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😷 | No need for masks in the US President Biden "Picnic when vaccination is complete"


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No mask required in the US President Biden "Picnic when vaccination is complete"

 
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President Biden reiterated the importance of vaccination, saying, "Once the vaccination is complete, we can gather in the park or go on a picnic today without a mask."
 

In the United States, where vaccination against the new coronavirus is progressing, people who have completed vaccination do not have to wear a mask outdoors in principle ... → Continue reading

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vaccination

vaccination(Vaccination,British: vaccination) IssickAgainstImmunologyTo attachantigenmaterial(vaccine) Administered (Vaccination) What to do.VaccinationBy pathogeninfectionbyIllness,Obstacle,DeathCan be prevented or tempered[1].. furtherEpidemicThe simplest and most effective way to preventCost performanceHighPreventive medicine.

JapanInVaccination methodDefines as "injecting or inoculating a human body with a vaccine that has been confirmed to be effective in preventing the disease in order to obtain an immune effect against the disease" (the vaccination method) Article 2 paragraph 1).

The substance administered by inoculation is a pathogen (live, but less virulent)Bacteria-ウ イ ル ス), a dead or inactivated pathogen, or a purified substance such as a protein.

WHOAccording to the current world, vaccination avoids the death of 200 to 300 million people.[1].. However, if the vaccination rate is further improved, the death of 150 million people can be avoided.[1].

History

Human beings willing to get another kind of infectionsickThe first example trying to mitigatesmallpox.B.C.Around 1000,IndiaVaccination method(Variolation method) is practiced[2], Of smallpox patientspusTo a healthy person to cause mild onsetImmunologyWas being done. This smallpox method18st centuryIn the first halfThe United Kingdom, ThenAmericaWas also brought to.

1718 years,Mary Wortley MontagueWrote about the Turkish custom of vaccination with liquids from small-pox smallpox and gave similar vaccinations to their children.[3].The United KingdomThe doctorEdward JennerIt is,VacciniaAs to whether the vaccine can be used to generate immunity against human smallpox,1796Have tested at least 6 people in the last few years. The six are unidentified English (around 6), Mrs Zebel (German, around 1771), Mr. Jensen (German, around 1772), and Benjamin Jestie (English, 1770). Mrs. Rendall (English, c. 1774) and Peter Prett (German, 1782).[4][5].

The word vaccination was first used1796,Edward JennerBy. After thisLouis PasteurAdvanced the concept of vaccination with advanced research in microbiology. The vaccination (from the Latin vacca meaning Vaccination "cattle") derives its name from the first vaccine (vaccine) that infects cattle.Cowpox virusso,smallpoxIs less symptomatic, harder to cure and deadlysmallpoxBecause it gave a certain amount of immunity to[4][5].

For vaccination attempts, there are ethics, politics, safety, religion, etc.en: Vaccine controversy) Has been around since the early days. With early successMandatoryVaccination has been widely accepted by the government and a large-scale vaccination campaign has been carried out, which has significantly reduced the incidence of many diseases across many regions.

the purpose

To make antibodies against pathogens and boost immune function

Side effects

in Japan1948of"Vaccination methodSince then, compulsory vaccination and mass vaccination have expanded, but they have not been carried out in a safe manner.To give an example1964ToIbarakiInsufficient interviews, inoculation of multiple people without changing needles,MASKSInoculation, infusion of inaccurate amount, etc. were performed without[6]..In Japan, the act of inoculating multiple people without changing needles was widespread.Type B,Hepatitis CIs a frequent cause[7],It is believed that( Iatrogenic diseaseSee also).

Substances used

Inactivated vaccine

Lived with sufficiently reduced toxicityウ イ ル スInoculate.ウ イ ル スBreed, but their speed is slow. Boosting is not necessary so much because it propagates after inoculation and continues to exist as an antigen. This vaccine is produced by leaving a less virulent type of virus in tissue culture, inducing gene mutation, or removing a specific gene that exerts virulence. This major vaccine has a risk of recurrent toxicity, but removal of specific genes is relatively less risky.

Subunit vaccine

As an antigen shown to the immune systemウ イ ル スDo not inoculate sex substances.ウ イ ル スSpecific inproteinThere is a method such as separating and inoculating. The weakness of this method is that the separated proteins may be altered, in which case antibodies different from those corresponding to the virus will be produced.

Other subunit vaccines include recombinant vaccines. This is a method of injecting a protein gene of a target virus into another virus. This second virus expresses protein information but is not at risk of disease. This kind of vaccine is nowViral hepatitisIs used forEbola virus,HIVIt is being actively researched to make a vaccine against a virus that is difficult to vaccinate.[8].

Vaccination against humans

The vaccination situation in the world is as follows.

Type of vaccine

Live vaccine
A weakened virulence of a living pathogen. ,tuberculosis,Measles(Measles),Rubella,Mumps,Varieg(Mizubouso),yellow fever Such.Due to the inclusion of live pathogens, inoculated pathogens may cause mild symptoms (side reactions).
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 4 weeks (medium 27 days) or more.
Inactivated vaccine
Only the components of the pathogen that died and lost its toxicity.Hepatitis B,, pediatric,Pertussis,Polio,Japanese encephalitis,influenza,Hepatitis A,Rabiesetc.vaccineThe effect of is weak, so multiple doses are often required.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.
Toxoid
The toxin produced by the fungus is taken out and detoxified.diphtheria,tetanus(Hashoufu) etc. As with inactivated vaccines, the vaccines are less effective and often require multiple doses. There is also the idea that it is not strictly included in the vaccine because it does not make antibodies that attack the pathogen itself.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.

History

The practice of vaccination is believed to have its origins in ancient India, around 1000 BC.[9]Ayurvedic textbook Sact'eya Grantham was described about vaccination, according to French scholar Henri Marie Husson in Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales. It has been reported.[10] Around 200 BC, vaccinations were carried out even in ancient China[5].. Scholar Ole Lund writes: "The oldest documented example of vaccination is from 17th-century India and China, where powdered scabs of people with smallpox were used to prevent the disease. In the olden days, smallpox was a universal disease that killed 20% to 30% of infected people, smallpox accounting for 18% to 8% of deaths in several 20th-century European countries. Professor of Pathology, (en: Almroth Wright) Conducted an experiment led by a professional at Netley Hospital and shaped the form of vaccination for posterity. The results of his experiment led to the development of further vaccinations in Europe[11].

Mandatory

In order to avoid the spread of illness, at different times, states and institutions have created laws that mandate vaccination for all. For example, the 1853 law mandated smallpox vaccinations throughout England and Wales, and fined those who did not comply. Currently, the US state-wide vaccination law requires public vaccination before school. Most other countries have similar vaccinations.

Since the earliest vaccinations beginning in the 19th century, the legalization of vaccination has caused backlash from various groups. These groups are collectively known as anti-vaccinationists, who oppose vaccination from an ethical, political, hygienic, religious, and other perspectives. Common opinions are that “compulsory vaccination is excessive interference with individual problems” and “recommended vaccination is not sufficiently safe”.[12].. Modern vaccination laws provide exceptions to people with immunodeficiencies, people who are allergic to the vaccine, and those who strongly oppose it.[13].. In addition,Yogyakarta PrinciplesIn the 18th principle of "Protection against medical abuse" ofHIV infectionUnethical or unintentional vaccines forAntibacterial agentGuaranteeing protection from the administration of "(18th principle, item (d))".

Japanese vaccination

Routine vaccination

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. For the vaccination costs for the target age, public funds are provided by the local government, and regarding A-type diseases,Local governmentMost of them are free of charge (administrative measures vaccinations, and there are also local governments that pay a fee). In case of health damage due to vaccination approved in Japan, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

[] Name of vaccine

Type A disease --For the purpose of preventing the outbreak of the disease and the spread of the disease in the population, the vaccination target or its guardian is obliged to make efforts for vaccination.
diphtheria-Social Services Lizard-tetanus-Polio(Acute poliomyelitis)[Four kinds of mixed vaccine, DPT-IPV],measles(Measles)rubella(Three days measles)MR vaccine],Japanese encephalitis,tuberculosis(BCG),Varieg,Hib, PediatricPneumococcusInfection【Pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13】,Cervical cancerHPV vaccine],Hepatitis B, Rotavirus[15]
Type B disease -Mainly focused on individual prevention. No effort required.
People over the age of 65, or between the ages of 60 and under 65, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory problems,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeIf you are suffering frominfluenza.. In the case of people aged 65 or over, under 60 years of age and under 65 years of age, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory disorders, or those with AIDS and weakened immunity, pneumococcal infection [23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV23】.

Temporary inoculation

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. When the prefectural governor finds that there is an urgent need to prevent the spread, the prefectural governor may instruct the mayor to do so. Municipalities will subsidize the vaccination costs for the target ages, and in principle, the A-type diseases will be free. If health damage occurs due to vaccination, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

Type A disease -The vaccination target person or their guardian is required to make vaccination efforts.
smallpoxIn addition, type A diseases are targeted.
Inoculation was started in 2021.New coronavirus OfvaccineIs carried out in the form of imposing an obligation to make efforts for inoculation[16].
Type B disease -No vaccination effort is imposed.
HXNUMXNXNUMX influenza(As a single vaccineNew influenza measures special measures law2011 years from 23 (5)[17].. A(H2011N12)pdm1 has been included in seasonal influenza vaccine since FY1/09[18]. )

Optional vaccination

Vaccination is voluntary by the vaccinated person (or their parental authority, etc.), which is not stipulated in the Vaccination Law.

All vaccination costs will be borne by the owner. If health damage occurs due to vaccination,Relief system for adverse drug reactionsIs applied.

Mumps(Mumps),Hepatitis A, For adultsPneumococcus,Rabies,Weil's disease Autumn darknessIn addition to the above, other vaccinations other than the age groups subject to regular vaccination are also optional vaccinations.

Precautions for vaccination

According to the Vaccination Regulations, those who have a clear fever, those who have a serious acute illness, and allergies or anaphylaxis due to the components of the vaccination solution for vaccination related to the disease are revealed by the test. Those who have become ineligible are considered unsuitable and cannot be vaccinated. Pregnant persons will not be vaccinated for acute poliomyelitis, measles and rubella.

In addition, those who are known to have basic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, liver diseases, blood diseases and developmental disorders, those who have fever within 2 days after the previous vaccination, or systemic rashes, etc. Of allergic allergies, having a history of convulsions in the past, having been previously diagnosed with immunodeficiency, or being allergic to the components of the inoculum to be vaccinated Some people are obliged to take vaccinations carefully based on the judgment of the doctor.

Vaccination health damage relief system

Occurrence of health damage due to side effects of vaccination is seen, although it is extremely rare. A system for prompt relief when a causal relationship between vaccination and health damage is recognized, regardless of whether or not there is negligence in the vaccination.[19].

