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😷 | “Earthquake source” Wuhan, China, one year after the blockade of the city


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One year after the blockade of the city of Wuhan, China

 
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Under these circumstances, the WHO (World Health Organization) research team arrived in Wuhan City.
 

It's been almost a year since the blockade of Wuhan, China, where the infection with the new coronavirus first spread.In Wuhan ... → Continue reading

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who

who(The worldBritish: World Health Organization,Buddha: World Health Organization,Abbreviation: WHO,WHO) IsUnited Nations OfSpecialized institution(United Nations Organization) And humanHealthTheBasic human rightsAn institution established for the purpose of achieving this.

1948Established. Headquartersスイス-Geneva.. It is the founding dateMay 4It is,World Health DayIt has become[1].. Symbol mark on the world mapoliveSurrounded by leavesUnited Nations flagIn the center ofMedicalIs a symbol ofRod of Asclepius(snakeWrapped aroundCane).

The WHO defines "health" as "a physically, mentally, and socially in good condition, not simply sick or not frail" (WHO Charter preamble), a very broad goal. Is listed. To that end, research to eradicate the disease,Medical-MedicineIn addition to popularizing people, we are focusing on achieving basic human needs (BHN) and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Abbreviations differ between English (WHO), French, Spanish, and Portuguese (OMS). In many countries including JapanWHO(WHO) is often used (hereinafter referred to as "WHO".Later).

Activities of the World Health Organization

  • Article 1 of the World Health Organization Charter "To reach the highest possible health level for all."
  • Collection and disclosure of information and setting of international standards (International disease classification(ICD) etc.).
  • Promotion of multilateral cooperation.
  • disasterSometimes emergency measures.
  • InfectionCountermeasure (smallpoxEradication, expanded vaccination measures).
  • Promote measures to protect the health of people living in cities and improve the quality of life.

Indicator items defined, statistics, and published by the World Health Organization

As of May 2019, the World Health Organization has set indicators for human resources (doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, medical social workers, etc.) and physical resources (hospitals, beds, Nursing care facilities/nursing beds, visiting medical care providers/nursing care providers, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, water/sewerage, etc., indicators of economic and financial resources (ratio of medical expenses to GDP, ratio of medical expenses to public beneficiaries, medical expenses) Public expenditure ratio, public expenditure medical cost ratio to GDP, medical expenses per capita, public expenditure medical expenses), life and health outcome indicators (survival rate by age, death rate (life table), by type of illness Morbidity, ratio by cause of death, life expectancy (life expectancy), life expectancy (life expectancy) by birth and age, etc., and about 5 types of index items are defined for changes over time. We have received reports from medical policy administrations and have published a statistical database for each country, continental region, and the entire world.[2][3][4][5][6].. Excerpts from some of the index items, World Health Publications[7], Published as World Health Statistics Annual Report[8].

組織

WHO's highest decision-making body is the annual General Assembly[9]..All member states can send representatives to the General Assembly.Treaties and agreements can be enacted by a two-thirds majority at the General Assembly.Although the treaty is not enforceable by its members, it must take some action towards its domestic adoption within 3 months, even if the treaty is opposed by its representatives.In addition, at the general meeting, members of 2 countries are elected as directors of the executive board for a term of three years, and the executive board composed of these members becomes the executive body of the general meeting.[10].. In addition, there is a permanent secretariat that carries out normal operations based on the decisions of the general meeting. The Executive Director will be the top of WHO. Secretary is elected at the general meeting[11].. WHO has approximately 8,000 employees[12].

As of May 2016, 5 countries and regions are members[13].

As shown in the figure on the right, there are six regional offices in the world: Africa, America, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific, each of which has its own jurisdiction. 6 countries that are also designated as priority areas[14]Has a country office[15].

Past Secretary General

PortraitNameInauguration dateRetirement dateCountry/region of origin
1Replace this image JA.svg(English edition1948/7/211953/7/21Canadian flag カナダ
2Replace this image JA.svg(English edition1953/7/211973/7/21Brazilian flag Brazil
3Replace this image JA.svg(English edition1973/7/211988/7/21 デンマーク
4Replace this image JA.svgHiroshi Nakajima1988/7/211998/7/21Japanese flag Japan
5Gro Harlem Brundtland 2009.jpgGro Harlem Brundtland1998/7/212003/7/21 ノルウェー
6Lee Jong-wook 1-1.jpgLee Zheng2003/7/212006/5/22Republic of Korea flag  South Korea
ExtraordinaryReplace this image JA.svg(English edition2006/5/222007/1/4 スウェーデン
7Margaret Chan 1-1.jpgChen Feng Fu Chin(Margaret Chan)2007/1/42017/7/1Hong Kong flag Hong Kong
8Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus-AI for Good Global Summit 2018 (40316994230) (cropped).jpgTedros Adanom2017/7/1(Current position)Ethiopian flag エチオピア

Affiliated organization

WHO is a subsidiary of FranceLyonIt is inInternational Cancer Research Institute(IARC) and JapanKobeIt is inWHO Research Center for Health Development(WHO Kobe Center, WKC)[16].

finance

WHO has a budget of two years for the fiscal year, and funds are allocated to member countries and used mainly for administrative expenses, etc., and contributed by various organizations such as member countries and international organizations and used for various WHO projects. Funded by donations[17].. Most of the donations are given after specifying the project to be used, but donations that do not specify the purpose are also made. WHO funding for 2018-2019 was $56 billion[18].. As a feature of WHO finance, contributions account for only 17% of WHO funding.[19]The donation accounts for most of the money. Also,Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation,GAVI Alliance,United Nations Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office,International Rotary,World BankContributions from various organizations such as the above are large, and the ratio of the state is relatively small. Of the donations, designated donations account for 77% of WHO's total revenue, whereas donations not designated for use account for less than 3%.[20].

The largest investor in WHO is the United States, with the largest share and contribution. US$2018 million for 2019-2[21], Japan ($9300 million)[22],Chugoku($7600 million)[23]The order is. On the other hand, the donation amount is US ($2018 million) in 2019-6.[24], Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ($ 5 million)[25]The United Kingdom ($3 million)[26]..The total investment amount of both is also in the order of the United States, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the United Kingdom.China has the third largest share in the world, but the donation amount is only $ 3 million in 2018-2019, so it is not in the top 1000 in terms of total investment.[27].

一方寄付金の使途としては2018-2019年度においてはポリオ撲滅が9億9000万ドル、26.51%を占めて最も大きい。次いで、基本的な健康・栄養サービスの提供強化が4億5300万ドルで12%、ワクチン関係が3億3500万ドルで8.89%となっている[28]..Each investor has a different focus, for example, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation spends about 6% of its donations on polio eradication.[29]In addition, the GAVI Alliance invests 72% of donations in vaccines[30].

Ten major investors (2018-2019, until the fourth quarter of 2019) Unit: $4 million
No.InvestorContributionDonation
(Use designation)
Donation
(No purpose specified)
Grand total
(2 years)
ProportionSource
1The United States of America23765689315.9%[31]
2Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation5315319.4%[32]
3The United Kingdom43335574357.7%[33]
4GAVI Alliance3713716.6%[34]
5Germany612312925.2%[35]
6Japan931222143.8%[36]
7United Nations Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office (UNOCHA)1921923.4%[37]
8International Rotary1431432.5%[38]
9World Bank1331332.4%[39]
10European Commission1311312.3%[40]
Other investors5241,4841032,28940.7%
Grand total9574,3281615,624100.0%[41]

History

The first international public health and health agency was1907Launched in December(English editionIs. HeadquartersParisThis organization, which was placed in[42]It was established by signingEuropeIt was intended only forWorld War ITo break out1914By the time 60 countries had joined. Established after the First World WarLeague of NationsHas established the League of Nations Health Organization as a specialized organization for international public health, but the International Public Health Secretariat is the original signatory country.The United States of AmericaDecided not to participate in the League of Nations, so it will continue to exist as a separate organization from the League of Nations.Second World WarLater, the establishment of a new international organization for health was advocated, and on July 1946, 7United Nations Economic and Social CouncilAdopted the Charter of the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization was established on April 1948, 4, disbanding the League of Nations Health Organization and the International Public Health Secretariat[43].. Japan joined WHO in May 1956 prior to joining the United Nations in 1951[44].

Eradication of smallpox

The most brilliant achievement of WHO issmallpoxHas been successfully eradicated. Smallpox was a disease with a very high fatality rate and caused a large number of fatalities in various parts of the world, but since the symptoms can be clearly distinguished, it is easy to deal with, and since it does not infect anyone other than humans, it can be taken only by humans. Can deal withvaccinationEradication was considered to be possible in principle because the complete prevention method by the From these things,1958At the general meetingUSSRBiologistVictor ZidanovSuggested[45]Although the eradication plan began with the unanimous approval of the "World Smallpox Eradication Resolution", the initial aim was to eradicate all humankind with pox, so countermeasures will be taken in developing countries where medical care and administration are not in place. It did not reach, and it was far from being eradicated. So to further promote this plan,1967A special budget will be set up for1977By that time, it was clearly stated that it would eradicate smallpox. At this time, the policy was changed, a patient was discovered by hanging a prize in the endemic area, and when a patient was found, the person who contacted the patient was uprooted and thoroughly vaccinated around it, a so-called containment policy. And migrated[46].. At that time, it was estimated that there were 1000 to 1500 million smallpox patients in the world. However, this containment policy was successful, and the number of patients dropped sharply.1970 eraWhen you enterSouth AsiaSouth AmericaIn succession, eradication was declared,1977ToEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSmallpox disappeared from the earth finally in the patient discovered in. And three years after the patient disappeared1980, WHO General Assembly officially declared eradication of smallpox[47].

Eradication plan for polio and other infectious diseases

After eradicating smallpox, the next goal of eradication was set by WHOAcute poliomyelitisIt was (polio).1988Has launched the "Global Polio Eradication Initiative",2000The eradication of polio up to[48].. However, after that, the plan became difficult,2018As of JunePakistan,アフガニスタン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHave polio cases in 4 countries[49].. Furthermore, in 2018 an outbreak occurred in Papua New Guinea and a project is being implemented[50].. other than this,1995Has launched the "African Program for Onchocerciasis Control"Onchocerciasis(River blindness) is being eradicated[51].

About multidrug-resistant bacteria

WHO first published a watch list of multidrug-resistant bacteria on February 2017, 2. According to this list, the highest risk is "Acinetobacter,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,EnterobacterWas mentioned. Next as a dangerous thingHelicobacter pylori,Salmonella] Was mentioned. WHO is urgently developing new antibiotics and calling for proper use of antibiotics.[1]

Controversial events

New influenza, false pandemic warning and corporate adhesion problem

2009から10OverPandemic influenza pandemicIn response, WHO Secretary-General Margaret Chan said, "Now, all human beings are under threat," and publicized the new influenza as a threat to all humankind. After that, although it was discovered that the new strain of influenza was weakly virulent, it warned that it was a phase level 6/6 which is a warning assuming a situation where significant damage of infection and death is significant.Pandemic(Global pandemic) was declared. But the first "Public health emergencies of international concernThe new strain of influenza that has been targeted by (PHEIC) has created an unprecedented system of strong collaboration between health authorities, scientists, and pharmaceutical companies.[52], In fact other seasonalityinfluenzaIt was a level of influenza that was not much different from and the damage was small[53].

Increasing criticism of a series of WHO misinformation[54]I saw this heavilyEuropean ParliamentCame to investigate the circumstances leading up to the pandemic declaration. The former European Parliamentary Commissioner Vaud d'Arc has raised the issue by arguing that the WHO declaration was a false pandemic. It is highly likely that the WHO's decision-making was greatly influenced by the intentions of pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical companies have a great influence on scientists working in laboratories, and they say that this and the fact that WHO solicited the opinions of scientists this time contributed to strengthening that influence. Meanwhile, the world's largest pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (UK), which also manufactures new influenza vaccines, interviewed that the recognition that the pharmaceutical companies affect the WHO pandemic declaration is incorrect. Is responding to[55].

By January 2010, the vaccine had become a global surplus, causing cancellations and resales one after another.

Subordinate to IAEA

Tied in 1959IAEAStipulates that "scientific papers on the effects of radiation must not be published without the permission of the IAEA (promotion of nuclear power)."[56].. Hiroshi Nakajima, the WHO Executive Director, said that WHO is subordinate to the IAEA for the study of the effects of radiation. Nuclear power is in good health.[57].

Delay in response to COVID-19 and indication of political nature

2019 Acute respiratory disease due to new coronavirusDespite the report from Taiwan that there was a possibility of human-to-human transmission as of December 2019 when the epidemic began, Taiwan's participation in the WHO General Assembly was There is criticism for not being recognized and not showing information to the international community[58].

