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😷 | Request for shortened time of GW direct hit, hurry to respond Karaoke shop and commercial facility "Lastly"


Photo: Karaoke cafe that decided to close at night in response to the state of emergency in the prefecture = 23:4 pm on the 8rd, Heiwadori, Gifu City, Singer Palace

Request for shortened time of GW direct hit, hurry to respond Karaoke shop and commercial facility "Lastly"

 
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Masa 21 (Masaki Naka, the same city) is planning events such as e-sports and model railroads during the period, but the information has not arrived, and the person in charge says, "We will consider necessary measures after seeing the request." ..
 

In response to the spread of the new coronavirus infection, Gifu Prefecture requested restaurants and entertainment facilities in 9 cities including Gifu City to shorten their business hours ... → Continue reading

 Gifu newspaper


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Railway model

Railway model(Tetsudo Mokei) is a certainScale-GaugebyRailway car-line OfmodelSay

Overview

From objects that are sized to be pinched with your fingertips to objects that are a fraction of the actual size and can be towed and straddled by a passenger trolley, general train models that operate like the real thing and the surrounding scenes It is called a "model train".Of course, besides the size, there are also differences between the actual railway and the model railroad.For example, the difference from the actual railway line is that while the curves of many tracks in the model railroad are monocentric curves, in the actual railway lines, transition curves are often inserted before and after the curve.[1]..In addition, in the case of train models, there are differences in the power supply method.

Initially it was an expensive hobby, but as it becomes more popular, small-sized models tend to become more popular, reflecting the housing situation of the common people.Long time agoTinplateMade oftoyAlthough the boundary with was ambiguous, the vehicle and gauge were gradually determined by the scale and gauge.Layout-DioramaThe standard for collecting and running on the railroad tracks to enjoy the scenery of the railroad has come to be set.

A product that is manufactured in 1/3 the size of a real railway at amusement facilities and can be used inside a passenger car (UK:Romney Hythe & Dim Church Railroad, Japan: Shuzenji, IzuRainbow Town) And full-scale prototype mockups of railway vehicles are also models, but these are not generally called railway models.Also,Plastic modelTrain models that cannot run, such as railroad models and figurines, are also distinguished from model railroads.

Unlike other types of models, the special feature of model railroads is that they arelineBecause it is a thing that runs on, it is with a vehicleGaugeIs always paired.ScaleThe size varies depending on the type, but it is summarized to a certain number of scales.This is to make it possible to use ready-made products by setting standards on a scale.

History

The United Kingdom

EnglandIn19st centuryIt was produced from the beginning.Initially they were made for physical promotion.

1862ToUKMayers in the catalogsteam locomotiveWas posted.1898ToBassett-LowkeWas foundedGermany OfBingSubcontractingScale modelBegan to supply.Bassett-Lowke1921ToOO gaugeWas released.

Germany

1835ToAdlerIssue andzincMade of dollsPassenger carWas sold.1840The first made in Germanysheet metalThere is a record of the production of model railroads by.1886,BingLaunched the first product.1887, Schonner has released steam locomotives, passenger cars and railroad tracks with a scale of about 1/22 and a gauge of 65 mm and a scale of about 1/12 and a gauge of 115 mm.

1891,Märklin Leipzig MesseThe first model railroad was exhibited at.Märklin first produced model railroads named 0, 1, 2 and 3.1901For the first time in a magazinestandardization-specificationIt was decided that it would be based on the 1891 Märklin standard.

1922OO number (OO number) which is half the size of the 0 standard from BingOO gauge) Was released and was developed under the name of Bing-Tischeisenbahn (Bing desktop railway).at firstspringIt was a ceremony,1924Became electric.1935in springTricksFrom autumnMärklinOO gauge products have been released by.

Japan

At the end of the Edo periodImperial Russia OfPuchachinCame to JapanModel running on steamThere is a record that he showed off.Also,Perry Black shipUragaWhen I came to JapanEdo ShogunateIt is said that he presented a model of a steam locomotive to[2]..Kaei 6 (1853)How to refine the Saga domainMetHisashige TanakaMade a model of a steam car.Kogoro KatsuraIs the Napoleon (Yamaguchi Prefectural Yamaguchi MuseumThere is also a record of bringing back the warehouse.Also,Kaga OfBenkichi OhnoHas a record of making a model of a steam locomotive.These locomotives2003ToNational Science MuseumExhibited at the Edo Grand Exposition held in[3]..In this way, in Japan, the model was completed before the real thing.This deepened my understanding of the steam engine.afterwards,Ministry of RailwaysIt was made as a teaching material in.The model railroad powered by electricity was in Ueno in 1890.Tokyo Electric Light Sprague TrainWas driven 3rdNational Business ExpositionIt seems that it was exhibited at.This model was designed to run on a track laid on a circular table with a hand-cranked dynamo.Later, this model was the father of Takejiro Taguchi, a pioneer of Japanese live steam.Taguchi UkichiGot it[4]..This model was donated to the city of Tokyo[5].

In the latter half of the Meiji era, Kikuya in Ueno and GinzaItoyaModel locomotives from Japan can now be lined up in[6], From Germany or America2,1,O gaugeEtc. were imported and gradually spread mainly to enthusiasts.Department stores in the Kanto and Kansai regions began to focus on model railroads, and the transformer (manufacturing Kanden Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd.) included in the domestic model railroad set sold at Mitsukoshi was painted with the Mitsukoshi logo mark.[7]..As a manufacturer before World War IIAsahiya (Osaka),Seki Denki Seisakusho,Nishio Otokichi Model Factory,Chiyoda Keiki KosakushoAnd so on, and is still openKawai modelIs.However, the model at that time was a luxury item and an expensive toy for the wealthy children.[Annotation 1][Annotation 2]..Seki Denki Seisakusho was exporting to the United States and the United Kingdom.[10].

First published in 1924, "Children's science』To Kiyoto Homma[Annotation 3][Annotation 4]Serialized model making articles such as how to make an electric locomotive and the layout of a garden railway.Then Ichiro Yamakita[12][Annotation 5]Serialized articles on electric locomotives and electricity-related productions.And the Children's Science Agency (laterScience teaching materials company[13]) Started selling parts of model railroads such as motors, wheels, rails, transformers, and held a children's science exhibition to contribute to the development of model railroads.[4]..Kiyoto Homma advocates "50mm gauge" in "Children's Science" magazine[Annotation 6]This was the forerunner of the standard gauge of model railroads in Japan.Although it is a scale of this era, the products released are about 1/40 of the suspension and pantograph,CouplerWas 1/20, and the car body was not unified from 1/21 to 1/30 according to each person's preference. "Scientific pictorial"How to make a model electric locomotive" was written by Ken Kasai on 1/30.35mm gaugeIs adopted. The electric locomotive of this standard won the highest award at the 1927st Model Country Exhibition hosted by Children's Science held at Nihonbashi Mitsukoshi in 1, and attracted attention.Railroad (magazine)』Promoted this gauge[4]..Manufacturers have come to follow suit and release products[16], 35mm gauge became the mainstream of Japanese model railroad standard before the war.A model club called Mitoikai (played 35) was founded, and the venue was rented for frequent public driving.News movieWas taken up by[17].. on the other handO gaugeSome enthusiasts enjoyed producing the 32mm gauge of origin at a scale of 1 / 40-1 / 42, and the finished product was also on sale from Chiyoda Keiki Kosakusho. 1938 "Model Railroad"[Annotation 7]Ichiro Yuyama in the magazine[Annotation 8]Announced "Standard Gauge of Model Railway".In this article, if you use an O gauge with a gauge of 35 mm compared to the 32 mm gauge that goes on a road unique to Japan, you can run on the same track for the American type, British type, and Japanese type (although the scale is adjusted).[Annotation 9]He explained the advantages of the O gauge and recommended 1/45 for the Japanese scale.However, the backlash from 35mm gauge advocates created a conflict between the two, which continued until Japan lost World War II.[18][Annotation 10].. Also"Science and model] To "16 gaugeRegarding Japanese standards "Yoshiyo YamazakiWas also under attack with non-national thieves[20].

At the end of World War II, American officers who loved model railroads came to the model stores to order elaborate and expensive models, and the model stores became booming.EventuallyO gauge,HO gaugeBegan to export and tried to earn foreign currency[21].Tenshodo,Katsumi model storeHas been highly acclaimed for its high-end brass products for the United States.In addition, Toby model stores' products for Europe had a good reputation for details, running performance, and beautiful painting compared to the plastic products that were mass-produced in Europe at that time.OtherFujiyama, United = Joint,Kumada Trading, Orion and other foreign-type specialized manufacturers[22].1960 eraTo become and16 gaugeBecame popular mainly among enthusiasts[Annotation 11], Japanese-style vehicle products are mainly exported by manufacturers. For example, Tenshodo was as of 1968.[23]Steam locomotive is 9600 type only Electric locomotive is as of 1966[24]The situation was EB10 type, ED42 type, EF15 type, EF30 type, EF62 type.In addition, the superiority and inferiority of the product was severe, and in the product introduction of the magazine, "I had a hard time not to speak badly.[25]Was in a state of[Annotation 12]..The times are downAn era when exports are difficult due to exchange ratesAfter the arrival of the Japanese model, it shifted to the domestic market, and both the Japanese model and the mass were enhanced.[27].1980 eraOr later,N gaugeDue to the spread of[Annotation 13], The enthusiasts have expanded to the present.Also, the real thingLight railAnd some enthusiasts enjoy the narrow gauge model that reproduces the industrial trajectory.

miniaturization

1945A model railroad with a scale of 1/120 and a gauge of 12 mm from HP Products in the United States (TT gauge) Has been released.laterThe United Kingdom,West GermanyBut it was deployed.1960In England at the beginning ofLone starAnd West GermanyArnoldRailroad models with a gauge of 9 mm were released one after another fromN gaugeIt developed as.1972, 1/220 scale, 6.5 mm gauge from Märklin, West GermanyZ gaugeHas appeared.At that time, it was named Z because there was no smaller model.2008In JapanEishindoEven smaller scale 1/450, gauge 3 mmT gaugeHas been released.In addition, there is a record that Australian enthusiasts made 1/480 scale for self-propelled vehicles with internal power made by individuals, not mass-produced products.[29].

specification

For model railroads, scales, gauges, and electric ones電流-VoltageThere are various standards such as, and they are commercialized based on those standards.Also, if you make your own, it is often made to meet those standards.

The standard of the model railroad is the manufacturer and the group of lovers of the model railroad (NMRA,MOROPSince it is decided by (etc.), there are differences depending on the country / region, manufacturer, etc., and although there is commonality, they are not completely the same.The standards of each region are generally the same except for the difference between the metric system and the imperial system, but the names and scales may differ from each other.In this paper, we mainly use the names, gauges, and scales that are commonly used in Japan.

The name of the standard is called gauge in Japan and the United Kingdom, and scale in the United States (NMRA standard, etc.).

As a general rule, each standard is realStandard gaugeIt is a reduced gauge of 1435 mm (standard gauge model).In addition, there are narrow gauges that reproduce narrow gauges narrower than standard gauges and broad gauges that reproduce wide gauges.