  • Vaccination based on the Vaccination Law (=RegularInoculation,ExtraordinaryIf the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare finds that the health damage has been caused by the
    • Benefits are provided by the municipality.
    • Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the certification of, the causal relationship is examined by a disease/disability certification examination committee composed of a third party.
    • If you receive medical treatment at a medical institution, you will be required to pay the medical expenses and your expenses.
    • When disability remains, child disability pension or disability pension is paid.
    • In case of death, funeral fees and lump-sum death allowance of approximately 4,300 million yen (in case of influenza vaccine, lump-sum payment of surviving family of approximately 700 million yen, survivor pension of approximately 240 million yen (up to 10 years)) will be provided.
    • The cost of relief payment is 1/2 for the country, 1/4 for the prefecture, and 1/4 for the municipality.

Incidentally,anyAs for other health hazards due to vaccination, the drug side effect damage relief system is applied. It is based on the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, an incorporated administrative agency, rather than the Vaccinations Act.

  • Established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and decided after discussions at the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council, which is composed of external experts.
    • Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) Is provided.
    • If you receive medical treatment in hospital, you will be provided with medical expenses and medical allowance. Payment will be provided in case of disability and death.
    • Benefits are set for each type, and there is also a deadline for billing.
    • Contribution from the licensed drug manufacturing and marketing companies, etc. shall be paid for the relief payment. Half of PMDA's administrative expenses are subsidies from the national government.

Vaccinations and laws (valley problems)

There is a legal structure to remedy victims whose lives and bodies have been seriously damaged by vaccination.ConstitutionIt is a problem above.17 articleTheory,29 articleParagraph 3 Interpretation theory, Article 29 Paragraph 3 Of course, interpretation theory,25 articleTheory,13 articleTheories are claimed.

Recommended vaccination sequence

National Institute of Infectious DiseasesKnow VPD,NPOVaccination schedules have been announced by the Society for the Protection of Children, the Japan Association for Primary Care, and the Japan Society for Pediatrics.

Also, at the NPO Corporation Children's Association,iPhone-AndroidSmartphoneThe vaccination scheduler app for Android is provided free of charge.

Simultaneous inoculation

``Simultaneous vaccination'' in which two or more types of vaccinations are given to one and the same person at the same time in one visit is once recognized as ``not good'' in Japan, and MHLW is "What doctors can do if they find it necessary"[20][21]However, in 2011, the Japanese Academy of Pediatrics proposed that "simultaneous vaccination is considered a necessary medical practice to protect Japanese children from diseases that can be prevented by vaccines".[21], In recent years, the number of doctors giving simultaneous vaccination has increased[22].

There is no limit to the number of combinations and

  1. Regular vaccination and voluntary vaccination
  2. Inactivated and live vaccines
  3. Live vaccines and live vaccines
  4. Injection and drink type vaccine

Can be safely inoculated simultaneously with all combinations of[23].. Some local governments and doctors have different vaccination methodsBCGOnly in the case of single vaccination without simultaneous vaccination with other vaccines[24][25].

Since a mixed vaccine contains several types of vaccine in one injection solution from the beginning, it can be said that it is a simultaneous vaccination in a broad sense.[23].

Italy vaccination

In Italy2017Than,Compulsory educationBefore receiving (up to 6 years old)Polio,diphtheria,tetanus,Hepatitis B,influenza,,,measles,rubella,Mumps,XNUMX days,chicken poxVaccinations have become mandatory[26].

Vaccination of animals

AnimalからPeopleTo be contagiousInfectious disease of animal origin(Zoonosis:Zoonosis(Also included in) and transmitted from humans to animalsZoonosisThere is vaccination for the purpose of preventing. Useful for wildlife conservation and industry家畜,Pet OfEpidemicThere are also vaccinations to prevent the spread of the disease.

Ministry of AgricultureVeterinary drug laboratory・Veterinary drug database[27]If you search for “vaccine” in, 2014 cases were registered as of December 12. But,Domestic animal infectious disease prevention methodIs a "law that stipulates the prevention of outbreaks of infectious diseases (infectious diseases) in livestock and the prevention of spread of livestock."And killDisposaldisinfectionHowever, there is no regulation regarding vaccination. "The prefectural governor, when necessary to prevent the spread of livestock infectious diseases, can have livestock quarantine officers inspect, inject, bathe or administer livestock by the methods specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ( Based on the Livestock Infectious Diseases Prevention Law Article 31)", the measures such as vaccination are different for each prefecture.[28].

on the other hand,Rabies Prevention LawSince it is regulated byDogThe owner of the dogRabies vaccineMust be vaccinated once a year (Article 1 of the Rabies Prevention Law).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Immunization coverage (Report). WHO. (2007-03). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs378/en/. 
  2. ^ Smallpox prevention[1]
  3. ^ Behbehani AM (1983). “The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease”. Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 455-509. PMID 6319980. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6319980. 
  4. ^ a b Plett PC (2006). “[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner”] (German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219-32. PMID 17338405. http://lib.bioinfo.pl/meid:4459 2008th of February 3Browse.. 
  5. ^ a b c Lombard M, Pastoret PP, Moulin AM (2007). “A brief history of vaccines and vaccination”. Rev Sci Tech. 26 (1): 29-48. PMID 17633292. 
  6. ^ Kenji Yoshihara "From Private Rage to Public Rage-Vaccine Evil as a Social Problem" p.112-114
  7. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun February 2000, 2 Article "Expanding hepatitis C, in areas where 9% are "positive""
  8. ^ Department of Veterinary Science & Microbiology at The University of Arizona Archived August 2003, 6, at the Wayback Machine. Vaccines by Janet M. Decker, PhD
  9. ^ Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten Strunge and Lundegaard, Claus (2005). Immunological Bioinformatics.MIT Press. ISBN 0262122804
  10. ^ Chaumeton, FP; FV Me`rat de Vaumartoise. Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales.Paris: CLF Panckoucke, 1812-1822, lvi (1821).
  11. ^ Curtin, Phillip (1998). "Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521598354
  12. ^ Wolfe R, Sharp L (2002). “Anti-vaccinationists past and present”. BMJ 325 (7361): 430-2. two:10.1136 / bmj.325.7361.430. PMID 12193361. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/325/7361/430. 
  13. ^ Salmon, Daniel A et al.(2006) Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. Lancet 367(9508):436-442.
  14. ^ a b Medical expenses public expenditure system for vaccination accidents(Tokyo Metropolitan Government Health and Welfare Bureau)
  15. ^ "From Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to Rota vaccine regular vaccination from October, 20”. Mix online (October 2019, 10). 2020th of February 8Browse.
  16. ^ "What is the vaccination method? Corona vaccine "special case of temporary vaccination"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2021, 4). 2021th of February 6Browse.
  17. ^ Tuberculosis Infectious Disease Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareOutline of Vaccination Law revision (establishment of new temporary vaccination, etc.)IASR, Vol. 32, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Information Center, November 2011, pp. 11-331.
  18. ^ Influenza vaccine strain -National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  19. ^ Vaccination health damage relief systemMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  20. ^ Periodic vaccination procedure -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  21. ^ a b Japanese Pediatrics Association's approach to simultaneous vaccination
  22. ^ Vaccination> Simultaneous vaccination -Ariake Children's Clinic
  23. ^ a b Necessity and safety of simultaneous vaccination -Know VPD!
  24. ^ Vaccination of children -Koto Ward
  25. ^ vaccination -Hara Pediatric Clinic
  26. ^ Italy vaccinated to attend school AFP (December 2017, 5) Read December 20, 2017
  27. ^ Veterinary drug database -Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Veterinary Drug Laboratory
  28. ^ About livestock vaccines -Miyagi Prefectural Livestock Association

Related literature

  • Mikio Watanabe, "A Historical Consideration on Japan's Vaccination System," National Hygiene, Vol. 73, No. 6, Japan Society for National Hygiene, June 2010, pp. 6-243, two:10.3861 / jshhe.73.243.

Related item

外部 リンク

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinet Biden Jr.(English:Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ([ˈbdən] BY-dən),1942May 11 –) IsThe United States of America Of政治家,Lawyer.. 46th generation of the countryPresident[1](In office: January 2021, 1 –).Abbreviated nameIt is,Joe Biden(Joe Biden; pronunciation: [dʒoʊ ˈbaɪdən] ( Audio file)[Annotation 1].New Castle CountyCongressman,DelawareElectionU.S. Senate,Barack Obama47th generation in the administrationVice PresidentHas served as.2020 United States Presidential Election(2020May 11Implementation)Democratic PartyRun as presidential candidate and win[3]Inaugurated as President on January 2021, 1[4][5].John F. KennedySecond person sinceCatholicIs the president of[6]..The age at the time of inauguration is 78 years old[7], The oldest president in the history of the United States[8].

Biography

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayPennsylvaniaScrantonBorn inDelawareNew Castle CountyI grew up in.アイルランドsystemCatholic OfMiddle classBorn in a family[6]..When I was a kidStutteringHe said he overcame it with his own vocal practice of reading Irish poetry in front of the mirror.In high school and collegeAmerican footballCrazy about[6].

After studying at the University of DelawareSyracuse UniversityDoctor of JusticeGet the issue[9]..After going to law school1969ToLawyerAnd,1970In delaware(English editionElected as a member of the Diet[6].1972In January, he was elected to the Delaware Senator at the age of 1, becoming the fifth youngest Senator in American history.[10].. In June of the same yearChristmasI lost my wife and daughter who went shopping in a car accident[10].. Current wife in 1977JillRemarried[6].

Served as a senator for six consecutive terms, working on diplomacy, criminal justice, drug issues, etc.(English editionChairman ofSenate Foreign Relations CommitteeServed as chairman of[6][10]..Established cross-partisan trust as a coordinated politician who values ​​policy realization[6].

As a senator1991 OfGulf WarAgainstEastern EuropeToNATOExpansion and the 1990sYugoslavia conflictSupported the intervention in.2002 OfIraq warI supported the approval resolution, but2007Opposed to the increase in US troops.He also chaired the Senate Judiciary Committee from 1987 to 1995, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention and civil liberties.Biden led efforts towards the enactment of the Violence Crime Control Act and the Violence Act against WomenRobert BorkClarence Thomas OfChief of the Supreme CourtSupervised the nomination to.

2008 United States Presidential ElectionBarack ObamaHe resigned as a senator after being elected vice president. He was the fourth longest-serving senator[11]..Obama and Biden2012 United States Presidential ElectionWas re-elected in Japan and served for two terms and eight years.Biden as Vice PresidentLehman shockOversaw infrastructure spending in 2009 to counter the recession.Of his parliamentRepublican PartyNegotiations with the Obama administration include the 2010 Tax Relief Act, which resolved the tax impasse, the 2011 Budget Management Act, which resolved the debt-ceiling crisis, and the 2012 US Taxpayer Relief Act, which addressed the imminent fiscal cliff. Helped to pass.Foreign policy includes the United States andRussian FederationBetweenNew STARTLeading efforts towards the conclusion of the treaty,Military intervention in LibyaUntil the withdrawal of the U.S. military in 2011(I.e.Has jurisdiction over US policy on.Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting IncidentLater, Biden led the "Gun Violence Task Force", which was established to address the causes of gun violence in the United States.[12].

