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😷 | Pfizer Vaccine First flight to Okinawa arrives at Naha Airport at midnight 


Photo Three containers containing US Pfizer vaccine carried out from an aircraft = 3:2 pm on the 11nd, Naha Airport (photographed by Hiroya Shimo)

Pfizer Vaccine First flight to Okinawa arrives at Naha Airport at midnight 

 
If you write the contents roughly
If the injection needles and syringes (syringes) can be secured as planned, the Prefectural Northern Hospital will pre-inoculate about 5 people on the 5th as a simulation, and will start full-scale from the week of the 15th.
 

New Coronavirus Vaccine The first flight to Okinawa Prefecture will be from Haneda Airport to Naha Airport by ANA aircraft around 1:2 pm on the 11nd ... → Continue reading

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Subcutaneous injection needle

Subcutaneous injection needle(British: hypodermic needle, Greek ὑπο- (hypo= Bottom) and δέρμα (= bottom)derma= Derived from skin) is a type of medical device that enters the skin and is a sharp object (= skin)British: sharps) Is a very thin hollow tube with a sharp tip.[1].. In generalsyringeA manual device with a piston called a substance that puts substances in the bodyinjectionOr (Physiological salineAnd solutions containing various drugs, liquid medicines, etc.), and used to remove liquids from the body (blood, etc.).Intervention with a large-diameter hypodermic needle can cause fatal blood loss orshockIt is especially useful in the treatment of.

Hypodermic needles are used when the liquid is delivered quickly, or when the substance to be injected cannot be taken orally, or (Insulinlike)(English editionNot done orliverIt is used when it causes harm to.It is also useful for delivering certain drugs that cannot be orally administered due to vomiting.Many possible injectionsRouteThere,Intramuscular(筋肉Inject into) andIntravenous(静脈(Injection into) is the most common.

Subcutaneous needles also play an important role in research environments where aseptic conditions are required and are sterile.(English editionVaccinationGreatly reduces pollution at times.There are two reasons for this, first of all, its surface is very smooth and in the air.PathogenIs trapped between the irregularities on the surface of the needle and as a contaminant in the medium (egcold day) To prevent moving.Second, the surface of the needle is very sharp, significantly reducing the diameter of the hole that remains after puncturing the membrane, thus preventing microorganisms larger than this hole from contaminating the substrate.[2][3][4][5].


History

Initial use and experiment

Ancient Greeks and Romans knew injections as a way to administer drugs from observations of snakebites and weapons with poisons.[6]..The Old Testament and Homer's works also mention "anointing" and "anointing," but it wasn't until the 17th century that injections as a rational medical procedure really began to be sought. Is[7].Christopher WrenIn 1656, he gave a dog an intravenous injection and conducted the earliest confirmation experiment using a crude subcutaneous needle.In these experiments, drugs such as opium were intravenously administered to dogs using the animal's bladder (as a syringe) and the goose's feather shaft (as a needle).Len et al.'S main concern was to find out if traditionally orally administered drugs would be effective for intravenous administration. In the 1660s, Kiel's JD Major and Berlin's JS El Schortz first experimented with human injections.[8]..These early experiments were generally ineffective and in some cases fatal.Injections have been unsupported for two centuries.

19th century development

In the 19th century, small doses of effective drugs such as opium and strychnine were developed.This has spurred a new interest in the direct and controlled application of medicine. "There was some controversy over the issue of subcutaneous injection priorities."[9].. 1844,(English editionIs said to have succeeded in the first injection[10][11].(English editionA major contribution was the 1851 all-glass syringe, which was able to estimate the dose based on the level of liquid observed through the glass.[12]..Wood was less concerned about the exact dose, as he used hypodermic needles and syringes primarily for local subcutaneous injections (local anesthesia).[8]..At the same time as Wood's study in Edinburgh, Lyon(English editionAlso experimented with subcutaneous injections into sheep using a uniquely designed syringe.Pravas designed a syringe 3 cm (1.18 in) long and 5 mm (0.2 in) in diameter.It was all made of silver[13]..Surgeon in London(English editionIs famous for coining the term "hypodermic" for subcutaneous injection in 1858.This term is two Greek words,hypo = "Bottom"derma =Derived from "skin".In addition, the hunter allegedly acknowledged the systemic effect of the injection after noticing that the patient's pain was reduced despite the injection approaching the painful area.[7]..Hunter and Wood were in long controversy as they disagreed not only about the origin of modern hypodermic needles, but also about the effects of once administered drugs.[14].