Outline of model railroad standard
GaugespecificationScale (main ones)Overview
190.5 mm7.5-inch gauge1 / 7.5, 1 / 5.6Mainly used in live steam.
184.15 mm7-1 / 4 inch gauge
7.25-inch gauge
1/7.8Mainly used in Western live steam.
127 mm5-inch gauge
5 gauge
1 / 12, 1 / 8.4Mainly used in live steam.
89 mm3.5-inch gauge
No. 3 gauge (III)
1 / 16, 1 / 12Mainly used in live steam. It should be noted that the No. 20 (III) gauge [scale 3/1, gauge 24 mm] established in the United Kingdom at the beginning of the 64th century is a standard equivalent to the current No. 2 (II) gauge.
64 mm2 gauge(II)1/22.5現在の2番(II)ゲージは、20世紀初頭にイギリスで制定された3番(III)ゲージ〔縮尺1/24・軌間64 mm〕を起源とする規格である。20世紀初頭にイギリスで制定された2番(II)ゲージ〔縮尺1/27・軌間51 mm〕は廃れて、現在ではNMRA規格、NEM規格のどちらにも記載されていない。
50 mm50 mm gaugeUnspecifiedIn prewar Japan, Kiyoto Homma wrote a production article in a children's scientific journal and spread it.Later, when the 35 mm gauge became widespread, it became obsolete.
45 mm1 gauge(I)1 / 30.5, 1 / 32Used for ornamental purposes and live steam. 1 / 30.5 (10 mm scale) is mainly used in the United Kingdom.
G gauge1/22.5, 1/24, 1/29Gauges for garden railways, starting with German Lehmann products.Originally it is a 2 gauge narrow gauge.It is generally deformed (shorty) and a little toy-like, but there are deep-rooted enthusiasts.
35 mm35 mm gauge1/30Before the war in JapanScientific pictorialAdvocated by Ken Kasai in the magazine.After the war, it declined due to the miniaturization of motors and the spread of O gauge and HO gauge.
32 mm[Annotation 14]O gauge
0, 0, XNUMX
1/43, 1/45, 1/48
29.9 mm
Proto48
1/48Since the standard gauge is 1 mm at the scale of 48/29.9 of the American O gauge (O scale), it is a standard derived from the O gauge.
24 mmOJ gauge1/45Derived from the O-gauge in Japan among enthusiasts seeking precision.
22.5 mm[Annotation 15]S gauge1/64It is used in American flyers in the United States. It was also called H1 (Half 1) because it was half the size of No. 1.
19 mmOO gauge1/76Also with American OO.The American OO gauge adopted a gauge of 16.5 mm calculated from a scale of 1/76 instead of a gauge of 19 mm.It is now obsolete.
18.83 mmP4 gauge1/76It is one of the derivative standards of OO gauge and is called P1 gauge or Proto4. The relationship between scale and gauge is more accurate than OO gauge and EM gauge.
18.2 mmEM gauge1/76One of the derivative standards of OO gauge. The relationship between scale and gauge is more accurate than the OO gauge.Eighteen MThe origin of the name illimetres[1].
16.5 mmHO gauge1 / 80, 1 / 87Most popular in North America and the European continent.The Japanese model is mainly manufactured at 1/80, and has been adopted in Europe in the 1950s due to technical problems.
OO gauge1/76Popular mainly in the United Kingdom. It may be written together with HO such as OO / HO.
12 mmTT gauge1 / 101.6, 1 / 120Eastern EuropeIt is widely used in Japan.In the UK, a 1mm scale with a scale of 101.6 / 3 is used.
9 mmN gauge1 / 150, 1 / 160
6.5 mmZ gauge1/220
3 mmT gauge1/450The smallest model railroad model mass-produced and marketed in Japan as of 2010.

Scale

The scale is a "measure" and "scale", and the size is a dimension.in JapanMetric systemAlthough fractional display is the mainstream because is adopted,Imperial systemIn the United States, which employs 1フ ィ ー ト What is (304.8 mm)inchThe notation method of whether to make is used.

  • 例えば、1フィートを1インチとすれば、それは1/12サイズ(1インチスケール)であり、1/2インチとすれば1/24サイズ(1/2インチスケール)である。同じように3/8、1/4、3/16、1/8とすれば、それぞれ1/32サイズ、1/48サイズ、1/64サイズ、1/96サイズと表示される。

In the United Kingdom, the mm scale, which is a combination of the imperial system and the metric system, is used to indicate how many millimeters a foot should be.The scale of British model railroads is often based on the mm scale.

10mm scale = 1 / 30.5 ・ ・ ・ Scale of 1 gauge in England
7mm scale = 1 / 43.5 ・ ・ ・ Scale of O gauge in England
4mm scale = 1 / 76.2 ・ ・ ・ OO gauge scale
3.5mm scale = 1/87 ・ ・ ・ HO gauge scale (early OO gauge was also this scale)
3mm scale = 1 / 101.6 ... TT gauge scale in the UK
2mm scale = 1/152 ・ ・ ・ OOO gauge scale, and there is also a model standard with 9.42mm gauge at this scale.

Gauge

Initially, it was represented by the distance between the centers of the two rails that make up the railroad track, but now it represents the distance inside the head of the rail.

If you shrink the real thing, you can decide the gauge as you like, but in reality there are a certain numberGaugeIs aggregated in.

Standard gauge and narrow gauge / broad gauge

As a general rule, the standard gauge of the model is the one that is reduced based on the actual standard gauge (1435 mm).Although many narrow gauges are found in the actual products in Japan and South Africa, the models on the market often have standard gauge specifications.In Finland and Ireland, the actual product has a broad gauge, but the models on the market often have standard gauge specifications.

  • Narrow gauge: A general term for standards that model the actual narrow gauge railway (narrow gauge).There are relatively many railroad tracks and vehicles on the market.
  • Broad gauge: A general term for standards that model the actual broad gauge railway (broad gauge).There are only a few railroad tracks and vehicles on the market, and very few enthusiasts adopt it.In addition, the European NEM standard treats broad gauges up to 1700 mm as the same standard as standard gauge.
  • Narrow gauge and broad gauge standard notation
In European style, "XXm","twentieth","XXi (XXf)","XXp".The correspondence between these names and the actual gauge is as shown in the table below, and there is no one-to-one correspondence with the actual gauge.
Real gauge
1250 mm or more and 1700 mm or less850 mm or more and less than 1250 mm650 mm or more and less than 850 mm400 mm or more and less than 650 mm300 mm or more and less than 400 mm
Standard nameXX
(Standard gauge model)
XXmtwentiethXXi (XXf)XXp
In the American style, the actual gauge is made to correspond to the model standard, and the actual gauge is a narrow gauge standard with a 3-foot gauge.XXn3", Narrow gauge standard of 2 feet and half gauge"XXn2 1/2It is written as.
In the UK, like OO9 "XXYOr "XX-Y"(Y is the gauge of the model) is also used.

Course and fine

Course
Meaning "coarse".Since the model railroad was developed from toys, it was one of the indispensable conditions that it was difficult to derail.Therefore, it is expensive compared to the real thingFlangeWith thick tiresTurnoutNeeded a flog with a wide flange way. Since the "course" is not a toy, but emphasizes running performance (practicality), it often becomes the standard for model railroads.
Fine
Meaning "fine".After that, some people wanted a "fine" model.A group of models made of wheels and railroad tracks, especially points, as if they were made smaller, is called a fine gauge.A term used in all scale and gauge model railroads.Although it involves precision work, it often comes at the expense of driving performance in lightweight model railroads.It may include work to bring the gauge that is too wide closer to the scale.O gaugeIn the above, groups such as Proto48 are active.HO gaugeThe following is quite difficult, but groups such as Proto87 are studying.

Toy train tin plate

In one field of model railroad,Scale modelIs a term for.Many of the early model railroads were of this type, especially in the United States.Originally a high-class model, around 1936, when the era of mass consumption for Christmas gifts arrived.LionelAfter presenting a system that could be developed, it was popularized as an American standard model at once.Literally "tin plate" is a term that refers to a tin plate model railroad and is synonymous with the word hi-rail.It is a toy model railroad that uses tall hollow rails, and is designed to run high-flange vehicles, and the central three-wire current collection method is the mainstream.Recognized as a hobby not only for young people but also for adults, a large-scale exchange meeting and swap meet will be held for several days.

In the case of O gauge, the scale is about 1/64 to 1/48, but it is not constant.If you make it small, even a large machine can run with a small radius, so some products have a scale of 1/58.Although the tin plate has many O gauges,American flyerThen there is also an S gauge.This has adopted a two-wire system from the beginning.

Similar products in Europe and Japan are sometimes called toy trains or tin plates.In Japan, O gauge and 16 gaugeShortened type (shorty)The product is considered to be applicable.

方式 御 方式

AC method

Märklin,LionelThe central three-wire system is adopted, but the AC system does not necessarily mean that it is a three-wire system, and although it is a small number, it is an AC two-wire system or a DC three-wire system (described later). There is also a model railroad.1930 eraIs efficientrectifierAnd powerfulpermanent magnet For consumerIt wasn't on the market, soSeries winding motorelectromagnetThe combination with the direction change device (reversing machine) was adopted.InsulationWheelIt is still very popular because you don't have to use.

With the progress of electronics, the number of users who prefer the multiple control method (described later) has increased.Alternating currentThat saidSine waveThe number of AC-driven models that are not is increasing.

DC method

To get direct currentStorage batteryOr smallrectifierNeeded.automotive industryIn the developed United States,Selenium rectifierHas begun to be marketed for consumer use, so the standard "DC 12 V" was established by diverting this.Normally, a DC two-wire system that collects electricity only from the left and right rails is used, but there are a few DC three-wire model railroad models.TricksThen, there is a DC three-wire system "Trix Express" as opposed to a DC two-wire system "Trix International".

In the DC two-wire system, there are many products that move forward mainly when positive electricity is flowing through the rail on the right side when viewed from the vehicle.[30].

The advantage of the DC method was that it was possible to freely choose forward and backward without a mechanical reversing device.AC methodSeries winding motor OfFieldIf the magnetic field was set to a unidirectional magnetic field with an in-vehicle rectifier (this is called Polarized), the direction of travel could be switched with a single switch at hand.Second World WarLater Thepermanent magnet OfFieldAnd this isSequel motorAlthough it is not the most suitable type of motor for driving model vehicles, it has become widely used.

  • Series winding motorAt the start of the motor vehicle電流In proportion to the square oftorqueIs generated, it is easy to reproduce the actual departure (starting) situation, the current value decreases when cruising, the rotation drops on the uphill, the current value rises, and the traction force increases.On the other hand, with a permanent magnetFieldIn the motor with, the magnetArmatureBy sucking, even if you turn the wheelgearBecause the motor does not rotate through, the actual railroad vehicle惰行I can't reproduce how I do[Annotation 16].

In the current most advanced drive system, the rotation speed of the motor is driven by an acceleration / deceleration curve that imitates the real thing by electronic control, and Bemf (back electromotive force) is measured to keep the rotation speed constant.Also, it is not attracted to permanent magnets.Ironless core type motor (coreless motor)AdoptReverse drive worm gearPush and move in combination with (Free-rolling mechanism ) Motor vehicles have been put into practical use.

The voltage of 12 V is as mentioned above.automotive industryIt was a standard derived from, but when the track becomes longElectric resistanceCan no longer be ignored, and there is a debate about increasing the voltage, which can reduce the current value and reduce the voltage drop.1980 eraIt started in. There was also a move to boost to 24 V, but with the adoption of an efficient motor, that voice disappeared.O gauge,G gaugeThen.LayoutDue to the large scale of the 12 V car, 16-18 V may be adopted in some cases.

