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😷 | Next-generation breathing experience.Smart mask "Narvalo" that can optimize the air environment and exercise


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Next-generation breathing experience.Smart mask "Narvalo" that can optimize the air environment and exercise

 
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This prevents CO2 generated by heat, humidity and breathing from staying inside the mask.
 

Most people wear masks when they go out into the city, and masks are now a must-have when going out ... → Continue reading

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carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide(Nisanka Tanso,British: carbon dioxide) Iscarbon OfOxideOne of theChemical formula Expressed asInorganic compoundIs.It is sometimes called "CioXNUMX" because of its chemical formula.Greenhouse gasAndGlobal warmingIn the context of countermeasures, it is sometimes abbreviated as "carbon", which originally refers to carbon itself ("carbon-free").[2]""Carbon neutral"Such).

地球It is the most representative carbon oxide above, and it is a simple substance of carbon.Organic compound OfcombustionEasily caused by.gas Thecarbon dioxide gas,solid Thedry ice,liquidIs liquid carbon dioxide,Aqueous solution TheCarbonic acid-Carbonated waterCalled.

Widely used in many industries (see below).JapanThen.High Pressure Gas Safety ActArticle XNUMX of the Container Safety Regulations stipulates that the color of carbon dioxide (liquefied carbon dioxide) containers (cylinders) is green.It is also a conversion index to show greenhouse gas emissions,methane,Nitrous oxide,FreonGas etc. are converted.In Japan, 2014 billion in 13.6TWas calculated as total emissions[3].

nature

Normal temperatureColorless and odorless at normal pressuregas.. At normal pressureliquid-79 ° C でSublimationdo itsolid(Dry ice). It dissolves relatively well in water, and the aqueous solution (carbonic acid) is weakly acidic. For this reasonAlkali metalandAlkaline earth metal OfhydroxideAqueous solutions and solids absorb carbon dioxide,CarbonateorBicarbonateCause Of carbon dioxide at high pressureSaturationWhen the aqueous solution is cooledOctahydrate Cause

Alkali metalExcept for highly reactive substances such asFlammabilityThere is no.carbonSubstances containingoil,coal,woodEtc.)combustion, Flora and faunaBreathe,microorganismbyorganic matterDisassembly,VolcanoIt is caused by activities. Converselyplant OfphotosynthesisCarbon dioxide variesOrganic compoundToFixedIs done.

In addition,Three points (56.6- ° C, 0.52 MPa) Under the above temperature and pressure conditions, carbon dioxide liquefies. More temperature and pressureCritical point (31.1 ° C, 7.4 MPa)Supercritical stateTherefore, it has the characteristics of both gas and liquid. The carbon dioxide in these statesCompressed carbon dioxideorHigh density carbon dioxideIt is called.

toxicity

Carbon dioxide空 気It is a substance that is very common in the earth's environment, and its toxicity is unlikely to be a problem.However, when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air becomes high,Human capital(Human) is put in a dangerous state.When the concentration exceeds 3-4%headache-dizzy-nauseaWhen it exceeds 7%Carbon dioxide narcosisLoses consciousness in minutes. If this state continues麻 酔By actionRespiratory centerBreathing stopped due to suppression ofdeadTo (carbon dioxide poisoning)[4].. It is said that he will die with relatively little pain,vertebrate Ofslaughter,SlaughterIn the laws and regulations ofAnthropomorphicOften only allowed.Also,Lake water explosionThere are also accidents in which humans are killed or injured by carbon dioxide poisoning due to the act of sublimating a large amount of dry ice in a closed room, or the malfunction or operation of fire extinguishing equipment that uses carbon dioxide.Lake Nyos # 1986 DisasterIs famous).

stressOr fatigue may cause excessive breathing (ventilation) or excessively fast breathing (ventilation), resulting in an abnormally low concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood of the human body.Hyperventilate this, orHyperventilation syndromeCalled (hyperpnea syndrome). Although the pathology of hyperventilation syndrome itself is not life-threatening, caution is necessary because physical diseases may be hidden in the background.

Reactivity

Carbon dioxide is a very stable compound,baseGender orNucleophilicityIt has the property of easily reacting with substances that have.In particularGrignard reagent,Alkyl lithiumShows high reactivity to reagents such ascarboxylic acidgive.