2015To the eldest sonBeau BidenTheBrain tumorDied in disappointment2016 United States Presidential ElectionSeeed off[10].2017In 1 monthObamaPresident to BidenPresidential Medal of FreedomWas awarded[13].

2019May 4Announced its candidacy for the 2020 United States presidential election.2020Radical leftist candidates at the primary elections and caucuses that began in February in each stateBernie SandersDefeat them and win[10]Of the 6 deputies needed to secure party nominations in JuneThreshold(ThresholdSatisfied. Biden on August 2020, 82020 United States Presidential ElectionAs Vice Presidential CandidateKamala HarrisAnnounced Senator[14].

May 11Presidential election was held inMay 11ToABC,AP communication,CNN,FOX News,NBC,New York Times,ReutersMajor media such as incumbentDonald TrumpReported that he defeated and secured victory[15].. Electoral votes were held in each state on December 12, but no breach of pledge vote occurred, ensuring a majority of 14 electors to win.[16],2021May 1からMay 1House of RepresentativesJoint meetingThe voting result was approved in[17].May 1At noonInaugurationInaugurated as the 46th president[18].John F. KennedySinceCatholicThe president of[6], And the 78-year-old president who will be the oldest in history when he takes office.[8].

Career before becoming president

Boy / student days

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayPennsylvaniaScrantonHe was born to his father, Joseph Robinette Biden Sr., and his mother, Catherine Eugenia Finnegan, as the eldest of four siblings.[19][20]..His father, Joseph Biden Sr., was in his twenties.ヨ ッ ト-hunting-AutomobileHe lived a very wealthy life, such as being absorbed in his hobbies.But by the time his eldest son, Joe, was born, he failed in several businesses and had to live with Joe's maternal grandparents, the Finnegans, for several years. I was living a difficult life[21].

Then, in the economic downturn of the 1950s, my father, Joseph Sr., couldn't get enough jobs to make a living.[22]When I was 10 years oldDelaware(English editionAfter moving to, my father was workingAir conditioninguseboilerThere is a cleaning companyDelawareNew Castle County OfWilmingtonMoving to[21]After that, I will spend time here until I graduate from high school.Wilmington was the place where Biden later first opened as a lawyer and is still home to the present day.By the way, before and after thisfluteBecause he lovedfleet flutin joeIt was said that it had the nickname.Then Joseph Sr.Secondhand car OfsalesmanThe Biden family will lead a stable life as a middle-class family.[21][22][23].

Biden is a Catholic private school in Claymont(English editionEnroll in1961I spent time at this school until my graduation.While in schoolfootballHe is enthusiastic about baseball, especially in football, belonging to a high school football team,Half back(Running backA kind of. ) AndWide receiverHe played an active part in the position of, and played a part in growing the team that had been defeated for many years into a strong team until achieving undefeated season in the final grade.[21][24]..Political activities were also held at the Wilmington Theater.RacismOpposeSitting inWe actively worked on it, such as participating in activities.Although he was a mediocre and unobtrusive student in terms of schoolwork[20], Biden was a student who demonstrated leadership[25].

After graduating from Archmere Academy in 1961NewarkIt is inUniversity of DelawareGo on toHistorypoliticsMajored in.Initially as enthusiastic about football as he was at Archmere Academy, he is a team at the University of Delaware.Delaware Fighting Blue HensBelonging to, initially playing as a halfback in a freshman team[24]..But when he was in his third year of college, he was on the college national team to spend some time with his girlfriend outside Delaware.Defensive backI had to give up my plan to play as[24][26]..In this way, I was enthusiastic about sports and dating with friends and lovers.[21]Because[Additional description required]In his majors in history and politics, his academic performance was not very good.Bachelor's degreeTo get[20],1965Although he graduated in Japan, he graduated with a poor grade of 688th out of 506 students.But his friends were rather surprised by Biden's cramming talent.[27].

after thatSyracuse University OfLaw schoolGo on to school.In the first year of school (1), it was discovered in 1965 that the article was plagiarized over five pages from an article in a legal review magazine (15 pages in total), and the subject "Legal Method (Legal Method)" was reported as a plagiarism case from the school. Although the "legal method)" credit was revoked, it was not subject to expulsion and Byden earned the credit in 5 the following year.[28]..Biden denies the case as malicious, saying it was "caused inadvertently by not knowing the exact rules for quoting."1968ToDoctor of JusticeGet the issue[29], The next day after completion1969DelawareBar associationJoin[29], In WilmingtonLawyerOpened as.

While attending law school1966To he is the first wifeNeilia HunterMeet and get married.Two men and one woman with Neria (Joseph Robinet Biden III (nickname: Beau),Robert Hunter Biden, Naomi Biden).

Vietnam WarBiden is in college1963While attending law school1968Until the boyhoodasthma5 times because of his medical historyConscriptionI was in grace.For this reason he was not in the Vietnam War[30][31].

Since childhoodStutteringIt took me until my early twenties to overcome it.I continued to read poetry in front of the mirror.Also close relativesAlcoholismI became a prohibitionist because I was suffering from it.

Senator elected, accident of losing ex-wife / daughter

Shortly after the start of lawyer activity,1970BidenNew Castle County(English editionHe ran as a Democratic candidate in the 4th ward of the election and won the election.[32].

Then in the 1972 Senate electionDemocratic PartyRun from.I was incumbent at this timeRepublican Party Of(English editionCongressman was one of the prominent members, but Boggs was thinking of retiring from politics.However, over the successor to Boggs within the Republican Party, Delaware's congressman Pierre S. DuPont IV (later Governor of Delaware) and Wilmington.MayorHarry G. Haskell, Jr. was in conflict, causing division within the Republican camp.As a breakthrough,Richard NixonPresidentAsked Boggs to run for another term and promised full support from the Republicans, which Boggs accepted.However, in the end Biden defeated Boggs to win.He was the fifth federal senator to win the election since its founding.

However, immediately after being elected to the Senate,1972May 12Wife Neria takes three children to Delaware to shop for Christmas(English editionI was driving to Neria, but I was drivingStation WagonBut at the intersectiontrailerNeria and Naomi, who was still young, died after being hit bybaudRobertSurvived but was seriously injured[33]..Police records at the time are no longer available, but newspaper reports at the time reveal that the trailer driver is not negligent.[34][Annotation 2].

From Young Senator to Veteran Senator

Biden once tried to decline the parliamentary position because of the care and care of his sons, but at that time the Democratic SenateHospital General AffairsMetMichael mansfieldPersuaded to refrain from declining, decided to take office as a member of the Diet,1973May 1Was sworn in as a senator from his son's room[34][36].1973From January, he went to the hospital as usual and started his activities as a member of the Diet.Biden was thirty at the time, and the senator at the age of thirty was the fifth youngest in American history.Usually when you become a member of the DietWashington DCHe spent an hour and a half each way commuting by train to his home in the suburbs of Wilmington and Washington, DC, for his sons, with many lawmakers living in.

1974BidentimeMagazine200 Faces for the FutureHe was selected as one of the members of the parliament, expanding his field of activity both inside and outside the parliament and increasing his name recognition.Also in private life1977He married his second wife, Jill Tracy Jacobs, and had a daughter (Ashley).1978Defeats James H. Baxter Jr. to re-election[37],1984Defeats John M. Barris in the election to win three elections[38] We will continue to join the ranks of veteran lawmakers.

1974He explained that his political position was liberal on civil rights, freedom, senior citizen issues and medical care, but conservative on abortion and military conscription.[39].

1970 eraIn the middle, there were many opponents of white Delaware voters.Bus commuting to eliminate discriminationI opposed it.Became one of the major opponents of the Democratic Senate[40]..Legal like Southern State(English editionHe was in favor of using the bus to correct the situation, but opposed the use of the bus to correct the de facto segregation resulting from racial patterns of neighboring residents such as Delaware.[41]..In 2019 at a debate on the Democratic candidate nomination battleKamala HarrisPursued from[42][Annotation 3].

The first 10 years of being a senatorArms controlWas often involved in[44][45].1979To the Democratic PartyJimmy CarterPresident and Soviet UnionLeonid BrezhnevSigned between the Prime MinistersSALTIIBiden was in the Soviet Union after he was not ratified by the U.S. CongressAndrei GromuikoTalked with the Foreign Minister and called for amendments to address US concerns and Senate Foreign Relations Committee objections[46].

RepublicanRonald ReaganThe presidentStrategic defense conceptforJUMPSBiden called for strict adherence to the treaty when he insisted on a rough interpretation of[44] . AlsoapartheidProceedSouth AfricaSecretary of State at a Senate hearing about the Reagan administration's supportGeorge SchultzAttracted attention by blaming[47].

In 1981(English edition Of(English editionInaugurated. 1984(English editionCooperated as a leader of the Democratic Party of Japan.Later, the law became stricter, and Biden confessed that passing it in 2019 was a big mistake.[48][49]..His supporters praise him for modifying some of the worst parts of the law, which he credits as his greatest legislative achievement.[50]..This law(English edition[51][52] And make it the most important legislature he has been involved in(English editionIs included[53][54].

1987For the first time as the Senate Judiciary ChairmanStanding CommitteeInaugurated as chairman of.

1988 presidential primary election and brain surgery

1987May 6Next year(English editionAnnounced to run for.[55]..His personality(English editionFamiliarity as the Senate Judiciary Chairman overBaby boomerIt was regarded as a promising candidate because of its appeal to.If you are elected presidentJohn F. KennedyWas the second youngest president after[47][56][57].

Although it was a leading candidate until the first quarter of 1987[56][57]In NovemberBritish Labor PartyParty leaderNeil KinnockThe suspicion of plagiarism of the content of the speech was raised, and the suspicion of plagiarism of the treatise during school days was also raised.[28].

1988At the age of 2 in February, Biden suffered from neck pain and was in an ambulance.(English editionWas transported to.Cerebral aneurysmSurgery on the brain due to rupture[58][59]..During recoveryPulmonary embolismSuffering from serious complications[59]..In May of the same year, he underwent surgery for a second cerebral aneurysm.[59][60]Returned to the Senate 7 months after admission[61][62].

As Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

After recovering from his illness, Biden was once again active as a senator.1991 OfGulf WarVoted against[63]..In the same position as 55 out of 45 Democratic senators,(English editionOpposed that the United States bears almost all the burden in[64].

