New President Fujii, new officers, etc. The majority of directors are women
If you write the contents roughly
He was a professor at the Graduate School of Science, the University of Tokyo until last year, and retired in March.
On April 4, President Teruo Fujii was appointed as the 1st President of the University of Tokyo.The term of office is six years until March 31, 2027.Same day ... → Continue reading
Todai newspaper online
All student newspapers written and edited by students of the University of Tokyo from their own perspective. Through research interviews with professors and scientific news, we open research at the University of Tokyo to the public, as well as disseminate information on university sports bulletins and student-sponsored events. In addition to delivering useful information for examinations and job hunting, we also delve deeply into issues that are deeply related to the University of Tokyo and ultimately society, such as gender issues in admissions reforms, university policies, and higher education. "Student's point of view" is a strength not found in other media.
Wikipedia related words
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|Average effective age||Normal age||Average effective age||Normal age|
|South Korea||72.3||61.0||South Korea||72.3||61.0|
|イ ス ラ エ ル||69.4||67.0||NZ||66.4||65.0|
|Portugal||68.5||65.2||イ ス ラ エ ル||66.0||62.0|
|アイス ランド||68.1||67.0||アイス ランド||65.9||67.0|
|ハンガリー||63.4||63.5||チ ェ コ||61.3||62.7|
|チ ェ コ||63.2||63.2||スペイン||61.3||65.0|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||61.1||62.2||Greek language||60.0||62.0|
|OECD average||65.4||64.2||OECD average||63.7||63.5|
|* Normal age is the retirement age that is not reduced by pension payment.|
Retirement / suspensionWhat is (Retirement age)?Company,Public affairsWork forRegular employmentA certain personageWork when you reachretirement-RetiredThat age when you do..In addition, such a mechanism terminates the employment relationship and retires or retires (retirement).WorkerAutomatically reaches a certain age (retirement age)employmentThe system for ending the relationship is "Retirement age".
Whether or not the retirement age system has been introduced varies from country to country.JapanIt is well established,The United States of America,The United Kingdom,AustraliaThere is no retirement age system.
Even within the same country, it differs depending on the type of job and corporation.Once they reach retirement age, they may continue to be hired or rehired.
Retirement age in the world
The United States of AmericaSo, any discrimination against employment, employment conditions, wages, placements, job titles, etc. on the grounds of age for workers over 40Federal lawForbidden by.Some are exceptionally allowed in some occupations, but many aresoldier,Police officerIt is a government-related field job.In American private companies, there is no retirement system that is dismissal due to age or reemployment system that is demotion of wages, positions and assignments due to age, and retirement and ability at the request of the worker himself. You can continue to work for the rest of your life unless you are dismissed for a reason.Also for job hunting to prevent age-based job discriminationResumeTo the age of the applicantDate of BirthIt is not required to fill in, and it is prohibited by law for companies to ask applicants for age and date of birth until officially decided to hire, and the purpose is limited to confirmation of work qualification and taxation. .. ..
CPC Central Political BureauHas a 68-year-old retirement age system for members, and is based on the age at the party convention.In current Chinese politicsChinese Communist Party OfPolitical Bureau Standing Committee MemberSince it is unlikely that a person who is not the highest executive of the nation will become the highest executive of the nation, it is practically a retirement age system for national leaders.1997Before the retirement age was introduced inMao Zedong,Zhu De,Ye JianyingIt was not uncommon for a member of the Politburo Standing Committee in his 80s to be an example.
International Olympic CommitteeThe (IOC) committee has a mandatory retirement age of 80.
In order for companies to introduce the retirement age system, matters related to retirement ageLabor regulationsSpecified in (Labor Standards Act(Included in Article 89, "Matters Concerning Retirement"), and the rules of employment must be made known to workers (Labor Standards Law, Article 106).Japanese companiesPermanentとCivil servantMost of them have introduced a retirement age system.On the other hand, it is possible not to set a retirement age.
Setting different retirement ages for different occupations is especially practiced in companies that use workers engaged in harsh work.As an exception to the Elderly Employment Stabilization Law,Mining lawIn the business stipulated in Article 4Underground workIt is permissible to set a retirement age of less than 60 years old (Article 4-2 of the Enforcement Regulations of the Elderly Persons Employment Stabilization Law).Even when retiring by job type, consideration must be given to reassignment to less burdensome work and introduction of continuous employment.
Equal Employment ActBefore the enforcement of, there were many companies that set different retirement ages for men and women (in some cases, the retirement age of women was set extremely lower than that of men on the premise of marriage retirement).Supreme CourtIs 56Nissan Motor IncidentClearly denied the retirement age for men and women, and the subsequent enforcement of the Equal Law clearly prohibits the retirement age for men and women.[Annotation 1].