Multiple control method

It is a general term for a method of individually controlling a plurality of vehicles on the same track.Not only driving a vehiclehorn,Headlight-taillightBlinking of is also included in this concept.1960 eraFrom around that time, direct current was mixed with alternating current and flowed.frequencyAs a method of identifying byGeneral ElectricAstrack (Automatic Simultaneous Train Controls ,ASTRAC), And although there was a method of flowing alternating current and direct current at the same time,analogThe method was limited to controlling several units at most.There was also a Märklin delta system that used three-wire tracks.デ ジ タ ルIn the formulaHornbyThere were ZERO-1 of Märklin and Märklin Digital of Märklin.There was also a digital type called CTC-16.Both are dedicateddecoderIt was not possible to run on the same track as a conventional vehicle except for some parts.

2000 eraLaterDigital command control(DCC) has become a global standard, and vehicles equipped with connectors that are presumed to be equipped with DCC are becoming widespread in Europe and the United States. In theory, DCC can issue commands to 10 units at the same time when the address length is 1024 bits.

Drive system

When the model railroad appeared, it was designed to be pushed by hand.With the progress of the times, it became possible to drive the royal fern and run on its own by steam, and finally it became possible to control it from the outside by electricity.

It was an evolution to a smaller electric model that could be enjoyed indoors, rather than steam-driven, which had to be left unattended when humans had to ride and control it or start moving.Of course steam driveLive steamAlthough it has evolved specially as a model, the electric model has moved to a smaller size.

Wind-up drive

In the early model railroadMainspringThere was a power thing of the formula.They were called spring motors.It is still used in some tin railroad toys.

Method using steam engine

Initially, there were many things that combined a simple boiler and a single-acting oscillating engine, and once they started running, they continued to run until they ran out of water or fuel.In the meantime, a model that had a structure exactly the same as the real thing and was driven by a vehicle carrying a human became the mainstream.This is the same as the real thing in water supply, bonfire, operation, turbine generator andInjectorSomething to equip has appeared.In addition, a model has also appeared in which an articulated locomotive put into practical use in the United States is connected by the same ball joint air supply / exhaust pipe as the actual one.In addition, a model that uses a steam turbine to generate electricity and runs on an electric motor has also been prototyped.

It was temporarily obsolete due to the spread of electric models that can be easily driven, but the hurdles for realization are lower than before due to the entry of some enthusiastic enthusiasts and new manufacturers supported by them from the mid-1970s. It has become to.In addition, driving events have been held in various places where enthusiasts gather.

In addition,MärklinExisting manufacturers such as are also releasing new products.Advances in electronics have made it possible to radio control small models.1 gaugeThen many people have come to enjoy it. In the 2000sHornbyからOO gaugeThe electric steam locomotive was released, and the finished product that can control the whistle from the outside was also released.They areLive steamCalled,Garden railwayIt is enjoyed as one of the fields.

Method using an electric motor

The electric model started at the same time as the power distribution to the home.At the timePower InputIs because the performance was low for the high price.Alternating currentIn some areas before the start of power distribution to homesDCIt was distributed at.

Electrification was realized by adding a third rail for current collection to the steam engine or spring-type two-wire track that was initially adopted.To adopt the two-wire systemWheels and axlesTheInsulationSince I had to do it, I had to modify the vehicles that I had sold so far, but if I learned from the real thing and collected electricity from the third rail in the center, there would be no inconsistency with the previous products.In Japan, there was no real central three-line railway, so this type of current collection method was disliked as a toy, but in Europe and the United States, it was accepted as being the same as the real one.

at firstSeries winding motorMade by myselfTransformerorResistorWas controlled by.Some resistors used saline solution.SmallmotorAfter it was released as a model, the size of the motor vehicle that houses the motor was decided.In other words, the miniaturization of the model size was also the history of the miniaturization of the motor size.FieldMove the coil to the extension of the shaft, make a double-axis motor and make an axleTrolleyThe ingenuity at this time is remarkable.

The field iselectromagnetThe series-wound motor rotates with both AC and DC, just like the real thing.Locomotive,Electric trainIt had characteristics suitable for driving.At startup電流Starts in proportion to the square oftorqueIs generated, and the current decreases at the same time as the rotation increases.speedGradually according toVoltageIf you raise the value, you will be able to drive realistically.However, in order to reverse the direction of travel, the polarity of the field had to be reversed.Lionel,MärklinEt al. Operate by momentarily interrupting the currentrelayEtc. were developed and put on the market.HoweverTurnoutMay malfunction when passing through, due to the rotation of the motorCentrifugal forceA malfunction prevention device using the above has been developed by some enthusiasts.

1930 eraAt that time, an attempt to drive DC began.In some areas it was distributed by direct current, but in most areas it was distributed by alternating current.The United States of AmericaThen.motorizationByAutomobileSmall forrectifierWas released for consumer use, and the field current was changed.Selenium rectifierIt was devised to rectify with and reverse the polarity of the traveling current to reverse it.In addition, 12 V for automobiles was adopted as the standard voltage.

1940 eraTo become andpermanent magnetWas made into a fieldMagnet motorIs now on the market.It's small and lightweightpower consumptionThere were few, butMinute winding characteristicsIt was a thing that had a given voltage and the number of revolutions was directly proportional.Then, control by voltage control by electronic components is preferable to current control by resistance.this isTransistor controllerPromotes the development ofLeostatWas expelled.

In the magnet motor, cogging (called teething in English), in which the field attracts the armature and makes it difficult to move when stopped, was unavoidable, and the locomotive could not be pushed and moved by hand.If you turn the shaft of the magnet motor by hand, you will feel that it is caught in a specific position as if you were rolling a dice, but if you press the locomotives of Lionel and Märklin that used a series-wound motor by hand, you can press it against the rail. The motor rotates.Also, recently, there is no cogging and you can get more torque with smooth running.Coreless motorAnd cogging, but can produce stronger torqueBrushless motorIs also becoming widespread.

For power transmission from the motor to the wheelsWorm gearIs often used.Spur gear,Bevel gearIs rarely used, but some high-end models are a type of worm gear.Coasting gearThe use of is also permitted.That is one step (less) in the formerpartsIn) bigGear ratioThis is because it is very convenient in terms of space saving and motor arrangement that the motor shaft and the drive shaft are orthogonal to each other.HoweverBraking deviceSince many worm gears used in model railroads cannot be driven in reverse from the viewpoint of safety, they are special.clutchA method of automatically disconnecting gears using the method has also appeared.However, this method was transient and was not a specification of the character reflected in the product.on the other hand,Coasting gearThe problem of reverse drive has been solved in the model using.

A coreless motor, a type of magnet motor, does not have an iron coreMoving coilWith a type motor, if you decelerate it with a spur gear, you can create a motor vehicle that pushes and moves.However, the gears that can be stored in the limited space had a gear ratio of about 1: 4, the traction force was too weak, and the maximum speed was too fast.1984The coasting gear was developed in Japan, and a motor vehicle with both high efficiency and quietness was realized.

In these electric models, all motor vehicles move in the same way on the same track.[Annotation 17]..But then unsatisfied enthusiasts head for multiple control, which isDigital command controlWas realized as.

Method using internal combustion engine

By some enthusiasts and manufacturersInternal combustion engineA model railroad equipped with is manufactured.It is produced in small numbers but has been handed down by enthusiastic enthusiasts.For internal combustion enginesgasoline engine,Glow engineLike a real gas-electric transmissionGeneratorThings that are driven by an electric motor and propelled by an electric motor,DeceleratorThroughDriving wheelThere is something that drives.AlsoReciprocating enginenot onlygas turbineSome enthusiasts also make things that are powered by.

Sound system

1940 eraMore electricgramophoneConnected to the rail and mounted on the vehiclespeakerThere was a structure that made a sound from.Then improved,1970 eraOf steam locomotivesrodMakes a blast sound in synchronization with the movement ofPFM soundHas appeared.Also, the audio signal from an external sound sourcewirelessIn-vehicleReceiving machineThere was also something that was received by and played back from the speaker.1990 eraThe ones equipped with digital sound sources became widespread. Since the 2000s, in addition to the DCC decoder with sound function, there are also things that use conventional analog controllers such as Quantum Sound and MRC Synchro Sound Box, and output sound from the in-vehicle digital sound source according to the voltage change of the vehicle. It became so.

How to enjoy

drive
There is a way to enjoy putting a train model on a railroad track and running it like a real railroad car.Small models can be easily handled on a table or floor, and these are called "zashiki layout" or "floor layout".Large models can be enjoyed by laying them in the garden like a "garden railway".
Also with a sceneLayout・ Vehicles may be run on the diorama.Although layouts are often produced and owned by enthusiasts themselves, some model stores open the layout diorama provided as part of the service to customers, and the layout is rented for an hour for a fee. To doRental layoutThere is also.
Furthermore, in recent years, it has become possible to enjoy driving while watching the scene from the driver's seat by installing an ultra-small TV camera in the leading vehicle and combining a monitor TV and a controller that receive the video wirelessly. It was.In this case, you can enjoy the scene from inside the layout diorama tunnel.
collect
There are many commercialized vehicles, even if they are Japanese models.There is also a way to enjoy collecting this.There are various ways to collect vehicles depending on the person, and collect vehicles by deciding the theme such as your favorite country, region, age, railway company, model maker, vehicle type, train, type.However, in addition to simply purchasing the finished product and viewing it, in the case of a model railroad, there are cases where the desired vehicle is modified or made by yourself, and there is also a way to enjoy running the collection by creating a layout diorama that matches the theme.
Build a vehicle
Model work is one of the basic ways to enjoy model hobbies, including model railroads.There are many different types of vehicles that can be manufactured in one bite, but the finished vehicle is meticulously processed to make it more suitable for the actual vehicle, vehicle modifications that create different formats and specifications from the original vehicle, brass, etc. It is roughly divided into scratch builds (all self-made) that build vehicles from materials such as plastic and parts.
Make a layout diorama
Another model work for model railroads is the production of a layout diorama with a scene.A group ceremony with members in the model railroad club (Module layout) And split layout diorama.Even long trains, which are difficult for individuals to realize, are relatively easy to realize with this method.
participate to the event
There are ways to enjoy it, such as observing events held by manufacturers and clubs, exchanging impressions about products such as workmanship and usability, and participating in exchange meetings and second-hand markets called swap meet.
Major events in Japan and abroad- International Model Train Convention,Model train show,O scale waistな ど

Major manufacturers and brands

America

Europe

Other

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ There is a picture of a child running a model with railroad tracks all over the room.This child is a later Kabuki actorHitoshi Kataoka (13th generation)And this price seems to be on par with live steam[8].
  2. ^ Shintaro HaraLionel's electric locomotive and passenger car set that my grandmother boughtYuki HamaguchiIt was 450 yen, which is higher than the prime minister's monthly salary of 495 yen.[9].
  3. ^ Boy Engineer HandbookWriting a series
  4. ^ Was an assistant at the Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Imperial University[11]
  5. ^ I was working at Shibaura Works.
  6. ^ Homma is called "our standard 5 cm" and "the width of the gauge is neither too large nor too small, and the number is easy to remember."[14]And Kibo Sakai is also in JapanMetric systemIt was a time when there was a momentum to adopt, and I think that it is a simple reason that it is easy to understand by the round number.[15].
  7. ^ Kawai modelIs a model railroad magazine that was first published in 1936.The magazine distributed blueprint blueprints and toured with monthly readers as members, and the number of members exceeded 500 at its peak.
  8. ^ 1942Kawasaki vehicleJoined the company and was involved in the design of C62.
  9. ^ This idea leads to number 16.
  10. ^ From the 35mm gauge advocates, "Japanese people should use the gauge of 35mm / 1/30 according to the scale of the Japanese National Railways, and fans who adopt foreign gauges such as 32mm / 1/45 are non-national" models at that time. Was arguing with the backing of the national trend toward[19].
  11. ^ Published in the January 1963 issue of "Children's Science"Science teaching materials companyO-gauge products have disappeared from the mail-order catalog of.
  12. ^ The Japanese model is inferior to the exported products in 1962 when the starting salary of the university graduate was 17,815 yen.Big boyWas 336 dollars (Japanese yen 120,960 yen)[26].
  13. ^ Around 1983, the annual sales of model railroads of leading wholesalers were 1-110 billion yen, of which 120-80% were related to N gauge.[28].
  14. ^ 31.75 mm (1-1 / 4 inch) in the United States
  15. ^ The gauge is 22.5 mm in Europe and 22.42 mm in the United States.
  16. ^ Axle of model car compared to train weightbearing,Flange・ Between railsFrictional resistanceIs so strong that you can't expect to coast for minutes as it really is.In addition, ordinary electric model railroad vehiclesBraking deviceTherefore, if a design that allows coasting is adopted, it is necessary to control the speed on a downward slope and to take measures against rolling when stopping or detaining on a slope.
  17. ^ Each vehicle (Motor vehicle) Motor characteristics (starting current value, torque characteristics, power consumption, etc.), gear ratio, sliding resistance, and weight (particularly when the difference is remarkable in the gradient), the speed will not be synchronized.

