road)
Disaster prevention cooperation agreement
  • Niigata prefecture
    • Neighboring municipalities mutual support agreement in the event of a disaster (Niigata City, Nagaoka City, Sanjo City, Shibata City, Kamo City, Tsubame City, Gosen City, Agano City, Sado City, Seiro Town, Yahiko Village, Tagami Town)
    1995Concluded on April 7, 4
    • Agreement on mutual support in the event of a disaster in the central regional municipalities of the prefecture (Niigata City, Sanjo City, Tsubame City, Kamo City, Nagaoka City, Tagami Town, Yahiko Village)
    1996(8) February 2, the former Iwamuro village concludes
  • Outside Niigata Prefecture
    • Mutual support agreement at the time of disaster
    KanagawaKawasaki City : 1969(Showa 44) Concluded on July 7
    SaitamaSaitama : 2014(26) Concluded on March 3
    GunmaMaebashi : Concluded on September 2014, 26
    GunmaTakasaki : Concluded on September 2014, 26
    EhimeSaijo City : 2015(27) Concluded on March 6
    2006Concluded on April 18, 4
    • 横 浜 市Agreement on mutual support in the event of a crisis in Niigata City
    2008Concluded on April 20, 2
    • Mutual Support Agreement for Disasters (56 cities and towns nationwide where oil bases are located)
    2011Concluded on April 23, 7
    2012Concluded on April 24, 10
    In March 20, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and 2013 government-designated cities have signed a series of mutual support agreements between the civil welfare department and the hygiene department, which complement this agreement.
Tourism cooperation / cultural exchange agreement

Niigata City1858(Ansei5 years)US-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyBecame the first port opening in Japan, so-called "Opening Five PortsIs one ofNiigata PortHas, but1993(HeiseiFrom 5 years), government officials and civic groups from Hakodate, Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki, which are the five cities that opened the port, will gather for the purpose of exchanging opinions and exchanging opinions on community development activities.Opening 5 cityscape town development meeting」を開催している。この会議は5都市が持ち回り制で各々5年おきに主催しており、新潟市は1997年(平成9年)、2002年(平成14年)、2007年(平成19年)、2012年(平成24年)に開催地となっている。また横浜市とは2006年(平成18年)、2008年(平成20年)夏の34th Summit of Major CountriesWe are jointly inviting the holding of (Summit).Both cities said that they would hold a summit meeting in Yokohama and a ministerial meeting in Niigata as the "Opening City Summit", but in the end the venue wasHokkaidoNext door (Hokkaido Toyako Summit), Labor Ministers' Meeting in Niigata, YokohamaAfrican Development ConferenceWas held respectively.

  • Flag of Niigata Prefecture.svgNiigata CitySado CityCustomer attraction cooperation agreement
    2008Concluded on April 20, 8
  • Flag of Fukushima Prefecture.svgAizuwakamatsu・ Niigata City Tourism Exchange Declaration
    2012(Heisei 24)May 7Conclusion
  • Flag of Gunma Prefecture.svgNiigata CityTakasakiTourism exchange cooperation agreement
  • Opening 5 cities cooperation (Niigata City,Hakodate,Yokohama,Kobe City,Nagasaki)
    1993Jointly implemented an exchange project from (5) (details mentioned above)
  • Flag of Kyoto Prefecture.svgKyoto City・ Niigata City Tourism and Cultural Exchange Declaration
    2013(Heisei 25)May 3Conclusion[16]
  • Thousand Wind Summit (Niigata City,Nanae Town, Saijo City)
    2009(21)May 2Declaration
Domestic friendship cities in the transfer city area

The four towns and villages included in the transfer city area in 2005 had sister cities with cities, towns and villages in various parts of the country, but after the merger, they were incorporated as part of the city's exchange promotion project and inherited as an exchange project for each district. ing.

What was Yokogoshi Village at that time?1961(Showa 36) Deepened exchanges triggered by the youth class exchange party held in February, and officially signed as a sister village in 2.Even today, when Yokogoshi Town became the town after the town system came into effect, and the Yokogoshi district in Konan Ward after the merger and transition to an ordinance-designated city, exchange projects are still ongoing.
From the connection of the local government name "Tsukigata", which is the same as Tsukigata Village at that time1990Mutual exchange started in 2, and friendship sister towns and villages were concluded in 1992.Even after the merger, exchange projects such as child exchange are still being implemented.
What was Ajikata Village at that time?Shirone Giant Kite Battle, Samani Town is the "Hokkaido Great Kite Festival" and the kite festival is held together.1991Exchange started in 3 and signed a sister city in 1995.The exchange business continues even after the merger.
We started exchanges in honor of "Tsurukame", which is a combination of the town names of both towns, and declared "Tsurukame Friendship City" in 2001.The name of the local government disappeared due to the merger of both towns later, but the exchange business is still ongoing.