History in Japan
in Japan1959,Second Kishi Cabinet (reshuffle)ByNational Pension ActEstablished,National pensionWas introduced. Japanese who were 1950 years old for men and 58 years old for women in 61.5Average lifeIt is,1960Male 65.32 years old, female 70.19 years old,1970Male 69.31 years old, female 74.66 years old,1980The number of men was 73.35 and the number of women was 78.76, which was significantly increased, but in many companies, 55 was retired.
On July 1969, 7, a woman was dismissed from a company that had adopted a 1-year-old retirement age system for women.part timerIn the trial that was suingTokyo District Court"The youth retirement age system for girls unfairly discriminates between men and women and is invalid because it violates public order and morals."
1986[Annotation 2] OfAct on stability of employment of elderly people, etc.Retirement age of 60 becomes obligatory for companies due to revision of1994[Annotation 3]Retirement age system under 60 is prohibited by the revision of1998[Annotation 4]With the enforcement), 60 years old has become the standard retirement age in Japan. the year of 2000[Annotation 5]The company was obliged to make efforts to secure employment until the age of 65. 2004[Annotation 6]In 65, companies were gradually obliged to take measures to secure employment up to the age of 2006.[Annotation 7]Enforcement), in 2012, companies were obliged to continue to employ all desired workers until the age of 65 (enforcement in 2013)..
In July 2012, the retirement age was set to 7 to promote employment mobility.Japanese GovernmentProposal was announced..However, this is a precondition that "no matter how old you are, employment will be secured according to your aptitude, and depending on your health condition, you will be given a place to play an active role even if you are over 70 years old".The government has not come up with any concrete plans on how to establish and realize such preconditions in today's Japanese society, where it is extremely difficult to find a new job at the age of 40 or older.Therefore, in response to this proposal, "It is easy if the system to support job changes is not developed.RestructuringThere is a strong criticism that it will end up in the promotion of the government, and it is considered unlikely that it will be realized in the current Japanese society..
2012On August 8, the revised Elderly Persons Employment Stabilization Law was enacted, which obliges companies to introduce a continuous employment system for all applicants up to the age of 29 among employees who have reached retirement age at the age of 60.2013Enforced from April.. In 2012, the average life expectancy of Japanese people increased to 79.94 years for men and 86.41 years for women.
At that time, this amendment represented the interests of workers in the company.UnionAsked for "employment of all applicants"Business worldIs "of other employeesSalaryYou may be forced to choose between reducing the number of young people and reducing the number of young people hired. "..With the expansion of reemployment of retirees,Non-regular employee3% of companies are considering reducing..However, after the change of governmentAbenomicsWhen the economy improved a little, it immediately hit and changed to a state of labor shortage.Effective job openings-to-applicants ratio Bubble economyIt exceeded the period.As a result, not only small and medium-sized enterprises but also large enterprises have become more aware of labor shortages, and there is a growing movement to abolish the age limit for reemployment after retirement.2017It seems that workers decide the retirement age by matching the interests of workers who want to continue working with companies with labor shortages, such as senior employees who are active in search of "lifetime active duty" are being featured in newspapers. I was like.
Transition to continuous employment system
Elderly Person Employment Stabilization ActAccording to the company, if a company sets a retirement age, it cannot be under the age of 60 (Article 8 of the Elderly Persons Employment Stabilization Law).pension(Employee pension) Is raised to 65 years old, and the company (user) is forced to take action.
AmendmentElderly Person Employment Stabilization ActAccording to (Effective April 2006, 4 for the following), employers must take one of the following measures to secure stable employment up to the age of 1 (stabilization of employment of elderly people). Law Article 65).Prior to that (revised in 9), it was an effort obligation provision to encourage continued employment until the age of 2000.
- Introduction of continuous employment system (Due to the revision of the law, from April 2013, 4, those who are eligible for the continuous employment systemLabor-management agreementCan no longer be limited by.If a labor-management agreement is established by March 2013, 3, the target age will be rounded up as a transitional measure until March 31, 2025.)
- Raising the retirement age to 65
- Abolition of retirement age
According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Labor Bureau's "FY24 Survey on Continued Employment of the Elderly," the overwhelming majority of establishments are implementing "introduction of continuous employment" for measures to secure employment for the elderly, at 86.1%. , "Increase in retirement age" was 9.1%, and "Abolition of retirement age" was 2.4%.In addition, 5.9% of establishments did not implement any measures.