April 2020 AmericanDonald TrumpThe President rated the WHO's response to COVID-19 as "failure". He also criticized that he was making inappropriate proposals to the world under "China-centricism" while receiving a large-scale investment from the United States, and indicated that he would stop making contributions to WHO.[59].. Same countryState DepartmentCriticized that "politics was prioritized over public health," and said, "Member countries, including the United States, should examine the issues regarding the WHO's series of responses."[58].

WHO denies Taiwan's notification that it did not mention human-to-human transmission to AFP news agency[60].. In response, the Taiwanese authorities said, "At least seven cases of atypical pneumonia have been reported in Wuhan, China. Local authorities say they do not appear to have SARS, but patients are being treated for isolation. The full text of the notice to WHO containing the content such as "is published, and" public health experts and doctors can understand under what circumstances isolation treatment is necessary. This is not called a warning , What do you call a warning?" and argued that WHO could have quickly responded to the spread of the infection if it used the information of Taiwan.[60][61].

President Trump on May 5White HouseCriticized once again that WHO is "closer to China" at a press conference at. Announced that it would sever its US$4 million annually contribution to WHO to other international health and hygiene organizations and terminate its relationship with WHO.[62]Officially notified the United Nations on July 7 to leave WHO on July 6, 2021[63].

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayJoe BidenInaugurated as successor president and signed an executive order to withdraw withdrawal from WHO that day[64]The change of government drastically changed the attitude of the United States, such as announcing participation in the international framework (COVAX) for joint purchase of COVID-21 vaccine on the following day.[65].

About reading

English style abbreviation WHO Is "WHO"WhenInitial readingIt’s correct to say “Foo”Acronym readingI don't. However, depending on the dictionary, the notation "fu" can be seen.[66][67].

International Day established by World Health Organization

World Health Organization has severalInternational dayThe International Public Health Day was established on March 3th.World TB Day, June 4World Health Day, June 4(English edition, June 4World Malaria DayWill take place in the last week of April[68](English edition, June 5World No Tobacco Day, June 6World Blood Donor Day, June 7World Hepatitis Day, World Patient Safety Day on September 9th, every week including November 17th[69](English edition, June 12World aids dayAttaches particular importance to[70].. This international day is often set anew, and in 2019 there will be World Patient Safety Day.[71]World Chagas Disease Day was enacted in 2020[72].

Recognition to the World Health Organization

Main graduate

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

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Related item

外部 リンク

Wuhan

Wuhan(Wuhan / Wuhan,Simple: WuhanWuhan: / u˦˨xan˧˥si˧˥ /; pinyin: Wǔ hàn Shì; British: Wuhan City) IsPeople's Republic of ChinaCentral (China),Hubei ProvinceEastern part ofYangtze RiverAnd its largest tributaryHan River[1]It is a city located at the confluence of.Central China andYangtze RiverOnly in the middle basinMega city[2]And in HubeiProvincial capitalAnd the only region in ChinaDeputy cityBut also[3]..It is also one of China's leading industrial cities, educational cities and transportation hubs.The total area of ​​the city is 8569.15square kilometerIs[4], The population is 1089.29 million[5].City HallThe location ofJiang'an DistrictIt is Yanjiang Avenue 188.

Overview

Wuhan City is located in Hubei Province.Hubei Province is adjacent to Chongqing City, which is a city under its direct control.The Chongqing / Hubei area is an extremely populous area.Wuhan CityCentral ChinaRegion or central city in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River[6]AndCentral ChinaThe only local "Deputy city'[3]And China's "National Central City"[2]It is also one ofYangtze RiverAnd its tributariesHan RiverAt the confluence ofWuchang,Hanyang,HankouIt is made up of the three towns of China, and is also known as "Eshiro."Wuhan is also called "Hundred Lakes City", and there are many lakes in the city, and the water area occupies about a quarter of the total city area.[7].

Wuhan has a history of 3800 yearsNational history culture famous castle[6]so,ChuIt is one of the birthplaces of culture.Has great autonomy due to economic importanceDeputy cityIs specified in[3].. On November 2016, 12United Nations Development Program (UNDP)"China Sustainable Cities Report 2016, English Title: China Sustainable Cities Report 2016"[8]In 2015, Wuhan CityHuman development index(HDI) is 0.839, ranking first in the Midwest of China and ninth in the country.[9].. On November 2017, 5Chinese Academy of Social Sciences"China Urban Competitiveness Ranking 2017" announced by the Cities and Competitiveness Research Center[10]Wuhan is No. 1 in the Midwest of China and No. 10 in Japan including Hong Kong and Macau.[11][12].. In October 2016, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party andNational Development and Reform CommissionDesignated as a "megacity" and one of the three major core cities in the Yangtze River basin (Chongqing, Wuhan, Shanghai)[13].. July 12 of the same yearNational Development and Reform CommissionDesignated as "National Central City" by[2].. On November 2017, 10United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNISCO)Certified as a "Creative-city"[14].. On November 2017, 10United Nations Human Settlement Program (UN-Habitat)Chinese Academy of Social SciencesAccording to the "Global Urban Competitiveness Report 2017-2018 (Short version)" jointly announced by the Institute of Finance and Economic Strategy, Wuhan is 2017 in the world in terms of economic competitiveness. 2018th in China, including Hong Kong and Taipei[15].

Centered on Wuhan CityWuhan metropolitan areaThe population of Wuhan is 3144.81 million (as of the end of 2016), and Wuhan City and its surroundingsHuangshi City,Ezhou,Huangoka,Xianning,Xiaogan City,Tianmen,Xiantao,QianjiangConsists of[16].. The metropolitan area opened on December 2007, 12National Reform CommissionWas designated as a "national resource-saving and environmentally friendly society (also abbreviated as" both types of society ") construction comprehensive maintenance reform test zone"[17]..In addition, 9 cities in the Wuhan metropolitan area and Hubei provinceJingmen City,Jingzhou,Jiangxi Province OfJiujiang City,Hunan Province OfYueyang CityThe neighboring cities are called "Middle Yangtze River Basin Cities"Metropolitan areaIs forming[18].

Political institution / chief

The political institutions and chiefs of Wuhan City are as follows.

  1. Chinese Communist PartyWuhan City Committee: The city's Communist Party leadership.The secretary of the Wuhan City Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (abbreviated as "city commission secretary", sub-provincial division) is the head of the city.
  2. Wuhan Municipal People's Government : Administrative agencyIt is equivalent to the city hall.The mayor of Wuhan Municipal People's Government (abbreviated as "mayor", deputy ministry / department) is the administrative head of the city.
  3. Wuhan City People's Congress: City State Power Agency andVoting bodyIt is equivalent to the city council.
  4. China People's Political Cooperation ConferenceWuhan City Committee: A political council.
  5. Wuhan City Inspector General:Inspector GeneralIs[19].
  6. Wuhan Intermediate People's Court:JudiciaryIt is equivalent to the district court.
  7. Wuhan People's Prosecutor's Office:Prosecutor's officeIt is equivalent to the local prosecutor's office.

The city council secretary of Wuhan City is usually the deputy secretary of the Hubei Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China and the chief of the Standing Committee of the Wuhan People's Congress. Next is the third place in the ranking.

History

Prehistoric

新石器時代

  • The history of Wuhan is 6000 years ago新石器時代Go back to.East LakeA lump of soil that is considered to be a building material mixed with grain shells from the Li Bai Falconry site on the shore of the river, and a stone ax and for fishing.Moriな どPolished stonewareWas excavated.Huangpi DistrictThe ruins of the ancient settlement of Zhang Xiwan are an important remnant of ancient humans living 4300 years ago.

Ancient times

Yin and Zhou

Qin / Han / Three Kingdoms era

  • In his teensSouth CountyBelong to.
  • Wuhan officially becomes an administrative unitFormer HanAnd the prefecture is located,Jiangxia CountyBelong to.Back HanIn the last years, Jingzhou Maki at that timeLiu Biao TheHuang ZuEnatsuPrefectWas appointed to Kameyama, Hanyang, and the castle was built there.Reigetsu Castle became the first castle in the city of Wuhan.223(Huangwu2),Grandchild TheCao PiIn order to fight against, he built Natsuguchi Castle on Wuchang's Serpent Mountain.After the observatory turret in the yellow shore of the castle, "Yellow Crane TowerI named it.
  • JinIn the teenTakesho-gunIt was changed to, and a government office was set up in Saya prefecture.It was the beginning of the name of Wuchang.On the north side of the Yangtze River at the same timeHanyangThe two towns across the Yangtze River were called "Soujou".
  • Northern and Northern DynastiesIn addition, summer mouthYingzhouIt was expanded to become the capital of the province.

Sui and Tang

  • In the Wuhan districtGangnamSeoulWill be placed, and Wuchang and Hanyang will be used as the reigns, respectively.
  • During this period, Enatsu and Hanyang were re-promoted to the capitals of Ezhou and Ezhou, respectively, and became important commercial cities along the Yangtze River coast.Many poets traveled to Wuhan and wrote poetry.Among them李白Climbed the Yellow Crane Tower and wrote a poem.The name "Jiangcheng", which is derived from this poem, of Wuhan City became widespread.
One-time transfer of customers Changsha Nishi Nozomi Chang'an Fumiya Yellow Crane Tower Nakabuki ball flute Ejo May Ochiumehana — 李白"Yoshiro Nakakin Hearing Yellow Crane Tower Kamibuki Flute"

Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing

  • Wuchang belonged to Ezhou and Hanyang belonged to Hanyang County during the period.Southern Song DynastyAt the time ofYue FeiHas been stationed in Ezhou for eight years and is based thereNorth cuttingEstablished a teacher.
  • yuan OfZhiyuan18 years(1281), WuchangLake Hiroyuki Zhongshu ShengBecame the provincial capital ofAdministrative regionsIt became the sanctuary of.
  • LightWuchangLake HiroshiBecame the capital of太祖Sixth sonZhu ZhenWas sealed by Chuo and became a clan in Wuchang.FormationAt this time, the confluence of the Han River to the Yangtze River changed from the south of Hanyang to the north of Kameyama.JiajingDuring the period, the new city of Kouzhen was formed on the north bank of the new channel of the Han River, and laterHankou TownWas renamed.LightEndclearFor the first time, Hankou Town was counted as one of the "Four Great Towns" together with Zhuxian Town, Jingdezhen Town and Foshan Town.Since then, Hankou has also been called the "first prosperous city of Chu" and has become one of the leading land and water transportation hubs in Japan, and has been given the graceful name of "Kyushu-dori".Also,LightからWuchangHanyangTogether, the name of Wuhan began and developed as a commercial city.
  • clearWuchang continues at the beginning of the generationHuguangIt was the capital of the province,Kangxi3 years(1664), It became the capital of Hubei Province because it was divided into Hubei Province and Hunan Province.However, it controls the military and civil affairs of both Hubei and Konan provinces.Viceroy of HuguhiroThe official residence continued to be located in Wuchang.At the end of the Kiyosue, Hankou was separated from Hankou and became the Natsuguchi Agency.Since then, it has been called "Wuhan Sanzhen" and the era of three cities has begun.

Modern

Modern / Republic era

Geographical environment

Geography / terrain / range

Wuhan is in the middle class of the Yangtze RiverJianghan PlainLocated in the eastern part of Hubei, the hills southeast of Hubei are transitional areas to the low mountains and hills at the southern foot of Mt. Dabie via the eastern part of the Hanshui Plain.The central part is a low-altitude flat land, the southern part is surrounded by hills, and the northern part is forested with low mountains.Low mountains, hills, eroded plainsSedimentary plainAreas occupy 5.8%, 12.3%, 42.6% and 39.3% of the total area of ​​the city, respectively.The altitude of the whole city is 19.2-873.7MetersIt is located between the two, almost 50 meters or less.[7]The total area of ​​the city is 8569.15square kilometer.[22]The coordinates of the city range are 113 ° 41'-115 ° 05'east longitude and 29 ° 58'-31 ° 22' north latitude. The southernmost part of the village is Jiangjunshan, Jiangjun Highway, Jiangxia District, and the northernmost part is Lichongcun, Caidian Highway, Huangpi District.[23].

climate

Warm and humid climateIt belongs to (Cfa).Annual warming has progressed in recent yearsFrost-free periodIs 211-272 days,Annual sunshine hoursIs 1810 to 2100 hours.Annual rainfall is 1150-1450MmPrecipitation from June to August accounts for 6% of the annual rainfall.rainy seasonDuring this season, the rainy season is covered and the weather is easy to rain.Very hot in summer and 30 at nightThe above days continue,Chongqing,NanjingAlongsideThree major boilersIt is called one of.The average temperature in July, which is the hottest in summer, is as high as 1 degrees Celsius, and often reaches nearly 7 degrees Celsius during the day.Humidity is high due to the scattered rivers and lakes in the city, and the sensible temperature is even higher because the wind does not blow much. The average minimum temperature in July is 29.1 ° C, almost every night.Tropical night.