International organization

Consulate

Consulate General
Honorary Consulate
  • French flag In NiigataFranceHonorary Consulate
  • Mongolia flag In NiigataMongoliaHonorary Consulate

Economy

Niigata City's gross domestic product is2 billion yen(18).In the city areaPaddy fieldThere are many cultivated lands such as, but theyPrimary industryThe ratio of rice is about 1%, which is low, but the production of riceTulipCultivation is the best municipality in Japan.[17] Tertiary industryOccupies about 8% of the total, thenSecondary industryOccupies about 2%.

Gross domestic product in the city[18]
ItemReal number
(XNUMX million yen)
Composition ratio
(%)
Compared to the previous year
Rate of increase
(%)
Gross domestic product in the city
29,682-△ 1.7
Production value by industry classification
30,755-△ 1.7
Primary industry4201.4△ 8.2
Secondary industry5,35817.4△ 2.3
Tertiary industry24,97881.2△ 1.5

Commercial

Major companies headquartered in Niigata

Only companies that are expanding nationwide are listed.

Mass media

Newspaper / communication

Newspaper company

TV station

Terrestrial television station

Cable tv station

Radio station

Radio stations

Education

school education

Lifelong learning / social education facility

Transportation

Niigata City and its surroundingsHonshuSea of ​​JapanOn the sideTransportation nodeIt is responsible for the function as.On the railroadJR East OfJoetsu ShinkansenIncluding the Joetsu region and Chuetsu region in Niigata prefecture,Tohoku regionAnd so onConventional line OfLimited express-Rapid trainIs in operation.In road traffichighwayIs centered around Niigata CityHokuriku Expressway,Banetsu Expressway,Sea of ​​Japan Tohoku ExpresswaySpreads radially,Express BusThe route network connects major cities inside and outside the prefecture.In particular, the highway bus routes of the prefecture lines are operated frequently, taking advantage of direct access to downtown areas and major facilities in the city center.Furthermore, general roads such as national roads and prefectural roads also pass through the suburbs.Bypass roadThe network is well developed and plays a major role in transportation to and from the city and between cities.Niigata AirportHas a route network in Japan and overseas,Niigata PortAs a key point of maritime transportationInternational base port,Core international portOf the above, it is designated as a comprehensive base port.

空港

Higashi WardAgano RiverLocated on the left bank of the estuaryNiigata AirportFrom, routes connecting domestic cities and East Asian cities are in service.It is located about 25 minutes by bus from Niigata Station, and is relatively easy to access from the city.

In Niigata Prefecture and Niigata City, we are promoting revitalization measures to improve the convenience of the airport, such as expanding the route network for domestic and international flights, improving access to the airport from both inside and outside the prefecture, and activating air freight transportation. I'm doing it.

Train

道路

Port

In the city area1858 OfUS-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyWas designated as one of the five open portsNiigata PortIt is one of the key points of maritime transportation on the Sea of ​​Japan side of Honshu.Specific port,Specific important port, The only port on the Sea of ​​Japan sideCore international portIn addition to being designated as one of the five comprehensive base ports nationwide, it is also designated as a base port for two sectors, international marine containers and liquefied natural gas, by sector.

There are two ports in Niigata: the West Port Ward (Niigata West Port), which is a river mouth port that covers both banks of the Shinano River in Chuo Ward and East Ward, and the East Port Ward (Niigata East Port), which is a digging port that straddles Seiro Town, Kitakambara District, Kita Ward. It consists of a port area.Donggang District has an international marine container terminal with the largest number of containers handled on the Sea of ​​Japan side of Honshu, and Xigang District hasSado Steamship,Shin Nihonkai FerrySado / Hokkaido / Tsuruga routes depart and arrive.

Tourism

Number of tourists in Niigata City
Total1,862 million people
Sightseeing spotNATURE54 million people
History/culture372 million people
Hot spring / health100 million people
Sports and recreation127 million people
Urban tourism483 million people
Other45 million people
Events / Events682 million people

The number of tourists in Niigata City isAbout 1,862 million people(2017 (29)[19]), And attracting customers through urban tourism and festivals and events accounts for 6% of the total.In addition, about 61% of the number of tourists in the Shimoetsu area of ​​Niigata prefecture, and about 26% of Niigata prefecture as a whole.[19][City 15].