It is also necessary to stipulate in the work regulations that the retired employees will continue to be employed.Continued employment is a system in which an elderly person who is currently employed will continue to be employed after retirement when he / she wishes.Since it is no longer possible to limit the number of people eligible for continuous employment due to the revision of the law, it must be targeted at all applicants, and the employer fully confirms the intentions of the workers when operating the system. It is necessary.
Legally reached retirement agebirthdayIt is possible to retire from the day before the retirement age, but when the retirement age is reached depends on the company.The main methods are as follows.
When it is a birthday
How to retire on a birthday when you reach retirement age.It may be the end of the birthday.Joining (hiring) all at once in April (when new graduates) (Mid-career hiringIf you take this method at a company, even if you join the company at the same age or the same age, there will be a difference of up to one year in working period depending on your birthday (born March / April 1). Because those who were born in April (after the 3nd) can work for almost a year longer than those who were born).Also, if you hire employees so that the number of vacancies will be zero as of April, and if you do not hire new employees until the next April, those who have reached retirement age will gradually quit during that time, and as of March, The largest number of vacancies.As a method similar to this, many companies set the end of the month of birth or the closing date of monthly salary calculation as the retirement date.
With this method, there is a difference of up to one year in working period, so even if you join the company at the same time, have the same age, and have exactly the same job title and treatment, you will have a lifetime.wage・ The amount of retirement allowance will be different.In particular, those born on March and April 3 can work for nearly a year longer than those born on or after April 4, so the amount of lifetime wages and retirement allowances will increase accordingly.
Grand Sumo OfmasterRetirement ageSumo AssociationThen, it is written as follows) adopts this method, even ifBook placeEven in the middle of the retirement age, the master must retire at the same time as he reaches his 65th birthday.部屋The owner must decide on a successor and file a room succession notice before celebrating his 65th birthday (in a room without a master).Wrestler TheBook placeBecause there is a regulation of the Sumo Association that you can not participate in).Depending on the circumstances of the room, the active wrestler may retire on the day before his 65th birthday and take over the room (in the current Sumo Association, the active wrestler takes the position of master).Two-ticketIs not allowed)[Annotation 8].
When aligning by year
A method of aligning the retirement dates of people who retire in that year
For example, "The retirement date is the first March 60 after the 3th birthday (people who turned 31 on April 4 will retire on March 1 (60) the following year)" It is decided by the regulations of the company.By doing so, it is possible to avoid a situation in which the number of vacancies gradually increases by the next batch hiring date.This methodCivil servant(Non-term systemSDFexcept for[Annotation 9]) And companies that manage personnel on the assumption that new graduates will be hired all at once in April (for example)Railway companyEtc.) are often used.In such companies and government offices, if there is a vacancy for some reason before the hiring date, there will be an off-duty person.overtime work(Holiday work).
Intention of retirement age
DentsuIn a 2006 survey, 77% of men wanted to work in an organization after retirement (75% wanted a company that worked before retirement), and of those who wanted to work, they wanted to work full-time. 47%, part-timePart-time jobThe number of applicants is 40%.
- * The subject of the survey was born in 1947 and 1948.The source is "2007 Survey Report for the Baby Boomer Retirement Market Strategy" Real Life after Retirement II ""
Retirement age is a system in which, apart from the normal retirement age, when a certain age is reached, the retirement age is lost and the employee becomes a regular employee.Although only a part of private companies are specified as a system, it is considered that the actual retirement age including relocation is widely adopted including civil servants.For example, if you are a local government employeePublic corporationFor employees, etc., if working at a central government agencyMinistry of FinanceFrom important ministry executives such as section chiefsOuter organizationへdescend from heavenand so on.It is generally set in the early to mid 50s, and is considered to be one of the reasons why the average annual income in the late 50s is lower than the average annual income in the early 50s.In addition, the fact that public corporations have a higher proportion of executives than general companies is also affected by the fact that they are often hired as directors / counselors in order to relocate to work without subordinates without lowering the superficial rank. It is thought that there is.In addition, even if it is a director / counselor, the actual authority is in a higher-ranking organization (prefectures if it is a municipality, central ministries if it is a prefecture, senior officials if it is a central ministry, etc.) Therefore, it becomes a practical regular employee.
Even if the employee reaches retirement age, he / she has many years of experience and achievements, so the job description and treatment are often different from those of ordinary regular employees, as in the case of continuous employment after retirement. A 2004 survey by the Labor Administration Research Institute revealed that about 4% of companies have introduced it.
Retirement age in each industry in Japan
Baseball, soccer, etc.ProfessionalSportsIn the world of, the 40-year-old retirement age theory is often said because of physical strength.Although the retirement age is not set specifically, it is because (as an active player) it is not physically competitive with the new generation players, and even if it is possible to continue active duty physically, it will promote generation change as a team. It is normal to have to retire.However, there are quite a few players who have been active over the age of 40.