Natural resources

freshwater

As of 2018, in the city area水域Area is 2217.6square kilometerIt occupies 26.1% of the total area of ​​the city. The amount of surface water resources per capita is 1Cubic meterIs.5 in lengthKilometersThere are 165 rivers and 166 lakes.The total static accumulation of groundwater is 128 billion cubic meters, and the total accumulation of surface water is 7145 billion cubic meters.[7]

森林

WuhanHousing City Rural Construction DepartmentNational Forestry BureauBy "National Garden City"[24]And "National Forest City"[25]It is specified in. As of 2016, in WuhanGreen coverageIs 39.65%, and the area of ​​parks and green spaces per person is 1.Square meterIs.Within the city limits森林The total amount of accumulation is 5.33square kilometerso,Forest rateIs 22.88%[26].

湿 地

Wetland area as of 2010 is 3358.35square kilometer,Inland cityIt is the third largest in the world and occupies 3% of the total area of ​​the city.The area of ​​natural wetlands is 39.54 square kilometers, and the area of ​​artificial wetlands is 1561.86 square kilometers.[27]

Biology

Wuhan has various animal resources.Fish with major economic valueFour major fishIsSougyo,Bluefish,MagnoliaThere are about 20 types.Aquatic birdsGeese,Stork,PelicanEtc., especiallyShubashikoIs a national class I protected animal of China.Aquatic organisms with special economic valueBaiji dolphin,Sunameli,Etc.Baiji dolphinIs a national class I protected animalSunameliIs a national class II protected animal of China.[7]

mineral

33 kinds of mineral resources have been discovered in Wuhan, with a potential economic value of over 8400 billion yuan.Among non-metal ore resourcesBentonite,Dolomite,Quartz sandstone,石膏There are many reserves such as.There are 154 mines with confirmed reserves in the city area.[7]

Administrative division

概況

The city of Wuhan is divided into the Yangtze River and the Han River, and consists of three parts: Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang (so-called "Wuhan Sanzhen").There are also suburban areas that have been incorporated into Wuhan since the 3s.

Wuhan Three Towns

HankouThe place name comes from the fact that the Han River is located at the confluence of the Yangtze River, the so-called "Han River Mouth".There used to be a city name called Hankou City, but it is no longer used as a ward name.However, as a generic place nameHankou Railway Station, Left in the names of institutions and organizations such as Hankou Bank, and is often used as a geographical noun among citizens."Hankou" in the narrow sense is derived from the former Hankou cityQiaokou District,Jiang'an District,Jianghan DistrictIn a broad sense, "Hankou" was originally a suburban area on the north side of the three wards of Hankou.Dongxihu DistrictIs also included.

HanyangWas once located on the south side of Kameyama and on the north side of the Han River,Yin Yang thoughtIt was named "Han River Yang" by.However,Formation10 years(1474), The flow path of the Han River changed from the south side of Hanyang to the north side of Kameyama, and the place of Hanyang became the south side of the Han River, but the place name "Hanyang" still exists and continues to the present day.Former Hanyang CountyCaidian DistrictAlso belongs to "Hanyang" in a broad sense.

WuchangIs said to have been named Wuchang with the intention of "Wuchang Kokusho" by Sun Quan.However, "Wuchang" at that time is nowEzhouPoint to.The name was decided in the present land of Wuchang after the Yuan dynasty."Wuchang" in the narrow senseWuchang DistrictOrQingshan DistrictHongshan DistrictRefers to the Wuchang District, including."Wuchang" in a broad sense is the former Wuchang prefectureJiangxia DistrictIs also included.

Wuhan City Map
Administrative divisionarea
(km2)
population[*1]
(Ten thousand people)
The population density
(Man/km2
Urbanization rateGDP[*2]
(XNUMX million yuan)
Administrative division numberGovernment locationstreetTownTownship
Wuhan8 569.151 076.621 25679.77%11 912.61420100No. 188, Jiang'an Road, Jiang'an District15613
Jiang'an District80.2896.1311 974100.00%960.99420102Rokugoji No. 116
Jianghan District28.2972.9525 786100.00%1 034.62420103Xinhua Road No. 25513
Qiaokou District40.0686.7121 645100.00%599.36420104Roadside Road 51811
Hanyang District111.5464.855 814100.00%867.26420105Yoshikusa Road Special No. 111
Wuchang District64.58127.4019 727100.00%971.64420106No. 307, Zhongshan Road14
Qingshan District57.1252.689 223100.00%471.09420107Linjiang Avenue No. 86810
Hongshan District573.28160.992 80885.48%834.79420111Kashiji No. 300131
Dongxihu District495.3454.111 09264.51%655.65420112Dong Wu Avenue No. 111
Hannan District287.0513.1645859.37%N/A[*3]420113Sahat Masagai No. 109 (Dongfeng 88st Road No. XNUMX)[*4]4
Caidian District1 093.1771.9965956.29%357.84420114Chionko Avenue No. 18111
Jiangxia District2 018.3189.4644352.98%681.72420115Cultural Avenue No. 9915
Huangpi District2 256.7096.7142945.52%634.93420116Huangda Road 380151
Xinzhou District1 463.4389.4861151.21%607.52420117No. 14 of Red Flag Street121
The above data is "Wuhan Statistical Yearbook 2017[4]It is the value as of 2016.
  1. ^ Permanent population, the population that has lived in the city for more than a year.The total population of the entire city and the population of each ward are the population at the end of 1.A part of the population of Donghu Ecological Tourism and Tourism Zone (2016 people) is included in Wuchang District.Hongshan District includes a part of the population of the Donghu Ecological Tourism and Development Zone (1.76 people), a part of the Donghu Ecological Tourism and Tourism Zone (33.10 people), and the population of the Wuhan Chemical Industry Zone (6.62 people).The population of Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone (4.60) is included in Caidian District.A part of the population of Donghu New Technology Development Zone (26.68) is included in Jiangxia District.
  2. ^ Data for 2016.The GDP of each ward is located within the ward, but does not include those of state-owned enterprises managed directly by the city.
  3. ^ Hannan District is economically under the jurisdiction of Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone, and the regional GDP is included in the development zone.
  4. ^ From January 2014, 1, Hannan District has been placed under consignment management in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone, and the ward people's government has been integrated with the Development Zone Management Committee.The official name of the development zone is "Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone (Hannan District)".

Chronological Table

From the enforcement of the city system to the establishment of the People's Republic of China

  • September 1926, 9-The Hubei National Policy Committee was established in Hankou, announced the "Hankou City Organization Ordinance", and decided to enforce the city system in Hankou and Hanyang prefectures.
  • October 1926, 10- Hankou CityWas launched.
  • December 1926-Enforced a city system in the city of Wuchang.Wuchang CityWas launched.
  • January 1927-Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang merged to form "Kyocho Ward"WuhanRenamed to.However, Wuhan Sanzhen has its own municipal administration management organization.
  • April 1927, 4-Wuhan Municipal Government Committee is established.Republic of ChinaIs the capital ofWuhan Special CityIs officially launched.
  • June 1929-Wuhan City is re-divided and Wuchang is incorporated into Hubei ProvinceWuchang CityNext, the city of Hankou and Hanyang prefectureHankou Special CityBecomes
  • April 1930, 4-Hubei Provincial Government and Hankou Special City hold a joint meeting and decide to incorporate Hanyang City of Hankou Special City into Hanyang County, Hubei Province.
  • May 1930, 5-Hanyang City officially incorporated into Hanyang County, Hubei Province.
  • January 1931-Hubei Provincial Government replenishes urgent finances with tax revenues from Hankou Special CityNational governmentProposed a merger with Hankou and passed.In the same year, the Wuchang Municipal Preparatory Office was established.
  • July 1931, 7-Hankou Special City was incorporated into Hubei Province, Hubei ProvinceHankou CityBecomes
  • April 1932-Hankou City separates from Hubei Province againHankou Special CityBecomes
  • 1935-Wuchang Municipal Administration is established.
  • 1936-The Hubei Provincial Government decides to separate the urban and rural areas of Wuchang and Hanyang prefectures, separating the urban areas of both prefectures.Wuchang CityReorganized into.
  • August 1945-With the end of the Sino-Japanese War, Hankou City returns to the jurisdiction of the Republic of China.
  • September 1945, 9-The government office of Hankou City is located in the current Wuhan Boys and Children's Library.
  • October 1945, 10-Hankou City is incorporated into Hubei Province.
  • October 1946, 10-The Wuchang Municipal Government was established and consists of eight townships such as Zhongzheng, Daecho Street, Linyang, Food Street, Hu Linyi, Jiyuqiao Bridge, Jinbaizhou, and Xu Jia Shelf.
  • December 1945, 12-Eight towns in Wuchang City enforced the ward system.In addition, Hanyang city was incorporated into Wuchang city.
  • February 1947- National Government Executive Yuan TheCity under direct control of HankouDecided to revive.
  • June 1947, 6-The National Government issues a cabinet order to revive the city under the direct control of Hankou.
  • August 1947, 8-Hankou City is under the direct control of the National Government Executive Yuan.HankouCity of jurisdictionbecome.

City under the direct control of Wuhan

  • October 1949, 10- People's Republic of ChinaWith the establishment ofRepublic of ChinaHankou City,Hubei ProvinceWuchang City, HubeiSeoulUrban mergerCity under the direct control of WuhanIs launched (Second merger).Busho Ward-Hozen Ward-Han dynasty-Dong'an District-Sanmin District-Zhongshan Area-Ochi Ward-Han dynasty-Lumberjack Ward-Yongqing Ward-Zhang Public District-Fuxing District-Zhongzheng District-Heping District-Hanyang Central District-Wuchang District-Wuchang District-Wuchang District-Wuchang District-Changchun Ward-Wu Tai District-Yue Ward-Choho Ward-Huiji District-Daishan CountyIs established. (25th Ward)
  • November 1949-Changchun Ward and parts of Wu Tai Ward and Yue Ward mergedHongshan DistrictWas launched. (25 wards)
  • April 1949 (12th arrondissement)
    • Zhongshan District and Ochi Ward merged,Hankou Five WardsWas launched.
    • Han Scenic Area and Heping District mergedHankou RokukuWas launched.
  • December 1950, 1 (13 wards)
    • Wuchang XNUMXst Ward, Wuchang XNUMXnd Ward, Wuchang XNUMXrd Ward, Wuchang XNUMXth Ward mergeda districtWas launched.
    • Part of Hanyang Central District is separated,Fukunari WardWas launched.
    • Zhongzheng District and Han Dynasty District mergedHankou IchikuWas launched.
    • Wusho Ward and Hozen Ward mergedHankou XNUMXnd WardWas launched.
    • A part of Dong'an District and Sanmin District merged,Hankou SankuWas launched.
    • The rest of Unbuchi Ward, Yongqing Ward and Sanmin District merged,Hankou XNUMX WardsWas launched.
    • Fuxing District and Zhang Public District mergedHankou Seven WardsWas launched.
  • July 1950-Hankou 7 Wards and Hankou XNUMX Wards mergedFour districtsWas launched. (15 wards)
  • April 1950 (11th arrondissement)
    • Hankou XNUMXst Ward and Hankou XNUMXnd Ward merged,Second DistrictWas launched.
    • Hankou XNUMX wards and Hankou XNUMX wards merged,Third DistrictWas launched.
    • Hankou Seven WardsFive districtsRenamed to.
    • Hanyang Central DistrictSix districtsRenamed to.
  • April 1951 (4th arrondissement)
    • Daishan, Huiji, and Changfeng wards merged,Seven districtsWas launched.
    • Wu Tai Ward, Yujiang Ward, Hongshan Ward merged,Eight wardsWas launched.
  • February 1951- Hubei ProvinceDaye Special ZoneWuchangPart ofQingshan DistrictWas launched. (10 wards)
  • June 1952-Qingshan District is incorporated into Wuchang District, Xiaogan District, Hubei Province. (6th ward)
  • April 1952 (7th arrondissement)
    • Two wardsQiaokou DistrictAnd the three wardsJianghan DistrictIn the XNUMXth wardJiang'an DistrictIn the seven wardsHuiji DistrictRenamed to.
    • Five wards are divided into Jianghan and Jiang'an districts.
    • Eight wards are divided,Donghu District-Nanhu DistrictWas launched.
  • August 1952-One wardWuchang DistrictIn the XNUMXth wardHanyang DistrictRenamed respectively. (9 wards)
  • March 1953-Wuchang District, Hanyang District, Jianghan District, Jiang'an District, and Qiaokou District merged.Water WardWas launched. (10 wards)
  • June 1954, 6-Incorporated into Hubei Province,Wuhan City, Hubei ProvinceBecomes