The main tourist destinations in Niigata City are related to the portNiigata Island,Shinano RiverIn addition to being concentrated in the surrounding area, things related to agriculture and nature are scattered in the plains.Regarding tourism resources other than cultural properties and famous places described below, "Niigata City Education #Museum""Niigata City Education #Museum""Niigata City Education # Animal and Botanical Garden""#Sport""#cultureSee.

Wide area cooperation

For wide-area cooperation on tourism with cities inside and outside the prefecture, see "#Tourism cooperation / cultural exchange agreementSee.

Cultural property

A nationally designated cultural property in Niigata City

Important cultural property
Important Tangible Folk Cultural Property
  • Kotohira Shrine dedication model Japanese boat
Natural treasure

Main tourism resources

Events / Events

Urban tourism

History/culture

Hot spring / health

Hot springs and recreation facilities

NATURE

Sports and recreation

amusement park

Once in the city limitsamusement parkThere were several, but none of them existed, and the nearest amusement park is in Agano City.Suntopia worldWill be.Formerly Terao, Nishi-ku (later Nishikan-ku)EchizenhamaMoved to)Niigata Amusement Park, "Toyanoen Family Land" in Nagata, Chuo-ku, and "Shumoku" in Shumoku, Chuo-ku.Toya's Lakeland, Yachiyo, the same wardBandai CityIndoor amusement park "Niigata"Joypolis”, But all of them have already been closed.After the park closed, most of Terao's old garden in Niigata Amusement Park was earned by the city, and it became "Terao Central Park" which used some of the former facilities such as tulip garden and rose garden as it is. LakelandNiigata Industrial Promotion CenterIt became a temporary parking lot, and Joypolis was converted into a commercial facility.Billboard Place 2".On the other handOil shockThe site of Family Land, which was closed due to the influence of such factors, has been converted into a residential land, and there are almost no traces of the past.

Other

culture

Niigata Town in the Edo periodKitamaebuneCulture flowed in and music entertainment prospered due to traffic such as[21]..Among them, Bon Odori is said to have continued to dance for nearly a week, and was the first to dance in 1843 (Tenpo 14).Niigata BugyoWas appointed toKawamura NagatakaHas drawn the situation as a picture scroll of "Hand gestures of amateurs".MeijiThe festival disappeared due to the festival ban, but it is still today.traditional cultureCultural activities centered on dance, including the above, are actively carried out.In Niigata City, "Niigata City Cultural Creation Exchange City VisionIs being formulated.

Festivals and events

A festival held in the Furumachi and Mandai districts of Chuo Ward in early August.Sumiyoshi Festival, River Opening, Port Opening Memorial Festival, Commerce and Industry Festival1955It was integrated in (30).
A festival held in Nagaminemachi, Chuo-ku in late June.It is considered to be one of the three major Takamachi cities in Niigata.
A festival held in the Kuzutsuka district of Kita Ward in early September.
Other major festivals
  • Numadare Festival
  • Matsuhama Festival
  • Akatsuka Festival
  • Kurosaki Festival
  • Yamashita Shinmeigu Autumn Festival
  • Niitsu Festival
  • Kosudo Festival
  • Nishikawa Festival
  • Tsukigata Festival