Group ball games
The oldest active record of Japanese professional baseball playersYamamoto Masa50 years old (retired in 2015), USAMLBThe oldest active player record isSatchel Page59 years old (retired in 1965), JapanB LeagueThe oldest active player record isTakeshi Orimo49 years old (retired in 2020), USANBAThe oldest active player record isKevin Willis44 years old (retired in 2007).As of 2020, there are professional baseball players and professional basketball players who are over 40 years old in both Japan and the United States.JapaneseJ LeagueThen.Chiura Miura-Teruetsu Ito-Shunsuke NakamuraEach of them is over 40 years old and continues to be active.The oldest active player in the soccer world is 73 years old in Israel.
Professional golfIn, boys are 50 years old and girls are 45 years old, and basically they will change tours in the category called "senior", but there is no retirement age for regular tours, and after the senior age However, if the conditions such as the acquisition of seed rights are met, it is possible to continue participating in the regular tour.Therefore, some players may participate in regular races in parallel with seniors.Shoji OzakiThere are also players who refuse seniors and continue to stick to regulars. As of 2018PGA TourThe oldest participation record is 77 years old,Japan Professional Golf TourThe oldest participation record isIsao Aoki74 years old.
In sumo wrestlers, there is no retirement age for active wrestlers, but most wrestlers gradually lose their physical strength in their thirties.NumberingIt is normal for wrestlers to retire, and many wrestlers retire in their 20s due to injuries or poor grades, and few can continue to be active at the age of 40 or older (Ten carsとMakushitaBecause of the large difference in treatment, even if it is possible to continue working under the Makushita, it is often the case that Juryo will retire.)It is one of the few exceptionsAsahi PengshengCelebrated his 2014th birthday as an active Makuuchi wrestler on September 9, 13, and continued to be active until July 40 of the following year, but the appearance of Makuuchi wrestlers over 7 years oldNayoroiwa ShizuoIt was the first time in 60 years since then, and it was the first time in history since 6 when sumo wrestling became a six-place system a year.Also,Ryuji AmishiAlso celebrated his 2018th birthday as an active Juryo wrestler on October 10, 3, and continued to be active until July 40 of the following year.In addition, as an active wrestler under the MakushitaHanakaze DaisakuIs celebrating his 2021th birthday on May 5, 28.
Most retired sumo wrestlers leave the corner and take up another profession[Annotation 10]However, among the wrestlers who meet the prescribed requirements, those who wishmaster,Youth head-CaretakerAsJapan Sumo AssociationCan remain in.Retirement age in that case (Japan Sumo AssociationIn the notation, "retirement age") is 65 years old, but when this retirement age system was introduced in the early 1960s, only the master was 65 years old.Gyoji-call-TokoyamaThe retirement age was set at 60 years old.However, the retirement age was gradually extended for positions other than the master, and all of them are now 65 years old.In addition, in sumo wrestling,Mitsuru IchinoyaEven after the age of 46 under the Makushita, such as (active until 11 years and 40 months)managerThere are also some examples of continuing to be active in the form of a side job (List of wrestlers who continued to be active until the age of 40 or olderSee).In addition, a continuous employment system for parents aged 2014 and over was introduced in 65, and applicants are allowed to continue employment until the age of 70.
Professional boxingThen, for safety management reasons, in Japan after the 1980s, as a general rule, the license expires at the age of 37.However, this is a regulation in Japan, and some players may be over 37 years old.Yoshinori NishizawaThere are also people who continue to be active after reacquiring a license in a foreign country, such as (active until 47 years old).Also, in the 21st century, there are calls for a review of the retirement age system, and from 2001, active champions will be deferred until the fall of the throne, and tournament contestants will be deferred until they win or lose the tournament. Since 2003, it has been possible for experienced champions, experienced world champions, and active rankers to participate in the match even after the age of 37, provided that they pass the special diagnosis by the commission doctor.Although it is still under consideration, there is an opinion that the retirement age of professional boxers should be raised to 40 years old in the future...There is no retirement age system in the American professional boxing world like Japan, but there are states where medical checks including physical fitness tests are stipulated for some athletes aged 37 and over...By the way, the oldest match participation record that remains as an official record is60 years old.
