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😷 | Bitcoin and Ethereum prices seem high = Mr. Musk


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Bitcoin and Ethereum prices seem high = Mr. Musk

 
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Mr. Musk earlier said that it was adventurous for the constituent companies of the US S & P Global Ratings to own Bitcoin.
 

[Reuters] – US electric vehicle giant Tesla CEO Elon Musk said on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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Bitcoin

Bitcoin(British: Bitcoin) In 2008Satoshi NakamotoInvented by an unnamed person or group using the nameCryptocurrencyIs[8]..This currency has its implementationOpen source softwareIt was first used in 2009 when it was published as.

Bitcoin isCentral BankAnd decentralized without a single administratorDigital currencyIt can be sent from user to user on a peer-to-peer Bitcoin network without the need for an intermediary.Trading is networknodeByencryptionIt is verified by and recorded in a publicly distributed ledger called a blockchain.Bitcoin is created as a reward for a process called mining.Bitcoin can be exchanged for other currencies, products and services[9].Cambridge UniversityAccording to a survey conducted by 2017 million to 290 million unique users in 580Cryptocurrency walletIt is estimated that most of them use Bitcoin.

Bitcoin has been criticized for being used for illegal transactions, the large amount of electricity used by miners, price fluctuations, and theft from exchanges.Nobel Prize in EconomicsSome economists, including the winners, are speculative at various timesバ ブ ルIt is described as.Bitcoin is also used as an investment, but some regulators have issued warnings for investors about Bitcoin.[10][11].

Currency unit

Bitcoin'sCurrency unitIs "bitcoin".2014Currently, the symbol for Bitcoin isBTC,XBT,BitcoinSign.svgThere is[12].

As auxiliary units, there are "mBTC (millimeter bitcoin)", "µBTC (micro bitcoin)", "bits", "satoshi (or Satoshi, read as Satoshi)" and the like. satoshi is the creator of BitcoinSatoshi NakamotoIt is the smallest unit of Bitcoin attached in commemoration of, and is equivalent to 1/1 million Bitcoin.[13][14].. Bits are one millionth Bitcoin, equal to μBTC, and are called bits (in English notation).bitsAnd plural)[15].

October 2014, 10, Bitcoin Foundation for Bitcoin 4217 CERTIFICATEReveal plans to apply for currency code[16], BTC or XBT were the main candidates[17].

In 2015, the Bitcoin symbol "BitcoinSign.svg"ButUnicodeApproved to be added to (U + 20BF)[18][19].