Traditional crafts

traditional culture

Local performing arts
There are various folk performing arts in Niigata City, and their fields aredrum,Woodworking, Sixth floor, etc.
Chuo-kuFurimachi areaAn accompaniment method such as a dance using wooden barrels that is handed down to.
A folk performing art of creative Japanese drums handed down in Chuo Ward.Niigata FestivalIt is played at.
South wardTsukigataStreet performance, which is said to have occurred in the Edo period, has become a folk performing art.It is performed every year at the Tsukigata Festival in June.
  • Sekiya XNUMXth floor
A song that is handed down to the residents of the Sekiya Dankuro district.It is said that about 120 years ago, the residents of Sekiya went to Toyano's Bon Odori dance, and finished it in a very mellow tone with reference to the Toyano XNUMXth floor section that they learned there.[22].
  • Swamp tree
It is sung at the Nuttari Festival, which is a festival of the Nuttarihakusan Shrine. It has a history of more than 300 years and will be shown on New Year's Eve in addition to the Numadare Festival.[23].
  • Matsuhama Taiko
A creative drum made in the Matsuhama area (51) for the purpose of regional promotion.The rhythm of the brave drums expresses the rich natural scenery such as the four seasons of the Agano River, and is shown at the Matsuhama Festival.[24].
  • Under the mountain
It is sung at festivals at Yamashita Shinmeigu Shrine and at weddings and other celebrations.It is said that it was reported that the fallen warriors of Kaga fell and settled in Echigo.[24].
  • Oiwa Manto Oshiai
  • Kameda Kiyori
  • Kameda's sword
  • Fukurozu lantern push
  • Peep Karakuri
Folk song
For folk songs transmitted in Niigata cityVery phrase,Oiwake, Matsuzaka, etc.
  • Echigo Oiwake
Introduced from Shinshu, some of the lyrics sing about the sea.According to one theory, the origin is the boatman's song in the Uonuma region.[24].
  • Niigata Kouta
1929In commemoration of the opening of the third generation Bandai Bridge in (Showa 4), it was commissioned by Niigata Shimbun.Kitahara White AutumnIs the lyrics,Machida YoshiakiIs composed.
  • Niigata Matsusaka
It is sung at the celebration table as a celebration song.It develops in XNUMX tones, and the musical accompaniment says "MedetaiMedetai".[23].
  • Niigata Boat Section
  • Niigata Port Ondo
  • Niigata Port Dance
Shinto music
Handed down in Niigata cityShinto musicThere are the following 13 types.
* Source[25]
Noh

The oldest record of Noh in Niigata City is the third feudal lord of the Nagaoka domain.Tadatoki Makino 1715It is said that during the Niigata tour (5th year of Shotoku), the performance was held twice at Hakusan Shrine on April 4th and 25th.[26]..Noh was considered to be a samurai martial art, so there were few enthusiasts in Niigata, which is not a castle town. Allegedly received[26].

The history of the Hosho style in Niigata1857It begins with the "Niigata Warakukai" organized by Gosaku Ishitsuki in (4th year of Ansei).Warakukai1907The name was changed to "Niigata Noh Theater" in (Meiji 40), but after the war1966In (Showa 41), the position was handed over to the "Niigata Hoshokai".[27].
The Kanze school in Niigata1923(Taisho 12) Governor of Niigata Prefecture in JuneShinzo OharaBegins with inviting a Noh performer, Hikosaku Kawamoto.After that1924When Kawamoto's business trip training began in (Taisho 13), many Niigata Prefectural Government employees and office workers in the city participated.[28]..Gradually formed one group and developed into "Niigata Kyusaikai"[28].
Japanese dance

At the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, the third generation Ichiyama Shijuro visited Niigata to spread the style of Japanese dance in Niigata City, and in 2, the third generation Iemoto, a disciple from Niigata. It begins with the succession of.After that, after Fujima Kofuji, who became a Natori of the Fujima style in 1866, returned home in 1912.[29], Ichiyama style and Fujima style became representative schools in Niigata[30]..After the war, other schools such as Bando school and Hanayagi school started their activities.1947Niigata City Japanese Dance Association was established in 22.[30].1951In (Showa 26), the Niigata City Performing Arts Association was established and blended into the general public.[30]..The following schools are active in Niigata City.

It begins in 2 when Ichiyama 1866th, a disciple from Niigata, succeeded the third generation Iemoto.
It begins when Kofuji Fujima returned home in 3.
Katsuhiro Bando from Niigata City was born in 19.1944) Was evacuated from Tokyo to Niigata, where the air raids became fierce, and the rehearsal hall was opened.[31].
Showa 26 after the end of the war1951), Toshinoi Hanayagi opened a rehearsal hall at Yamanoshita Rinkaiso, which was a repatriation dormitory at that time.[32].
  • Orthodox Wakayanagi style
Kisuki Wakayanagi, who was instructing dance in Tokyo in 26, moved to Niigata due to marriage.Beginning with the opening of a rehearsal hall in Honchodori 1951 Bancho[33].
  • Azuma style
Showa 28 (1953), Azuma Haru Ritsu started the Niigata Haru Ritsukai on Higashibori Dori[34]..39 (Showa XNUMX)1964) Moved to Ariakeohashicho[34].
  • Nishizaki style
It begins with Miyuki Nishizaki holding a Miyukikai at the Koshisa Autonomous Hall in 28.[35].