On the other hand, in Japan, women's professional boxing has a short history since it was just launched in 2008, and in addition to the fact that the number of players is insufficient, the lifespan of players tends to be longer than that of boys., There is no strict retirement age system like boys, and at the beginning, anyone with a track record in the amateur era was allowed to take the protest by removing the upper limit.Therefore, he continued to be active until he was 46 years old.Kazumi Izaki(Continued to be active in foreign countries even after retirement) and succeeded in winning the world title at the age of 44, the oldest in JapanNao IkeyamaThere are also senior records such as.
wrestlingUnlike professional boxing, there is no retirement age, and it is not uncommon for players in their 50s and 60s to continue working if they are confident in their physical strength.However, in the case of older players, it is physically difficult to play against younger players, and in many cases, games between players of the same age are the main games.[Annotation 11].. The oldest active Japanese professional wrestler as of 2020 was born in 1942.Great deerIs.Among non-Japanese professional wrestlers, like Oshika, he was born in 1942.Mil MáscarasContinues to be an active wrestler.Also born in 1941Dolly Funk Jr.Announced his retirement in 2008, but in fact he continues to play unofficially in the match.
All Japan Women's WrestlingWas once equipped with a "25-year-old retirement age system", but turned 25 during a rivalry with other organizations.Bull NakanoIt was abolished as a result of admitting a special case.By the way, in AmericaMae YoungWas an active female professional wrestler in the game until the age of 87, and did not announce her retirement until her death at the age of 90.
Horse racing OfJockeyThere is no retirement age system in Japan, but as the physical strength declines with age, the number of riders, the number of wins, and the arrival rate decrease, and it is normal for them to eventually retire. As of April 2020Central horse racingThen.Yukio Okabe56 years old, in local horse racingMorishita Hiroshi64 years old is the oldest record respectively.
For retired jockeysTrainer,Training assistant,ClerkSome people have jobs related to horse racing, but they need to go through a prescribed test or course.In 1989, the "70-year-old retirement age system" was introduced for central horse racing (however, since there were many trainers over 70 years old at that time, a 10-year transitional measure was set up and it was fully operated from 2000).Therefore, in the pastShigeharu NaitoBecame a hot topic when he took the jockey license exam at the age of 69 as a trainer (however, he could not pass the exam)...The retirement age for grooms is set at 65.Regarding local horse racing trainers and grooms, the existence and age of retirement age differs depending on the place of affiliation.
Shogi world / Go world
Shogi worldThen,Place battleYou can continue to be active until how old you are as long as you maintain the ability to participate in (the record of the oldest appearance in the ranking battle in the shogi world isKato77 years old[Annotation 12]), Those who have fallen from the ranking battleFree classIn this case, if he cannot return to the standings by the year he turns 60, he will be retired.You can also move to free class by yourself as a "free class declaration", but in this case you will be retired when you have completed all the games in the year when you turned 65.
On the other hand, there is no ranking battleGoThere is no retirement age in the world, and the status of an active player is guaranteed until the person dies or retires himself.Known as the oldest Go player in historyMasao SugiuchiContinued to play an active role as a professional shogi player without retiring until his death in 2017 at the age of 97.Also, his wife was born in 1927.Sugiuchi HisakoIs also active as the oldest female shogi player.
Until the 1980s, he was over 35 years oldprogrammerThere was a recognition that he could not cope with harsh working conditions and new technologies that appeared one after another, and the "35-year-old retirement age theory" was often talked about.Today, such a trend is a thing of the past, and there is a certain demand for experienced programmers. There are many programmers who are active on the front lines even if they are over 40 or 50 years old, but for older programmers, sales with a higher unit price andmanagementSome companies recommend turning to a department.
specificgovernment officialThe retirement age is specified by law.There is a mandatory retirement age for Diet staff according to Article 15-2 of the Diet Staff Law.For other national civil servantsNational Civil Service LawThe provisions of Articles 81-2 to 81-6HR rulesThere is a retirement age according to 11-8.Local civil servantThere is also a retirement age similar to this.
- Supreme CourtWith the judgeSummary courtJudge-70 years old (Court law(Article 50)
- High CourtとDistrict courtとFamily courtJudge-65 years old
- Attorney General --65 years old (Public Prosecutors Office Law(Article 22)
- OtherProsecutor - 63-year-old
- Fair Trade CommissionChairman and Fair Trade Commission member-70 years old (Act on Prohibition of Private Monopoly and Ensuring Fair Trade(Article 30)
- Inspector --65 years old (Board of Audit Law(Article 5)
Retirement age was not as widespread as it is todayDainichi this empireEven in the timesImperial Army and NavyThere was a de facto retirement age system in.For example, of the Army and NavygeneralIs 65 years oldLieutenant generalIs 62 years oldMajor GeneralIs 60 years oldColonelIs 56 years oldLieutenant colonelIs 54 years oldMajorIs 52 years oldCaptainIs 50 years oldLieutenantとLieutenantWas 47 years old.However,MarshalThe award-winning general is virtually never on the front lineHonorary positionWas a lifelong system (for example, was awarded the Marshal)Heihachiro TogoWas an active admiral until his death at the age of 86).In addition, he rarely serves as a captain until he is 50 years old, and in the case of junior officers, before retirement age.Reserve roleIt was usually done or promoted.