In 1991Croatia conflictInSerbianHearing the atrocities ofYugoslavia conflictInterested in[44].Bosnia and Herzegovina ConflictWhen the outbreak breaks out, the weapon embargo is liftedBosnian MuslimsTo provide and train weapons, support them with NATO airstrikes, and investigate war crimes.(English editionBiden was the first to insist on the policy.[44][65].. HoweverGeorge HW BushAdministration tooBill ClintonThe administration was also reluctant to implement this policy, fearing the Balkans would get tangled.[44][63].1993Biden in AprilRepublic of SerbiaPresidentThrobodan MilosevicIn a tense three-hour meeting, he told Milosevic, "I am you.War criminalI think that.Should be tried. "[66].1992Wrote an amendment to urge the Bush administration to provide weapons to Bosnians.1994It was changed to a slightly softer expression that the Clinton administration liked, but a year laterBob Doll,Joe LiebermanSigned a stronger proposal sponsored by[66]..Biden states that it was "the most proud moment of public life" about influencing policy on the Balkans in the mid-1990s.[63].

1997ToSenate Foreign Relations CommitteeBecame the lead member of the Minority Party, and became chairman of the committee between 2001-2003 and 2007-2009, when the Democratic Party dominated the Senate.[65]..His stance on diplomacy(English editionBased on[44][63]..He had a thick pipe with the Republicans and sometimes opposed Democratic policies.[63][65].

1999,Kosovo WarFederal Republic of YugoslaviaAgainstNATO airstrikesSupported[44]..Biden is a RepublicanJohn McCainIn collaboration with President Clinton, using all necessary forces, including ground troops, in KosovoAlbaniansCalled to block Yugoslavia's policy against Milosevic and confront Milosevic[63][67].

Terrorist attacksLater in 2001Operation AfghanSupported[68].. In 2002, Biden became the Senate Diplomatic Committee Chairman.Saddam HusseinIs the greatest threat to national security and there is no choice but to eliminate it. "[69], May 10th of the same year(English editionAgreeed with[63]..Immediately after this, in November 2002Mid-term electionAs the Democratic Party fell into the minority party, he left the post of diplomatic chairman on January 2003, 1, when a new parliament was convened, and returned to the top member of the minority party.Also,2004He was eager to run for the presidential election, but eventually gave up.

after that,2006After the Democratic Party returned to the majority in the November midterm elections2007May 1He has been the chairman of the diplomatic committee for the second time.At the same time, he chairs a subcommittee on crime and narcotics that is linked to the Judiciary Committee.In particular, at the Foreign Affairs Committee, he made positive statements as a leader of the committee and as foreign transportation.Also, at the Senate plenary session, in connection with the Iraqi policy that was showing a deadlock,2007May 9ToRepublican Party OfSam brownbackTogether with the Senator, he passed a non-binding "Iraq Division Resolution" 75:23.

As of 2008, he has been elected six times in a row and has been in office for 6 years, and has become a major Democratic Party of the Senate who is neither pushed nor pushed.By the way, he is the longest-serving senator in the history of his hometown of Delaware.But with so many consecutive wins and long tenures, he is a senior senator in Delaware (in the United States). Senior Senator It is called.Of the two senators in each state, the one who has been elected consecutively and has a longer term will be the senior senator. ) Was in 2, which can be said to be quite late.This is Republican Senator William Victor Ross Jr., two years senior to Biden.William Victor Roth Jr.), But in the 1971 elections since his first visit in 2000, Democratic Governor Thomas Richard Carper (Thomas Richard CarperThis is because he maintained his seat for about 30 years until he lost to) and retired.

Second presidential election challenge, to vice president

2008 will be his second presidential election2008 United States Presidential ElectionChallenge, butBarack ObamaWith candidatesHillary ClintonThe top two candidates were in a position to push the others out, and withdrew on January 2.However, on August 1, Obama, who confirmed the nomination of the presidential candidate, announced his intention to nominate the vice presidential candidate, and after accepting this, on August 3,ColoradoDenverHeld atDemocratic National ConventionSo, along with Obama, he was officially nominated as the Democratic Party's vice presidential candidate.

The most promising candidate for Obama's vice president was Hillary Clinton, Obama's biggest opponent.The sentiment between Obama and Clinton's supporters has deteriorated during the fierce primary, and Obama-Clinton's "Dream Ticket" was expected for internal reconciliation.Therefore, there were some surprises about the choice of Biden.It is said that the reason for this selection was that the following points were evaluated.

  • Being strong against whites (especially white workers) and Catholics, who are the voters who are said to be weak in Obama.
  • He is a heavyweight Democratic centrist and has little political and ideological bias.At that time, Clinton was considered to be more liberal by the Democratic Party as well as Obama, and there was concern that the tickets between liberals would overwhelm the middle class, who hold the key to the election.
  • Biden, who has a wealth of diplomatic experience as the Senate Diplomatic Chairman and is recognized as "foreign traffic" by the public, successfully complements Obama's weaknesses, especially in compensating for the lack of diplomatic experience that was pointed out regarding Obama. The point that you can[70].
  • Biden, who was a heavyweight of the Senate Democratic Party, can be expected to have an influence on parliamentary measures.[71].
  • The union also has a thick pipe as an Irish Catholic[70]
  • Being from the middle class.

But the RepublicanJohn McCainThe candidate isSarah PalinWas compared with the fact that he was selected as a vice presidential candidate, and it seemed to be a modest choice.In addition, Biden pointed out the lack of experience of Obama in the primary, which was criticized by the Republican Party after accepting the nomination.

In the election campaign, Biden criticized McCain violently while Obama suppressed his offensive remarks.In the opinion poll after the debate on the Vice Presidential candidate with Palin, the majority of the respondents answered that "the debate was Biden's victory", but in terms of favorability, many were in favor of Palin.

2008May 11In the vote counting of the presidential election held (local time), Democratic Party Barack Obama was elected the 44th President of the United States, and he himself was confirmed to be the 47th Vice President.

By the way, Biden also ran for the Senator election, which was voted on the same day as the presidential election, assuming a defeat in the presidential election.In this election, 65% of the votes (25 votes) of the entire constituency were obtained, and the Republican Party, which was an opponent,(English editionHe was elected to the Senate for the seventh time by making a big difference.Moreover2009May 1In the 111th Congress, which opened inMay 1He remained in the Senate position until he resigned on the same day.He resigned from his post as chairman of the Senate diplomacy committee on January 1, triggered by the convocation of a new parliament.My last job as a diplomatic chairman was in the second week of January.(I.e.-アフガニスタン-PakistanIt was a visit to the three countries and a summit meeting.Biden's seat was given to Ted Kaufman, who had been his advisor for many years, and the post of diplomatic chairman2004 United States Presidential ElectionWas a Democratic presidential candidate inJohn Forbes KellyIt was taken over by the Senator.

Vice President

2009May 1With Barack Obama's inauguration as the 44th President of the United States, he officially became the 47th Vice President of the United States.CapitolAttending Obama's inauguration at (Capitol Hill) with his wife, Jill, who became a second lady, prior to Obama,John Paul StevensFederal Supreme CourtHe took an oath of office in the presence of a judge.First Vice President from Delaware[72]Became the first Roman Catholic Vice President[73][74].

In addition, he has promoted the appointment of his own staff, with Ron Klein, a veteran Democratic Party lawyer, as the chief of staff and the director of public relations.timeAppointed Jay Kearney, Washington, DC bureau chief.

Biden is his predecessorDick CheneyHowever, unlike the conventional Vice President, policy making and practice, etc.George W. BushWhile he was involved in a fairly deep part of the president's administration, he said, "I myself (CheneyVice President(Like) I will not be deeply involved in the president's policy decisions. "On the other hand, he said, "When President Obama makes a serious decision, he will give advice and advice in all of them."

According to members of the Obama administration, Vice President Biden's role in the administration was to dare to disagree and try to force others to defend his position.[75]..White House Chief of Staff(English editionBidenCollective thinkingIt is evaluated that it prevented falling into[75]..Biden's spokesman also said, "Biden isSituation roomPlayed the villain of[75]..President Obama also said, "The best thing about Joe is that when everyone gets together, he forces everyone to think, keep his position, and look at things from every angle. That's very important to me. "[76]

President Obama, who declared that he would end his role in Iraq by August 2010, appointed Biden as responsible for Iraq in June 8, and Biden should visit Iraq once every two months thereafter. Nari[77]Became a government dignitary to convey the message of the U.S. government to the Iraqi government[76].. Biden visited Iraq eight times until 2012, but Biden's involvement in Iraq diminished when US troops withdrew from Iraq in 8.[78][79].

September 2010, 62010 FIFA World CupSouth AfricaEngland vs AmericaI watched the game, and then visited Egypt and Kenya.[80].

When the Democratic Party was defeated in the November 2010 midterm elections, Biden's role in connecting with Republicans in a long parliamentary life became more important.[81][82]. New Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyIt was Biden who led the passage of the Senate[81][82].. Also in decemberBush tax cutsSummarized a compromise with the Republican Party, including an extension of[82][83].

2011 yearsNATO OfLibyan military interventionSupported[84].ロシアIn favor of having a closer economic relationship with RussiaWTOSupported membership[85]..Biden was carried out on May 2011, 5, according to some reportsBin Laden killing operationWas against[78][86].

Due to the declining approval rating of the Obama administration, there were voices saying that the vice presidential candidate should be replaced by Hillary Clinton instead of Biden in the November 2012 presidential election.[87]Obama continued to be re-elected with Biden as Vice Presidential candidate.

2012 Year of 12 MonthSandy Hook Elementary School Shooting IncidentBecame the head of a special team established in response to consider tightening gun control[88].. Republican Party on the 31stMitch McConnellConcluded an agreement with the Senate General Affairs to avoid the "fiscal cliff"[89].

2014Toロシア Crimean annexationThe Obama administration will forceウクライナIn support of the government, it supported Ukraine and sanctioned the Russian economy.Biden also in December 2015Ukrainian parliamentMade a speech in support of Ukraine[90]..Biden is also a South American leader and has visited South America 16 times during his tenure as Vice President.[91].

2016In 8 monthEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euVisit toAlexander VucicCondolences to civilian casualties from bombing during the Kosovo War in a meeting with the President[92]..In Kosovo, his late son contributed to the development of Kosovo judges and prosecutors.Beau BidenIn honor of his achievements, a highway named after Bo was built and his father Joe Biden attended the ceremony.[93][94][95].

2016 United States Presidential ElectionObama was not able to run due to a limited term, so Biden was asked to run, and Draft'sCAPWas also formed[96].. As of September 2015, 9, he said he had not decided whether to run or not.[97] Announced that he would not run on October 10st of the same year[98].Democratic primaryThen, with President Obama, he did not initially express support for any of the candidates,Hillary ClintonAnnounced support for the candidate on June 2016, 6, after confirming the nomination[99].

2017May 1In praise of his service as Vice President,Presidential Medal of FreedomWas awarded by President Obama.Biden, who had not been informed of the award in advance, wept and gave an improvised speech for 20 minutes.[100][101].

Biden is in the SenateChair approvalVice President who did not, and the longest Vice President[102].