Modern improvement

Dr. Wood is believed to have contributed significantly to the widespread use and acceptance of injections as a medical technique and the widespread use and acceptance of hypodermic needles.The basic technology of hypodermic needles has changed little since the 19th century, but as they progress year by year and their knowledge of medicine and chemistry improves, small improvements are made to increase safety and effectiveness, and needles are very special. It is designed and adjusted for various applications.Changes in needle specifications to suit applications began in the 1920s, especially for insulin administration to diabetics.[15]..The outbreak of World War II spurred the early development of partially disposable syringes for administering morphine and penicillin on the battlefield.(English editionThe development of subcutaneous needles was promoted in the 1950s for several reasons.Due to the shortage of blood during the Korean War, disposable sterile syringes for blood collection were developed accordingly.Due to the widespread vaccination against polio during this period, it was necessary to develop a completely disposable syringe system.

In the 1950s, secondary contamination from used needles increased and became recognized.This led to the development of the first completely disposable plastic syringe by New Zealand pharmacist Colin Murdock in 1956.[16]..During this period, there was also a shift in safety concerns, from needle specifications to general sterility. In the 1980sHIVThe epidemic has raised new concerns about the safety of secondary contamination from used needles.New safety controls have been designed for disposable needles, especially to ensure the safety of healthcare professionals.These controls were implemented not only in the needles themselves, such as retractable needles, but also in the handling of used needles, especially in the use of hard material waste containers found in today's medical practice.[15].

By 2008, all plastic needles had been produced, but their use was restricted.One version isAromaticLiquid crystal polymer Of(English editionThe hub part is tapered from 1.2 mm to the tip part 0.72 mm (equivalent to a 22 gauge metal needle), and the inner / outer diameter ratio is 70%.[17].

製造

Subcutaneous needles are usuallyStainless steelの管[18]から(English editionManufactured through a process known as.In this process, the tube becomes smaller and smallerdiceIt is pulled out through and a needle is made.The tip of the needle(English editionBeing sharpened to create a sharp tip that allows the needle to easily penetrate the skin[19].

gauge

The main system for measuring the diameter of a hypodermic needle isBirmingham gauge(Also known as stub steel wire gauge).Mainly used for cathetersFrench gaugeNot to be confused with.Needles of various lengths are available with any gauge.Typical medical needles range from 7 gauge (maximum) to 33 (minimum). 21 gauge needles are most commonly used to collect blood for testing purposes, and 16 or 17 gauge needles have the resulting low pressure that is less harmful to red blood cells and allows more blood to be collected in less time. Most commonly used in blood donations because it can be collected[20]..Although reusable needles are useful for scientific applications, disposable needles are much more common in the medical field.The disposable needle is embedded in a plastic or aluminum hub and is attached to the syringe barrel by press fitting or torsional mounting.These refer to the trademark "Luer-Lok"Luer lockOrLuer taperSometimes called a connection.Male and female luer locks and hubs manufactured by pharmaceutical equipment manufacturers are two of the most important parts of disposable hypodermic needles.[21].

Use by non-professionals

Subcutaneous needles are usually used by healthcare professionals (dentist,Phlebotomy doctor,Doctor,pharmacist,nurse,Paramedics), But may be used by the patient himself.This is several times a dayInsulinNeed an injectionType 1 diabetesMost commonly seen in patients[22]. Also,asthmaAnd other severeAllergiesIt also happens in patients with.Such patientsDesensitizationYou may need to get an injection, or you may need to carry an injection to use as a first aid in case of a severe allergic reaction.In the latter case, such patientsEpinephrine(Example:Epipen[23],Diphenhydramine(Example:(English edition), orDexamethasoneOften carry a syringe filled with.A rapid injection of one of these drugs may stop a severe allergic reaction.

Multiple sclerosisPatients can also self-treat by injection.VariousinterferonSome MS treatments, including formulations, are designed to be self-administered by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection.[24]..In some countriesErectile dysfunctionTo the patient(English editionInjections may be prescribed, which are self-injected directly into the base or sides of the penis with a very thin hypodermic needle.

Hypodermic needles by untrained users(English edition(Example:heroinIt is also used for injection of water solution).Subcutaneous syringes were available only by prescription in many countries before the government gained current levels of awareness of the spread of reusable needle-mediated disease.Therefore, such as hepatitis and HIV via shared syringes(English editionIn many countries, in most large cities, to limit the spread of(English editionIs being implemented.In some countries, such programs are fully or partially subsidized by the government.  

Dull needles, which do not have a sharp tip and are usually manufactured non-sterile, are industrially used for filling small containers and for accurately applying small amounts of solvents and adhesives.