History

  • August 2008, 8 Domain name "bitcoin.org" is registered[20].
  • July 2008, 10-"Satoshi NakamotoWith the name ""Bitcoin: Peer-to-peer electronic cash systemWas first introduced in a treatise titled "[21].
  • January 2009, 1-Start of operation[22].
  • May 2010, 5-A programmer buying two pizzas for 22 Bitcoins in Florida, USA, is said to be the first example of a successful Bitcoin business transaction.[23]..For this reason, May 5nd is called "Bitcoin Pizza Day".[24].
  • March 2013, 3-A bug in Bitcoin software version 11 temporarily splits the blockchain into two independent chains with different rules. For six hours, the two branched Bitcoin networks were operated at the same time, each with its own transaction history.Most of the network has been downgraded to version 0.8 of Bitcoin software, and normal operation has been restored by choosing a backward compatible version of the blockchain.[25].
  • February 2013- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is onlineBlack market OfSilk roadClosed and seized US $ 2850 million worth[26].
  • December 2013, 12-People's Bank of China bans Bitcoin use by Chinese financial institutions[27].
  • January 2014, 1-Bitcoin exchange director and Bitcoin Foundation vice chairman arrested on suspicion of money laundering with Bitcoin[28].
  • February 2014, 2-Major exchangesMount gox[Annotation 1][Annotation 2]Stopped all transactions[29]"We have decided to temporarily suspend all transactions to protect the exchange site and customers."[30].Wall Street JournalAccording to the 25th,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クThe South Federal District Attorney's Office launches an investigationMount goxSent a subpoena to order the preservation of documents, etc.[31].. 28th, the companyTokyo District CourtToCivil Rehabilitation LawWas applied for and accepted[32]..The company claims that the damage amount is 85 bitcoins (equivalent to 114 billion yen) and cash of 28 billion yen. (The equivalent of 480 billion yen is correct[33]. ) GLOCOMAccording to Mr. Masanori Kusunoki, a visiting researcher, customers can tamper with the originally issued transaction ID, and even if they inquire about the original ID, they can request transactions as many times as they want because there is no transaction ID.[34]According to Takayuki Sugiura, the representative of "", if the password of the "wallet" that manages the private key can be stolen, a large amount of unauthorized withdrawals are possible.[34].Detail is"Mount goxSee
  • June 2014, 6-US Online Travel LargestExpediaStarts using Bitcoin for hotel reservations[35].
  • October 2014, 7- DellStarted accepting Bitcoin payments for selling its products through the official website[36].
  • August 2014-AmericanRakutenSuper Logistics begins handling Bitcoin payments[37].
  • As of December 2015, 12-The market capitalization of Bitcoin is about 18 billion yen[38].
  • January 2015, 1-Major ExchangesCoinbaseBut,AmericaOpened "Coinbase Exchange", a Bitcoin exchange licensed by 24 states[39].
  • October 2015, 10- European Court of JusticeIs buying and selling Bitcoin(English editionJudgment that the application of[40].
  • As of April 2017, 4-The market capitalization of Bitcoin is about 29 billion yen, 23785 BTC is 1 yen [41].
  • As of May 2017, 5-Betling the highest price of gold, it rose to the $ 25 level per bitcoin on the 25th, triple the year[42].
  • October 2017, 7- ロシアAlexandre Benik of the personMount GoxThrough your own Bitcoin exchange, you can illegally obtain profits fromMoney launderingOn suspicion ofGreeceI found out that I was arrested during my stay[43].
  • October 2017, 8- Hard forkByBitcoin cashSplit[44].
  • October 2017, 10- Hard forkBy医 、 医Split[45].
  • October 2017, 11- Hard forkBitcoin diamond splits due to[46].
  • October 2017, 12- Chicago Board Options ExchangeBitcoin at (CBOE)Futures tradingThe start of the[47].
  • October 2017, 12- Coinbase The transaction price at 1 Bitcoin was $ 19891.99.Bitcoin's price, which had been rising until now, has since fallen to $ 2018 on December 12, 15, and this high did not exceed until December 3128.89, 2020.[48]
  • October 2017, 12- Chicago Mercantile ExchangeStart Bitcoin Futures Trading at (CME)[49]..The trading unit is 5 Bitcoin, and the contract month is monthly.[50].
  • October 2018, 1- Lightning networkThe world's first purchase of goods was made by.[51] Then, on February 2, the world's first person who made a business transaction (purchase of pizza) with Bitcoin bought pizza again on the Lightning Network. [52]
  • October 2019, 6- Chicago Board Options Exchange(CBOE) Bitcoin futures trading closed[53].
  • Bitcoin futures trading starts on September 2019, 9[54].
  • December 2019, 12-Bitcoin atOption tradingThe start of the[55].
  • October 2020, 1- Chicago Mercantile ExchangeBitcoin at (CME)Option tradingThe start of the[56].
  • October 2020, 11- United States Department of Justice(DOJ)Silk roadSeized a billion dollars of Bitcoin[57].
  • February 2021, 2 --The market capitalization exceeds 20 trillion dollars (about 1 trillion yen).[58] [59] [60].

使用

Bitcoin can be obtained by mining, exchanging goods, services, other currencies, or receiving donations.Bitcoin is commonCredit cardCosts are reduced compared to 2-8% of merchant fees[61], It is possible to realize a settlement cost that is even cheaper than the credit card fee, and it is not affected by weekends and holidays.In addition, both sellers and buyers do not need to enter personal information, card numbers, or other information that would cause problems if leaked to the outside.for that reasone-commerceIs steadily solidifying as a payment method for[62].

As an example of adoption by a well-known commercial corporationOkCupid,reddit,WordPress,Virgin Galactic [63],Specified nonprofit corporation,AdvocacyIn a groupFree Software Foundation[64],WordPress[65],Tor[66],Electronic Frontier Foundation[67] (EFF),Wikimedia Foundation[68]And so on.

Notation

There is a difference in meaning depending on the size of the acronym, uppercase letters (Bitcoin) refer to protocols and trading networks, and lowercase letters (bitcoin) refer to the currency itself.[69].