Wuhan City, Hubei Province

  • December 1955, 5 (25 wards)
    • A part of Donghu District merged with a part of Wuchang District, Xiaogan District.Hongshan DistrictWas launched.
    • The rest of Donghu District, part of Nanhu District merged with part of Xiaogan Special Zone Wuchang County,Qingshan DistrictWas launched.
    • Fukunari Ward and Huiji Ward are Xiaogan Special ZonesSeoulMerged with a part ofHanbashi WardWas launched.
  • June 1956, 6-Nanhu District is incorporated into Hongshan District. (22th ward)
  • May 1957, 5-Mizukami Ward is divided into Wuchang District, Hanyang District, Jianghan District, Jiang'an District, Qingshan District, and Qiaokou District. (13th ward)
  • March 1958, 3-Hongshan and Hanbashi wards merged,suburbsWas launched. (7 wards)
  • February 1959, 2-Xiaogan Special ZoneXiaogan Prefecture-Huangpi-Oyama prefecture-Anlu Prefecture-Yingcheng-Yunmeng County-Seoul-Han River-Chongyang County-Tongshan County-Xianning-Wuchang-Tongcheng County-Jiayu County-Chibi prefecture-Dawu CountyIncorporated. (7 wards and 16 prefectures)
  • April 1959, 4-Huangpi, Xiaogan, Hanchuan, and Hanyang prefectures merged,Dongxihu DistrictWas launched. (8 wards and 16 prefectures)
  • May 1960, 5-Tongcheng County is incorporated into Chongyang County. (26 wards and 8 prefectures)
  • May 1960, 8 (15 wards and 8 prefecture)
    • Chibi prefecture is incorporated into Xianning prefecture.
    • Jiayu County is incorporated into Wuchang County.
  • November 1960, 11-Anlu and Yunmeng merged,Anlu PrefectureWas launched. (8 wards and 12 prefectures)
  • April 1961, 4-Xiaogan County, Anlu County, Hanyang County, Tongshan County, Dawu County, Huangpi County, Hanchuan County, Yingcheng County, Xianning County, Oyama County, Chongyang County, Wuchang CountyXiaogan Special ZoneTransferred to. (8 wards)
  • February 1964, 10-Suburbs are split,Hongshan District-Hanbashi WardWas launched. (9 wards)
  • January 1976, 1-Hanbashi Ward is incorporated into Hongshan Ward. (10th ward)
  • October 1979, 12- Takashi districtSeoul,Haning districtWuchangIncorporated. (8 wards and 2 prefectures)
  • May 1983, 8 (19 wards and 8 prefecture)
  • October 1984, 2- EzhouWas transferred to Hongshan District. (8 wards and 4 prefectures)
  • April 1984, 4-Part of Hanyang County was separated,Hannan DistrictWas launched. (9 wards and 4 prefectures)
  • January 1985-Part of Hongshan District is divided into Jiang'an District, Hanyang District, Qiaokou District, and Jianghan District. (1 wards and 9 prefectures)
  • August 1987, 8-Part of Hongshan District is Ezhou CityEcheng DistrictMerged with a part of Ezhou CityHuarong DistrictWill be. (9 wards and 4 prefectures)
  • September 1992, 9-Hanyang County enforced the ward system,Caidian DistrictWill be. (10 wards and 3 prefectures)
  • March 1995, 3-Wuchang County enforced the ward system,Jiangxia DistrictWill be. (11 wards and 2 prefectures)
  • December 1998, 9 (15 wards)
  • December 2009, 4 (30 wards)
    • Part of Hongshan District was transferred to Wuchang District and Qingshan District.
    • Part of Wuchang District was transferred to Hongshan District.

Population / ethnic composition / religion

population

As of the end of 2018Resident populationIs 1089 million.Of which, the urban population is 871.87 million,Urbanization rateIs 80.04%.The family register population was 853.65, an increase of 19.8 from the previous year.Birth rateIs 15.57 ‰,mortality rateIs 11.62 ‰.Population growth rateIs 3.96 ‰.The population inflow rate is 19.78 ‰.[5]

Ethnic composition

According to the results of the 2010th Census in 6, all cities have been certified by the Chinese government.56 ethnic groupsLives in.

Of these, the Han Chinese have 969 people, accounting for 6951% of the total population, and the ethnic minority population has a total of 99.096 people, accounting for 8% of the total population.

There are 1000 ethnic groups with a population of 12 or more, of whichTujiaIs the largest with 3 people, nextHui(2 people),Zhuang(6652 people),Manchurian(5951 people),Miao(5608 people),Mongolian(4187 people),Uighurs(1674 people),Yao(1516 people),Tibetan(1437 people),Yi(1244 people),Thong(1112 people),Pui(1009 people)[29].

Wuhan City Ethnic Composition (2010)
Han people
  
99.096%
Tujia
  
0.309%
Hui
  
0.223%
Zhuang
  
0.068%
Manchurian
  
0.061%
Miao
  
0.057%
Mongolian
  
0.043%
Other
  
0.186%

Religious

In WuhanBuddhism,Taoism,Islam,Catholic church,Protestant churchFive kinds of religions are active.

There are 497 places of religious activity registered throughout the city, of which 202 are Buddhist, 163 are Taoist, 4 are Islam, 4 are Catholic churches, and 124 are Protestant churches.

Registered and certified in all citiesTeacherThe number is 748, of which 456 are Buddhist, 181 are Taoist, 50 are Catholic, 53 are Protestant, and 8 are Islam.Wuhan City Buddhist Association, Wuhan City Dokyo Association, Wuhan City Islamic Church Association, Wuhan City Catholic Church Patriotic Association, Wuhan City Catholic Church Academic Affairs Committee, Wuhan City Protestant Church Three Self-Patriotic Movement Committee, Wuhan City Protestant Religious Association, etc. There are 7 patriotic religious groups and 2 religious social groups such as Wuhan Christian Youth Association and Wuhan Christian Women's Youth Association.[29]

According to the results of a sampling survey of 2017 Wuhan citizens by researchers at South Central University for Nationalities in 6000, 79.2% of the surveyed subjects were non-religious orChinese traditional beliefBelieve in.

Of which, 0.93%TaoismBelievers, that isTaoist priestIs. 14.69%Buddhism, 2.86%Protestant church, 0.34%Catholic church, 1.27%IslamBelieve in.Also, 1.61% are other religions or unknown.In China, freedom of religion is special, and unregistered religions and unapproved religions are illegal.[30]

culture

Wuhan is a Chinese cityChuIt is one of the birthplaces of culture and has been influenced by culture from the north and south, so it is a city with diverse cultures.Peking OperaThe west skin tone, which is one of the mothers of Wuhan, is derived from the mainland drama of Wuhan.[31]Born in the border area of ​​Hubei and Anhui provincesHuangmei operaIs a popular local drama in Wuhan.

dialect

"Wuhan dialect" is spoken to residents living in the central 7 wards of Wuhan citySouthwest official talkIt is one of the.In terms of phonology, it has many characteristics in common with other dialects belonging to Southwestern Mandarin, such as Chengdu and Kunming. Compared to "Mandarin", it has the following features.

  1. KiyoneDull soundThere is no distinction between.
  2. MandarinDoes not exist inNon-rounded back tongue narrow vowel[ɯ] exists.For example, "leave" is pronounced as [kʰɯ˥˩].
  3. Nasal syllable codmIs completelynTo joinŋIs "i ([I]) ”“ E ([ə]) ”cannot be kept behind,nIs pronounced. "B ([p]) "" P ([pʰ])" "m""f"Eng ([əŋ])" after "" is pronounced as "ong ([ʊŋ])".In recent years, especially among young people, some speakers have been influenced by Putonghua and pronounce the "eng" after the "p" as "en ([ən])" instead of "ong".
  4. Gum soundss, ʦ, ʦʰSled tongueʂ,ʐ,ʈʂ, ʈʂʰThere is no distinction between.
  5. Syllable onsetnlIs pronounced close to "n" without distinction.
  6. Yinpei,Yohei,High voice,Leaving voiceTwo ofToneHas,Voice inputAll changed to Yohei. Explaining by the 5-degree formula, it is as follows.
Four tonesWuhanChengduKunmingMandarin
Yinpei˥ (55)˦ (44)˦ (44)˥ (55)
Yohei˨˩˧ (213)˦˩ (41)˧˩ (31)˧˥ (35)
High voice˦˨ (42)˥˨ (52)˥˧ (53)˨˩˦ (214)
Leaving voice˧˥ (35)13)˨˩˨ (212)˥˩ (51)

Source: Li Rong (1998) Jiangsu Education Publishing Co., Ltd. "Modern Chinese Dialect Dictionary / Wuhan Dialect Dictionary Volume"

Chinese drama

Chinese drama is traditional in Wuhan districtDramaAnd it is one of the mothers of Peking Opera[31]..It is also called Chu-style or Han-style.The name "Kandeki" was decided during the Republic of China, and in 2006Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of ChinaWas designated as a national intangible cultural heritage.

The roles are divided into 10 types such as Sue, Jyo, Nama, Dan, Ox, Outside, Small, Paste, Husband, and Miscellaneous.When singing, in addition to Nishihide and Nihuang, Rara cavities are often used.Musical instruments are huqin, yueqin,Sanxian, Drums, etc. are used.[32]Currently, the theater company that directs Chinese drama has the Wuhan Chinese Opera Theater in the city.

Cuisine

Cooking in HubeiThere are large regional differences, but around Wuhan CityCuisineIs called Wuhan greens or Wuhan greens, and has the characteristics of the cuisine of each province in and around Hubei province.For salty dishespepperIn some cases, it works well.There are many restaurants that serve dishes from other regions, especially "点心"Or"snackThere are a wide variety of light foods called ", but each specialty store offers them.In addition, many of them are suitable for breakfast and are called the "Breakfast City".Also, because there are many rivers and lakes,Freshwater fishCooking using is developing.Steamed fish found all over China,Boiled fish,Fried chickenBesides, it is made of freshwater fishKamaboko,Fish somen, Can also be eaten well.

The most famous "Xiaochi" in Wuhan is "Hot dry noodles".Hot dry noodles are a popular breakfast for locals and are one of the 10 most popular noodle dishes in China.Add seasonings such as salt, paprika, soy sauce, vinegar, sugar, sesame sauce, and green onions to the well-cooked noodles and mix well to complete.[33]In addition, the most famous dish is "Steamed" ("Steamed" is "Steamed fish", "Steamed meat" and "Steamed vegetables" respectively). It's a healthy dish that goes well with.As the name suggests, there are three steamed dishes in a place called "Xiantao".[34]

Economy

Wuhan has been remarkably industrialized in recent years.Huazhong regionIt is the largest industrial and commercial city. 2017 city-wideGDPIs 1 millionCNYIt increased by 8.0% from the previous year.

home,Primary industryIs 408 million yuan,Secondary industryIs 5861 million yuan,Tertiary industryIs 7140 million yuan, and their composition ratios are 7900%, 3.04%, and 43.71%, respectively.[5][35]GDP per capita in 2017, calculated based on the resident population, was 12 yuan, an increase of 3111% from the previous year.

Along with the rapid industrialization, air pollution problems and warming problems have also arisen.[5]

Wuhan City Gross Domestic Product for each year
calendar yearthe amount
(XNUMX million yuan)
Primary industry
(XNUMX million yuan)
Secondary industry
(XNUMX million yuan)
Tertiary industry
(XNUMX million yuan)
GDP per capita
(CNY)
19493.280.840.791.65118
19504.070.921.012.14141
19558.821.273.374.18240
196019.761.4912.655.62441
196519.872.7911.845.24436
197024.713.1215.246.35515
197530.514.1118.907.50598
198053.445.8434.5313.07950
198597.3212.4859.2125.631 610
1990176.8327.5092.0457.292 673
1995606.9160.74294.67251.508 609
20001 206.8481.36533.31592.1715 082
20011 335.4085.00582.40668.0016 515
20021 467.8090.40635.50741.9017 971
20031 622.1895.13701.87825.1819 569
20041 882.24102.23825.78954.2323 148
20052 261.17109.571 026.271 125.3326 548
20062 679.33115.911 205.421 358.0030 921
20073 209.47129.151 440.001 640.3236 347
20084 115.511 44.701 867.212 103.6046 035
20094 620.86149.062 142.142 329.6651 144
20105 565.93170.042 532.822 863.0758 961
20116 762.20198.703 254.023 309.4868 315
20128 003.82301.213 859.563 843.0579 482
20139 051.27335.404 396.174 319.7089 000
201410 069.48350.064 785.664 933.7698 000
201510 905.60359.814 981.545 564.25104 132
201611 912.61390.625 227.056 294.94111 469
201713 410.34408.205 861.357 140.79123 111

Source 1: 1949-2016-Wuhan City Statistics Bureau "Wuhan City Statistical Yearbook 2017", pp. 28, 29 ISBN 978-7-5037-8197-1
Source 2: 2017-Wuhan Municipal People's Government "2017 Wuhan National Economic and Social Development Statistics Bulletin"

  • The above data is denominated in RMB.
  • Data before 1955 is converted to the value of the second generation RMB issued in March 1955.
  • The figures for 2001-2008 have been revised according to the national census standards.
  • GDP per capita since 2000 is due to the resident population.
  • The classification of industry is "National Economic Business Classification" (GB / T4754-2017)[36], "Tertiary Industry Partition Regulations (2012)" (National Character [2012] No. 108)[37]And 2018 revised version (National Administration Box [2018] No. 74)[38]by.