Entertainment

ダンス
NoismIs the aboveNiigata City Performing Arts CenterAs an exclusive dance company of (Ryutopia)2004Inaugurated in 16, it is a stage director / dancerJo KanamoriIs a comprehensive producer.It consists of Noism1 of the main company, which was established in the same year, and Noism2 of the trainee company.
The purpose is to promote the culture of Niigata City through the creation of dance art works and performances not only in Niigata but also in Japan and around the world.This is the only example in Japan where a public facility owns an exclusive arts organization. Noism's operating funds are allocated to the operating budget of the Niigata City Arts and Culture Promotion Foundation, which is an affiliated organization of the city, and sponsorship from the private sector such as corporations and individuals.
Local idol
In 2003, the brilliant period of local idolsNegiccoWas formed.AKB48Based in Niigata City since 2011, when the popularity of the theater has grown nationwide, it has its own theater.RYUTist,Angel Generation, AKB57's sister group in 2015 after SLC48 was formedNGT48Was formed.

Kayanagi world

Founded in Osaka in the middle of the Edo period in Chuo WardIchiyama styleDanceTaruDance with accompaniment such asFurumachi GeikoIs still there.

This is the old pre-Meiji eraPort townNiigata Town (Furumachi), But deal with the sailors who gather at the portPlaygroundIt begins with prosperity.With Yukaku after the Meiji eraFlower StreetIs split,GeishaEntertain customers only by performing artsFurumachi (Hanagai)Is formed and continues to the present.

Music

Western music in Niigata City1871(Meiji 4)Gunma Normal SchoolからNiigata High School for GirlsMasanao Saito, who was assigned to1919It begins with the establishment of the Kisaragikai Music Research Institute in (Taisho 8).[36]. After that1924In (Taisho 13), Niigata Prefecture's first mixed chorus "Kisaragi Chorus" was established.1931The orchestra "Niigata Symphony Orchestra" was established in (Showa 6).

Orchestra
  • Niigata Symphony Orchestra
Established in the fall of 1931 (Showa 6) by Akira Matsuki, Tetsuo Nakamura, and Heiji Kuwahara.
  • Niigata University Orchestra
The predecessor "Niigata Medical University Music Club" begins with the first concert in 1927 (Showa 2).
Brass band
  • Niigata Wind Orchestra
  • Niigata Citizen's Wind Orchestra
chorus
The chorus in Niigata City begins with the formation of two choruses, male and female, at the Kisaragikai Music Research Institute, which was established in 1919 (Taisho 8).[37]..After that, in 1924 (Taisho 13), Niigata Prefecture's first mixed chorus "Kisaragi Chorus" was established at the request of peacetime at the mountainside.[37]..Before and during the war, in Niigata City, the chorus was sung in detail at only one or two workplaces, but after the war the activity became widespread.1947From (Showa 22)1948Around (Showa 23), more than 30 groups were formed, centered on the "Job Case Chorus".
light music
Indie live performances were held at a live house in Niigata City in 2009.HilcrhymeIs producing.

Hall live house

Operated by prefectures, cities and affiliated organizations within the city limitsholeThere are facilities, especially in Chuo WardHakusan ParkThere are 3 public halls concentrated in the area.Also1980 eraAfter that, in Chuo Ward etc.live houseHave opened one after another and are widely used for concerts and various events.

Movie theater

Once in the current city areaMovie theaterIs the Chuo Ward of the city centerFurumachiIt was located in the suburbs such as Kameda district in Konan Ward, Niitsu district in Akiha Ward, Uchino district in Nishi Ward, and Maki district in Nishikan Ward.However, in suburban movie theaters, the movie industry has become noticeably slanted.1960 eraFrom the latter half of the year, the movie theaters were gradually closed, and the movie theaters in the center were also aging and attracting customers.1980 eraIt was closed one after another.Instead1990 eraFrom the middle stageCinema complexHas advanced a lot.Currently, a total of 4 buildings, including 1 major cinema multiplex buildings and 5 single-building system, are in operation.