Source

  1. ^ Mamoru Sakamoto "Book for Understanding Railway Facilities" p.33 Sankaido Published February 2004, 2 ISBN-4 381-10495-1
  2. ^ Shoheisaka Academic Exchange CenterThere is a record that Hachinosuke Kawada (Kawada Ko) got on the train."Shoheizaka Gakusho Diary" 3, Shibunkai / Akihiko Hashimoto, Shibunkai / Toyo Shoin (released), January 2006.ISBN 4885943825.NCID BA3981881X.See
  3. ^ Edo Grand Exposition
  4. ^ a b c Ryushi Ueda "Short History of Model Trains in Japan" "Hobby of Model Railroad" No.498
  5. ^ Takejiro Taguchi "The first train and model train that ran in Japan" "Railway Pictorial" No.377
  6. ^ Japan Railfan Club 60 Years Ayumi Compilation Committee, Railfan Editorial Department. "Japan Railfan Club 60 Years Ayumi", Japan Railfan Club, 2014, p. 7
  7. ^ Tatsuya Taguchi "Vintage Model Train Taizen" Seibundo Shinkosha, page 9
  8. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist"Model Train Hobby" No.437, p.57
  9. ^ Shintaro Hara "All about the model train of Shintaro Hara" Seibundo Shinkosha, 2008, p. 150
  10. ^ Tatsuya Taguchi "Vintage Model Train Taizen" Seibundo Shinkosha, page 90
  11. ^ "I became an adult in the age of craftsmanship in" Children's Science "" INAX Publishing, 2007, p. 67
  12. ^ "How to make an electric locomotive" "Model making ABC"(National Diet Library Digital Collection)
  13. ^ Kikumatsu Ogawa "Fifty Years of Publishing" Seibundo Shinkosha, October 1953, 8, pp. 5-485. 
  14. ^ Kiyoto Homma, "How to Make Electric Locomotives and Trains," Shinkosha, 1930, pp. 29-30
  15. ^ Yoshifusa Sakai "Laboratory of Model Rail Loader" "Models and Works" March 1964)
  16. ^ Ryushi Ueda "Short History of Model Trains in Japan" "Hobby of Model Railroad" No.499
  17. ^ "Round-table discussion model railroad old days" "Torein" No.19
  18. ^ Ryushi Ueda "Short History of Model Trains in Japan" "Hobby of Model Railroad" No.500
  19. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist" "Model Train Hobby" No.542
  20. ^ Kenichi Matsumoto"In memory of Mr. Kiyo Yamazaki" "Torein (Magazine)] No.349
  21. ^ Tatsuya Taguchi "Vintage Model Train Taizen" Seibundo Shinkosha, 149 pages
  22. ^ Ryotaro Mizuno "Introduction to Model Trains" Kosaido, 1977, pp. 76-79
  23. ^ TMS editorial department "JNR steam magazine exhibition" "model railroad hobby" No.239-240
  24. ^ TMS editorial department "Commercial JNR Electric Magazine Exhibition" "Model Train Hobby" No.212
  25. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist" "Model Train Hobby" No.175
  26. ^ Nanko "American O Gauge Encyclopedia" "Torein" No.384, p. 38
  27. ^ "Tenshodo Book 1949-1999" Tenshodo, 2000, p. 21
  28. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist" "Model Train Hobby" No.444
  29. ^ "Electrically Driven Locomotives In 1 / 480th Scale". 2015th of February 9Browse.
  30. ^ NHK Hobby Yuu Welcome! To the World of Railroad Models-Introduction to Layout Production- (NHK Publishing Association) p10

Related item

Works dealing with model railroads

外部 リンク

e sports

e sports(Esports,British: Esports) IsComputer games(Video game)SportsCompetitionIs the name when[1].Electronic sports Abbreviation for (electronic sports),eSports,e-Sports,Electronic competitionIt is also written as (Denshikyogi)[2].

Overview

Esports are often organized(English editionIt is held as a competition ofProfessionalplayer(Pro gamer) Compete against each other as individuals or teams. Competitions have long been part of computer game culture, but with the participation of professional gamers andLive streamingUntil the latter half of the 2000s when watching events through distribution became popularamateurWas done between[3][4].. In the 2010s, esports became an important factor for the computer game industry, as many computer game developers began to actively organize and fund events such as tournaments.

e sportsLAN partyIs said to have been born from[5].WesternIn the latter half of the 1990s, a world-class competition with a large amount of prize money was held, and participants included amateurs to professional gamers with annual income of more than 1 million yen.[6][7].

The genres of computer games commonly used as competitions are:Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA),First-person shooter (FPS),Competitive fighting game,Card games,Battle royal games,Real-time strategy (RTS) etc. As a popular competition title,league of legendsAnd 'Overwatch],DotAseries,Counter strikeseries,Super Smash Bros. Series,Star craftThere are series etc.AmericaThen, in 2013, there were "League of Legends" and "Starcraft 2Competition titleProfessional sportsCertified as an athlete visa for foreign players[8][9].JapanSo for the first time in 2016, we will work with a domestic team South KoreaAthlete visa was issued to an athlete[10][11].

According to a 2017 survey, there are more than 3 million esports viewers worldwide[12].the UAF YouTube-channel,TwitchIncreasing use of online streaming platforms, centered around, is central to the growth and promotion of esports competition[4].. The viewing rate is about 85% for men and about 15% for women, with the majority of viewers between the ages of 18 and 34, including women who play professionally.GamerThere is[13][14][15].. The growing popularity and awareness of esportsAsia,Especially,ChugokuAnd South Korea, and in China since 2000,licenseIs issued.EuropeIt is also popular in the US and in these areas, not only local but also international events are held.

The e-sports market in Japan is large(English editionGrowth is slow despite the fact that there is[16][17][18][19]..The main cause isFreebie display method,Gambling and lottery offenses(Criminal law), Such as the possibility of conflict with laws and regulations, imposes restrictions on various forms of competition for financial benefits such as prize money.[16][18]..Also, even if you look at it on a global scale, the competition titles are "League of Legends" and "Counter-Strike Global Offensive"such asPersonal computerDedicated game work (Pc games) Is booming, but in Japan it is better than PC gamesConsumer games(Home video games) is the mainstream, and it is said that the number of users is small in correlation with the small market for PC games, and it is thought that this is due to cultural differences related to computer games.[18]..However, the domestic e-sports market is gradually expanding, and the survey result shows that the market size in 2019 is 127 billion yen, which is 61.2% of the previous year, and growth is expected in the future.[20].

Notation

As mentioned above, "esports"NotationThere are other than JapanEnglish-speaking countriesThere was a similar problem in. Notation varies depending on the media, and it was various such as "eSports", "e-sports", and "Esports". However, on March 2017, 3FloridaAt the 2017 American Copy Editors Society convention held inAP communicationWill beEsports”Was announced[21].. However, when it comes to the beginning of a sentence,Esports", and these are determined from "industry trends and high general usage rates". Regarding notation conventions, refer to the notation widely used in English-speaking countries.Style guide"AP Style Book], and promotes unification of notation in media etc.[22].

History

Early (1972 – 1989)

The oldest known computer game competition is1972May 10ToStanford UniversityHeld inSpace War!It is said that[23][24].. Stanford students were invited to the Intergalactic spacewar olympics and were presented as a grand prize magazineRolling stone』I competed for the subscription fee for one year. Bruce Baumgart won the five-man free four-all, Slim Tovar and Robert E. Maas won the team[25]. In 1980AtariHeld bySpace invadersThe "Championship" was the first large-scale computer game tournament to attract more than 1 participants across the United States, with competitive games established as a major hobby.[26].

1980 years,(English edition The(English editionTo sayHigh scoreEstablished recording organization[27].. After that, the organization supported the spread of computer games,Guinness BookWe published those records through publications such as(English editionWas established. This team is for Guinness World Records(English editionWas involved in the competition such as the management of[28][29][30].

From the 1970s to the 1980s, computer game players and tournaments werelifeAnd 'timeIt has been featured in popular magazines such as[31].. In the 1985 Guinness Book of Records,Pac-ManAnd 'Donkey KongWith 6 high score recordsBilly MitchellThe best known classicarcade gameIs one of the players[32].

Around this time, games were broadcast overseas, and the American program "1982 times" was broadcast a total of 1984 times from 133 to XNUMX.(English edition』Was the content that the performers compete for each other's high score in an arcade game[33].. The computer game tournament is the TV show "(English edition, And the 1982 movie “TronIt is also featured as part of various movies[34][35].The United Kingdomwith the BBCGame program of(English edition], thenHyper sports''(English edition''Paper boy, Etc., a match-up game using the arcade game of the time as the subject was being held.[36][37].

1988 work "(English edition』Is for up to 16 peopleInternet gamesAndCross platformAndOpen source softwareWas produced as. Netrek was the third internet game in history and the first internet game to use a metaserver to find an open game server. It was also the first internet game to keep user information permanently. This work was published in 3WIRED) Described as "the first online sports game"[38].

The emergence and growth of online games (1990-1999)

Released in 1991Competitive fighting game"Street fighter iiPopularized the notion of a direct two-player tournament format.[39].. In most computer games so far, the player's ranking is determined by the high score. However, in Street Fighter II, players will face each other face-to-face, and the best player will be decided[39], The competitive multiplayer that you see todayDeath matchThe way of form was opened[40].Street FighterSeries andVS. seriesThe fighting game became popular in the 1990s, and in 1996 it was an international e-sports competition.Evolution Championship Series (EVO) was established and held.

Large-scale eSports tournaments held in the 1990s(English editionAnd the 1994 Nintendo Power Fest. Also,Blockbuster videoIn collaboration with "GamePro", a unique world championship was also held. America orカナダ,England,Australia,チリPlayers of theNBA jamAnd 'Virtual racingWas added as a competition title[41].

By this time, many computer games, especiallyGames for personal computers インターネットBenefited from increased connectivity. In the late 1990s,(English edition (CPL) andQuakeCon,(English editionEtc. were held. The titles adopted in CPL includeCounter strikeSeries andQuakeseries,"Warcraft] Is included.TV shows featured esports in the UK's "GamesMaster" and "Bad Influence!", Australia's "A * mazing" and Canada's "Video & Arcade Top 10".