Primary industry

The vastness of the Yangtze RiverAlluvial plainUsedAgriculture:And many riversLakebyFishery:Is also popular. Special productsLotus root,and so on.Wuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketIs the largest market in China.

Secondary industry

Wuhan is an important industrial base in China,Steel industry,Automobile manufacturing,Optoelectronic industry,Chemical industry,Metallurgy industry,Spinning industry,Shipbuilding,Manufacturing industry,Pharmaceutical industryHas a complete industrial system, such asWuhan Iron and Steel,Dongfeng Motor,China Shipbuilding Industry CorporationThere are large manufacturing companies and factories such as Wuchang Shipyard.

The total amount of industrial production in 2017 was 4724 million yuan, and there are 8700 industrial enterprises larger than the size at the end of the year. In 2555, there were 2017 high-tech enterprises in the city, and the total production of high-tech enterprises over the scale of the whole year was 2827 million yuan, up 2670% from the previous year.[5]

As of the end of 2016, the total value added to the construction industry was 997 million yuan, an increase of 5900% from the same period.[39]

Production volume and growth rate of major industrial products in 2017[5]
indexUnit of measure2017Year-on-year (%)
pig ironXNUMX tons1 554.604.4
steelXNUMX tons1 694.618.3
AutomobileWantai189.788.0
#sedanWantai113.956.9
CigaretteTen thousand boxes253.183.7
crudeProcessing capacityXNUMX tons792.7217.2
Power generationthe amountBillion kWh228.824.6
Papermaking and paperboard manufacturing
(Excluding secondary processing)
XNUMX tons68.11-6.4%
Indoor air conditioning equipmentWantai1 746.0544.7
yarnXNUMX tons3.932.6
clothXNUMX meters5 495.59-30.0%
clothingAll clothes8 302.928.6
Soft drinkXNUMX tons371.7615.4
monitorWantai1 347.5814.5
chemicalsdrug substanceT1 77321.1
ethyleneXNUMX tons86.7018.9
Optical cableXNUMX meters6 699.5720.8
concreteXNUMX tons1 033.38-3.5%
Mobile phoneWantai4 179.69-14.8%
Electronic general-purpose computerWantai1 279.7552.3

Industrial park

Wuhan's industrial enterprises are almost a little far from the cityNational Economic and Technological Development ZonePlaced in.Heavy industries such as automobile manufacturingHanyang DistrictAre gathered in.Also,Wuchang District OfEast LakeWuhan East Lake New Technology Industrial Development Zone was established on the south side ofOptical fiberManufacturing plant andIT outsourcingIndustry etc. are gathered. According to the JETRO Wuhan Office, as of 2019, there are about 460 Japanese people stationed in the city, and about 500 to 600 people including long-term business travelers and international students.

  • National Economic and Technological Development Zone (3)
    • Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone[40]: Mainly in the automobile industry, also known as the "Chinese automobile capital".Honda Motor Co., Ltd.,Nissan Motor,Showa,TS tech,Nihon Tokushu ToryoMajor Japanese manufacturing companies are also expanding.
    • Wuhan East Lake New Technology Industrial Development Zone[41]: Also known as "China Kotani", the main industries are high-tech industries such as optoelectronics, pharmaceutical R & D / manufacturing, and biotechnology, and the production scale of optical fibers and cables is particularly large.NEC,PanasonicJapanese companies are also expanding.
    • Wuhan Lin Airport Economic and Technological Development Zone[42]: Adjacent to Wuhan Tianhe International Airport, the main industries are airplane repair / maintenance, aviation service, and aviation logistics / transportation.
  • Provincial Economic Development Zone (13)
    • Wuhan Wujiashan Residential Investment Zone
    • Wuhan Yangluo Economic Development Zone[43]
    • Wuhan Jianghan Economic Development Zone[44]
    • Wuhan Hongshan Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Caidian Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Jiangxia Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Hannan Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Wuchang Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Hanyang Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Qiaokou Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Jiang'an Economic Development Zone[45]
    • Wuhan Panlong Economic Development Zone
    • Wuhan Aoyama Economic Development Zone

Tertiary industry

Wuhan City's commerce湖南-Jiangxi-Anhui-HenanHas an influence over the entire Central China area, includingCentral China districtIt is one of the largest wholesale markets.Major local department stores in Wuhan such as Wuhan Wuhan Group Co., Ltd., Wuhan Hanshang Group Co., Ltd., Wuhan Hanshang Group Co., Ltd., Wuhan City Hanshang Group Co., Ltd. are influential.others,Carrefour,IKEA,Metro,Walmart,ion(5 stores),Nitori,LawsonMajor foreign-affiliated retailers are also opening stores in the city.

The total retail value of all social consumer goods in 2017 was 6196 million yuan, an increase of 3000% from the previous year.By industry, wholesale / retail sales amounted to 10.4 million yuan, and accommodation / restaurant sales amounted to 5605 million yuan.[5]

Main commercial areas

As mentioned above, the center of Wuhan is divided into three areas, Hankou, Hanyang and Wuchang, by the Han River and the Yangtze River, and each area has its own commercial area.

Main commercial area in central Wuhan
RegionTrade area nameRange of trade areaRemarks
HankouJianghan Road Trade AreaFocusing on Jianghan Road Pedestrian Road, including Jianghan XNUMXst Road, Jianghan XNUMXnd Road, Zhongshan Road, Hanaro Street, Hosei Road, etc.
Wuhan Square Trade AreaCentering on Wuhan Plaza and Wuhan International Plaza, including Wuhan Avenue, Wuhan Road, Wuhan West Road, Liberation Road, Wansongyuan Road, Wuhan Road, Risa North Road, etc.
Hanzheng Street Commercial AreaFocusing on Hansho Street Small Merchandise Market, including Toshitada Road, Tafuku Road, Hanchang Street, Daegu Street, Friendship South Road, Riverside Road, Ethnic Road, etc.The oldest commercial area in Hankou, which originated in the Ming Dynasty
Kara family trade areaCentering on Ryokakuko Mandatsu Plaza, including Ryokakuko Road, Tangjia Road, Xinhua Road, Baba Kaku Road, Youth Road, etc.
Wuhan Tenchi Commercial AreaFocusing on Wuhan heaven and earth pedestrian paradise and Ichikata shopping center, including Huangpo main street, Zhongshan main road, liberation road, along river road, Amizobashi road, etc.
HanyangBell Village Trade AreaFocusing on department stores such as Causeway Bay Plaza, Hanyang Shopping Mall, and Hanyang Ginza at the intersection of Yuan Avenue and Hanyang Avenue, including West Main Street and Jinjiang Road.
Royal Bay Trade AreaMainly on department stores such as Carrefour Royal Bay Store and Grand Ocean Department Store Royal Bay Store at the intersection of Longyang Avenue and Hanyang Avenue, including Sumisuihu North Road
Business areaNingkangyuan Shopping Street near the residential complex in the National Economic and Technological Development Zone and Keikai Wanda Plaza, including Dongfeng Avenue, Taishi Lake Road, Physical Education Road, etc.
WuchangCentral South Road Trade AreaOn Wukong Road and Central South RoadJunctionCentering on the nearby Central South Commercial Tower, including Central South Road, Wuqiao Road, Hongshan Square area, etc.
Highway exit trade areaOf the martial arts and the lionscrossroadsFocusing on the nearby Gunko Plaza, Gintai Innovation City, etc., including Takeshi Road, Koshi Road, Kakoyama Road, etc.
Guanggu ShangquanFocusing on Mitsuya International Plaza, Luyi Plaza Shopping Center, Mitsuya World Street Pedestrian Paradise, etc., including Metaphor Road, Lu Ma Road, Tiger Spring Street, Folk Road, Mitsuya Street, etc.
Simenkou trade areaIt was called "Long Street" in the Southern Song Dynasty, and its current name is Ming Dynasty.Chengxuan BuzongBossgateDerived from being in the vicinity of.Near the Yellow Crane TowerRed light districtIncluding Liberation Road, Democratic Road, Hubu Xiang Eating and Drinking Area, Chinese Road, etc.Wuchang's oldest commercial area with a history of 800 years, which originated in the Southern Song Dynasty
Middle North Road Trade AreaMadame Tussauds Wuhan, HANSHOW Theater, Manda Movie Paradise, etc., centering on the pedestrian paradise of Sohe Han Street, including Zhongbei Road, Shochiku Road, Fair Road, So Han Road, Shirasagi Street, Donghu Road, etc.
Xu Dong trade areaCentered around Star City (Gunsei Castle), where the shopping mall at the crossroads of Xudong Main Street and Friendship Avenue, Zhongxing Xudong Heiyuan Plaza and Nitori's first store in mainland China are located, Hongsheng Road, Unity Avenue, Xudong Including mainland, shopping mall, etc.
  • In addition to the city center, there are small shopping streets and commercial areas in each suburban area.

Military

The troops stationed in WuhanPLA Central Theater CommandBelongs to and supervises the division belonging to the Air Force Wuhan Base.Also,CPC Central Military CommissionThe PLA Wuhan Union Service Security Base, which is under the direct control of the PLA and is in charge of logistical support for the Five Great War Zones (Wuxi, Guilin, Xining, Shenyang, Zhengzhou), is located in Wuhan.[46].

Education

Hubei Province, centered on Wuhan City, has long emphasized education and has produced a large number of human resources, so it is evaluated as "Chu Chu". As of 2017, there are 1391 kindergartens in the city, and the number of enrolled children is 30.2.There are 968 elementary, junior high and high schools (including 367 junior and senior high schools and 601 elementary schools), and the number of enrolled students is 85.1 (of which 31.6 are junior high and high school students and 53.5 are elementary school students). There are 105 schools, and the number of enrolled students is 8.4%. As of 2016, there are 84 national and public universities and private universities, and the number of enrolled students is 107.5 million (the number of university students is 94.8 and the number of graduate students is 12.7).[5]

Kindergarten

In February 1904, China's first public early childhood education facility "Hubei Kindergarten" in Wuchang officially opened.Michie TonoWas appointed as the director.The Hubei Kindergarten Opening Code, which was created based on Japan's "Kindergarten Childcare and Equipment Regulations" (established in 1899), became the forerunner of the official infant and girls education system in China.

primary school

Junior high school

Special education school

  • Wuhan Huangpi District Special Education School
  • Wuchang District, Wuhan City
  • Wuhan Zhongshan Special Education School
  • Wuhan City First Deaf School
  • Wuhan City Jiangxia District Special Education School
  • Jiang'an District, Wuhan City Reading School
  • Wuhan City Blind School
  • Wuhan City Second Deaf School
  • Wuhan Xinzhou Special Education School

high school

As of September 2017, among high schools in the whole city, "Hubei Province ExampleHigh schoolThere are 34 schools designated as below[47].