(Hydrolysisrear)

Also metalmagnesiumBurns in carbon dioxide,reductionIs made into carbon powder.carbon,zincand鉄Even reacts at high temperaturesCarbon monoxideTo generate.

It decomposes reversibly at high temperatures to produce carbon monoxide andoxygenBecomes

hydrogenBoth produce the following equilibrium at high temperature,catalystDepending on conditions such as the existence ofmethaneandmethanolMay be generated (Water gas shift reaction).

Incidentally,school education OfscienceExperimentCarbon dioxide, etc.Lime waterIt is widely known that the substance becomes cloudy when passed through. this isCalcium carbonateTo produce a white turbidity.

Further, if carbon dioxide is continuously passed through the cloudy lime water, the reaction proceeds and the liquid becomes transparent. This is water solubleCalcium hydrogen carbonateThis is to generate.

生産

The carbon dioxide used as an industrial raw material in Japan ispetrochemistryプ ラ ン トProduced by recovering what is discharged from the product and repeating washing and refining[5]..The domestic production of carbon dioxide as an industrial product in Japan in FY2018 was 991,138. t[Annotation 1], Industrial consumption[Annotation 2]Is 149,035 t[6].. At the lab levellimestoneThinhydrochloric acidOr addsodium hydrogen carbonateGenerated by heating.Soft drinkThe carbon dioxide gas used in is also recovered from petroleum and used.

The United KingdomThen,ammoniaUtilizes by-products of manufacturing[7].

Use

Industrial use

In industry, it has the following uses.

Agricultural use

Agriculture:In, there are the following uses.

  • Strawberry OfForcing, Of the ornamental aquariumAquatic plantsIt is used for carbon dioxide fertilization that accelerates the growth of plants.
  • Carbon dioxide is also used for CA storage (controlled atmosphere storage) of fresh agricultural products.
Other
  • soda drink,Bath additiveIt is used as a foaming gas for fire extinguishing agents.
  • Widely used as cooling dry ice.
  • BicycleIt has also come to be used as an emergency supplement air.
  • Supercritical stateCarbon dioxide iscaffeine OfExtractionsolventAs,coffee OfDecafIt is used for.
  • RodentAnd animals such as small animalsSlaughterIt is also used in the method of doing. Normally麻 酔Lost consciousness after becoming a state,Suffocation deathTo reachEuthanasiaUsed as a means of. Carbon dioxide alone is low cost,oxygenAgainsthemoglobinDue to its high affinity, it may take more than 15 minutes and may continue to suffer[10].
  • Dry iceSublimationSince it sometimes produces white smoke, it is also used for directing on stage and in parades.This is commonly called "charcoal gas" in the broadcasting industry.This white smoke is not carbon dioxide itself, but the moisture in the air as the temperature of the atmosphere drops.FreezingIs what you see.

Greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxideInfraredSince it has a strong absorption band in the wavelength band of 2.5-3 μm and 4-5 μm, it prevents the heat from the ground from diffusing into the universeGreenhouse gasWork as.

Carbon dioxideGreenhouse effectIs about the same volumemethane,FreonAlthough smaller than the above, the amount of emissions is huge,Global warmingIs the biggest cause of

World Meteorological Organization(WMO) has an average annual carbon dioxide concentration of 2015 in the world in 400ppmI reported that I reached[11],Ice sheet coreFrom analysis such asIndustrial revolutionPreviously, it was estimated to have a concentration of approximately 280 ppm (0.028%).The main reason for the increase in concentration isFossil fuelIs considered to be a large consumption of.

In addition, the dissolved amount of carbon dioxide itself in seawater increases, which causes acidification of seawater and adversely affects the ecosystem.Ocean acidificationIs also a concern.

1997ToKyoto ProtocolThe government has set targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in each country, including carbon dioxide.

There are various methods.EnergyAnd agricultureAnimal husbandryEfforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from human origin, and森林Maintenance and training ofCarbon dioxide capture and storageEfforts are underway to fix carbon dioxide, such as the development of (CCS) technology.AlsoEmissions tradingEfforts are being made to promote the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide by utilizing the above.

2013 year 5 month,米 国Hawaii OfMauna Loa Observatory,San DiegoThe Scripps Ocean Research Institute announced that the average daily carbon dioxide amount exceeded 400ppm for the first time in human history.[12].