How it works

Bitcoin includes:Central BankThere is no central institution like this, all currency issuance and transactionsPeer to PeerIs being done in[70][71].

All Bitcoin transaction historyBlock chain (blockchain) Is recorded in a ledger.The blockchain is recorded in a distributed manner on the nodes on the network.In addition, since all past transaction records (transactions) are open to the public, anyone can verify the integrity of transactions.[72][73].

Buyers request official transaction logs, blockchain updates, instead of no electronic records or history between buying and selling at the time of payment[74].

Network participants who are verifying the integrity of transactions are known as miners, and transaction fees andMint incomeIs getting[75].

Transaction confirmation and mining

The sender is the transaction information such as the amount and recipient (transaction), The minors that make up the network (minerTo a node called (miner)broadcastTo do.The miner summarizes the received transaction information in the form of a block and adds it to the end of the blockchain.However, in order to record a new block, it is necessary to solve a problem with a large amount of calculation.Miners compete to solve the problem, and only those who succeed in adding blocks first can get a certain amount of reward (Mining).Inconsistencies such as double payments are checked by other nodes when recording blocks on the blockchain.

The difficulty has been adjusted so that the problem can be solved in about 10 minutes, and the sender has to wait about the same amount of time for the integrity of the transaction to be confirmed by the miners and recorded on the blockchain.All Bitcoin currencies in circulation are thus supplied to the market in the form of rewards for miners.

Prevention of fraud by majority vote

A blockchain can be thought of as a chain of blocks in which transaction history is recorded, but in some cases it may branch.For example, a malicious attacker has tampered with a block in the past, or multiple miners have added blocks at the same time.

Bitcoin solves these problems with the principle of "trusting the longest blockchain". "Long" does not simply mean that the number of blocks is large, but that the amount of calculation required to construct the chain is large.In other words, it is a majority vote in terms of computational complexity.

Even if an attacker rewrites the past transaction history, the chain derived from it must be longer than the other chains in order for the history to be trusted.However, a large amount of calculation is required to form a chain.Miners for mining rewards are constantly adding blocks to the longest chain, so attackers must invest more computational resources than their total computing power to extend the tampered chain.That is, a single attacker must have a majority of the computing power of the entire network.If the number of nodes participating in Bitcoin is large enough, it is difficult to secure such computational resources.Bitcoin has this idea (Proof of Work) To ensure robustness.

If multiple miners add their own blocks and the chain diverges, each miner on the network chooses one of them to work on mining.When more new blocks are added to either chain, the other chain is abandoned.

Address and wallet

Bitcoin is an address (address) Is stored.The address isPublic key cryptographyIt is generated as a pair and corresponds when sending money from that addressSecret keyWill be required.

Wallet (wallet, Wallet) is a set of addresses.There are several types of Bitcoin wallets.

Software wallet

What is a software wallet?Windows,MacOS,iOS,AndroidSuch asoperating systemWorks onsoftwareIt is a wallet of.

Hardware wallet

A hardware wallet is a wallet that uses dedicated hardware.The hardware wallet is used by connecting to an external machine (such as a personal computer) connected to the trading network (Ethernet).The private key is stored inside the hardware wallet, but since the wallet only signs and sends it to the connected machine, the possibility of leaking the private key is lower than that of the software wallet.

Web wallet

A web wallet manages a wallet on your behalf.Web serviceIt is a wallet of.It is highly convenient because it can be used regardless of the type of terminal, but the security aspect will be left to the service provider.

Paper wallet

A paper wallet is a paper with a bitcoin address and private key printed on it.crackingIt is the safest because there is no risk of the private key being leaked.However, it is necessary to be careful about deterioration and theft of ink and paper.

economic power

With blockchain, participants do not need an intermediary and are an absolute guarantee[Source required]Therefore, there is no need to know or trust each other with the person with whom the value is exchanged.Therefore, blockchain can significantly reduce the need for third-party payment processors and charge fees.Also,Credit cardEliminate the possibility of fraud,Micro paymentCan create new possibilities for[76].

Domain nameDigital assets such as signatures, digital contracts, and digital title certificates for physical assets such as cars and homes will also be available using the blockchain protocol.It is also possible to grant various conditions and future exercise of rights to digital assets stored in the blockchain.NotaryServices andDividend,EscrowEven services can create autorun programs[77].