Phobia

About 3.5-10% of the world's population is injectedPhobia(British: trypanophobia, Tripanophobia) is presumed to be suffering[25], Commonly found in children aged 5 to 17 years.Local anesthetics can be used to desensitize the injection site and reduce pain and discomfort.[26]..For children, various techniques are effective in reducing needle-related pain and pain.[27]..Distractions for such techniquesHypnosis,Cognitive behavioral therapyThere are combinations of, breathing methods, etc.

Reference item

footnote

  1. ^ "Handling sharps and needles: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. 2018/4/4Browse.
  2. ^ Elsheikh, HA; Ali, BH; Homeida, AM; Lutfi, AA; Hapke, HJ (May–Jun 1992). “The effects of fascioliasis on the activities of some drug-metabolizing enzymes in desert sheep liver.”. The British Veterinary Journal 148 (3): 249–57. two:10.1016 / 0007-1935 (92) 90048-6. PMID 1617399. 
  3. ^ Korenman, SG (September 1975). “Estrogen receptor assay in human breast cancer.”. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 55 (3): 543–5. two:10.1093 / jnci / 55.3.543. PMID 169381. 
  4. ^ Scott, Gene E .; Zummo, Natale (1 January 1988). “Sources of Resistance in Maize to Kernel Infection by Aspergillus flavus in the Field”. Crop Science 28 (3): 504. two:10.2135 / cropsci1988.0011183X002800030016x. 
  5. ^ Leuchtmann, Adrian; Clay, Keith (1988). “Experimental Infection of Host Grasses and Sedges with Atkinsonella hypoxylon and Balansia cyperi (Balansiae, Clavicipitaceae)”. Mycologia 80 (3): 291–297. two:10.2307/3807624. JSTOR 3807624. 
  6. ^ “On the history of injection”. Dan Medicinhist Arbog 34: 104–1. (2006). 
  7. ^ a b Kotwal, Atul. "Innovation, diffusion and safety of a medical technology: a review of the literature on injection practice". Social Science & Medicine Volume 60, Issue 5, March 2005, pp. 1133–1147
  8. ^ a b Ball C (Jun 2006). “The early development of intravenous apparatus”. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 34 (Suppl 1): 22–6. two:10.1177 / 0310057X0603401S02. PMID 16800224. 
  9. ^ Logan Clendening, Source Book of Medical History, p. 419 (1960)
  10. ^ Walter Reginald Bett, The History and Conquest of Common Diseases p. 145 (1954)
  11. ^ "The Irish doctor who invented the syringe". irishtimes.com. 2018/4/4Browse.
  12. ^ Kotwal, Atul. "Innovation, diffusion and safety of a medical technology: a review of the literature on injection practices". Social Science & Medicine Volume 60, Issue 5, March 2005, pp. 1133–1147
  13. ^ Syringe, Discoveriesinmedicine.com
  14. ^ Brunton, D. (2000). “A Question of Priority: Alexander Wood, Charles Hunter and the Hypodermic Method”. Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 30: 349–351. 
  15. ^ a b Beckton Dickinson and Company, "Four Major Phases of Injection Device Development", Syringe and Needle History
  16. ^ "Hypodermic syringe". www.sciencemuseum.org.uk. 2018/4/4Browse.
  17. ^ Busillo, Eric (9 July 2008). Characterization of Plastic Hypodermic Needles ( (Thesis). Georgia Institute of Technology.
  18. ^ How do they get the hole through a hypodermic needle? at.
  19. ^ "How syringe is made --material, production process, manufacture, making, history, used, processing, parts”(English). How Products Are Made. 2018/1/3Browse.
  20. ^ Blood Transfusions and Angio Size? Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ “Medical Industry Cycle Times | Davenport Machine” (English). Davenport Machine. https://www.davenportmachine.com/cycle-times/medical 2018/1/3Browse. 
  22. ^ "Giving an Insulin Injection”. Drugs.com. 2010/8/19Browse.
  23. ^ "How to Stop Allergic Reactions”. EpiPen. 2010/8/19Browse.
  24. ^ "Multiple Sclerosis Treatments”. Mult-sclerosis.org (January 2008, 1). 2013/1/13Browse.
  25. ^ "Fear of Needles Phobia – Trypanophobia" (English). www.fearof.net. 2018/1/3Browse.
  26. ^ "The Needle Phobia Page”. Futurescience.com. 2010/8/19Browse.
  27. ^ Birnie, Kathryn A .; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T .; Uman, Lindsay S .; Parker, Jennifer A. (2018-10-04). “Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10: CD005179. two:10.1002 / 14651858.CD005179.pub4. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC: 6517234. PMID 30284240. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517234/. 

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