Specialty/Special product

Specialty dishes
Specialty goods
liqueur
Sake
The following 15 brands of sake are produced in Niigata City, and every March is a local sake tasting event.Niigata Tanrei Niigata Sake TeamWill be held.
  • Tsuruno Tomo
  • Koshiji snowstorm
  • Denemon
  • Koshino Umeri
  • Hachitoyo Koshino
  • Baoshan
  • Mineno Shiraume
  • Echigo Tsurugame
  • Bamboo celebration
  • Yukinomaboroshi
beer
In Nishikan Ward, Niigata City, local beer production began in the 90s, and the "Niigata Craft Beer Team", a local beer tasting event, is held every year.The following two brands are produced in Niigata City.
Wine
In Nishikan Ward, Niigata City, wine production began in the 90s, just like craft beer, and the number of wineries increased in the 2010s.There are four brands of wine produced in Niigata City.

Sports

Professional sports team

OUR TEAMTypeleagueArenaEstablishmentNumber of wins
Albirex Niigataサ ッ カ ーJ LeagueNiigata Stadium1955
Niigata Albirex BBbasketballB LeagueAore Nagaoka2000
Niigata Albirex BCbaseballIndependent League/BC League:Joshinetsu districtNiigata Prefectural Baseball Stadium2006Independent league GC 1 time, BC league victory 1 time
  • Albirex Niigata's main training centers areSeiromachiHowever, all official games will be held in Chuo-ku, the city.
  • Niigata Albirex BC training camps and other basesNagaokaHowever, the head office registration is in Chuo Ward.Home games are held around two games a month in the city.

2001Completed in (13)Niigata Stadium(DenkaBig Swan Stadium) is a J LeagueAlbirex NiigataHome stadium.2002In (14)2002 FIFA World CupIt became the venue for the event, and three games were held, including the opening game on the Japanese side.Since thenJ League All Star SoccerAnd Japan national team games are held, and various events such as athletics and sports such as rugby are held in addition to soccer.

また2009Completed in (21)Niigata Prefectural Baseball Stadium(HARD OFF ECO Stadium Niigata) was completed after about 20 years of twists and turns from the construction concept.baseball Groundso,BC League-Niigata Albirex BCHolds home games once or twice a month.Also after the same yearProfessional baseballIn addition to the official game being held2010In (22)All star gamesRound 2 was held.The All-Star Game was held in a city on the Sea of ​​Japan side of Honshu1996(8)ToyamaThe second place after.

Amateur sports team

Ball skills

baseball
In Niigata City from before the warGrass baseballThe "early wake-up baseball tournament", which is held every year mainly in the old city area sponsored by the city, is one of the largest in Japan.This early-wake baseball originated from the spread of practice from early morning among grass baseball teams in the city in order not to interfere with work or school.1964In the wake of the Niigata earthquake (39), the government worked on the operation.1966The first tournament was held in (Showa 41), and 1 teams participated in it, which was also touted as a "symbol of reconstruction."Peak1981(Showa 56), 944 teams, about 19,000 people participated.This amounted to nearly 22% of the city's male population (about 1) at that time.In recent years, the number of teams has decreased to around 200, but according to data from the All Japan Early Bird Baseball Association, the number of participating teams is the highest among the 28 prefectures nationwide (18 cities where early rising baseball is not played). Except for Tokyo, where there is no data for the 23 wards).In addition, since there are baseball stadiums and grounds with lighting equipment in Kita Ward, Akiha Ward, Minami Ward, Nishikan Ward, etc., grass baseball tournaments in these administrative districts are held in a combination of early morning and night games. ing.Besides thishigh school baseball,Adult baseballSuch asAmateur baseballIs performed.

Animal sports

Frisbee dog
Niigata is the birthplace of Frisbee dogs in Japan.JFA Japan Football Association Is also based in the city, and many tournaments sponsored by the association are held.

Sports competition

Annual sports competition

Sports competitions held in the past

Sports Facilities

Niigata Stadium and Prefectural Baseball Stadium are located in Seigoro and Nagata, Chuo-kuNiigata Sports ParkIt is located in the garden of.The park will be held in the fall of 2009 (Heisei 21)National Athletic Meet"Tokimeki Niigata National Athletic Meet"WhenNational disabled sports meet"Tokimeki Niigata Tournament11 competitions were held in various parts of the city at the National Athletic Meet and the National Athletic Meet.

In addition to the prefectural baseball stadium mentioned above, in the city areaBaseballThere are 6 city-owned baseball stadiums that can be used in.Of these, the old city area is located in Meikeminami, Chuo-ku.Toriyano Sports Park Baseball FieldAnd Nishi-ku KobariNiigata City Kobari Baseball FieldThere are two stadiums, both of which are over 2 years old and are aging.In the city, as part of the merger construction plan of the incorporated city area, we are proceeding with a new baseball stadium maintenance project at two locations in Itai, Nishi-ku (Kurosaki district).Midori to Mori Athletic Park Baseball Field The2011From summer, Niigata City Shirane Baseball Stadium in Maki, Minami-ku (Shirone district)2013It has been in service since April.