World Tournament (2000-Present)

The growth of esports in South Korea was in 1997Asian currency crisisAfterBroadband internetnetworkMass construction of[42],At the timeUnemployment rateIt was thought that many people were looking for what they wanted to do when they were unemployed[43].. In South Korea,PC bunchCalled "Internet cafeHas also become popular and has made a significant contribution to the growth of esports. KoreanCulture and Sports Tourism DepartmentIs a division of(English edition (KeSPA) was established in 2000 to promote esports and improve the environment in Japan.[44].

"Backwater reversal (Evo Moment #37)" means(English editionInStreet Fighter III 3rd STRIKE] Semifinals,Daigo Umehara(English editionRefers to a scene of the match. In this match, Umehara wonSuper arts16 consecutive hits with 1 dot leftPhysical strengthEverythingブ ロ ッ キ ン グUnexpected to (Parry)(English editionShowed. This turnaround that Umehara has won is said to be the most iconic and memorable moment in the history of competitive computer games. Also, since it is the most noticed moment,Babe RuthNotice of home run orIce hockey competitionInMiracle on iceCompared to[45].

April 2006, by seven prominent counter-strike teams(English editionWas formed. The purpose of the organization was to improve the stability of esports by standardizing the transfer of athletes and coordinating with leagues and related organizations. The founding members are(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English editionIs[46]Remained alive until dissolved in 2009[47].

The 2000s was a time when esports TV programs were prosperous, and TV broadcasting was most established in Korea, and the Starcraft and Warcraft 3 competitionsCable TVChannel dedicated to games(English edition,(English editionWas regularly broadcast in[48].

In the 2010s, both the number of esports viewers and prize money increased significantly[49][50].. The number of large-scale tournament tournaments also increased from about 2000 in 10 to about 2010 in 260, and the number and size of tournaments have increased significantly.[4].. At this time,World Cyber ​​Games,(English edition,(English editionSuch a tournament was established. Some of the numerous tournaments include experiments in competitions other than traditional esports genre titles, including the $2006 million prize at the FUN Technologies Worldwide Webgames Championship in September 9. 100 peopleCasual gamesCompeted in[51].

The growth of esports during this period was also supported by the popularity of online streaming services, and as a way of watching competitions. It was the most popular medium. Launched in 2011TwitchThe popular esports competitions are broadcast on a daily basis. In 2013, viewers on the platform watched 120 billion minutes of video, with the most popular channel categories being League of Legends andDota 2"Met[52].. Also, "Dota 2" World ChampionshipThe International (TI) delivered 1 million unique views per day, with each viewer averaging 450 hours[4].

In parallel with the modern esports boom, computer game developers are increasingly incorporating esports elements into their work. Ignored and suppressed the esports scene for many yearsNintendoHeld the Wii Games Summer 2010. Over one month, the event attracted more than 1 participants and was the largest event in the company's history. Also in 40E3 In 2014Super Smash Bros. for Wii U』Invited tournament was held, which was broadcast live on Twitch[53].HALO seriesIs the developer of343 IndustriesIn 2014,(English editionAnd announced a plan to revive HALO as an e-sport with a total prize money of $5.[54].

Blizzard EntertainmentRiot gamesHas its own outreach program at the North American College Championship[55][56].. 2017 is Blizzard Entertainment's college esports division(English editionAnnounces a new initiative to provide scholarships and prizes to college esports teams in tournaments with $100 million in cash prizes[57].. On the other hand, as of 2013,IllinoisAmerican universities, such as Robert Morris University and Pikeville University, recognize e-sports players as university representatives and offer sports scholarships[58].Columbia University,(English editionAlso offers similar scholarships[59]From 2018,(English editionBut we started a tuition scholarship system for e-sports players[60].

2014 is the largest independent esports leagueElectronic sports league (ESL) partnered with local brand Japan Competitive Gaming (JCG) to try to grow esports in Japan[61].

As the number of online viewers increases, so does the number of physical viewers and events in esports competition.[62].. Season 2013 of the League of Legends 3 World championshipThe final ofStaples CenterHeld at[63].. South Korea in 2014SeoulMore than 4 fans came to the tournament held atImagine DragonsPerformances and opening and closing ceremonies were also held[64].. In 2015, as the first e-sports facility in the United States,CaliforniaSanta AnaTo(English editionWas born[65].

Standing position as sports

Computer gamesSportsIt is controversial to classify as[66][67][68].. Some have pointed out the growing popularity of esports as a legitimate reason to qualify some games as sports. On the other hand, some argue that the game will never reach "real sports" status.[69].. But popularity isn't the only reason: "Careful planning, precise timing, skilled performance.[70]”Is the element to classify as a sport, arguing that all traditional or non-traditional sports do not require physical exercise or an outdoor playground. In 2013, I laughed at the topic of "Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel"[71].. 2014 Technology Conference Asked About Twitch AcquisitionESPN Of(English editionThe president (at that time) described esports as "not a sport ... a sport."[72][73][74][75][76][77].. 2015,International eSports FederationHosted by the World Championships, a panel was invited to invite guests from the international sports industry to discuss their perception of upcoming esports as a globally legitimate sporting activity.[78].

China was one of the first countries to recognize eSports as a full-fledged sport in 2003, despite concerns about addictive computer games at the time. The government has encouraged esports and said that participating in esports will also “train the body for China”.[79].. Furthermore, by the beginning of 2019, China willHuman Resources Social Security DepartmentEsports player is recognized as a formal profession in its recommendations, and not only players but also operators[80].. Based on this, more than 2019 people have registered as professional gamers by July 7, and the department expects to have more than 10 million people in such professions in five years.[81].

In 2013, Canadian League of Legends player Shiphtur (Danny Le) became the first professional gamer to get an American P-1A visa as an "internationally recognized athlete".[82][83].. 2014,トルコMinistry of Youth and Sports started issuing esports player licenses to professionally certified athletes[84][85].. 2016,FranceThe government started working on a project to control and recognize esports[86].フィリピンThe Games and Entertainment Commission of the United States has begun issuing competition licenses to professionally qualified athletes since July 2017.[87][88].

In order to popularize esports as a legitimate sport, several esports events have been held alongside traditional international sports competitions.2007 Asian Indoor GamesFor the first time, alongside other sports competitions, it was noted as an official competition where esports competitions were held. After thatAsia Indoor GamesAnd successorAsia Indoor Martial Arts GamesTherefore, esports competitions have always been held as awards for medals and exhibition events. In addition, the top level in AsiaGeneral competitionIsAsian GamesThen,2022 competitionEsports will be included as a medal item in.2018 competitionInHearthstone], "StarCraft 2" and "League of Legends" esports exhibition events were announced as a stepping stone to the 2022 tournament.[89][90].. In 2019Southeast Asian GamesSo, six esports disciplines were included[91].

In 2018 and 2019,World sailing (English editionHeld to show that major sports federations are accepting esports[92].

Recognized as an Olympic sport, and adopted in 2021

OlympicIs also seen as a potential way to justify esports. In October 2017International Olympic Committee At the summit held by the (IOC), he acknowledged the growing popularity of esports, saying, ``Competitive'esports' can be considered as sports activities and the athletes involved are those in traditional sports competitions. We are preparing and training at the same level as," but concludes that the games used for the Olympics must follow the "Olympic rules and regulations".[93].

The world of sports is constantly changing, and with the start of hosting events at the IOC, esports has grown significantly. IOCThomas BachAccording to the chairman, there are two issues left to make esports an Olympic sport, one is the need to limit violent gameplay. The other cites the lack of an international governing body to fine-tune esports.[94][90].. On the issue of violence, Bach admitted that modern sports were born out of real fierce combat, but "sports are a civilized representation of such battles" and "if so-called murder games, the Olympic Games. Different from the values ​​of[90].. IOCNBA 2K series,FIFA seriesIt was proposed to approve esports, focusing on games that simulate real sports, such as[95].

The issue of esports does not prevent the IOC from exploring how and with what potential esports will be incorporated into future Olympics. In July 2018, IOCInternational Sports Federation (GAISF) isepic Games OfMark Raine,Blizzard Entertainment Of(English edition, Esports player TLO (Dario Vunsch) and(English edition(Jacob Lyon),(English editionInviting e-sports leaders such as (Kim Se-young), “to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of esports and the potential for future development, and work together for the mutual benefit of all sports in the coming years Symposium on how to collaborate on methods"[96][97].. Therefore, the IOC has examined the possibility of esports through the exhibition of games.IntelWas sponsored by the IOC,2018 Pyeongchang OlympicsBefore "Starcraft 2" and "SteepOf the eventsponsor5 Korean e-sports athletesTorch relayparticipated in[98][99].. It is a similar exhibition(English editionIt is,2016 Rio de Janeiro OlympicsIt was held in parallel with, but not supported by the IOC.

In Japan, it has been evaluated as a major base for the game industry,2020 Tokyo OlympicsSince then, lawmakers and groups have become involved in boosting esports.Although e-sports in Japan was not popular because it imposes restrictions on game tournaments with high prizes due to the balance with the prize labeling law, gambling and crimes related to lottery (criminal law).[16][18], Efforts to solve this problem began in the latter half of 2017[17].. For the 2020 Summer Olympics,Tokyo 2020 Organizing CommitteeAt the suggestion, four esports organizations will work with Japan's leading consumer organizations to exclude esports competitions from gambling crime regulations.LDPBelongingMember of the House of RepresentativesIsTakeo KawamuraIs an online game/esportsParliamentary LeagueWas launched,Japan esports federation (JeSU) supported and promoted esports in Japan[100].. As a result, professional athletes from other sports in Japan are now able to obtain exemption licenses that allow esports players to play, as well as the mechanics required to play professionally.[17].. This license allows athletes to participate in many esports competitions and, for the first time in mid-July 2018, allows dozens of players to top 7 players via tournaments held by some computer game publishers. It was issued[100].. In addition, the Tokyo 2020 Organizing Committee plans several esports events by the 2020 Games.[17].

2024 Paris OlympicsOrganizing committee discussed the need to include elements of esports to maintain a relationship between the Olympics and the younger generation, and discussed with the IOC and various esports professional bodies on esports events during the Games.[101].. Finally, the Organizing Committee decided that it was too early to adopt eSports as a medal event in the 2024 Games, but did not exclude other events related to eSports during the Games.[102].

In December 2019, at the 12th Olympic Summit, the IOC will only consider sports-mimicking games at official Olympic Games, and in the future, games and physical bodies that promote physical and mental health lifestyles Incorporated activitiesvirtual reality,Augmented realityReiterated to consider two ways like games[103].

2021 year 4 month,IOC (International Olympic Committee) announces that it will hold an official esports competition.Olympic virtual seriesIt will be held from 2021."The Olympic Virtual Series is a new and unique Olympic digital experience aimed at deepening direct engagement with new viewers in the field of virtual sports. The idea is the Olympic Agenda. It is in line with 2020 + 5 and the IOC's digital strategy. We hope to encourage participation in sports and promote Olympic values ​​with a particular focus on young people. "[104]

How to engage with esports

Participation as a player

Play over the internet

The easiest way to play esports is via the Internet. To determine the exact outcomecheatThis method is often used for entertainment or practice, although there are problems with how to deal with behavior and network delays.[105].