In the current Self-Defense Forces, SDF personnelSelf Defense Force ActThe retirement age is set by the enforcement ordinance, but an early retirement recruitment system is available for those who receive a salary of 1st class land, sea, or air (XNUMX) or higher.May be applied.
NHK OfannouncerIs generally up to 60 years old, but is an executive announcerCommentatorJob titles such asManagement), The retirement age is recognized at the age of 57 as the "retirement age for officers".After that manyContract employeeAs it remains on the NHK main body,Japanese CenterThere are cases where the announcement work is done in the form of transferring to.
JapaneseKey stationIt is sometimes said that the female announcer in Japan is a 30-year-old retirement age theory as a station announcer.Fuji Television Network, IncThen.1969Until the female employee is 25 years old, and beyond thatTemporary workerIt was employment as.2015ToYumi MasudaHas reached the retirement age of 60 for the first time as a female announcer of the same station.
Although the retirement age is 60 (57 years old at the time of introduction), students must be unmarried, so even before the retirement age, those who get married must retire from the opera company.
LDPIn 2000,Hironori NonakaLDP secretary generalByHouse of RepresentativesProportional sectionCandidate is 73 years oldHouse of CouncilorsIs a 70-year-old retirement ageSome members of the Diet retired when their term of office expired, but the system has become a mere ghost because there are many members who have been officially recognized as special cases.ThisKensaburo Hara(93 years old at that time),Yoshio Sakurauchi(88 years old at that time) BothChairman of the House of RepresentativesEtc. were forced to retire.At that time, the former prime minister who was number one in the lifetime proportional listYasuhiro NakasoneとKiichi MiyazawaWas an "exception" for those over 80 years old,2003 Lower House electionWas the president at that timeJunichiro KoizumiStrictly applied the retirement age system and retired (Nakasone was transferred to the proportional ward at that timeRyutaro HashimotoLDP PresidentHe was guaranteed the number one place for the rest of his life, and accused Koizumi of saying that this was "political terrorism").However,2005 Lower House electionThen 74 years oldSeiji NakamuraIn the Okinawa constituencyKomeitoAs a "special case" for the adjustment of the constituency with, it has been listed in the proportional list.2017 Lower House electionThen, by reducing the number of single-member constituencies,Proportional Kinki blockでShinsuke Okuno(73 years old at that time),Proportional Kyushu blockでHiroyuki Sonoda(75 years old at that time)[Annotation 13]Has been listed on the proportional list in the first place in proportionality alone.House of Councilors election in 2019Then, 70 out of 9 people over 7 years old were officially recognized as a special case at the end of their term (the age in parentheses is the age at the end of their term:Akiko Shandong(77 years old),Yoshifumi Tsuge(73 years old),Toshio Yamada(72 years old),Shun Hanyuda(71 years old),Nobuaki Sato(71 years old),Shinichi Eto(71 years old),Yoshio Kimura(71 years old)).
KomeitoAlso has a retirement age system, which stipulates that "it is not officially recognized for elections over the age of 66 while in office."However,Tomio Fujii(81 years old at the time of retirement)Sakaguchi force(78 years old at the time of retirement)Ikenobo Yasuko(70 years old at the time of retirement)Akihiro OtaIn some cases, it is officially recognized as a special case, such as (2014 years old when the House of Representatives was elected in 70).
University faculty members stipulate the retirement age in the work regulations of each corporation, and generallyNational University CorporationThe retirement age of teachers is often around 60 to 65 years old.Also has a private universitySchool corporationHas a retirement age of 65 to 70 years old.For university faculty, after graduating from undergraduategraduate SchoolIt is around 27 years old at the earliest to go on to graduate school and complete the doctoral program.Since there is a difference of about 5 years from those who get a job after graduating from undergraduate school, especially at private universities, the retirement age is often 60 to 3 years older than the retirement age of 10, which is the general retirement age of society. ..Many national university corporations have a retirement age of 60 to 65 years old, but even if they reach retirement age, faculty members with excellent research achievements and experience may be rehired by private universities. Due to the large number, the retirement age will be extended until around 70 years old.However, since the 2000s, many corporations employ them as fixed-term teachers for 3 to 5 years.In addition, even if the employment contract ends at the retirement age, the treatment will be lower than before, but in many cases, employment will be continued as a part-time teacher who is in charge of several classes a week.In addition, Western universities have a system to guarantee the status of active professors for a lifetime to professors who are recognized as having exceptional achievements, and Japan also has a system.Meijo UniversityThere are some private universities that have a tenured professor system following the Western world.