Located in Shumoku, Chuo-kuNiigata City Ice Arena(Asahi Alex Ice Arena)2014(26)May 2Indoor type with links to international competition standards that opened inSkating rinkIs. In the 1980s, there were two skating rinks in the city at one time, but it was the only facility in Minamisasaguchi, Chuo-ku.Niigata Ice Link 2003Since it was closed in 15, it has been in the Shimoetsu region.ice skateAthletesKashiwazaki,Joetsu CityIn addition to the winter skating rink located in Tokyo, the situation has long been forced to visit facilities that are open all year round outside the prefecture in search of a practice environment during the off-season.In Niigata City, in response to requests from citizens and athletes, in the fall of 2011, in Shumoku, Chuo-kuNiigata City HospitalThe ice arena maintenance project was started with the city-owned land adjacent to the site as the construction site, and was completed in January 2014.The DBO method is used for the project, which entrusts the design, construction, completion and operation management of the facility to a private company.

Other

  • Kita
    • Niigata City Hoei Minami Sports Park (baseball field, indoor gateball field, multipurpose ground)
    • Niigata City Hoei Budokan
  • Higashi Ward
    • Niigata City Chuchiku Undo Park (Garden Stadium / Gateball Stadium)
    • Niigata City Garden Stadium (Tennis Garden Niigata)
  • Chuo-ku
  • Konan ward
    • Kameda Fureai Dome, Niigata City
    • Niigata City Kawane Park Ground
  • Akiba
    • Niigata City Niitsu Budokan
    • Niigata City Kosudo Jukuken Dojo
    • Niitsu Clay Shooting Range
    • Niitsu Country Club
  • Nishi-ward
  • Nishikan Ward
    • Niigata Golf Club
    • Shooting range

Origin/related celebrities

Honorary citizen

1950May 11, Honorary citizenship ordinance passed by regular city council[38]..The system was launched the following year.

Works set in Niigata City

Sing Kenki OwadaThe lyrics "Railway songIn the 4th Hokuriku edition, Niigata is sung with the number 5 divided.It seems to be related to the fact that the city on the Sea of ​​Japan side was certified as one of the five designated ports to open under the Japan-US Treaty of Amity and Commerce and prospered greatly.When the song was written,Niigata StationDoes not exist,Numazuru StationWas the terminal here.

  • 42.Maple is Niitsu Akihayama Sakura is Kameda Tsushinji Don't forget your baggage Umbrella bag
  • 43.The bridge over the Shinano River is the name of Mandai, and the length is more than four hundred.
  • 44.The other side of the river is Niigata City. If you look at the bridge that makes the water flow well, there are about XNUMX.
  • 45.Hakusan Park in spring Plum cherry blossoms in one place Cool in summer Hiyoriyama Sea bream vine boat is also in front of you
  • 46.The eaves of merchant houses are one of the five ports, and the eaves of merchant houses are a big city with tens of thousands of houses.

movies

Novel

Picture book

Comic

  • Abu-san(1973) (Author:Mizushima Shinji..Publisher: Shogakukan)
  • Every time (1980) (Author:Rumiko Takahashi..Publisher: Shogakukan) (The scene of the Bandai Exit of Niigata Station was confirmed in the episode of returning home with Kyoko in the hometown of the character Yuusaku Godai.)
  • Yanagito Monogatari (2007) (Original: Ryo Kurashina Drawing: Issaku Wake. Publisher: Nihon Bungeisha)

ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン

  • Gatchaman Crouse Insight(2015) (Some episodes are set in Niigata City.)
  • Idol incident(2017) (The second half of the first episode is set in Niigata City, and one of the characters, Hoshina Natsutsuki's concertNiigata StationIt was held on a special stage at Bandai Exit. )

Song

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ A water supply business organization consisting of 2 cities and 1 town, Niigata City, Shibata City, and Seiro Town.A total of four organizations, including Meiwa Kogyo, are participating as water receiving organizations in addition to the three local governments mentioned above.
  2. ^ A public interest incorporated foundation in which Niigata Prefecture owns 50% and basin municipalities own 50%.
  3. ^ It consists of 1 city and 1 town of Niigata City and Seiro Town.
  4. ^ It consists of two cities, Niigata City and Agano City.