Each player needs a means of communication.IRCIs popular because it not only allows you to create separate channels for teams, leagues, and other game-related gatherings, but it's also easy to find.(English editionWas originally a first-person shooterQuakeCreated for online play, but also used for other games, making it the largest IRC network.From there, the competition will be held on each team's server according to their own rules.Collaboration with other players is essential in team-based games, and when using voice communication to collaborate within a team,DiscordlikeVoIPApplications are also used[106][107].

Play on local area network

Local area network When playing on (LAN), "the delay time is shorter than via the Internet, and you can play the game in a better condition." "Because the device prepared by the organizer is used, it is difficult to cheat. (Especially in events where professional play is done, an administrator is placed for fair play) "[105]..This format is called "offline" as opposed to "online" via the Internet, and the format of the tournament is generally because qualifying is held online and the top players and teams who have won the qualifying compete. Often gathered at the actual venue and held offline[105][108]..It is also a place for social interaction between players, and in large-scale competitionsLAN party, A LAN center is organized.

Watching event events

Watching and enjoying e-sports is one of the main entertainment aspects of e-sports, and one of the elements of enjoying e-sports as a sport. "Watch the video broadcast on TV and video distribution sites", "Watch the players play in one place at the match venue", "Watch the players play online in the moderator, commentator, guest" There is a method such as "see at the venue where there is."

In some countries, professional esports competitions are broadcast on TV (In Korea, where esports are thriving, there is also the world's only esports specialized channel, "OGN").WebsiteThe above-mentioned streaming broadcast and the watching function implemented in the game client are mainly used for live broadcast.Also, there are many cases in which media such as magazines and newspapers are reported, and videos that have been impressively edited by video processing etc. are delivered later.[Source required]Even in Japan, streaming and video distribution are performed at competitions that are not large. In holding such small-scale online competitions, volunteer staff often provide live commentary, commentary, production of sites and videos, and public relations, which is a new place for information transmission on the Internet.[Source required]

In this way, the characteristic of esports watching is that it can be freely distributed through various media regardless of whether it is for profit or non-profit, and can be enjoyed by means that meet the needs of spectators.

ESports in college and high school

In addition to professionals and amateurs, esports has beenUniversity,high schoolWith the growing popularity of esports, there is a growing demand for more opportunities for athletes. Universities around the world, mainly in China and the United States, have begun offering scholarships to new students joining teams that represent the universities. The potential impact of such esports-related scholarships on universities, coupled with growing interest in the university's system, has led to a series of studies related to sports literature.[109].

ESports for welfare

Esports using computer games,Mind sportsAs in most of the sporting events that use arms and fingertips,DisabledEven people with disabilities can participate as players,Muscular dystrophyActed as a pro gamer on the patient(Korean versionSome players like[110].. Also, because you can play regardless of age,RehabilitationExpected to be used in welfare and medical care through[111].. In 2018SaitamaSaitama"Silver e-sports association" was established in Japan to promote health through e-sports.Senior citizensAiming to popularize esports[112][113].KumamotoMisato TownThen through e-sportstown planningWe are advancing the business, and as part of this, we maintain and improve the cognitive function of the elderly (dementia(Prevention)puzzle game,Music gamesExperiences and battles such as[114].

Professional esports

eSports includes professional (Pro gamer), a professional gaming team with professional players[115].

In many countries around the world, many competitions for these professionals are held every year. Most of them are distributed worldwide by streaming, and when they become large-scale, they are also broadcast on television. The prize money will be provided by the sponsors, broadcasting income, and entrance fees. Many sponsors who sponsor the tournament are major computer-related companies such as hardware manufacturers.[115].

Pro player

In addition to tournament prize money, professional players earn income from sponsor support and campaign performance fees, including among popular players whose annual income exceeds 1 million yen.(English editionSome people like to produce brands of PC parts. In South Korea, some esports professional players have gained a lot of support from young people, such as being ranked high in the profession they want to be, because some of them have gained national popularity and are active in various fields such as talents. Are[116].

Professional history

ESports as a professional event1997It developed rapidly after the first competition was held in.[Source required]In May of this year, "(English editionA competition entitled "Quake" was held and was the deputy creator of "Quake".John CarmackOwned byFerrari・328GTSPromised to be presented to the winner of the competition[117][118]. July of the same year,(English editionLaunched the first professional league for computer gamers, the Cyberathlete Professional League (CPL)[119].. Since then, the size of the participants and the venue has expanded, and many spectators have come to watch the game over the Internet when it comes to the championship finals. At the same time, the prize money for the winners has become enormous, with the total prize money reaching US $ 2005 million in the 150 CPL.

While maintaining the spirit of being a pioneer of esports, CPL moved to the world tour system in 2005, and on the same year's tour, "Painkiller』Focusing on the one-to-one deathmatch of this, and awarded it a million dollar prize. At the CPL Grand Finale event, Fatal1ty won the highest award in esports history at $1.

Contract between professional team and player

In e-sports, there is an example where the traditional social game player organization (clans) has grown into a professional player organization close to a football team. Treating the player-sponsor contract and facilitating that contract for the player has created a presence for esports and its fans. Many professional teams deal with contracts with other teams and players and act as intermediaries to raise opportunity and fame. Also, by belonging to a professional team, the player is freed from administrative work and can concentrate on playing the game.[Source required]

The company that first created the professional team was a telecommunication company in South Korea on December 1999, 12.KTSubsidiary ofKTFFounded by(English editionIt was the first team in South Korea to receive the capital of a large corporation.[Source required]

On February 2003, 2, SK Gaming became the first team to connect FPS players with clans. Although the terms and conditions of the contract have not been clarified, in the interview, the salary system is used, and although the salary amount is not large, the player can receive and distribute the prize money.[Source required]SK Gaming is also setting another precedent for contracts. May 1, 2003, belonging to SK GamingノルウェーPlayer elemeNt- (Ola Moum) is one of the oldest rival teams in FPS(English editionWas transferred to and received the contract fee.[Source required]After the transfer agreement, many teams started selling gameplay-related products and goods such as clothing. The rapid development of the industry has become a source of revenue for the team, which has sent it to competitions around the world.[Source required]

Leagues and tournaments

League with promotion and demotion

Esports, which is played in most team competitions, allows you to play between leagues depending on how your team performed in the match.Format with promotion and demotionIs the center. This format follows professional sports in Europe and Asia. team isSeasonPlay multiple matches during the competition and compete for positions in the league by the end of the season. In addition to winnings, the teams with good results will be promoted to higher leagues, while the teams with poor results will be demoted to lower leagues. For example, Riot Games has run several League of Legends series by 2018,North AmericaAs the highest series in the region(English editionExists. Teams with poor grades are at the bottom(English editionThe team with good results in the lower series is promoted to the upper rank and replaced. However, Riot Games has adopted the following franchise method from mid-2018, and this format has been abolished.

Franchise league

Amid growing interest in e-sports, some companies are aiming to establish a league that follows the franchise method used in professional sports in North America. This means that all teams backed by large sponsors supporting the franchisePost seasonParticipate inRegular seasonParticipate in and compete for higher positions.This approach is appealing to large investors and willing to continue playing in the Premier League of esports and support teams that are not likely to be demoted to lower ranks.[120].. The details vary from league to league, but in general, minimum wages and appropriateEmployee WelfareIs awarded, and the winnings will be distributed to the team. There is no promotion or demotion of teams, but players can sign contracts, exchange between teams,Free agentCan be released as in North AmericaProfessional baseballNew players may be withdrawn from the esports league, which is equivalent to the minor leagues in. The first franchise-based league founded wasBlizzard EntertainmentIn 2016, the company's game work “OverwatchWas established based onOverwatch LeagueIs[121].. Starting with 2018 teams in 12, the league expanded to 2019 teams in 20.

Take two interactive TheNBAIn partnership withNBA 2KUsing the series(English edition, As well asEA SportsMajor League Soccer (MLS) isElectronic Arts OfFIFA seriesEstablished "eMLS" that uses.

ActivisionFollowed the Overwatch League in January 2020,Call of Duty SeriesConsisting of 12 teams using(English editionWas established[122].(English edition,(English editionThe team established a franchise-style "Counter Strike Global Offensive" league "Flashpoint" in February 2020. It became the first esports league owned by the team, not a single organization[123].

Tournament

e sportsTournament methodBut before it's played and players and teams challenge the main tournament, they compete for qualifying. TournamentsingleOr double elimination, sometimesGroup stageVarious forms such as mixing with[124].. Esports tournaments are most often physical events that take place in front of a live audience, with referees to monitor fraud.DreamHackSometimes the tournament itself is a large esports event,World Cyber ​​Games,(English editionSometimes a tournament is part of a larger event, such as.

While competitions using computer games have existed for some time, esports reached a major turning point in the late 1990s. Starting with the 1997 Cyber ​​Athletes Professional League, tournaments have grown in size and it has become common for them to be sponsored by companies. With more viewers online as well as live events, esports has become more visible to more people.[3][125].. Game developers often provide tournament prizes[126],Computerhardware,software,Energy drinkCompanies that sellThird partyMay be provided by. However, in generalVenture companyFor a large esports event is not profitable for[127].. For example, Riot Games calls the League of Legends Championship Series "a significant investment we don't make money in"[128].

There is considerable variation in the relationship between game developers and tournament organizers and broadcast media, and there is room for negotiation. In Korea, its own "Starcraft" event was operated almost independently of Blizzard Entertainment, but the company must approve the event using the sequel "Starcraft 2". It was determined[129].. This led to a deadlock with the Korean eSports Association.[130]Reached agreement in 2012[131].. Blizzard revises rules and needs company's permission for tournaments with total prize money of more than $ 1[132].

Tournaments held around the world

There are eight types of tournaments that are widely recognized as professional esports competitions. The prize money prepared at each competition is often sponsored by a large computer technology company. These companies also sponsor many esports teams at the same time, covering travel expenses for the tournament and providing the company's products. In particular, ESL is the world's largest esports league and is expanding globally.Nowadays, it is common for mainstream newspapers to publish articles about such events.[Source required]

Also, esports is2007ToChugoku-MacauMade inAsian Olympic CouncilSponsored2007 Asian Indoor GamesBecame the official medal item inFIFA 07''NBA Live 07''Need for Speed ​​Most Wanted』3 titles, Chinese players have won three gold medals[133].2018ToIndonesiaHeld at2018 Asian GamesSo, it was adopted as an open competition for the first time in the history of the competition. 『Winning Eleven 2018''Crash RoyaleThe six events of "StarCraft II: Legacy of the Void", "Heartstone", "League of Legends", and "Arena of Valor" were held.

2022In ChinaHangzhouTo be held in2022 Asian GamesHas decided to become an official medal event[134].

World Headquarters

It is common for game sales companies and esports broadcasting media to play the role of planning and operating specific events, but esports that is integrated as a representative on a global scale across countries and regions.General bodyHave been established. These groups are esports regulated, or simply esportsIndustry groupAnd may be involved at various levels, such as acting as a prelude to an organization.

International eSports Federation (IESF) is one of the first such organizations to be established.Southeast AsiaEstablished in 2008 with the aim of promoting e-sports in Japan, as of June 2020, it has grown to include 6 countries around the world. The IESF has run an annual esports world championship for teams in member countries[135].

Established in April 2019, the European Federation of eSports (EEF)ベルギー,Germany,オーストリア,ハンガリー,France,ロシア,スロベニア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,スウェーデン,Turkey,ウクライナIs participating. The organization is designed with a focus on its role as an esports management partner, working to coordinate event structures and arrangements.[136].