Calculation of world average concentration

Carbon dioxide levels are measured by various research institutes around the world, but they are not always measured according to uniform standards (that is, the comparability of each measurement is not guaranteed. is there).World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Global Atmosphere Watch(Global Atmosphere Watch) The program has various standards and methods that are unified around the world, including carbon dioxide concentration.Earth's atmosphereWe are measuring the components[13]..And the world average carbon dioxide concentration using it isWMO Annual Greenhouse Gas Report(WMO Greenhouse Gas bulletin) Has been announced.this isUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangePublished annually in conjunction with the Conference of the Parties, this global average concentration is reported by the world's leading media.In addition, the measurement data of each region in the Global Atmosphere Watch Program isWMO Greenhouse Gas World Data CenterIt is released free of charge from (World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases) (you need to follow the usage policy when using data).This data center is entrusted by WMO in JapanJapanese Meteorological AgencyIs operated by.

Carbon dioxide capture, resource recovery and separation

In addition to efforts to reduce new carbon dioxide emissions, in order to curb global warming as described above,工場-Thermal power plantTechnology for separating from the atmosphere has been developed by capturing carbon dioxide contained in exhaust gas (CCS mentioned above) and carbon dioxide capture from the atmosphere (DAC = Direct Air Capture).The carbon dioxide thus obtained can be stored underground orPlasticAnd used as raw materials for pharmaceutical products.Amine,Potassium hydroxideIn addition to the method of absorbingKyushu UniversityThen in the atmospherenitrogenDeveloped a membrane that is difficult to pass through and easily allows carbon dioxide to pass through[14].

Tokyo Institute of TechnologyEtc.ElectrochemistryAs a catalystrheniumComplexIn 2018, we announced the development of a method that can efficiently collect carbon dioxide even if the concentration of carbon dioxide is low.[15]..Prior to this, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, we used carbon dioxide.hydrocarbonWe have developed an organic synthetic reaction to react with. As a catalystrhodiumIs used to weaken the bond between carbon and hydrogen to react. The reaction proceeds at atmospheric pressure, but certain compounds andaluminumThere are also issues for practical use such as the need for.[16]

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注 釈

  1. ^ Excludes in-house use for fertilizer and soft drink production.
  2. ^ Consumed as raw materials, processing, and fuel for other products at the factory. Therefore, the amount consumed for production at other factories is not included.

Source

  1. ^ a b Merck Index 12th ed., 1857.
  2. ^ "Basic Hydrogen Strategy" aiming to build a carbon-free hydrogen societyMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAgency for Natural Resources and Energy(September 2018, 2) Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  3. ^ Greenhouse gas emissions (confirmed value) for FY2014 (FY26) <Overview>Ministry of the Environment (PDF)
  4. ^ Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the human body Okinawa CO2 Reduction Promotion Council (PDF)
  5. ^ Commentary by Showa Denko Gas ProductsorExplanation by Japanese liquid coal
  6. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Annual Statistics on Production Dynamics Chemical Industry Statistics
  7. ^ "Can't drink beer watching the World Cup? Carbon dioxide shortage hits the industry directly in the UK". CNN (September 2018, 6). 2018th of February 6Browse.
  8. ^ Development of basic chemical manufacturing process technology for carbon dioxideNational Research and Development AgencyNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(Retrieved September 2018, 7)
  9. ^ Dry ice blast Japanese liquid coal (PDF)
  10. ^ Euthanasia Animal experimentation technique
  11. ^ "WMO Annual Greenhouse Gas Report No. 12”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019th of February 4Browse.
  12. ^ "Atmospheric CO2 levels surpass historical levels, experts call for action". AFP (September 2013, 5). 2013th of February 5Browse.
  13. ^ Notomo Tsutsumi (2017). “New WMO / GAW Implementation Plan: About 2016-2023”. weather 64: 607-614. 
  14. ^ "CO2 directly recovered from the atmosphere / decarbonized savior without restrictions on economic activity""Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition February 2021, 2 (Science and Technology) Viewed on the same day
  15. ^ "Discovery of a new catalyst that can capture dilute carbon dioxide and turn it into a resource"Tokyo Tech News (December 2018, 12) Read January 4, 2019.
  16. ^ "Asahi Shimbun』Morning edition January 2011, 1 25 pages

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