Source

City announcement

Other

  1. ^ Niigata Prefectural History Committee 2010
  2. ^ Kadokawa place name 15
  3. ^ Image color of 8 wards(Niigata City Policy Planning DepartmentCity promotionPromotion Division)
  4. ^ "City of Choice Niigata City-Wiz Corona Post-Corona Era Town Development-”. Niigata City (March 2021). 2021/2/27Browse.
  5. ^ Niigata City Dori 2
  6. ^ "Document 1 Central city area related data collection". 21 Niigata City Machinaka Regeneration Headquarters Interim ReportNiigata City. 2021/2/27Browse.
  7. ^ Municipalities as seen in statistics 2018 B Natural Environment-Statistics Bureau
  8. ^ Okamura Osamu "Regional Differences in Regular Market Network in Niigata Prefecture-Through Analysis of Ichikake Behavior-Human Geography, Vol. 41, 1989, pp. 216-236, two:10.4200 / jjhg1948.41.216.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ayumi
  10. ^ The day when Niigata became a ghost town."Atomic bomb evacuation" ordered by the governor | HuffPost
  11. ^ Niigata Prefectural Office: Structural Reform Special Zone / Regional Revitalization in Niigata Prefecture: Special Zone / Regional Revitalization Plan in Niigata Prefecture
  12. ^ List of main financial indicators of local governments in 24, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
  13. ^ Niigata City Assembly September 17 Regular Meeting Plenary Session-September 9-09
  14. ^ End of 26 Niigata Prefecture Sewage Treatment Population Penetration Rate --Niigata Prefecture (Updated December 2015, 9) Retrieved July 17, 2016
  15. ^ Use of "digestion gas" Power generation facility operates --Niigata Nippo (Web version dated January 2013, 1) Retrieved February 29, 2
  16. ^ Kyoto City: Signing of "Kyoto City / Niigata City Tourism and Cultural Exchange Declaration"
  17. ^ "My Town Is the Best in Japan" New Discovery Compared to Municipalities, PHP Research Institute, page 28
  18. ^ 18 data, from Niigata City General Affairs Department "Niigata City Accounts"
  19. ^ a b "29 Niigata Prefecture Tourism Visitor Statistics p.42”. Niigata Prefecture. 2019/1/11Browse.
  20. ^ Minami Ward Tourism Pamphlet - Wayback machine(January 2019, 1 archive) --Niigata City Minami Ward Tourism Association
  21. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.987
  22. ^ Niigata 1998, p.70
  23. ^ a b Niigata 1998, p.69
  24. ^ a b c Niigata 1998, p.68
  25. ^ Traditional performing arts information North Kanto / Niigata regional cooperation axis
  26. ^ a b Niigata Ongei, p.149
  27. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.188
  28. ^ a b Niigata Ongei, p.101
  29. ^ Fujimura, p.150
  30. ^ a b c Niigata Ongei, p.381
  31. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.411
  32. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.413
  33. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.423
  34. ^ a b Niigata Ongei, p.415
  35. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.419
  36. ^ Niigata Ongei, p.45
  37. ^ a b Niigata Ongei, p.759
  38. ^ "Honorary citizenship in Niigata City" "Nikkei" December 25, 12, page 1

References

  • Niigata Prefecture History Editorial Committee to Know "History of Niigata Prefecture to Know" Niigata Daily, March 2010.ISBN 978-4861323720.
  • Kadokawa Japan Geographic Names Dictionary Compilation Committee "Kadokawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 15 Niigata Prefecture" Kadokawa Shoten Co., Ltd., October 1989, 10.ISBN 4-04-001150-3.
  • "History of Niigata City 2 Modern Period" Niigata City, January 1997, 1.
  • "Ayumi of Niigata City (Pamphlet) Archived by WayBack Machine”. Niigata City (March 2007). 2013/11/11Browse.Revised in 2009
  • "History of Music Entertainment in Niigata City" Niigata City Music Entertainment Association, November 1977, 11.
  • Makoto Fujimura "Hanamachi in Niigata-The Story of Furumachi Geiko"Niigata DailyBusiness company, July 2011, 7.ISBN 978-4-86132-456-7.
  • "Beautiful Niigata-Recap", Public Relations Division, General Affairs Department, General Affairs Bureau, Niigata City, March 1998.

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外部 リンク

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