Furthermore, the industry group representing computer games has also come to function as a general body for esports. Especially in November 2019,Entertainment Software Association,(English edition,(English edition,European Interactive Software Federation, Australia andNew Zealand Of(English editionJoint statement to help promote and participate in esports, including five major industry groups such as announced[137].

Competition genre and title

Traditionally, each competition has adopted a specific game for each genre. The games that have been adopted as esports competitions in the past have the following titles:Counter strike, Such as those that have been adopted for many years, and those that change in a few years. In addition, some players are active in participating in multiple events.

Generally, games that are the sporting events of esports tend to be selected with a large influence of player skill (hands and skills), but the latestGame designThe latest games are not always adopted because they do not always match the flow of. On the other hand, hardware and software makers are trying to adopt titles that use newer technologies, which is often an issue between players and fans, including fans, when it comes to hiring titles.

As the genre of the game,First-person shooter,Real-time strategy,Fighting games,Sports games,Racing gameCompete using. Previously, genres such as FPS and RTS were the mainstream, but in the past few years, titles such as consumer have also been introduced, and the genres are various.

First-person shooter (FPS)
Third-person shooter (TPS)
Real-time strategy (RTS)
Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA)
Competitive fighting game
Sports games
Racing games
puzzle game
Digital card games
Music games
MMORPG
Online strategy games
Action games

ESports in Japan

Definition

Japan is one of the few developed countries that has not yet been approved for esports.[Source required]“Esports ground” that handles domestic esports events for several years[139]DevelopedEureka computerBelongs toDr. InukaiDefines esports as follows from comments at the 2007 Asian Online Games Conference:

  • "Sports that digitize player's behavior and compete on computer"
  • "New sports born in the information society, like motor sports born in the industrial society"

As a sports competition that does not involve exercise,チ ェ スSuch asボ ー ド ゲ ー ム(Mind sports).In e-sports, the words are based on various definitions depending on the scene in which they are used, such as "competing for rankings at competitions," "earning income as a professional," and "competing with a serious attitude." But as an easy-to-understand example,Motor sportsIs mentioned.[Source required]

optical lineWith the spread of personal computers (PCs) and personal computers (PCs), the number of PC game players is increasing year by year.The evidence did not penetrate at all in JapanReal-time strategy "League of Legends", a masterpiece of the game genre called (RTS), has a domestic player population of over 3 (as of 2012) and is a professional league "League of Legends".League of Legends Japan League (LJL) ”was held, and the number of packages sold in the popular RTS“ StarCraft 2 ”exceeded 1 (it is estimated that the main purchase is download, so it is actually selling more), and as of 2012 There are four professionals.[Source required]Cyber ​​Athlete Competition (CyAC) held for home video game consolesCall of Duty SeriesHeld a tournament in which more than 720 people participated[140]In addition, in Japan, which is a developed country of fighting games, more than 10 professional gamers have been born, led by Daigo Umehara.

History

  • 1974-"SEGA TV Game Console National Contest Tokyo Final Tournament" held[141].. The members who won the qualifying held in the whole country in the tournament format match using the game machine "" of the table housing released by Sega in 1974Hotel Pacific TokyoAt the final tournament held inColor TV,Black and white televisionWas given. The winner of the tournament is a 28-year-old bank clerk at the time.
  • 1985- National Caravan NES CompetitionWill be held.
  • 2000-Japan's first esports company, BattleTop Japan, was founded and held the WCGC Japan Qualifier at the Tokyo Game Show.
  • 2002-Nexam Co., Ltd. started esports professional service AceGamer.net. The founding members are Dr. Inukai, Jun Nagasaki, and Shungo Watanabe.
  • 2003- EnterbrainAn e-sports competition centered on the fighting game sponsored byDramaWill start.
  • 2007
    • June-Japan e-Sports Association establishment preparatory committee is established[142].
    • August-Nichikare Co., Ltd. established the Cyber ​​Athlete Competition (CyAC). Since then, regular online and offline competitions have been held.
    • December-The performance of "e-sports Japan-Korea match" was held by inviting top Korean players and was featured in various media.[143][144].
  • 2009-The Japan Association for eSports was established, and has been active for the purpose of contributing to the research and development of eSports, its academic establishment, and the progress and development of eSports.
  • 2010-Established by the ESPA Student Federation (eSPA).It plans and manages e-sports competitions between universities (e-sports championships, e-sports competitions, etc.).He is energetically working to popularize e-sports among students.
  • 2011-Japan eSports Agency Co., Ltd. (JeSA) was established under the management philosophy of "Professionalization and further activation of eSports, further improvement to the world level, and contribution to the development of the Japanese game industry."
  • April 2013-Milestone Co., Ltd. established Japan Competitive Gaming (JCG). In order to fill the gap between the evolution of the esports world and the current situation in Japan, we started activities to measure the enhancement of the base amateurs.
  • 2014
    • January 1-"e-sports SQUARE" opened in 24 moved from Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture to Akihabara, and reopened.
    • 4 month - TOKYO MX2, The first e-sports specialized information program "e-sports MaX" will start broadcasting in Japan.
  • 2015
  • 2016
    • May - "Gamest"and"Monthly ArcadiaThe Japan High Score Association will be launched mainly by writers and editors who were enrolled in the editorial department of[147].
    • April-But starts the first professional gamer / e-sports education at a Japanese vocational school[148][149].
  • 2018
    • February-Japan Esports Union (JeSU) is established[150]..Takashi Kiso sounds a warning about the tournament with prize money.
    • August 3- Yoshimoto KogyoAnnounces that it will advance to esports[151].
    • May 3
    • May 5-(JeSA) established[153]As a result, JeSU loses its name as the only governing body in Japan.
    • August 7- Japan Baseball Organization Konami Digital EntertainmentAnnounced to hold the eBASEBALL Power Pro/Pro League in collaboration with e "Japan series")[154].
    • July 7-Japan Baseball Organization announces "NPB eSports Series" Splatoon 2Announced to hold"[155](Draft meeting and camp to select team representatives in March 2019, open competition in April, main competition in May).
    • August 12- AmuseIs the world's largest esports team(English editionEntered into a partnership agreement with esports and announced its advancement into esports. In addition, he is a Japanese player who belongs to the same teamNemoStarts management business of John Takeuchi in Japan[156][157].
  • 2019
  • 2020

esports event

  • From 2002 to 2011,World Cyber ​​Games (WCG) Japan qualifying is held every year. In the past, Acegamer hosted the Japan Qualifiers for the Cyber ​​Athletes Professional League (CPL), but it has disappeared after the dissolution of Acegamer.
  • From 2003 to 2012,DramaWas being held. It has been held until the 2012th tournament until 10, and since the 2012th in 10, the closing has been announced once due to various circumstances.
  • From 2007 to 2009, the Cyber ​​Athlete Competition (CyAC)TrueCombat: Elite], [Enemy Territory: Quake Wars], [Warsaw』The offline tournament was held every year.
  • 2008-Domestic Qualifying for the Electronic Sports World Cup (ESWC) was held. CyAC is currently holding domestic qualifying.
  • From 2009 to September 2012, CyACAkihabara UDXTokyo Game ShowHolds four large-scale offline tournaments "e-Sports Japan Championship".
  • February 2010- Tokyo Game ShowAt CyAC, a show match of "Quake Live" that invited overseas professional gamers and "Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2], "Blur" tournament was held.
  • November 2011-Japan eSports Agency Co., Ltd. (JeSA) holds the first esports competition "11st esports Japan CUP" in the first franchise team competition in Japan. As of September 1, it has been held until the 2012rd convention.
  • 2012
    • 9 month - Tokyo Game Show"Asia e-sports Cup" and "Cyber ​​Games Asia" will be held.
      • "Asia e-Sports Cup"Counter Strike 1.6"When"Starcraft 2Is held as a competition title. In Counter Strike 1.6, Japan, India,Singapore,MalaysiaThe national team that won the qualifying rounds in each country played the final round, and the Japanese professional team "my Revenge" won. In StarCraft 2, Japan, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, New Zealand,Taiwan, Australia's representatives who have won the qualifying rounds have played the finals, and Taiwanese pro gamer Gamania Sen has won.
      • "Cyber ​​Games Asia"Sudden Attack], [Puyo Puyo], "FIFA 12" as competition titles. Japan-Korea Exhibition Match 2012 in "Sudden Attack"[164]As a result, the Japan-Korea battle was held. Japan won one match, but Korea won seven.[165].
    • 12 month - Red bullIs holding the Red Bull 5G. The competition title is "Battlefield 3], [Gran Turismo 5, FIFA 12,Street Fighter X Tekken], "Puyo Puyo".
  • February 2013-CyAC holds "CyAC PRO". The first one is PS2 versionCall of Duty Black Ops 2Held an offline competition.
  • February 2014-SANKO Co., Ltd. started Japan's first league of "League of Legends" by the domestic top team "League of Legends Japan League (LJL)". The final game held in September was Tokyo Game Show 2.LogitechHeld at the booth. The total prize money is 100 million yen.
  • 2015
    • January-LJL 1 opens. The total prize money has increased to 2015 million yen, and the Season 200 winners until the end of March are entitled to participate in the Japanese national team of "International Wild Card Invitational (IWCI)".
    • June-6st e-sports Koshien -League of Legends- held[166].
    • August-8nd e-sports Koshien -League of Legends- held[167][168].
  • From 2018,National High School Esports ChampionshipWill be held.
  • 2019

Main professional team

4dN.PSYMIN
2005,Counter strike]'S team, 4dN.PSYMIN, was formed. He made good fights at the 2005 CPL Summer Games, including being in the top 12, but in 2006 he disbanded due to various reasons.[169].
myRevenge eV
myRevenge eV is a team that was active in "Counter Strike". Originally, he was active as a Japanese team UNiTED, but in August 2012 he became a member of the German team myRevenge eV and won the Asia e-Sports Cup held after his membership, but then disbanded. doing.
DetonatioN Gaming
DetonatioN formed the "Counter-Strike" team in July 2012, "StarCraft 7" and "League of Legends" in April 2013, and "League of Legends" in July.World of Tanks, In April 2014,Battlefield 4], [Super Smash Bros.], established a division such as, is famous as Japan's largest multi-gaming team.
DeToNator
DeToNator was formed on September 2009, 9,Alliance of Valiant Arms』The team. In 2012, we signed a sponsorship contract with PC parts manufacturer ELSA Japan. The results of the tournament have been good at the tournament held between 2010 and 2013. Multi-gaming in 2015.
SCARZ
SCARZ was formed as a team of "Battlefield 2012" in February 2, succeeded in acquiring a large number of departments and sponsors since becoming a professional in June 3, along with DetonatioN Gaming and DeToNator, Japan's largest multi-gaming team Is.
Stray Union
2016,Rainbow Six Siege] Was formed as a team. The biggest feature is that it is a professional consumer team. When he won the tournament sponsored by JCG in the same year and became a Japanese national team, he won the E-SPORTS FESTIVAL 8 Hong Kong tournament, which started on August 19, the same year.[170].. In addition, in 2019 Sixinvitational has achieved the feat of the best four.
CYCLOPS athlete gaming
Formerly known as "CYCLOPS OSAKA", a professional gaming team based in Osaka. Operated by eSports Connect Co., Ltd.
Other
Besides the abovePENTAGRAMThere are professional teams who have participated in the League of Legends Japan League (LJL) including.