サ ッ カ ー OfUmpireWas once adopted a retirement age system.Currently, he has no retirement age, but he cannot participate without his ability.In the past, international referees were 45 years old (until 2015) and Japanese first-class referees were 1 years old (until 50). Professional baseball refereeThe retirement age is 58 years old, but depending on the ability, it can be up to 65 years old.JapaneseIce hockeyThe retirement age of the referee is 50 years old (until March 3 of the end of the year)..Japan Professional BoxingUmpireThe retirement age is 70 years old (since 2007).
- ^ CurrentEmployee pensionIn the so-called "Specially provided old-age welfare pensionThe fact that the age at which payment starts differs between men and women is a reminder that the retirement age for men and women was common in the past.
- ^ Life expectancy is 75.23 years for men and 80.93 years for women.
- ^ Life expectancy is 76.57 years for men and 82.98 years for women.
- ^ Life expectancy is 77.16 years for men and 84.01 years for women.
- ^ Life expectancy is 77.72 years for men and 84.60 years for women.
- ^ Life expectancy is 78.64 years for men and 85.59 years for women.
- ^ Life expectancy is 79.00 years for men and 85.81 years for women.
- ^ OnceOshima stableWas the master ofAsao KunioRetired as a master on April 2012, 4, but was the successor to the room.Asahi PengshengAll the wrestlers who belonged to the Oshima stable, including Asahi Tenpeng, wanted to continue working without retiring.Tomotsuna RoomThe Oshima stable was closed after transferring to.
- ^ Non-term SDF personnel have birthdays
- ^ In the past, the Japan Sumo Association called this "closed business", and only when it remained in the association as a master was called "retirement", but now both are unified as "retirement".
- ^ There are exceptions,Verne GagneAt the age of 58AWA World Heavyweight ChampionshipRetired while holding.Made 4 months before retirementGiant babaThe defense battle with (44 years old at that time)Wrestling Grand PrizeWas selected as the best match of the year.Baba was also one of the professional wrestlers who had a long working life, and he continued to work as an active wrestler until he died at the age of 61.
- ^ The oldest appearance record of the ranking battle in the shogi world until 2016 isYuzo MarutaIt was 76 years and 11 months old, but Kato broke the record in 2017.The day after Maruta's 77th birthday, Kato retired from active duty at 77 years and 5 months.
- ^ Died in November 2018 while in office.
- ^ Working Better with Age (Report). OECD. (2019). two:10.1787 / c4d4f66a-en.
- ^ "Daijisen"
- ^ [Diversity evolution theory] Retirement age, even countries that are not overseas-Let's remove the age measure(OECDYumiko Murakami, Director of Tokyo Center), "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition February 2019, 2 (female side) Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- ^ "About the retirement age of the XNUMXth King of Bhutan”. Honorary Consulate General of the Kingdom of Bhutan. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
- ^ "Discrimination between men and women is unfairly dismissed by the company" "Asahi Shimbun" July 44, 1969, morning edition, 7th edition, page 2
- ^ Average life expectancy of Japanese, the number one in the world for women for the first time in two years -"Nihon Keizai Shimbun(September 2013, 7)
- ^ "40-year-old retirement age" for employment liquidation The government has a long-term vision("Nihon Keizai Shimbun" July 2012, 7 article)
- ^ Frontier Subcommittee Report
- ^ Pros and cons of the suddenly emerging "40-year-old retirement age system" Easy restructuring promotion("Sankei Shimbun』August 2012, 8 article)
- ^ "Amended Elderly Employment Law enacted = mandatory to continue until age XNUMX”. Jiji Press (August 2012, 8). 2012/12/24Browse.
- ^ ""Continue until 65 years old" is a groove between labor and management Company "Young people cannot be hired""." Nihon Keizai Shimbun "(May 2012, 3). 2012/12/24Browse.
- ^ "Expansion of reemployment of retirees, XNUMX% responded by "non-regular reduction""." Nihon Keizai Shimbun "(May 2012, 12). 2012/12/24Browse.
- ^ I can still do it!Labor shortage that spreads the success of seniors ... Reemployment after retirement Age limit abolished one after another --"Nihon Keizai Shimbun" (June 2017, 6)
- ^ "Retirement age is decided by myself" Abenomics 80 trillion yen key for active duty until 600s - Bloomberg(2016 7 年 月 日 12)
- ^ The arrival of the labor shortage era (above) -Background and macro consequences- - Fujitsu Research Institute(2014 8 年 月 日 18)
- ^ Retirement age 40 years old, association decides request to JBC
- ^ Will Hidenori Otake crush Dogboe's unified battle plan?