Winning in the third presidential election challenge

Background of running

2017May 6Political Action Committee (PAC) "Potential of the United States (American Possibilities) ”Was announced.2020 United States Presidential ElectionIt was reported that he may be considering running for[103].

2019May 4Officially announced that it will run for the 2020 United States presidential election[104].

In the statement in the video, about the reason for running2017ToVirginiaCharlottesvilleGot up inFar right"The president of the United States said by this word, noting that Trump did not blame the far right for" there were wonderful people on either side "about the death of a woman in a clash between the group and its opponents. Treated those who spread hatred and those who bravely confronted it ethically equally. "" The core values ​​of this country, our democracy, everything that makes America America is at risk. "When history looks back over the last four years, I think there are only anomalies left. But if Mr. Trump stays in the White House for eight years, he will be the essence of America and ours. It will change the nature forever and radically. You can't just look at it silently. "[105].

Party presidential nomination battle

Biden's performance in the Democratic candidate debate on June 2019, 6 was criticized, but a survey of candidates conducted by CNN on Democratic and pro-Democratic registered voters in August found that Take the lead with 27 percent support[106]..However, just before the primary election and caucuses2020May 1Left-wing candidate in CNN pollBernie SandersWas overtaken by the approval rating[107].

May 2, The first match of Democratic nomination candidate selectionIowaCaucus is held.In the announcement of the provisional results the next day, the centristsPete ButtigiegBecame the leader, Biden sank to 4th[108][109]..Next February 2thNew HampshireIn the primaries, Sanders took the lead and Biden was fifth.[110].. Sanders also won the third round of the Nevada Caucus on February 3, and Biden was in second place but far behind.[111]..On the 29th of the same month, it was thought that if he could not win, he would be defeated.South carolinaWon the first victory in the fourth race in the primary election[112].

Super TuesdayButtigieg on March 3st, just before the event, and on the following 1ndAmy KlobucharAnnounced that they would withdraw from the primary election campaign, and both expressed their support for Biden.As a result, the Democratic centrists were united under Biden to confront the leftist Sanders.[113][114]..He defeated Sanders in 3 states at the primary election and caucuses (Super Tuesday) held in 3 states on March 14, making him the top candidate for the number of delegates.[115]..With the victory of Super Tuesday, the approval rating also increased, overtaking Sanders to regain the top approval rating.[116].. On June 3Michael bloombergWithdrew and expressed support for Biden[117]On October 3stElizabeth WarrenWithdrew, but she didn't say who she would support[118].

May 3There were primaries and caucuses in 6 states, including Michigan, and winning in 4 states gave them even more dominance.[119].. Biden won a big victory in the primaries of three states, including Florida on March 3, and further separated Sanders to win the nomination.It can be confirmed that the liberal layer, which should have been the bedrock layer of Sanders, tends to vote for Biden away from Sanders.[120].

May 3Announced withdrawal toTulsi GabbardAlso expressed support for Biden[121]..Sanders, the last remaining opponent, also announced withdrawal on April 4.[122]Announced support for Biden on April 4[123]..This ensured Biden's nomination.In response to the candidate being decidedMay 4To the former presidentBarack ObamaExpressed support for Biden[124],May 4Received a statement of support from Warren who did not reveal his attitude[125],May 4Last candidateHillary ClintonEstablished a party-raising system in response to a statement of support from[126].

May 5ToPennsylvaniaBlack manGeorge Floyd Case of being assaulted and killed by a white police officerRacist protest movement started in the wake ofBlack Lives MatterExpressed solidarity with (BLM). While clearly stating that he does not support violence by taking advantage of demonstrations, saying that "riots, looting, and arson are not protests. They are illegal acts." He criticized Trump's attitude of not denying his armed supporters as spurring the clash.[127].

May 8, A non-white woman who is half black and half IndianKamala HarrisAnnounced that he was selected as the Vice Presidential candidate[128].. It is considered to be a selection of people in consideration of the rise of the BLM movement.[129][130].

March 8Democratic National ConventionHe was officially nominated as a party presidential candidate, and gave a speech to accept the nomination on the 20th, saying, "I am proud to accept the prestigious US presidential candidate nomination." "If we unite, we can overcome the dark season of the United States. He emphasized that he emphasizes science, protects the lives and lives of the people, cooperates with allies, does not become intimate with dictators, and emphasizes the dignity and harmony of all.He also criticized Trump, saying, "This president takes no responsibility, does not try to take the lead, blames others for everything, makes friends with the dictator, and continues to inflame hatred and division."[131][132].

Presidential election final

During the presidential election, Biden was in the Trump administrationNew coronavirus"The fact is that Donald Trump has failed to protect the United States and is terrorizing the United States," he criticized.[127]He also denied the Trump administration's claim that "the worst of Corona has passed."As a result, the Trump camp held a large-scale rally and participants rarely wore masks, while the Biden camp held a drive-in style rally to drive in cars and asked participants to wear masks. Corona correspondence was seen[133].

Commitment to federal minimum wage of $ 15 per hour, investment of $ 2 trillion in green energy, federal budget of $ 4000 billion to promote purchase of American products,Obama careExpansion, criminal justice reform to correct racial discrimination (but opposed to police budget cuts claimed by the left), abolition of tax cuts for wealthy people and companies by the Trump administration, abolition of immigration control measures by the Trump administration, Trump administration WithdrewParis AgreementReturn to, abolishing Trump's diplomatic singularismNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationStrengthen relations with allies such as (NATO)ChugokuDiplomacy to counter the situation, exemption from repayment of student loans, free university, and provision of pre-elementary school learning opportunities to all citizens[134]..In addition, he appealed for the mandatory wearing of masks in the US unit and the new corona measures to increase the inspection ability and expand the inspection by supporting the local government with funds and human resources, and received evaluation from infectious disease experts.[135].

Candidates at the time as the cause of the Democratic Party's defeat in the last electionHillary ClintonThere was an analysis that he didn't get enough votes for the left because he disregarded the left too much, so the promise was considerably closer to the left.[136]..But for that reason, in the presidential election, Trump said, "BidenFar leftPuppet that was hijacked by[136],社会主義者of"Trojan horse""[137] It became a material to be attacked relentlessly.

May 9At the first presidential election debate, Trump often interrupted Biden's time, so from the next time onwards, one of the candidates will take measures to cut off the other party's microphone for a certain period of time. became[138].

May 10ToTennesseeNashvilleAt the second presidential election debate held in Japan, there were no irregular remarks, unlike the previous one, and measures against the new coronavirus andnorth koreaEach other argued and criticized various policy issues such as issues, racial discrimination and climate change countermeasures.[139]..On the issue of racism, Trump said, "No one has contributed to black as much as I do, except for former President Lincoln." "I'm the most non-discriminatory person in this room." "One of the most racist presidents in modern history is here," Viden criticized.[140].

May 11ToMain election of presidential electionIs implemented,May 11Biden was the main media in the morningClose battle state OfLast belt3 states (Pennsylvania,ミ シ ガ ン 州,Wisconsin), And it was reported that the election was confirmed because the number of elections who were sure to win reached the majority.In response, Biden declared victory that night and said, "I swear to be the president who unites rather than divides.State divided into red and blueInstead, to the president who sees the united state (the United States), to the president who strives with all his might to win the trust of all the people. "[141].May 11The winners of all 50 states were found, and Biden was the ground of the Rust Belt Sanshu and the Republican Party.ArizonaGeorgiaBut it's expected to win and win 306 electors (232 for Trump), media reports said.[142].

Incumbent presidentPlaying cardsDid not admit defeat and instructed ministries and agencies not to cooperate in the transition to power.(English editionHowever, concerns spread to the ruling and opposition parties that delays in procedures would adversely affect national security.May 11To(English editionApproves the transition procedure.Biden is now able to receive government funding and access to confidential information to prepare for a transition[143].

With 2020 states nationwide on December 12, 14District of ColumbiaElectoral Voting Was Held[16]..No elector voted for breach of pledge[144], President-elect confirmed with a majority of 306 electors[16].

In response to this result, Biden made another speech, expressing his recognition that the democratic system had withstood despite various attempts to overturn Trump's election results, saying, "The flames of democracy were long ago in this country. It was lit. It turned out that neither pandemic nor abuse of power could extinguish this flame. "" Democracy has won the fight for the soul of the United States. "And "it's time to turn the pages (from the Trump era) and get united and healed."[145]"Through this election campaign, I said I would be president of all Americans. I will work as hard for those who voted for me as well as for those who did not vote for me."[146] Said.

September 2020, 12PfizerBiontechDeveloped byCOVID-19 vaccine(Tozinameran) Received public vaccination[147].

From January 2021, 1 in both the House and SenateJoint meetingWas scheduled to be officially finalized, but the election results will not be accepted immediately after the start of parliament.Trump supporters turn into mobs and break into Congress and occupy CongressThere has occurred[148]..In response to the riot, Biden "has been exposed to unprecedented attacks on our democracy." "We rushed into the Capitol, broke windows, occupied offices and the US Senate, and were legally elected. Threatens the safety of lawmakers? This is not a protest, it's a rebellion. "[149].

Parliament was suspended due to the turmoil, but it resumed on the night of the 6th after the National Guard was mobilized to eliminate the invading Trump supporters, and the result of the electoral vote was approved and officially Biden on the early morning of the 7th. Was decided to win[150].

Preparing for the new Biden administration

After the final report of the presidential electionNew Biden administrationNominations for ministers are being made in sequence.Secretary of StateUnder the Obama administrationDeputy Secretary of StateServed asAntony Blinken[151],Secretary of DefenseFormer black army generalLloyd Austin[152],Treasury SecretaryToFederal Reserve Board(FRB) Former ChairJanet Yellen[153],Secretary of the InteriorIndigenous peopleNew mexicoCongressmanDeb Haaland[154],Attorney GeneralIs a liberal federal high judge who once failed to be the Supreme Court justice by the Obama administration in opposition to the Senate Republicans.Merrick Garland[155],Secretary of LaborToBoston Mayor(English edition[156],Secretary of TransportationToHomosexualityPerson (ゲ イ) Before professingSouth bendA young mayor who fought for a primary electionPete Buttigieg[157],Homeland Security SecretaryFormer Deputy Secretary of State for Hispanics(English edition[158],Health and Welfare SecretaryIs a Hispanic Attorney General of California(English edition[159],Secretary of AgricultureAlso served as Secretary of Agriculture in the Obama administrationTom Vilsack[160],Secretary of State InformationFormer CIA Deputy Secretary(English edition[161],Trade representativeToTaiwanOf the House of Representatives Revenue Committee Legal AdvisorCatherine Thai[162] Was unofficially decided.However, the appointment of these ministerial posts requires the consent of the Senate.[163].