school nameAffiliationCabinet Order Designated as a Priority SchoolYear of school
No.XNUMX Middle School Affiliated with Huazhong Normal UniversityPeople's Republic of China
Ministry of Education
Masanori 鄂 [1998] No. 0091950
Hua Chugaku University Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2011] No. 51954
Hubei Provincial Water Fruit Lake Luxury Junior High SchoolHubei ProvinceEducation AgencyMasanori 鄂 [1998] No. 0091958
Hubei University Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2010] No. 41957
Wuhan Foreign Language SchoolWuhan City Education BureauMasanori 鄂 [2001] No. 191964
Wuhan Nishizo Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2010] No. 42006
Wuhan Changqing Daiichi Junior High SchoolUnknown1999
Wuhan City Second Junior High SchoolJiang'an DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2000] No. 0091939
Wuhan City No. XNUMX Middle SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2000] No. 0091903
Wuhan Hantie High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2006] No. 41947
Wuhan Yucai High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2009] No. 31915
Wuhan City Daiichi Junior High SchoolJianghan DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2001] No. 191931
Wuhan XNUMXth Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2004] No. 31954
Wuhan City XNUMXth Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2012] No. 21911
Wuhan City Fourth Junior High SchoolQiaokou DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2000] No. 0091899
Wuhan City XNUMXth Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2000] No. 0091954
Wuhan City XNUMXth Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2005] No. 31936
Wuhan City Third Junior High SchoolHanyang DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2003] No. 11705
Wuhan City XNUMXrd Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2006] No. 41896
Hubei Wuchang Experimental Junior High SchoolWuchang DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [1998] No. 0091920
Wuhan Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2001] No. 191920
Wuhan City XNUMXth Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2004] No. 31903
Wuhan City XNUMXth Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2006] No. 41885
Wuhan City Donghu Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2006] No. 41964
Wuhan City XNUMXth Junior High SchoolQingshan DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2001] No. 191957
Wuhan Iron and Steel Group Third Child Junior High SchoolMasanori 鄂 [2003] No. 61958
Wuhan Hongshan High SchoolHongshan DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2004] No. 31964
Wuhan Wujiashan Junior High SchoolDongxihu DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2000] No. 0091959
First Junior High School, Hannan District, Wuhan CityHannan DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2005] No. 31971
First Junior High School in Caidian District, Wuhan CityCaidian DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2004] No. 31901
Wuhan City Jiangxia District Daiichi Junior High SchoolJiangxia DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2004] No. 31947
Wuhan City Xinzhou District Daiichi Junior High SchoolXinzhou DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2001] No. 191949
Wuhan City Huangpi District Daiichi Junior High SchoolHuangpi DistrictEducation bureauMasanori 鄂 [2003] No. 61933
Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone Daiichi Junior High SchoolWuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone
(Hannan District) Education Bureau
Masanori 鄂 [2006] No. 41996

University

As of 2016, Wuhan has 8 national universities, 23 other public universities, 23 private universities, and 89 including junior colleges. As of 2016, the number of students at universities and junior colleges is 94.9, and the number of graduate students is 11.5, for a total of 106.4 million.GuangzhouIt is second only to China.

National university

Provincial / Municipal University

Military college

  • PLA Naval University of Technology
  • Chinese People's Liberation Army Second Artillery Command Academy
  • PLA Academy of National Defense
  • PLA Military Economics Academy
  • People's Liberation Army Air Force Preliminary Police Academy
  • People's Armed Police of China Wuhan Command Academy
  • PLA Wuhan Military Officer School

Independent Institute

  • Hubei University Chiyuki Gakuin
  • Wuhan University of Technology Shiroichi Gakuin
  • Hubei Institute of Technology Process Technology Academy
  • Wuhan Institute of Technology Post and Information Engineering Academy
  • School of Arts and Sciences, Jianghan University
  • Wuhan Spinning University Foreign Economics and Trade Academy
  • College of Law and Business of Economics, Hubei
  • Wuhan Physical Education Academy Physical Education Technology Academy

Major private universities

  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
  • Bunka Gakuin
  • Hankou University
  • Wuhan Academy
  • Business and Trade College
  • Wuhan Industrial and Commercial Academy
  • Wuhan Donghu Academy
  • Wuchang Institute of Technology
  • Wuchang Institute of Technology
  • Wuhan Biology Engineering Academy
  • Wuhan Design Process Academy
  • Wuhan University of Engineering and Technology
  • Wuhan Central China Normal University
  • Wuhan Harukawa Gakuin
  • Wuhan University of Science and Technology

Transportation

Wuhan is called "Kyushu-dori" because water and land transportation have been developed since ancient times.The current WuhanYangtze RiverKyohiro LineAt the intersection of, it is one of the largest transportation centers in inland China. In 1, the total city passenger transport volume was 2017 million, of which rail transport volume was 2, road transport volume was 9950 million, and air transport volume was 3000 million. As of the end of 1, the number of automobiles owned was 8074 million, an increase of 3000 from the previous year.In addition to private cars, transportation in the cityTaxi,Transit Bus,trolley bus,BRT,subway,Tram,ferry,Rental BikeEtc. are also maintained.In particular, the city has promoted the use of public transportation for many years, and as of the end of 2017, the total operating kilometers of the subway was 237.KilometersThe total number of users is 9.[5]As of 2016, the total number of route bus (including trolleybus) users was 14, and the total number of ferries was 7387.[4][39].

aviation

Wuhan City used to have Nanhu Airport in Wuchang and at HankouRoyal AirportHowever, as the city expanded, the airport grounds were included in the city, and the opening of the new airport forced it to close.The airport that currently operates regular flights is Wuhan Tianhe International Airport.

Wuhan Tianhe International Airport

Wuhan Tianhe International Airport Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC)One of the eight major regional central airports nationwide designated by[48], Open to the outside world class I port of entry, an alternative airport for international flights[49].

  • Opening of port: April 1995, 4
  • Number of air passengers: 2312.94 (2017), of which 262.6 thousand are international passengers (2017).[50]
  • Air cargo handling volume: 18.5 tons (2017).[50]
  • Regular international flights to Japan operate from Tokyo (Narita), Chubu, Osaka (Kansai), Shizuoka, and Fukuoka.
  • Taketaka Intercity Rail to and from the citySubway Line 2It is connected by an airport bus or the like.

Wuhan Hannan Public Airfield

Wuhan Hannan Public Airfield is located in the public aviation and satellite industrial park in the southern part of Hannan District, and is one of the largest public airfields in Hubei Province or Huazhong region.There is one runway and the length is 1Meters, 30 meters wide.In the future, in addition to extending and remodeling the existing runway to 2400 meters, we are planning to expand the runway No. 2400 with a length of 2 meters to aim for one of the largest public airfields in Asia.[51]

Train

Wuhan is an important center of China's high-speed rail network, China's four major railway centers and six major railway passenger transportation centers.[52]It is also one of the four major locomotive repair and maintenance bases.Beijing Port Passenger LineShanghai-Wuhan Passenger LineCrossed in Wuhan, and the number of passengers getting on and off the railway in 2017 was 1.[5]..It also has jurisdiction over most of Hubei and southern Henan railways.China Railway CompanyWuhan Bureau Group Co., Ltd.Headquarters is located in the city.

A very large special station in the city areaHankou Railway Station(Common to conventional lines and high-speed railways),Wuchang Station(Common to conventional lines and high-speed railways),Wuhan StationThere are 3 stations (for high-speed rail only).

Long-distance main railway

Intercity rail

In addition to the above long-distance railways, there are also intercity railways that run within the Wuhan metropolitan area.

  • Wuxian Intercity Railway (Wuchang Station-Xianningnan Station)
  • Wuhan Intercity Railway (Wuhan Station-Daiji Kita Station)
  • Takeoka Intercity Railway (Wuhan Station-Yellow Oka East Station)
  • Filial Piety Intercity Rail (Hankou Station- BSicon FLUGg.svgTianhe Airport Station-Xiaogan East Station)

highway

National road(G)

National highway(G)

Provincial Expressway (S)

  • Hubei Expwy S1 sign no name.svgIeyama Expressway (S1): Ieyama --Huangpi
  • Hubei Expwy S2 sign no name.svgHanxiao Expressway (S2): Wuhan City-Xiaogan City
  • Hubei Expwy S3 sign no name.svgWuhan Expressway (S3): Wuhan City-Macheng City
  • Hubei Expwy S7 sign no name.svgWuhan Expressway (S7): Wuhan City-Ezhou City
  • Hubei Expwy S8 sign no name.svgSeki Leopard Expressway (S8): Sekiyama-Leopard Leopard
  • Hubei Expwy S9 sign no name.svgWuhan Expressway (S9): Wuhan City-Yangxin County
  • Hubei Expwy S11 sign no name.svgQing Chung Expressway (S11): Qing Ryo --Chung Store
  • Hubei Expwy S12 sign no name.svgQing Chung Expressway (S11): Wuhan City-Jiayu County
  • Hubei Expwy S13 sign no name.svgWuhan Expressway (S13): Wuhan City-Jianli County
  • Hubei Expwy S15 sign no name.svgHanyang Expressway (S15): Hanyang District-Caidian District
  • Hubei Expwy S17 sign no name.svgFilial Piety Expressway (S17): Qiaokou District, Wuhan City-Xiaonan District, Xiaogan City
  • Hubei Expwy S18 sign no name.svgWuhan Tianhe Airport Expressway (S18):BSicon FLUGg.svgWuhan Tianhe International Airport --Wuhan city
  • Hubei Expwy S19 sign no name.svgWuhan Tianhe Airport Highway Second Passage (S19):BSicon FLUGg.svgWuhan Tianhe International Airport --Wuhan city
  • Hubei Expwy S40 sign no name.svgWuhan Four Ring Expressway (S40): Ring Road

Water transportation

Wuhan City is located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and has prospered as a base for inland water transportation since ancient times.Manage the water transport of the Yangtze RiverMinistry of CommunicationsThe headquarters of the Changjiang National Shipping Administration and China Changjiang National Shipping (Group) are located in Wuhan.

  • Passenger transport: along the Yangtze RiverChongqing,Yichang,Anqing,Nanjing,ShanghaiAlthough there were routes to and from cities such as, all regular passenger flights were abolished from October 2001, 10.The ferry terminal of Wuhan Passenger Port is currently remodeled into the new Wuhan Science and Technology Museum[53].
  • Freight transportation: In 2010, centered on Wuhan Port and surrounding areasEzhou,Huangoka,XianningThere is a new port in Wuhan, which is a combination of some of the ports in Wuhan.Wuhan New Port consists of the Yangluo Port area and 10 port entrance work areas such as Lin Shibo, Karajiwatari, Wuhan, North Lake, Baihushan, Kuzuten, and Mie. Container transportation volume in 2017 was 135.56TEUIt reached the number one in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, up 20.24% from the previous year.In particular, the transportation volume of automobiles is 1 units, which is the third largest in Japan after Shanghai and Guangzhou.[54]

Route bus / trolley bus

Wuhan City's public buses are operated by the public company Wuhan Public Transportation Group Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries. As of April 2014, there are 4 routes, and the total length of the routes is 330.KilometersHas been reached.There are 6993 buses, including trolley buses, and there are 63 bus terminals.[55]

Most of the bus systems that operate in the cityOne-man drivingIs.Most of them operate at a flat fare, and most of them are 2 yuan. If you use the IC card Wuhan-dori, there is a 1% or 2% discount service, which is cheaper than cash payment, so it is often used by locals.Also, as of August 2017AlipayOnline payment facilities are installed on all buses.In addition, as a measure to promote the use of public transportation, you can change buses up to 90 times within 3 minutes with an IC card.Transfer discount policy, And in some cases, it may be discounted by 3% or 4%.In addition, elderly people aged 65 and over can use the Respect for the Aged Card, which is used up to 730 times a year, and persons with disabilities and active military personnel who use the IC card for persons with disabilities can board the public bus for free.[56]

subway

As of April 2018, Wuhan Jitetsu Group Co., Ltd. (Wuhan Metro Group) operates the following seven routes.

Tram

The Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone and the Wuhan East Lake New Technology Industry Development Zone operate the following three trams.

2017It is the first tram line in the Huazhong region that opened on July 7, and the entire section is located in the Wuhan National Economic and Technological Development Zone.The operator is Wuhan Automobile Transport Co., Ltd., and the number of kilometers operated is 28.Kilometers, The number of stations is 22.[57]

The entire section is located in the Wuhan East Lake New Technology Industrial Development Zone.The operator is Wuhan Kotsuya Transportation Construction Co., Ltd., which operates 12.5 kilometers and has 17 stations. Primary test run on January 2018, 1, secondary test run on April 18, 1.[58]

The entire section is located in the Wuhan East Lake New Technology Industrial Development Zone.The operator is Wuhan Kotsuya Transportation Construction Co., Ltd., which operates 19.2 kilometers and has 25 stations. Primary test run on January 2018, 1, secondary test run on April 18, 1.[58]

Crossing traffic in the city

The city of Wuhan is divided into the Han River and the Yangtze River, but many people have crossed the river for a long time.1909Until the opening of the first ferry in Wuhan, wooden construction was used as a means of crossing the river.sailboatHowever, it was very dangerous and inconvenient because it was easily affected by the weather.1957May 10ToWuhan Yangtze River BridgeSince the construction of the river, the means of traveling to the river have gradually diversified.

ferry

Wuhan Ferry Company, a subsidiary of Wuhan Public Transportation Group Co., Ltd., operates the following round-trip ferry flights between Hankou-Wuchang and Hanyang-Wuchang.[59].