- ^ "Former world champion who fought until the age of 60, Soul Mambi died". Boxing news(July 2019, 12) 2020/1/4Browse.
- ^ "Hideyuki Ohashi New Year Interview Former WBA / WBC World Minimum Class Champion Japan Professional Boxing Association Chairman" I want to raise the profile to the world. ". Town news(July 2014, 1) 2021/2/25Browse.
- ^  There is no "retirement age" for jockeys
- ^ About early retirement recruitment system(Cabinet Personnel Bureau)
- ^ "Liberal Democratic Party: XNUMX candidates for the first official recognition of the Upper House election are decided". Mainichi Newspapers (September 2018, 7). 2019/6/26Browse.
- ^ Japan Hockey Association Official Judge Regulations
- Regular employment
- lifetime employment
- Aging society
- Resting age
- Real year
- 2007 issue
- Age discrimination
- Act on stability of employment of elderly people, etc.
- Retirement encouragement
Ancient roman calendar(Julian calendar(Before) the first month of the year3Hits. As a remnant of adjusting the number of days in the last month of the calendar at that timeleap yearWill be adjusted in February.
March in Japan
JapanThen.Yayoi(Yayoi),Kagetsu(Kagetsu),Katsuki(Kagetsu),Cherry-blossom viewing (Hanamizuki),Dream moon(With dreams),Sakuratsuki(Sakurazuki),SpringThere are other names such as (Boshun).
in Japan年度Replacement (mainlyfiscal year,school year) Is famous as the time. Through the moonGraduation ceremony,farewell partyIs held, and it is also the time to meet and part. Also,spring vacationAt the end of the current month,Personnel changeAnd many schools, companies, government offices, etc. become busy due to moving, transition work, and beginning of new life.
Kagetsu (Kagetsu), Kishun (Kiharu), Kurenoharu (Late Spring), Kenshinzuki (Kentsutsuki), Sakurazuki (Sakuratsuki), Satsuki Satsuki (Hayahana Sakitsuki), Sangetsu (Sericulture Moon) ), Shuketsu (shukutsuki), Tougetsu (Momotsuki), Hanamizuki (Hanamitsuki), Harushimitsuki (Spring Moon), Banshun (late spring), Hiinatsuki (Hinatsuki), Yayoi (Yayoi), Yume Mizuki (Yume Mitsuki)
September annual events
- May 3 - 雛まつり(Japan)
- May 3 - International Women's Day
- May 3 - Todaiji TempleNigatsu-doTaking water
- May 3- White Day
- May 3 - St Patrick's Holiday(アイルランドSuch)
- spring equinox3 days before (May 3Around)- Enter the cluster amaryllis(Japan)
- Equinox day (May 3Around)- 春分 の 日(Japan),Knowles((I.e.Such)
- May 3からMay 4Sunday between (1 day only, unspecified date)- Easter(キ リ ス ト 教Cultural countries)
Sports held in September
- First Sunday- Tokyo marathon(Tokyo Ward）
- First Sunday- Nagoya Women's Marathon(Nagoya city）
- Early to late- Grand SumoMarch place (Osaka Prefectural Gymnasium）
- Mid- Phoenix Award Race(Boat racing）
- Mid to April 4st Monday- NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament(March Madness)
- Mid to April- NCAA Women's Basketball Tournament(March Madness)
- Mid to late- Winners Cup(Bicycle race)
- Late to early April- Selected High School Baseball Tournament(Hanshin Koshien Stadium）
- Late- Professional baseballOfficial game start
- Late- Dubai meeting(Horse racing Maidan Racecourse）
- Late- World Figure Skating Championship
- Third Sunday or Fourth Sunday- Takamatsunomiya Memorial(Horse racing Chukyo Racecourse）
- 5th Sunday or October 4st Sunday- Osaka Cup(Horse racing Hanshin Racecourse）
July theme song
- Moving in March (song: Tomita Yasuko）
- March snow (song: Makihara Noriyuki）
- May 3 (song: Remioromen）
- Sakura March Walkway (song: Inoue Yosui）
- March (song: Fukunaga Eri）
- March (song: Electric groove）
- March (song: DOES）
- March 3th. (song:Plastic tree）
- March of Awakening (March) (Song:Hiro Takano）
- March story (Song:Makino Yui）
- Every March (composition, piano:Ken Muramatsu）
- ^ The origin of Yayoi is predominantly the theory that the moon "Kikusai and Ohizuki", which is overgrown with vegetation, is clogged up and becomes "Yayohi", and there is no particular objection to this.
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