White House Chief of StaffWas Biden's Chief of Staff during his time as Vice PresidentRon Klain[164], Responsible for comprehensive coordination of diplomacy and securityNational Security OfficerWas Biden's National Security Adviser during his time as Vice President.Jake SullivanWas nominated[158]..Was Secretary of State of the Obama administrationJohn Forbes KellyIs the President's Special Envoy for Climate Change[165] Was nominated for.A black woman who served as National Security Adviser and UN Ambassador during the Obama administration.Susan RiceBecomes the head of the domestic policy team[166]..Senate approval is not required for these personnel[163][166].

Biden said, "(The new administration) wants to be something that symbolizes the United States," and it is considered that the personnel are considered to ensure diversity such as gender and race.[158]..If the above personnel are approved by the Senate, Harland will be the first indigenous minister.[154]Buttigiegge is the first minister to publish homosexuality[167] Becomes

In addition, 2020 immediately after the confirmationMay 11In the new administrationNew coronavirusLead the measuresNew Coronavirus Advisory CommitteeAnnounced that it was founded.Consists of 13 experts, including epidemiologists, immunologists, and biological weapons defense experts[168].

2021May 1 OfGeorgiaWhether the Senate election final vote (2 seats) will allow the Democratic Party to take the initiative in both the House and Senate, or become a "twisted parliament"May 1It was attracting attention as an election for the future of the new Biden administration that was launched from[169]..Both President-elect Biden and incumbent President Donald Trump entered Georgia and delivered support speeches for their party candidates.Biden on the 4th of the previous dayAtlanta"(The New Year) got off to a terrible start," saying the Trump administration's slow distribution of the new coronavirus vaccine was "the president spends more time whining and complaining than dealing with the problem." "Tomorrow could be a new day for Atlanta, Georgia, and the United States," he said, saying that Democratic candidates would work to achieve a $ 2000 cash benefit for the public.[170]..After the ballot countingMay 1Both seats are Democratic candidates ((English edition(English edition) Was reported.The Democratic Party has gained a majority in the Senate, including a casting vote by the next Vice President Kamala Harris.The Democratic Party took control of the White House and both the House and Senate2009Since then[171].

On January 1, President Trump, who announced his absence from the presidential inauguration ceremony, welcomed his absence by saying, "He is a shame of the nation. It is good not to come."on the other hand,Mike Pence"It's an honor (if you attend)," he said of the Vice President.It will be the first time in 1869 years since 152 that the former president will not attend the inauguration of the new president.[172].."Impeachment is a parliamentary decision," he said, adding that "the impeachment is a parliamentary decision." It wasn't right. "[173].

The day before the inauguration of the presidentMay 1In a speech at the National Guard headquarters in the name of his late eldest son, Bo, in New Castle, Delaware, he said, "I'm sorry that Bo isn't here. I was able to introduce my son as president." Wipe[174].

President of the United States

With Kamala Harris in front of the Washington Parliament on January 2021, 1Presidential and Vice Presidential Inauguration CeremonyInaugurated as the 46th president[18]..After the oath, "I put all my heart into bringing America together and rebuilding it." "We once again learned that democracy is valuable. Democracy is fragile, and everyone. At this time, democracy has overcome. "" Let's write together an American story of hope, not fear, unity, not division, light, not darkness. "[18].

15 during the same dayPresidential decree[Annotation 4]Sign.Paris Agreement on Climate Change ControlReturn to, revoking construction approval for "Keystone XL Pipeline" to carry crude oil from Canada to the Midwestern United States,ア ラ ス カ 州NortheastArctic National Wildlife RefugeSuspension of leasing activities for oil and gas development in Japan, fuel efficiency standards for automobiles,methaneIndicated a shift to an environment-oriented policy, such as instructions for reviewing emission regulations[18].. However(English edition,ア ラ ス カ 州 OfMike DunleavyGovernorThere are criticisms from[18]. AlsoWHOCancellation of withdrawal from[176], Mandatory wearing masks and ensuring social distance in the federal government building,メキシコIncludes an order to lift the state of emergency, which was the basis for directing federal funding to the construction of the border wall with[18]..The following day, January 1, a total of 21 presidential orders aimed at accelerating vaccine supply in order to curb the spread of the new coronavirus infection.[Annotation 5]Signed[177].

By January 1nd, the White HouseThe Oval OfficeRemodeled in EnglandWinston ChurchillBust of the prime minister[Annotation 6]Was removed from the office and replaced by a Hispanic civil rights leader(English edition,Martin Luther KingPastor, younger brother of President Kennedy and Attorney GeneralRobert Kennedy, Civil rights activistRosa Parks,Franklin RooseveltPresident's wifeEleanor RooseveltBust was placed[178]..Also, the most prominent place above the fireplace was a portrait of Franklin Roosevelt's 32nd President (in the Trump era).George WashingtonPortrait of the first president).On both sidesThomas JeffersonConflict between the third president and then president JeffersonAlexander HamiltonPortraits of the Treasury Secretary were lined up. "The disagreement within the republic is a symbol of importance to democracy," explains the Biden administration.On the other side, with the first president of George Washington,Abraham LincolnPortraits of the 16th president were displayed in pairs[179].

Prioritize American products in government procurement on January 1(English editionExecutive order to strengthen the operation of[180] Signed[181].. On the 27th, he signed a series of executive orders on climate change measures, such as banning new drilling of oil and natural gas on public land and doubling offshore wind power generation by 2030. "Today is the White House's Climate Change Day," he said, adding that the United States "must lead" the global response to the climate change crisis.[182].. On January 1, he signed two executive orders aimed at expanding public health insurance coverage to "repair the damage caused by the former Trump administration."He also instructed federal agencies to review policies such as stricter eligibility for Medicaid (public health insurance for low-income earners) implemented under the Trump administration.[183].

On March 3, it signed and passed a $ 11 trillion new coronavirus additional economic measures bill.Regarding cash benefits, which are the pillar of additional measures, the White House estimates that approximately 1 million households will be eligible for benefits.[184].

On March 3, the promised 20 million vaccinations within 100 days were achieved in about 1 days.[185].

The first formal press conference since taking office on March 3, defining US-China relations as "the struggle between democracy and tyranny in the 26st century."China's ambition to become the world's largest power has stated that it will not do so as long as it is the president.The number of children trying to enter the United States from Mexico at the southern border has increased, and the Biden administration has changed the policy of the former Trump administration on the problem of being kept in the authorities' facility, and only children who are not accompanied by parents etc. can enter the country In response to the suspicion that it was because he began to admit, he explained that he would hurry to take measures such as securing facilities for temporary stays, and said, "I will not apologize for stopping the Trump administration's too inhumane policy." Stated[186]..He also denied at a press conference the rumor that he was planning to quit in the first term from his age, and showed his willingness to run in 1.[186].

On March 3, it announced a $ 31 trillion infrastructure plan under the name of "US Employment Plan."Biden says that if the plan goes through, it will create 2 million jobs.[187]..He also proposed raising the federal corporate tax, which the former Trump administration had reduced from 35% to 21%, to 28% as one of its financial resources. It is said that it will withdraw the tax cuts implemented by the Trump administration in 2017 for preferential treatment for wealthy people and large corporations, but the corporate tax increase is strongly opposed by opposition Republicans and corporate lobbyists in Washington, and 25 from moderate Democrats There is also a compromise that we can support if we raise it to%.[188].

On April 4th, it announced the first gun control policy aimed at controlling homemade guns called "ghost guns" that have no serial number and are difficult to track.It has indicated that it will also issue additional regulatory policies.The federal parliament is discussing a bill to tighten identification when buying guns, but the opposition Republican Party is against it, and the ruling Democratic Party is also cautious.From anti-regulatory opponentsUnconstitutionProceedings may be filed as[189].

On April 4, a statement was issued following a conviction in a trial of a former police officer charged with murder for killing George Floyd, saying, "Mr. Floyd will not return, but this verdict is It could be a big step forward in the fight for justice in the United States. "" We have to stop here for real reform and work harder to prevent a tragedy like this one from happening again. Don't forget Floyd's last word, "I can't breathe." It's time for a big change, "he said, calling for the need for racial discrimination and police reform.[190].

March 4Policy speech at the joint session of the Senate and SenateWas done.He took over the administration during the new corona crisis, but declared that "America has begun to move again" as it is getting out of the crisis in 100 days.Also in ChinaXi JinpingIs redefined as "tyrannical" and "they believe that democracy cannot compete with tyrannicalism in the 21st century" and reconcile domestically to win the competition with China. He emphasized the need for economic policies that would lead to the revival of the middle class.He called on the people to overcome divisions and unite in order to show the superiority of democracy. "What made this countryWall streetIt's not the middle class, "he said, showing his support for low- and middle-income workers.In addition to the $ 2 trillion infrastructure plan announced earlier, it has shown additional economic measures totaling $ 1.8 trillion centered on childcare and educational support, such as free child education.He said that the tax increase for the wealthy should be the main source of revenue, and demanded budgetary measures from Congress.[191].

Policy staff (Cabinet of the United States)

Statue

  • ReligionRoman Catholic..The entire family is Roman Catholic and is located in the Brandywine district of Grenville, Delaware.(English edition OfMassAttend regularly. As of 2021, Catholics who became president of the United States were inaugurated in 1961.John F. KennedyAnd Biden are the only two[193].
  • He professes not to drink alcohol at all.This is to his close relativesAlcoholismIs because it is widespread.By the way, I fought the presidential electionDonald TrumpIs known for not drinking alcohol at all for the same reason.
  • On the other hand, I love sweets, especially ice cream.[194]..By the way, his favorite type of ice cream is ice cream with chocolate chips.
  • When I was a kidStutteringHe was bullied by being nicknamed the slang "dash," which refers to saying only incomprehensible words.According to her sister, Biden read poetry into the mirror every day and worked hard to correct her pronunciation in order to cure stuttering.In an interview with Atlantic, he admits that he still has symptoms of stuttering as an adult.[195].
  • Every yearMay 12In memory of his first wife, Neria, and his eldest daughter, Naomi, who died in the car accident mentioned above, he does not do any work.
  • It is sometimes called a "survivor" because of its turbulent career as mentioned above.
  • In taking office as Vice Presidentsecret ServiceIs assigned a code name (a common name used by guards for wireless communication during guard missions), and the code name is "Celtic".this is,"CelticIt is a word that means "of Biden"Descendants of Irish immigrantsIt is based on the origin of.
  • Philadelphia PhilliesIs a fan of the Democratic Party of JapanJimmy RollinsHanded me a special uniform[196].
  • 2010May 3When President Obama signed the Health Insurance Reform Act, which paves the way for a universal health insurance system, he hugged Obama and was so happy that he didn't think "This is a big fucking deal!" Said. "FuckIs a very vulgar word in English, and the people involved were forced to put out the fire.[197].
  • 2 animalsGerman shepherd-Champ and MajorI have.After the 2008 presidential election, Champ was promised to choose a dog with his wife, Jill.Major in 2018DelawareTaken over by the Biden family through the animal protection group of[198]..These two dogs also entered the White House.Former President Trump was the first president in 2 years to have no pets, soFirst petThe tradition of "" has been revived.A spokesman for President Jill Biden told CNN TV that "Champ was enjoying a new bed by the fireplace and the majors liked running around the South Lawn."[199].
  • Since the days of the Senate and Vice PresidentAmtrakIt is said that he has traveled between his hometown and Washington about 8000 times.Therefore, it was nicknamed "Amtrak Joe". At the presidential inauguration ceremony on January 2021, 1, a plan to move from Wilmington, Delaware to the capital Washington using Amtrak was being considered, but it was canceled due to the attack on the Capitol.[200].