In Qingshan District

  • Route 3: Aoyama Wharf ⇔ Tenkosu Wharf

Wuchang-Hankou

  • Route 1: Zhonghua Road Wharf ⇔ Wuhan Seki Wharf
  • Midnight route: Zhonghua Road Wharf ⇔ Wuhan Seki Wharf
  • Good order 1st route: Zhonghua Road Wharf ⇔ Wuhan Seki Wharf
  • Shuhan Special Line: Hanyang Gate Wharf ⇔ Shuya Beak Wharf
  • Good order 2nd route: Hanyangmen Wharf ⇔ Shuya Beak Wharf
  • Good order 2nd route (extension line): Hanyangmen Wharf ⇔ Qiaokou Wharf
  • Route 4: Soya Wharf ⇔ Royal Wharf
  • Route 5: Moon Ryowan Wharf ⇔ Royal Wharf

Wuchang-Hanyang

  • Route 10: Yellow Crane Tower Wharf ⇔ Harukawa Wharf
  • Dayu Myth Park Line: Yellow Crane Tower Wharf ⇔ Harukawa Wharf

Sightseeing flight along the river (between the three towns)

  • Gang Nada (Band) Route: Zhonghua Road Wharf → Hanyang Gate Wharf → Harukawa Wharf → Wuhan Seki Wharf (round-trip flight, 40 yuan / one way)

Fare

  • Regular flight (until 20:10) --1.5 yuan
  • Night flight (20:10-0:00)-5 yuan
  • 1 discount when using Wuhan Dori, but no discount for night flights

Bridge

Many bridges are built because rivers such as the Han River and Fuhe flow into the Yangtze River in Wuhan City and lakes are scattered. Also known as the "City of Bridges".The bridges that cross the Han and Yangtze rivers are listed below.

NameCrossing riverboth endsConstructionLengthOpening dateUse
Wuhan Yangtze River BridgeYangtze RiverHanyang KameyamaWuchang Snake MountainTruss bridge1670 m1957/10/15Railway road combined bridge
Wuhan Yangtze River FutabaYangtze RiverHankou Huangpu Main StreetWuchang Xu Dong Main StreetCable-stayed bridge4407.6 m1995/6/18Road bridge
Wuhan Baishazhou Yangtze River BridgeYangtze RiverHanyang District Gangnam HighwayHongshan District Qingling HighwayCable-stayed bridge3586.38 m2000/9/8Road bridge
Wuhan Army Mountain Changjiang BridgeYangtze RiverCaidian District Junshan HighwayJiangxia District Kinsui HighwayCable-stayed bridge4881.18 m2001/12/15Road bridge
Yangluo Yangtze River BridgeYangtze RiverXinzhou Yangluo HighwayHongshan District JianshexiangCable-stayed bridge約 10 km2007/12/26Road bridge
Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River BridgeYangtze RiverJiang'an District Chenjiaji Iso KaidoQingshan District Honggangcheng HighwayCable-stayed bridge4657 m2009/12/26Railway road combined bridge
Wuhan XNUMXth Changjiang River BridgeYangtze RiverHankou Development RoadWuchang Peace AvenueCable-stayed bridge6507 m2011/12/31Road bridge
Wuhan Yangtze Changjiang BridgeYangtze RiverHanyang DistrictWuchang Reconstruction Roadsuspension bridge3420 m2014/12/28Road bridge
Wuhan Yangtze River Public Road OhashiYangtze RiverHanyang SeoulGongjiapu, Jiangxia DistrictCable-stayed bridge8583 m2017/12/18Road bridge
Wuhan Yangtze Port Changjiang BridgeYangtze RiverHanyang National Expo OverpassWuchang Yatsudan Overpasssuspension bridge4320 mUnder construction, scheduled for September 2019Two-story passage bridge
Wuhan Aoyama Changjiang BridgeYangtze RiverHuangpi District Wuhu HighwayHongshan District JianshexiangCable-stayed bridge7494 mUnder construction, scheduled for 2019Road bridge
Beijing-Guangzhou Hangang Railway BridgeHan RiverHankou Railway Bridge RoadHanyang Kotodai AvenueTruss bridge300.6 m1955/1/1Railway bridge
Jianghan BridgeHan RiverHankou Takekatsu RoadHanyang ZhongjiacunArch bridge322.37 m1956/1/1Road bridge
Zhiyin BridgeHan RiverHankou SosekiHanyang Guo IbarakiArch bridge566.2 m1978/4/25Road bridge
Yuehu BridgeHan RiverHankou Qiaokou RoadHanyang Jiangcheng AvenueCable-stayed bridge1570 m1998/5/1Road bridge
Qingchuan BridgeHan RiverHankou Shuya BeakHanyang South BankArch bridge989.75 m2001/7/20Road bridge
Wuhan Jingzhu Line Hangang BridgeHan RiverJingzhu Expressway K142 + 127Jingzhu Expressway K144 + 330Arch bridge1607 m2001/9Road bridge
Nagatoyo BridgeHan RiverHankou Rudder ExitHanyang Golden MouthArch bridge1146 m2001Road bridge
Furuta BridgeHan RiverHankou Gutian XNUMXnd RoadHanyang Senjoshan Roadsuspension bridge1834.79 m2015/2/16Road bridge
Amizade BridgeHan RiverHui'an Avenue, Dongxihu DistrictCaidian District Chionko AvenueCable-stayed bridge4391 m2015/11/9Road bridge
Ganghan Seven BridgesHan RiverHankou Gutian XNUMXth RoadHanyang Yulong RoadArch bridge2753.89 mUnder construction, scheduled for 2020Road bridge

tunnel

Besides the bridge, there is also a tunnel that goes through the bottom of the Han River and the Yangtze River.The Wuhan Yangtze River Tunnel is China's first tunnel across the bottom of the Yangtze River.

Nameriverboth endsLengthOpening dateUse
Wuhan Yangtze River TunnelYangtze RiverHankou Dazhi RoadWuchang Friendship Avenue3630 m2008/12/28Road tunnel
Wuhan Subway Line 2 Changjiang TunnelYangtze RiverHankouJianghan Road StationWuchang3098 m2012/12/28Railroad tunnel
Wuhan Subway Line 4 Changjiang TunnelYangtze RiverHanyangWuchang3000 m2014/12/28Railroad tunnel
Wuhan Subway Line 3 Hangang TunnelHan RiverHankouZongguan StationHanyang2331 m2015/12/28Railroad tunnel
Wuhan Subway Line 6 Hangang TunnelHan RiverHankouHanyang1704 m2016/12/28Railroad tunnel
Wuhan Subway Line 8 Changjiang TunnelYangtze RiverHankouHuangpu Road StationWuchang3186 m2017/12/26Railroad tunnel
Wuhan Sanyang Road Yangtze TunnelYangtze RiverHankou Sanyang RoadWuchang Xu Family Shelf4650 mUnder construction, scheduled for 2018Railway road combined tunnel

Rental bicycle

  • MunicipalRental BikeThe service is operated by Wuhan Environmental Investment Public Bicycle Service Co., Ltd. The number of daily users has exceeded 1. Operation suspended from midnight on November 30, 2017[60].
  • Privately ownedMobike,Ofo, Hellobike and other rental bicycle operators are expanding into Wuhan. On September 2017, 9, the Wuhan City Transportation Commission, the City Administration Commission and the Transportation Administration Bureau banned the expansion of rental cycle input.[61].. As of September 2017, the number of units in operation reached about 9.[61].. The world's largest bicycle sharing company on April 2018, 4Mobile bikeWuhan ranked second in China after Tianjin, and the annual carbon dioxide reduction amount reached 1 kg according to the "Annual carbon dioxide reduction amount per capita ranking 2017 by using the global city rental cycle" announced by[62][63][64][65].

Sports

  • In Wuhan City, several large sports facilities will be developed.The main sports facilities areWuhan Sports Center, Hubei Olympic Sports Center, Mitsuya Gymnasium,Xinhua Road Sports Center, Tokoko Gymnasium, Hankou Cultural Sports Center, Hongshan Gymnasium, Wuhan Gymnasium, Mitsuya International Tennis Center, etc.
  • 2019 times of 7 yearsMilitary world gamesWas held in Wuhan City.

Horse racing

  • Wuhan Open Horse Racing (Middle:Wuhan Speed ​​Horse Racing, English: Wuhan Open Horse Racing) and the Wuhan International Horse Racing Festival are held every year at the Wuhan Dongfang Racecourse.

Tennis

  • Wuhan Open(During:Wuhan Netsphere Opening, UK: Wuhan Open) will be held in Wuhan every September-October from 2014WTAOne of the tour tournaments.

サ ッ カ ー

marathon

  • The Wuhan International Marathon will be held in April every year from 2016. On August 4, 2017, the Chinese Marathon Majors hosted by the Chinese Athletic Association will begin with the four major marathons: Beijing Marathon, Guangzhou Marathon, Chongqing International Marathon, and Wuhan Marathon.[66][67].

Tourism

Wuhan CityNational history culture famous castleIt is also an excellent tourist city in China, and the Wuhan International Tourism Festival is held every year.

National AAAAA grade(I.e.

  1. Yellow Crane Tower Park
  2. East Lake Scenic Area(Including East Lake Cherry Blossom Garden, East Lake Masan, East Lake Green Road)
  3. Huangpi Mulan Culture and Ecological Travel Zone (Ungiri Mountain Scenic Area,(Chinese version, Including Mulan grassland, Mulanshan)

National AAAAA tourist attraction

  1. Wuhan Revolution Museum ((Chinese version, Mao Tse Tung's former residence, the former ruins of the five major opening ceremonies of the Chinese Communist Party, Qiyimen)
  2. Wuchang Shouyi Culture ParkMemorial of Wuchang Uprising Wuchang,Revolution Museum, Shugi Square)
  3. Hubei Provincial Museum
  4. (Chinese version
  5. (Chinese version
  6. Guiyuan Temple
  7. (Chinese version
  8. Wuhan Haichang Polar Ocean World (Aquarium)
  9. Wuhan Science and Technology Museum
  10. Wuhan Kumayama
  11. Refreshing
  12. Kinri groove
  13. Oyowan Scenic Area
  14. Agricultural Year Flower Agricultural Style Garden

Other tourist destinations

National Priority Cultural Site Protection Unit in Wuhan

Wuhan has the followingNational Priority Cultural Site Protection UnitThere are 29 places.

  1. Wuchang Kiyoshi Army Government Former Ruins (1-7-I-7)
  2. Site of the August 2th Conference (5-5-I-XNUMX)
  3. Panlongcheng Ruins (3-199-V-19)
  4. Former Wuhan National Government Site (4-229-V-31)
  5. Lake porcelain kiln ruins (5-89-I-89)
  6. Myo King's Tomb (5-175-II-31)
  7. Wuhan Farmers' Movement Training Center Old Site (5-494-V-21)
  8. Dazhimen Railway Station (5-495-V-22)
  9. Hankow Customs House (5-496-V-23)
  10. Wuhan University Early Architecture (5-497-V-24)
  11. Former residence of Yu Tenyu (5-498-V-25)
  12. Hanguchi Modern Buildings (6-994-V-121)
  13. Former site of the Hankou All-China Federation of Trade Unions (6-997-V-124)
  14. Shadowless Tower (7-1213-Ⅲ-511)
  15. Shengxiang Pagoda (7-1214-Ⅲ-512)
  16. Hiyama Isogishi (7-1216-Ⅲ-514)
  17. Yuji Xinggong (7-1218-Ⅲ-516)
  18. Gudesi Temple (7-1800-V-193)
  19. Qiyimen (7-1801-V-194)
  20. Former site of Keihan Railway Sogokai (7-1802-V-195)
  21. Former site of the Central Public Relations Department of Hankou Chukyo (7-1803-V-196)
  22. Former Ruins of Hanguchi Residence, Central Leader of Chukyo (7-1804-V-197)
  23. Former Ruins of the 7th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (1805-198-V-XNUMX)
  24. Wuhan Central Military Political School Former Site (7-1806-V-199)
  25. Wuhan CPC Central Organ Former Site (7-1807-V-200)
  26. Hubei Provincial Library Old Site (7-1808-V-201)
  27. Hankou New Fourth Army Headquarters Old Site (7-1809-V-202)
  28. Eighth Route Army Wuhan Attorney's Office Old Site (7-1810-V-203)
  29. Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge(7-1814-V-207)

International exchange

Wuhan CityOita CityWithFriendship cityStarting with the conclusion of (sister cities), as of January 2018, 1, it has formed sister city tie-ups with 31 cities around the world, and has formed international friendship and exchange city tie-ups with 26 cities.

Since the conclusion of a friendship city between Wuhan City and Oita City in 1979, they have been developing exchanges in a wide range of fields such as mutual dispatch of friendship delegations every two years, cultural arts, industrial economy, and educational sports.