Expected volatility has little impact on practicality, and fees are substantially lower than credit cards and remittances, in that payments and transfers are quicker.Some argue that it is particularly suitable because it is easy to send money overseas.[78].

Alternative currency

Bitcoin is your home currencyinflationIt has been shown to be a popular alternative currency in countries suffering from rates, capital restrictions and economic sanctions by international organizations.Some are in trouble due to inflation and strict capital controlsArgentinianIt is,Argentine pesoUsed as an alternative currency to[79]In addition, some Iranians use it to avoid currency sanctions[80]are doing.

Economic journalists and analystsスペインWith the distribution volume inCyprus shockSuggests to be related to[81].CyprusThen, when financial difficulties arise,Financial institution OfdepositTo tax your accountBlockadeBy doing so, the people of CyprusNational powerThe movement to transfer assets to "bitcoin", which is beyond the reach of the market, has increased, and it has been widely reported.

Speculation

By speculators trying to profit from price fluctuations as popularity rises[82], Frequently traded for speculative purposes[83].. 2013,European Banking Authority(EBA) warns against such speculative risk[84].

It is explained that the reason why Bitcoin lacks the intrinsic value is that the value itself depends only on the will of the owner.[85].

DerivativesThere is little effectiveness in.An organization has multiple cryptocurrenciesFutures tradingTargeted[86].

problem

Bitcoin credit without a central governing body is mutually formed by all network participants.While there is a risk that there is no central organization that strives to prevent value decline, it is also not possible to control value against the intention of the user. [62].

The European Banking Authority (EBA) and other sources warn that Bitcoin users are not protected by the right to request refunds or chargebacks.The use of Bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement agencies and the media.

Officials in the United States and other countries recognize that Bitcoin can provide legal financial services, but criminal activity is centered around the darknet market and theft.Bitcoin theft is possible and there are examples[87], Offline precautions can reduce this risk[88].

The link to criminal activity has hindered the expansion of the user population, and distribution trends have attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislatures, and law enforcement agencies, and in fact the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the US Senate, Investigated by the state of New York[89].. The FBI "probably attracts cybercriminals as a means of transferring or stealing money," the 2012 report said.[90].

In March 2013, the US Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) established regulatory guidelines for "decentralized virtual currencies," and "miners" who sell money in the United States were designated as currency sellers and registered as businesses. And other legal obligations[91][92][93].

In August 2013, the German Ministry of Finance stated that Bitcoin could be used as an accounting unit for multilateral settlements.[94][95], Capital gains tax was levied on holding for more than 1 year[95].

The New York State Department of Financial Services announced in November 2013 that it would conduct a survey on BitLicense and guidelines to raise concerns and regulate wealth transfers and criminal activity (especially the Silk Road). Held a hearing in New York City[96].. AlsoUnited States Internal Revenue ServiceStates that it is actively working to create its own standards[97].

At the same time, the European Banking Authority (EBA) gave subtle approval in light of usage.Previously, official warnings were issued because there are no regulations or approvals by banks in the EU and EFTA regions and there is a risk, but they acknowledged that they are not covered by various regulations and are unnecessary, and recognize the current situation. changed[98].

Carbon footprint

Concerns about Bitcoin's environmental impact are Bitcoin's energy consumption andcarbon dioxideRelated to emissions[99] [100]..The difficulty in converting energy consumption into carbon dioxide emissions is due to the decentralized nature of Bitcoin, which makes it impossible for miners to localize to determine the composition of electricity used.The results of recent studies analyzing the carbon footprint of Bitcoin vary.[101] [102] [103] [104].. In a study published in Nature Climate Change in 2018, Bitcoin "alone is enough CO to boost global warming above 30 ° C within 2 years.2Can generate emissions. "[105]..However, other researchers have criticized this analysis, claiming that the underlying scenarios are inadequate, leading to overestimation.[106] [107] [108].. According to a study published in Joule and American Chemical Society in 2019, Bitcoin's annual energy consumption is 17[109]~ 22.9 Mt CO2 annual carbon emissions, which isJordan,Sri LankaCountries such asKansas CityIt is a level comparable to the amount of emissions of[110].International Energy Agency(IEA) has 10-20 Mt CO annual carbon emissions associated with Bitcoin2Nature Climate Change's forecasts are just "sensational forecasts for Bitcoin," as were warned about the increase in the Internet and its energy consumption in the late 1990s. ing[111].