Relationship with Japan

Family / origin

Relatives

BidenEngland-France-Irish descentBorn as the eldest son of four siblings born to the blood-sucking real estate agent Joseph Biden Sr. and his Irish wife Catherine Eugene "Jean" Biden (formerly Finnegan), with two younger brothers and a younger sister. There is one.He also has two sons and one daughter with his first wife, Neria, and one daughter with his second wife, Jill.His close relatives are:

  • Joseph Robinet Biden Sr.: Father (1915-2002).
  • Kathleen Eugenia “Gene” Finnegan: Mother (1918-2010)[215]).
  • James Brian Byden: Brother.
  • Francis W. Biden: Brother.
  • Valerie Byden Owens: Sister.
  • Neilia Hunter: First wife. Bereavement in a traffic accident in 1972.
  • Joseph Robinette “Beau” Biden III: Eldest son (1969-2015).DelawareAttorney GeneralServed.Died of a brain tumor[216]..Democrat.
  • Robert Hunter Biden: Second son (1970-).LovingOffice Older Biden & BlairLLPCo-founder andAmtrakVice-chairman of the Management Committee of.
  • Naomi Christina Biden: The eldest daughter (1971-1972).As mentioned above, he died in a car accident with Neria.
  • Jill Tracy Jacobs Biden: Second wife.Second lady(2009-2017)
  • Ashley Blazer Biden: Second daughter (1981-).CurrentlySocial workerWork as.

ancestor

Biden's paternal Biden family was the generation of his grandfather William Biden.1822ToThe United Kingdom-England-SussexFrom AmericaMarylandIs a house that immigrated to[217][218]..The family name "Biden" came to be seen in England13st centuryAnd this surname isOld frenchIt seems to be derived from Buton, which means Button.11st century OfNorman ConquestIt is thought that the family name has entered England since then.[219].

Biden's maternal Finnegan family was in the days of his mother's great-grandfather OwenアイルランドIt is a house that immigrated to the United States from[219]..Also for my mother Catherine's maternal grandfather(English editionParliamentarian(English editionThere is.His father Edward Brewitt (Edward Blewitt) Is1851At that timeThe United KingdomWas under ruleアイルランド-Mayo-(English editionIreland from the United States to escape famine and povertyニ ュ ー ヨ ー クWas an Irish immigrant who emigrated to[220].

Irish blood is also flowing from my father's genealogy[219], Genealogist(English editionAccording to Biden, "about five-eighths of Irish blood" is inherited.[220].

That's why Ireland got excited after Biden won the presidential election.Irish Prime MinisterMicheál MartinIs one of the first leaders to congratulate Biden, ignoring Trump, who does not admit defeat, after Biden's belief was reported.[220]..According to Prime Minister Martin, he is "the Irish-American president since John F. Kennedy."[220]..Biden himself was a Vice President2016I visited Ballina, Ireland for the first time, and deepened exchanges with relatives who remained there.The family of Irish Joe Brewitt, whose father is Biden's "my cousin"White HouseHe has a relative relationship with Biden, such as being invited to.According to him, Biden has promised to visit his hometown of Ireland again.[221].

Policy stance / main activities

Basic position

Democratic PartyWithinCentristWhen he was a senator, he was more liberal than 51 percent of Democrats.Of liberal supportersAmericans for Democratic Action(American's for Demo Classic Action) awarded a liberal score of 80 percent, while a conservative group American Conservative Union Was awarded a maintenance score of 13 percent.

外交

In the field of diplomacy, which he is most good at, he makes various remarks and policy proposals, and also shows one side of the activist, such as visiting each country.

Basic stance

He is a follower of international liberalism (liberal internationalism) and is reflected in his foreign policy stance.In the Senate, he is a Republican leader who also advocates liberal internationalism.Jesse HelmsHe often voted with both senators (Helms is the deceased), which often violated the policy of his party, the Democratic Party.

After the presidential election2020May 11"The United States is back," "not only by power, but also as an example and leading the world." "Leading rather than turning away from the world. Opposing hostile nations and keeping allies away. Of our values. I will stand up for this, "he said, breaking away from Trump's American first principle and returning to the leadership of the international community.Rule of law-Democracy-human rights such asDiplomacyAnd showed a policy of emphasizing allies[222].

First big stage

What made Biden so famous1979ToSecond strategic weapons restriction negotiationThis is a series of activities related to (SALT II). SALT II1979Toオーストリア OfViennaIn the United StatesJimmy CarterWith the presidentUSSR OfLeonid BrezhnevIt was signed between the general secretaries and only waited for the approval and ratification of the federal parliament.However, in the original draft, it was a difficult situation to get approval for more than two-thirds of the number of members required for ratification, and the Senate executives had difficulty responding, and although it was expected that approval could be obtained by adding an amendment. The addition of the amendment required the approval of the partner country, the Soviet Union.So the executive department was one of the second young senators at the time, just for the sake of it.MoscowTo Biden, who was supposed to go to, the Soviet Union at that timeAndrei GromuikoHe entrusted him with the important task of negotiating with the Foreign Minister and obtaining consent to add amendments.At that time, Gromyko took the nickname of "Mr. Niet" ("Niet" means "NO" in Russian) because of his strong bargaining stance.DiplomatThis mission was a heavy burden for the young member of the Diet, Biden.But in the end, he succeeded in getting Gromyko of "Mr. Niet" to approve the addition of the amendment.After all, SALT II started at the end of the same yearSoviet invasion of AfghanistanRejected ratification by Congress due to1985Despite the expiration date, without the invasion of Afghanistan, approval by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which was the biggest challenge, was certain.In other words, it was such a "big Venus".This success was subsequently booked in various fields such as bargaining.[223] But it is taken up.

Kosovo problem

Biden is especially on the Balkan PeninsulaKosovoActively tackled the issue of conflict in Japan, which attracted international attention in the 1990s.Bill ClintonHe is known for his efforts to influence the president's policies.While he repeatedly visits conflict areasKosovo ConflictAt the timeユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アBeing presidentSerbianWas also a representative of the forcesThrobodan MilosevicHe struggled to resolve the dispute, such as holding a confidential meeting at midnight and trying to resolve the situation.

The decision to directly intervene in the NATO army in the Kosovo WarBosnia and Herzegovina ConflictThe experience at is involved.Around 5, during the Bosnian-Herzegovina conflict that occurred about five years before the Kosovo conflict, it became difficult to overcome the situation through negotiations.MuslimsLedEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euLifting the arms embargo on the government and investigating war crimes,NATO armyWill appeal to the government for active intervention, mainly the implementation of air strikes by the government.The recommendation at this time isClintonPresident in 1999Kosovo crisisWas executed at the timeOperation Allied ForceIt was an important opportunity to allow armed sanctions and interventions against systematic human rights violations against Albanian residents, mainly by Serbian forces.He also expressed his willingness to defend the US direct attack on Serbia during the Kosovo crisis, empowering President Clinton to use "every necessary force" against Serbia in collaboration with Republicans who support it. The "McCain-Biden-Kosovo Resolution" was passed.Biden himself wrote in his autobiography published for the presidential campaign that his activities were "the most proud achievements in foreign policy."

Policy toward the Middle East

The relationship between Biden and Iraq1991ToGulf WarIt was the first time that he opposed the use of force against Iraq in Japan.

2003Started fromIraq warInGeorge W. BushWhen the administration announced that it would use force, it showed its willingness to accept it, and voted in favor of the aforementioned "Resolution to allow the use of force against Iraq."However, the Bush administration aimedSaddam HusseinHe expressed opposition to the exclusion of the dictatorship.It also allows the Bush administration to act unilaterally and "preemptive strikes for self-defense."Bush doctrineIs also criticized.In this way, while criticizing the Bush administration, at firstIraq warBiden was positive about the start of the war, but when the situation in Iraq became swamped after that, he turned to the opposite.2007He also opposed the government's initial bill to increase the number of US troops in Iraq.

Biden has long advocated the so-called "Iraq 3 division plan" as a means of collecting the Iraq war and the confusion and civil war that accompany it.This plan is for Iraq respectivelyShiite-Sunni-KurdishDivided into areas of, consisting of these three areasFederal stateIt is a thing to do.The above-mentioned "Iraq division resolution" is the one that officially proposed this proposal as a counter-measure to the above-mentioned US military increase bill.In proposing this resolution, he is the same Iraqi divisionist as Biden.Republican Party OfSam brownbackThe senator also expressed his support and was named as a co-sponsor.This resolution is2007May 9In the Senate, it was approved by a majority of 75 to 23.

After the birth of the Obama administration aiming to withdraw troops from Iraq, President Obama said, "Joe, you're going to Iraq (Joe, you do Iraq) ”, And Vice President Biden will be in charge of the Iraq issue.[224]..Since then, Biden has visited Iraq eight times by 2012 and was involved in the Iraqi issue until the U.S. military withdrew from Iraq in 8.[78][79].

Leftist candidate at the debate on the presidential candidate nomination battle on January 2020, 1Bernie Sanders"Biden agreed with the 2002 Iraq War approval resolution," he criticized.In response, Biden said, "It was a mistake to trust that they (then Bush Republican government) said they would not enter the war." "They said they would just send inspectors. In fact, the world He has decided to send an inspector and still has entered the war, "he explained, explaining that he had worked on the return of the army as Vice President of President Obama, and other on the stage about his subsequent actions. He said he was ready to compare with the candidate[225].

Former Secretary of DefenseRobert GatesCriticized Biden in his memoirs, "for the past 40 years, he has been wrong on almost all major diplomatic and national security issues."He points out that he opposed the Gulf War based on the UN resolution, the response to the Iraq war, the intensification of terrorism with the withdrawal of Iraq in 2011, and the opposition to the increase in Afghanistan as "mistakes" of Byden.[226].

Kori Sheikh, a foreign policy expert at the Institute for Public Policy, said Biden's diplomacy was better than Trump's diplomacy, but "lacked a consistent philosophy of when and how to use military power." And continuing to advocate the wrong foreign policy should not be overlooked. "[226].

Israeli Prime Minister after the presidential election in November 2020Benjamin NetanyahuBiden promised to "firmly support Israel's security and the future of Jews as a democracy," but Biden is opposed to the Trump administration's review of Israeli shoulder diplomacy and Israel's opposition.Iran nuclear agreementThere is uncertainty about future US-Israel relations as he is eager to return to[227][228].