Major esports organizations

Japan eSports Union (JeSU)
Because the governing body in Japan was divided into the Japan e-Sports Association,Japan Olympic CommitteeThere was a problem that I could not become[171].. In February 2018, 2 groups were integratedJapan esports federation It was solved by the inauguration of (JeSU)[172].. JeSU aims to create prize-money competitions and professional licenses[172]..Many members are related to game makers.
Japan eSports League Association (JeSA)
Held the "Professional Baseball" Z League for eSports.
Japan esports promotion association (JEF)
General foundation. From a neutral standpoint, there are no game maker-related members in the membership because players are the first. The vice chairman is the CEO of a company that manages tournaments overseas and the esports business.
Japan Baseball Organization (NPB)
Oversees professional baseball in Japan. In 2018, entered esports. Held "eBASEBALL Power Pro/Pro League" and "NPB eSports Series Splatoon 2".
Yoshimoto Kogyo Co., Ltd.
Entertainment production. In 2018, entered esports and launched YOSHIMOTO Gaming. Held events and competitions as well as professional team management.
CyberZ Inc.
cyber-agentSubsidiary of. Operates play video sharing service "OPEN REC" and large-scale e-sports competition "RAGE".
Cygames Inc.
A subsidiary of CyberAgent.Mobile gamesAnd home game software development. Held the "Shadowverse World Grand Prix" with the winning prize of over 1 million yen in the authentic smartphone card battle "Shadowverse".
Japan High School eSports Federation (JHSEF)
"National High School Esports ChampionshipEstablished by The Mainichi Newspapers and Third Wave.Basic agreement with the North American Education and Esports Federation (NASEF) for activity collaboration.
NTT e-Sports
NTT East/West Japan/NTT Ad-NTT Urban Solutions-SKY Perfect JSAT-TaitoJointly invested in 6 companies to establish a new company in the esports field, "NTTe-Sports"[160].. Construction and operation of esports-related equipment, operation of distribution services such as human resource education support and video content, provision of event solutions, and regional revitalization business in collaboration with local governments. Co-sponsored the arcade version of e-sports competition "Toshinsai 2020 -World Championship of ARCADE-".
Japan Student Esports Association/Gameic
The largest association in the Japanese student esports market. A major overseas esports company participates in the sponsor.
e-Sports Queen League (eQ League)
An esports women's league project by female entertainers and talent. The following teams have shown participation in this league[173].

Reasons why Japan is behind e-sports

The origin of e-sports is the "LAN party" that was born naturally in the United States.In South Korea, around 1997, the Korean government began to focus on the IT industry and established a high-speed network in the country.As a result, the number of Internet cafes called "PC Bunch" in Japan has increased rapidly. Online games are available in "PC Bunch", and the strategy game "StarCraft" was a big hit. From around 1999, the term "esports" began to be used in Korea, and the director of the Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism also called the game "esports." In 2000, the world's first international esports event "World Cyber ​​Games" test competition was held.The total prize pool was US $ 20 and 17 players from 174 countries participated.With this tournament as a trigger, "e-sports" developed rapidly in South Korea and became a pioneer of "e-sports". In 2008, the International Esports Federation, which controls e-sports around the world, was established in Busan, South Korea.In Japan, there are game centers and home-use game machines, and the place where game lovers gather is the game center, which does not require a "LAN party" or "PC bunch", and because home-use game machines were widespread, PCs I'm not familiar with the game.Also, due to legal issues, the big prize money competition could not be held.For that reason, it has become an e-sports underdeveloped country.[174].

Controversy over high rewards

In Japan, there are restrictions on the holding of prize-winning competitions due to legal issues, and there are the following recommendations regarding this issue.

Regarding prize-winning tournaments in Japan, he is the director of the International Casino Institute.Prior confirmation procedure for application of laws and regulationsUsingConsumer Affairs AgencyAfter confirming, if the prize or prize is high,Unfair gifts and unfair display prevention lawIt has been pointed out that it will conflict with the above, and if it does not meet the conditions such as a sponsor sponsored by a third party who does not have an interest with the organizer or game developer, the title is basically free to play and the charging factor does not affect the result, it will be caught. There is a possibility of[175][176].

Appeared in a roundtable discussion "Game and Money" hosted by Daigo Umehara on February 2018, 2, and a special feature on e-sports planning at Abema Prime on February 19.Koichi Hamamura(Vice Chairman of Japan eSports Association)Master TakahashiExplained the need for a professional license, but Kiso gave a criminal codeGamblingHas been pointed out[177].. At the event, Hamamura argued, "The professional licensing system is the result of repeated discussions with the Consumer Affairs Agency." However, in a special article on esports in Famitsu's March 2018, 3 issue, the Famitsu editorial department asked the Consumer Affairs Agency about the problem of the view law, and the director of the agency's display measures section also said, ``With excellent technology If you do a job that attracts the audience and get a prize as a reward, regardless of whether you are a professional or amateur, you reply that the prize does not correspond to the "freebies" referred to in the picture method, and there is a discrepancy with Hamamura's statement. stay up.

Problems with esports

Olympic esports issues

Aiming to enter the Olympic industryInternational Federation TheInternational eSports Federation (IeSF). IeSF is stillInternational Sports Federation Although I could not join (GAISF), in July 2018, an event called "IOC-GAISF eSports Forum" was held. In 7, the Asian Games were held in Jakarta, Indonesia, and esports was held as an open competition. From these movements, rumors such as "Are you considering e-sports for the Olympics?" were reported. I visited the eventInternational Olympic Committee (IOC)Thomas BachBut esports are inconsistent with the Olympic values ​​and can't be accepted at the moment (because "Killer Games" promotes violence). As a result, Takashi Kiso of the International Casino Research Institute said the rejection was confirmed. But on the other hand, Bach said, "as is." In addition, Takashi Kiso cites the reason that the copyright of the game software maker becomes a problem as a reason not to be adopted for the Olympics.[178].

Asian Games Issues

In 2018, the Asian Games were held in Jakarta, Indonesia, and e-sports was held as a reference competition.The sport is "Winning Eleven 2018(Konami), "Starcraft 2" (Blizzard Entertainment), "League of Legends" (Riot Games), "Hearthstone" (Blizzard Entertainment), "Clash Royale" (Super cell), "Arena of Valor』(Tencent Games) 6 titles.However, when I opened the lid, 6 out of 5 titles were Chinese companies.TencentIs a title that involves, and has become a competition for Tencent.[179].

Problems with JeSU (Japan eSports Union)

*JeSU is not the only e-sports organization in Japan

The lie of the professional license system

When JeSU was inaugurated, it said that it issued a professional license to realize a tournament of high prize money, but the view of the Consumer Affairs Agency is different. Shinji Omoto, Director of Display Countermeasures Section, Consumer Affairs Agency, said, ``If esports tournament participants work to attract the audience with excellent technology and get prize money as reward, the prize money will be "It doesn't correspond to the "freebies" in the law.", and the prize money can be received and there is no problem even without a professional license.[180].

From the perspective of the Consumer Affairs Agency, some companies are opening their own game tournaments in such a way that they do not join JeSU. For example, in the esports program "YUBIWAZA" on the Mainichi Broadcasting, a "YUBIWAZA CUP" tournament with a prize of 100 million yen is held, and it is specified as a participation condition that you do not have a JeSU authorized professional license.[181].

The Consumer Affairs Agency gave a suggestion from JeSU about the pro-licensing system, but simply replied, "It may be easy to understand," but has never recommended that the Consumer Affairs Agency create a pro-licensing system. [182].

eSports does not require a professional license system

The 2019 JeSU activity report & presentation was held at the Tokyo Game Show, and the results of the response form to the pre-confirmation procedures for the application of laws based on the non-action letter system were announced. Among them, regardless of whether they are professional amateurs or not, they get the prize money and get the answer that they "do not violate the view law and criminal law".[183]Is the answer that Consumer Affairs Agency has been consistent with for a long time.

In this announcement, Takashi Kiso, an international casino research institute who had pointed out that the explanation of JeSU's professional license system was a lie, has said that JeSU himself has proved that "the professional system is unnecessary".[184].

Pro-licensing policy issues

JeSU's professional license is given when you get a good result at a JeSU official game competition. However, it is written in the agreement that if you have this professional license, you will be disposed of in an unofficial competition with a prize (a competition that ignores the so-called wind management law, where game centers and internet cafes give prizes from stores sponsored) There is. Takashi Kiso, the director of the International Casino Research Institute, says that as long as the Internet cafe is operating properly, it is basically an industry outside the scope of the wind management law, so it is a wind management law to hold game competitions and provide prizes and products. JeSU has criticized that he does not understand the entrepreneurial law because it is not a violation[185].

At the official World Championship “Capcom Cup 2018” of “Street Fighter V Arcade Edition” sponsored by Capcom America in the US, Momochi, a professional gamer, was ranked 7th and was expected to receive a prize of 50 yen. However, the "Capcom Cup" has suddenly become a JeSU official recognition tournament, and Momochi does not have a JeSU license (from the standpoint opposite JeSU's pro-licensing system). For some reason, I could not get the prize money for some reason and it was reduced to 10 yen. Previous Capcom Cups have been held in the US, and JeSU has nothing to do with it, so they have received the prize money as is, and JeSU and Capcom have been criticized for this response.[186].. Isn't it possible for EVO JAPAN to be reduced due to this kind of turmoil? I was worried, but I have won the winning prize of 150 million yen as it is.

The winning prize of 2019 million yen "Puzzle & Dragons" was held at TGS500, and the middle school student "Yuwa" won the championship. "Yuwa" has a JeSU "Japan, eSports, Junior License", but is treated as a semi-professional by the rules of JeSU and cannot receive prize money only with trophies and supplementary products. JeSU has a stance of entrusting it to the tournament manager, as there is no problem in getting tournament prize money even when younger. It is not a mandatory rule. According to Yukio Noyasu, a game journalist, there are junior high school professional athletes in other real sports, shogi and go, so there should be no problem with junior high school professional gamers and winning prizes. But wasn't it supposed to be a rule to get a prize? Said that it cannot be escaped[187].

JeSU is an e-sports organization that does not exist worldwide

JeSU has many game makers and people involved in CESA as its members.Japan esports promotion association Mr. Aoki of (JEF) says that developers of esports games, which are gaining popularity all over the world, rarely join the national esports associations abroad. It points out that there is basically no esports organization with an operating system like JeSU overseas.[188].

Problems as a profession

Since esports players are unstable in their profession, the reality is that it is quite difficult to eat only with prize money unless they continue to win and become famous. Also, if it is a popular game and the population is not large, the prize money is small.Part-time jobThere are also many people who are active. Although it is a small number,Game distributionSome make a living by.

Short career and life after retirement

Esports games are generally said to have short player lives because quick reflexes are required.[189][190].. There is also a view that athletes lack the necessary social skills for post-retirement activities.[189].

Problems with Japanese esports

Low interest in esports

In July 2018, MyVoiceCom announced the results of a questionnaire survey on e-sports. 7% of the respondents answered that they know e-sports specifically and have heard of their names.On the other hand, 43.9% of the respondents answered that they were not interested in e-sports or not so much.[191].

In February 2020, AirTrip announced the results of a questionnaire survey on e-sports. The popularity of esports was over 02% for all generations, but the majority of 8% answered that they were not interested in esports.[192].

Galapagos competition title

The world's most popular e-sports title is the PC game with a user population of 1 million.league of legends","Dota 2There is a multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) such as ", which is a popular genre, but the population is small in Japan.In particular, "Dota 2" is a title with a total prize pool of over 30 billion yen, but it is not well known in Japan. At the TGS2019 e-sports booth,Puzzle”Is forming a line, while there were only about 2 people including the interview team in the audience seats of the“ Dota 10 ”Japan national team deciding match.[193].

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