In 2006, Oita City opened the Oita City Wuhan Office as a base for civic exchanges, and is constantly disseminating information about Oita City and providing support for various civic exchanges.Oita CityHeiwa City ParkIsWuhan ForestThere is.

List of friendship cities in Wuhan[68]
numbercityCountrySigning dateSigning place
1Symbol of Oita Oita.svgOita CityJapanese flag Japan1979/9/7Symbol of Oita Oita.svgOita
2Pittsburgh city coat of arms.svgPittsburghUnited States flag The United States of America1982/9/8Wuhan
3Stadtwappen der Stadt Duisburg.svgDuisburgGerman flag Germany1982/10/8Stadtwappen der Stadt Duisburg.svgDuisburg
4Arms of the City of Manchester.svgManchesterBritish flag The United Kingdom1986/9/16Wuhan
5ROU GL Galati CoA1.pngGalati ルーマニア1987/8/12ROU GL Galati CoA1.pngGalati
6COA of Kyiv Kurovskyi.svgKiev ウクライナ1990/10/19COA of Kyiv Kurovskyi.svgKiev
7KhartoumSudan flag スーダン1995/9/27Wuhan
8HUN Győr Címer.svgGyőr ハンガリー1995/10/19HUN Győr Címer.svgGyőr
9Coat of Arms of Bordeaux (Variant with grapes) .svgBordeauxFrench flag France1998/6/18Wuhan
10Coat of arms of Arnhem.svgArnhemDutch flag Netherlands1999/9/6Coat of arms of Arnhem.svgArnhem
11Cheongju City logo (without text) .pngCheongjuRepublic of Korea flag  South Korea2000/10/29Wuhan
12AUT Sankt Poelten COA.svgSt. Polten オーストリア2005/12/20(Document mail)
13Chch COA.JPGChristchurch New Zealand2006/9/12Wuhan
14MarkhamCanadian flag カナダ2006/9/12Markham
15Borlänge vapen.svgBorenge スウェーデン2007/9/28Wuhan
16Kópavogur COA.svgKopavogurIceland flag アイス ランド2008/4/25Wuhan
17Coat of Arms of Ashdod.svgAshdodIsraeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル2011/11/8Wuhan
18Blason département fr Essonne.svgEssonneFrench flag France2012/12/21Wuhan
19IzmirTurkish flag トルコ2013/6/6Izmir
20Tijuana, Mexico, COA, Escudo.jpgTijuanaMexican flag メキシコ2013/7/12Tijuana, Mexico, COA, Escudo.jpgTijuana
21Coat of Arms of Saratov.pngSaratovRussian flag ロシア2015/8/7CHENGDU LOGO.png成都
22Escudo de Concepción (Chile) .svgコ ン セ プ シ オ ン チリ2016/4/7Escudo de Concepción (Chile) .svgコ ン セ プ シ オ ン
23Coat of arms of Bishkek Kyrgyzstan.svgBishkekKyrgyz flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2016/11/15Coat of arms of Bishkek Kyrgyzstan.svgBishkek
24HarukisGreek flag Greece2017/5/11Harukis
25Coat of Arms of Izhevsk (Udmurtia) .svgIzhevskRussian flag ロシア2017/6/16Hefei
26SwanseaBritish flag The United Kingdom2018/1/31Wuhan
List of friendship exchange cities in Wuhan[69]
numbercityCountryPartnership date
1KobeJapanese flag Japan1998/2/16
2HirosakiJapanese flag Japan2003/10/17
3St. LouisUnited States flag The United States of America2004/9/27
4AtlantaUnited States flag The United States of America2006/9/9
5Daejeon[69][70]Republic of Korea flag  South Korea2006/11/1
6Gwangju[69]Republic of Korea flag  South Korea2007/9/6
7KolkataIndian flag India2008/7/24
8Suwon[69][71]Republic of Korea flag  South Korea2008/12/5
9Too white[69][71]Republic of Korea flag  South Korea2008/12/5
10ColumbusUnited States flag The United States of America2009/10/30
11BremenGerman flag Germany2009/11/6
12Port LouisMauritius flag Mauritius2009/11/10
13CebuPhilippines flag フィリピン2011/8/19
14Yogyakarta Indonesia2011/11/12
15PermRussian flag ロシア2012/9/10
16ChicagoUnited States flag The United States of America2012/9/20
17KosiceFlag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2012/11/6
18NaplesItalian flag イタリア2012/9/18
19MoselleFrench flag France2013/7/16
20San FranciscoUnited States flag The United States of America2013/11/21
21Siem Reap ProvinceCambodia flag Cambodia2013/11/21
22BiratnagarNepal flag ネ パ ー ル2013/11/21
23BangkokKingdom of Thailand flag Thailand2013/11/21
24CenthovaPolish flag ポーランド2014/3/14
25Oliveira de AzemeisPortugal flag Portugal2014/4/11
26SydneyAustralian flag Australia2014/5/30
27Durban Republic of South Africa2014/6
28BurlingameUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
29Menlo ParkUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
30CupertinoUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
31East Palo AltoUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
32HaywardUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
33MillbraeUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
34MoragaUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
35Morgan hill United States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
36Mountain viewUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
37OakleyUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
38Union CityUnited States flag The United States of America2014/6/23
39BetongKingdom of Thailand flag Thailand2014/6/25
40Salo フィンランド2014/8/25
41Gävle スウェーデン2014/8/27
42EntebbeUganda flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2014/9/4
43patternNepal flag ネ パ ー ル2014/10/20
44PattayaKingdom of Thailand flag Thailand2014/10/24
45BeraneMontenegro flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2014/10/24
46CordobaArgentina flag アルゼンチン2014/10/24
47LiegeBelgian flag ベルギー2014/10/29
48reelFrench flag France2014/11/3
49Holbeck デンマーク2014/11/24
50Cape Town Republic of South Africa2014/12/9
51HeraklionGreek flag Greece2014/12/11
52San LuisBrazilian flag Brazil2015/4/29
53VaraždinCroatian flag クロアチア2015/5/7
54Kota KinabaluMalaysia flag Malaysia2015/5/20
55Pest CountyErdőkertes ハンガリー2015/7/4
56Gold CoastAustralian flag Australia2015/9/29
57Le MansFrench flag France2015/11/1
58Southern ProvinceSri Lanka flag Sri Lanka2015/12/3
59goalSri Lanka flag Sri Lanka2015/12/5
60Mungyeong[69][72]Republic of Korea flag  South Korea2015/12/22
61Daegu[69]Republic of Korea flag  South Korea2016/3/24
62TacomaUnited States flag The United States of America2016/4/5
63LimaPeru flag ペルー2016/4/8
64TabrizIran flag (I.e.2016/5/28
65マ ラ ケ シ ュMorocco flag モロッコ2016/6/3
66Phnom PenhCambodia flag Cambodia2016/7/11
67SwanseaBritish flag The United Kingdom2016/8/8
68DublinIrish flag アイルランド2016/9/5
69HoustonUnited States flag The United States of America2016/9/10
70JinjaUganda flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2016/9/20
71PucallpaPeru flag ペルー2016/9/20
72MariborFlag of Slovenia スロベニア2016/9/23
73Montego BayJamaica flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu2016/9/28
74ヴ ィ ク ト リ アSeychelles flag セ ー シ ェ ェ2016/10/17
75Chemi フィンランド2016/11/25
76San NicholasArgentina flag アルゼンチン2016/12/16
77Foz do IguacuBrazilian flag Brazil2017/3/9
78DunkirkFrench flag France2017/3/20
79Jihlava チ ェ コ2017/5/10
80Zhytomyr ウクライナ2017/11/14
81MarseilleFrench flag France2017/11/20

Diplomatic mechanism

Consulate General

As of September 2017, consulates of four countries have been opened in Wuhan.

FranceConsulate General of the French Republic in Wuhan

  • Jurisdiction: Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi
  • Address: No. 568, Jianghan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China New World National Trade Building Iza 17th Floor 〒430022

The United States of AmericaConsulate General of the United States of America in Wuhan

  • Jurisdiction: Hubei, Hunan, Henan, Jiangxi
  • Address: No. 568, Jianghan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China New World National Trade Building Iza 47th Floor 〒430022

South KoreaConsulate General of South Korea in Wuhan

  • Jurisdiction: Hubei, Hunan, Henan, Jiangxi
  • Address: 218 Xinhua Road, Jianghan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China 4/19F, Ura Departure Bank Building 〒430022

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandConsulate General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Wuhan

  • Jurisdiction: Hubei, Henan
  • Address: 1628 Zhongshan Avenue, Jiang'an District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China Wuhan Tianchi Heian Financial Building 33rd Floor 〒430010

Visa application center

As of April 2017, 4 countries have opened visa application centers in Wuhan.

Address: 171 Zhongbuk Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, International Building C, Wuhan District, 302 〒430071

Address: 171 Zhongbuk Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, International Building C, Wuhan District, Room 1701-1710

Address: 568, Jianghan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province New World National Trade Building Iza 901, 902 Room 〒430022

Other mechanisms

  • Dutch Trade Promotion Association Wuhan Office
  • Representative Office of Wuhan, Essonne, France
  • China US Chamber of Commerce China Office
  • Canadian Trade Wuhan Representative Office
  • Wuhan Representative Office of China-Britain Business Association
  • Belgian Wallonia Regional Economy and Commerce Wuhan Representative Office
  • Hungarian National Trade Office Wuhan Representative Office
  • Dalarna County, Sweden (Dala Airport) Economic and Trade Promotion Office
  • Brazil-China Council for the Promotion of Economy and Trade (Wuhan Representative Office)
  • Australian Trade Commission Wuhan Representative Office
  • Wuhan Office, Corporate Development Bureau, Singapore
  • Japan External Trade OrganizationWuhan Office[73]

Address: 1628 Zhongshan Avenue, Jiang'an District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China Ping'an Financial Center Room 507 〒430010

  • Korea Trade Promotion Corporation Wuhan Office
  • Cheongju, South Korea Economic and Trade Office in Wuhan
  • Korea Tourism OrganizationWuhan Office
  • Wuhan Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce
  • Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government Wuhan Economic and Trade Office
  • Hong Kong Trade Development Council Wuhan Office
  • Taiwan Trade Center Wuhan Office

Famous people

Politics

natural Science

Sports

Peking Opera

  • (Chinese version: Qing dynastyPeking OperaFamous actor appears in China's first movie "Battle of Mount Dingjun"
  • : Tan Xinpei's fifth son, Peking Opera actress
  • (Chinese version: Grandson of Tan Xinpei, Peking Opera Actor, Former Deputy Leader of Beijing Peking Opera Company
  • : Peking Opera Actor

Entertainment

broadcast

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

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  3. ^ a b c "China Structure-Hubei”. Central Organization Committee of the People's Republic of China. 2018/3/21Browse. “Ministry meeting policyThe only sub-provincial province in the Chubu region, Wuhan City, Chubu District, Wuhan City ——Wuhan City. "
  4. ^ a b c Wuhan City Statistics Bureau (August 2017) (Chinese and English). Wuhan Statistics Yearbook 2017.Chinese Statistics Publisher. ISBN 978-7-5037-8197-1 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "2017 Wuhan City National Economic and Social Development Statistics Bulletin”. Wuhan Municipal People's Government. 2018/4/2Browse.
  6. ^ a b "State Council of the People's Republic of China Wuhan City Castle City”. Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. 2018/3/21Browse.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Natural resources”. Wuhan Municipal People's Government. 2018/3/21Browse.
  8. ^ United Nations Development Program (December 2016, 12). China Sustainable Cities Report 2016. United Nations Development Program 
  9. ^ "China Sustainable Cities Report 2016: Measuring Ecological Input and Human Development”. United Nations Development Program. 2018/3/21Browse.
  10. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Castle City, Research Center for Competitive Forces (October 2017, 10). China Castle City Competitive Power Report No.15 (2017). Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Shiro City, Research Center for Competitive Power 
  11. ^ "2016 China 294 Individual Castle City”. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences City and Competitiveness Research Center. 2018/3/20Browse.
  12. ^ "Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences”. Tencent News (news.qq.com). 2018/3/20Browse.
  13. ^ "《Changjiang Economics Exhibition Exhibition”. National Development and Reform Commission of the Republic of China. 2018/3/21Browse.
  14. ^ "Wuhan | Creative-cities”. UNISCO. 2018/3/22Browse.
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外部 リンク

Coordinate: North Latitude 30 Degrees 34 Minutes 21 Seconds East longitude 114 degree 16 min 45 sec /30.57250 degrees north latitude 114.27917 degrees east longitude / 30.57250; 114.27917 (Wuhan)


 

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