Black market

In 2012, the British economic magazine Economist reported that Bitcoin's popularity was due to its utility value as a means of purchasing illegal drugs.[112].. 2013, UKGuardianThe paper states that it was mainly used for online gambling and illegal drug purchases[113], The same year,Huffington post"Online gambling is a high percentage," he said.[114]..Legitimate transactions are believed to be less than the actual number of drug purchases involved[115], About half of all transactions are settled on a single online gaming site[116].. 2012,Carnegie Mellon UniversityAnd a study by the Information Network Association estimated that 4.5-9% of Bitcoin's total circulation was for drug purchases on the single online market, the Silk Road.[117]..Although most of the transactions were essentially speculative, the study claims that drugs account for a much larger proportion than goods and services.[117].

In 2013, the Huffington Post reported that unidentified online firearms dealers are using Bitcoin for payments.[118].

Money laundering

Various regulators and law enforcement agencies, including the European Banking Authority,Money launderingBe wary of use[119]..A 2012 report by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) acknowledged the risk of money laundering, but stated that no cases were found.[90]..Some cite the openness of transaction history as an obstacle to money laundering.[120].

(English editionRaised the need for measures to eliminate money laundering in 2015 and raised concerns about industry shrinkage due to over-regulation.[121].

Unauthorized access / theft

In the traditional currency industry, if an asset is compromised in the middle of a transactionConsumer protectionHowever, in the case of a business that mediates Bitcoin transactions, there have been multiple cases in which Bitcoin was stolen and customer assets were lost and did not return, although the business is obliged to make payments within a certain range. Happened[121]..Since transactions are irreversible with Bitcoin, once an unauthorized accessor sends an asset to another person, it cannot be undone.[121].

Unauthorized mining

January 2011SymantecWarned that hidden mining by botnets could consume hardware, increase power consumption, and increase computer temperature.[122][123]..If infected, the latestVideo cardBuilt intoBut by the full GPU acceleration tech OfParallel computingBandwidth is consumed by malware[124].

For mining in mid-August 2011BotnetIs detected again[125]For mining in less than 3 monthsTrojan horseInfected withMac OS XWas discovered[126].

Usage restrictions by state / religion

In Japan, on September 2014, 6LDPIT Strategy Commissioner has published a proposal to forgo regulation[127]..The proposal defines virtual currencies such as Bitcoin as "value electromagnetic records (value records)".

ロシアThen in January 2014,Central BankHas stated that it currently has no plans to ban any cryptocurrencies.The government plans to establish a legal framework to protect citizens and corporations to prevent illegal use of cryptocurrencies.[128].

IndonesiaThen, on July 2014, 2Bank IndonesiaBut stated that Bitcoin is not legal tender[129].

China (People's Republic of China)Then, in mid-April 2014, a major state-owned commercial bank began closing accounts on Bitcoin exchanges.[130][131]..While China is pushing ahead with Bitcoin trading regulations, the profits from the sale of mined Bitcoin will be returned to China.[132]Bitcoin mining activity, which accounts for more than 7% of the world, is tolerated for a while because it can control the market.[133], Chinese government in April 2019ComputerAnnounced a policy to ban the mining of virtual currencies such as Bitcoin because of the waste of electricity[134], The world's largest mining equipment(English editionChinese companies like this also require a large amount of computing powerArtificial intelligenceBecame focused on government-supported industries such as[135].

EgyptThen.Grand Mufti OfShawki Allam Abdul Kareem IslamProhibit Bitcoin trading as contrary toReligious decreePut outIslamicSimilar Bitcoin bans were issued one after another[136][137].

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ The number of customers is 12.7, of which 1000 are Japanese.
  2. ^ As of November 2013, the world's largest, $ 11-1 million a day.500% of the world.2000% at the time of bankruptcy.The Rise and Fall of the World's Largest Bitcoin ExchangeBy Robert McMillan and Cade Metz, WIRED, 11.06.13]

Source

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  55. ^ Bakkt Bitcoin Options On Futures To Launch Dec 9 | Bakkt
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