On January 2021, 1, Chargé d'Affaires Mills announced that the new Biden administration supported the "two-state coexistence" of Israel and Palestine, revived the Palestinian humanitarian aid significantly reduced by the former Trump administration, and closed the diplomatic mission. Also revealed that it will resume.Clarified the stance of changing the Middle East policy of the former Trump administration, where extreme pro-Israeli diplomacy was prominent, and strengthening involvement with the Palestinian side.[229].

Regarding the Iran nuclear agreement, which the former Trump administration left in 2018, he said he would return if Iran complies with the nuclear agreement, and the French presidentEmmanuel MacronOffers to act as an intermediary[230]..However, since the Trump administration imposed economic sanctions such as the embargo on Iran's crude oil after the agreement was withdrawn, Iran has repeatedly deviated from the agreement, such as exceeding the upper limit of uranium enrichment, so Secretary of State Blinken is currently in the situation. Iran said, "In many ways it hasn't followed the rules and (return) is a long way to go."Even if Iran decides to comply with the agreement, it is expected that it will take time to evaluate (performance of obligations), and it is cautious about returning early.[231].

On February 2021, 2, the U.S. military carried out an air strike on Syria's "pro-Iranian militia", the first military operation under the Biden administration.[232]..According to U.S. officialsLloyd AustinPresident Biden allegedly decided with the advice of the Secretary of Defense[233].

On April 4, he announced that he would withdraw the Afghan troops by September, stating that "it is time to end the longest war in US history."He also touched on China, saying, "We should support (improve) the competitiveness of the United States to deal with fierce competition," and expressed his intention to shift the focus of security from the war on terrorism to China.[234].

Effective control of Gaza Strip in Palestine in early MayIslamic fundamentalism組織HamasIn the event of an armed conflict between Israel and Israel, while supporting Israel's right to self-defense[235], Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Authority Chairman Abbas talked over the phone to work to ease tensions, and on May 5, a ceasefire agreement was reached through Egyptian mediation.Biden said that Netanyahu had agreed to a ceasefire with Hamas, an Islamic fundamentalist organization that effectively controls Gaza Strip, praised the decision to end the conflict and expressed his intention to urgently provide humanitarian assistance to Gaza.[236]..But former president Trump and others said, "(In the days when Trump was president) those who were against Israel knew that they would be immediately rewarded if they attacked Israel because the United States was determined to be with Israel." Biden's weakness and lack of support for Israel are causing new attacks on our allies. "[237].

Policy toward Europe

Biden had a series of telephone talks with European leaders on November 11 after the presidential election was confirmed, telling reporters that "the United States is back. Returning to the (diplomatic) game." "[238].Germany OfAngela MerkelTo the prime ministerNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)European UnionWe will strive to strengthen US-Europe relations through the (EU). "Emmanuel MacronThe president is the development of Africa,(I.e.situation,(I.e.He said he had discussed cooperation on nuclear issues, etc.[238].

The Trump administration took a position to downplay its allies with "America First", but it was the European countries that suffered the most.European countries have requested an increase in defense spending from European countries, withdrew voluntarily from northeastern Syria in 2019 without notifying European countries, and decided to reduce US troops stationed in Germany in 2020. It was intensifying its opposition to the United States.US-Europe relations continue to deteriorate under the Trump administration,North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) fell into a state of disagreement until it was described as "brain dead" (French President Emmanuel Macron), and there was a widespread sense of security crisis that it would give Russia and China a chance to take advantage of it.[239].

For that reason, European countries have high expectations for Byden, who won the 2020 presidential election with an emphasis on alliances.[239].. NATOJens StoltenbergThe Secretary-General lifted Biden as "I know he is a strong supporter of the alliance."[240].

In Europe, which values ​​multilateralism, Trump has withdrawn.Paris AgreementAnd Iran nuclear agreement,whoThere are also strong voices requesting a return to the United States such as (WHO).Ursula von der LyenThe European Commission emphasized that "Europe and the United States have supported the international order of liberalism based on rules," and expressed his willingness to cooperate with the Biden administration on various policy issues such as corona and environmental issues.In the trade field as well, it is expected that the friction between the United States and Europe, which has intensified under the Trump administration, will be resolved, but there are also views that Biden is wary of strengthening protectionism by giving priority to domestic economic recovery.[240].

Biden is in the UKBoris JohnsonIn a telephone conversation with the Prime Minister, he expressed opposition to reinstate border security between Ireland and Northern Ireland over Brexit.He argued that the Northern Ireland peace agreement should be respected and the border between Northern and Northern Ireland should be kept open rather than closed.It also warned that a trade agreement with the United States would not be realized if border security was reinstated.[241][242]..The peace agreement was at that timeBill ClintonBiden had mentioned this issue even before he was elected president, as it was realized with the help of the president and other American politicians, and on Twitter in September 2020, "Peace in Northern Ireland. The Good Friday agreement brought about cannot be sacrificed for Brexit. "[242]..Biden once criticized Johnson as a "clone" of Trump "physically and mentally".[243].

Although it is a member of NATOトルコBiden is likely to be in a difficult position.Turkish PresidentRecep Tayyip ErdoganIs said to have had a relatively close relationship with Trump due to poor relations with the EU.2019In December Biden criticized Erdogan by name, calling him a "dictator."[239].

British Prime Minister Johnson on January 2021, 1 after taking office[243], French President Emmanuel Macron on January 1th[244], German Chancellor Merkel on January 1[245], NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg on January 1th[246] They held their first telephone summit meetings with each other, emphasizing NATO and the EU, and informing them that they would cooperate with Europe on common security issues and environmental issues such as Russia, China, Iran and Afghanistan. On February 2, the former Trump administration announced that it had frozen plans to reduce about 4 of the 3 US troops in Germany, which were decided on the grounds of "US first."The reduction plan is perceived by the German people as Trump's retaliation against Chancellor Angela Merkel, and it is also the first large-scale reduction plan for the U.S. military stationed in an ally, and there are concerns about its impact on security. Ta[247].

In a telephone conversation with British Prime Minister Johnson on March 3, China-led economic zone "One belt one roadIn response to this, he expressed the idea that democracies need to cooperate to promote development support in developing countries.[248].

April 4, Queen of EnglandElizabeth IIPrince consortDuke of EdinburghPhilip"His Highness is the one who dedicated his life to Britain." "It was an extraordinary life, including the courage to serve in World War II, tackling environmental problems, and establishing a charity." "99 years old I have great respect for the fact that it did not show any decline at all. "[249].

Policy toward Russia

1970 eraBiden, who has influenced US diplomacy as a senator specializing in foreign affairs, is for Russia.USSRIt was a formidable enemy from the times.Oppose Russia's annexation of Crimea even after becoming Vice Presidentウクライナ OfPetro poroschenkoAs a central figure who has supported the administration, he has a deep connection with Russia. During the 2020 presidential election, Biden said about Russia: "President Putin's Russia is deteriorating relations between NATO and EU member states and destroying the foundation of democracy in Western countries." "In the US election He did not hide his anti-Russian position by declaring that he was "the biggest threat to the United States" as "interfering illegally."[250][251]..Putin was also openly criticized by calling him a "despot".[252]..He also accused Trump of being too weak against Russia and called Trump a "Putin puppy" during the presidential debate.[253].

Therefore, there is a widespread view in Russia that the US-Russia relations will worsen under the Biden administration.Chairman of the International Affairs Committee of the Russian Senate(Russian version TheFacebook"There will be more politically motivated sanctions (by the United States)." "The Biden administration has become more involved in global affairs than the Trump administration, which has given top priority to the United States, and is a force with Russia around the world. The conflict will intensify. "[254]..Russian diplomatic critic(Russian versionAlsoItal-Tass"The Biden administration could return to more pressureful policies (to Russia) in the former Soviet Union, which would be frustrating for Russia." "The Democratic Party wins around Mr. Biden in 16 years of presidential intervention. Many people are angry that Russia has robbed them. "[254].

RussianVladimir PutinThe president did not congratulate Biden shortly after he was confirmed to be elected.The only remaining nuclear disarmament framework between the United States and RussiaNew Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty(New START) expired in February 2021 and Biden has indicated its intention to extend it, but there was concern that negotiations would be adversely affected if the Russian government did not allow Biden to win.[250].. "It doesn't matter if you like it or not, it's waiting for the conflict in the United States to end," Putin said in a state broadcast on November 11[239]"We treat Mr. Trump and Mr. Biden with respect," he said. "Anyone is ready to work with someone whom Americans trust."[250]"It's clear that the Russian side was hoping for Mr. Trump's re-election in this presidential election," said BBC Moscow correspondent Steve Rosenberg. The reason is that it becomes a change. "[252].

Putin eventually sent a congratulatory message to Biden on December 2020, after confirming that Biden had won a majority of the electors in the electoral vote on December 12, 14."Although there are differences, we believe that the two countries have a special responsibility for the security and stability of the world and can contribute to solving many of the problems facing the world." "Cooperation and contact I'm ready. "[255].

The first telephone summit between Biden and Putin was held on January 2021, 1 to discuss protests by opposition parties in Russia.Biden has been suspected of Russia's cyberattack on the United States, allegations that Russian intelligence officials have punished Afghan rebels for the killing of U.S. soldiers, Russian opposition leaders, the U.S. government said.Alexei NawarinuiHe said he was pursuing Putin over allegations of attempted poisoning and Russia's intervention in the 2016 and 2020 US presidential elections, and that he was ready to protect the United States from cyber spying and any attacks.[256]..The new START was agreed in principle to be extended, and according to the Presidential Administration of Russia, a diplomatic document confirming the agreement was exchanged[257].. On March 2021, 3, the Biden administration's first sanctions against Russia were imposed on high-ranking Russian government officials for their involvement in Navalny's attempted poisoning.[258]On the 17th, Russia protested with the recognition that "Putin was a murderer" and summoned the ambassador to the United States.[259].

New sanctions against Russia, such as restricting the purchase of newly issued Russian government bonds from June 4, in retaliation for cyber terrorism and sabotage that attempted to disrupt the US presidential election, which is believed to be by Russia on April 15. announced[260]..It also frozen the assets of companies and individuals believed to have been involved in cyber terrorism and the merger of Crimean, and expelled 10 Russian diplomats stationed in the United States."It is unacceptable for Russia to intervene in the presidential election and launch a cyberattack on government agencies, and we will take appropriate action," Biden told Putin in a telephone talk this week. Foreign powers are in a democratic process. I can't allow you to intervene and stay unpaid. "The Russian Foreign Ministry strongly opposed the sanctions and called the US Ambassador to Russia Sullivan to the Foreign Ministry for explanation.He also indicated that he would take retaliation measures, saying that "we have no choice but to react."[261].

Policy toward China

Originally Biden1970 eraA person who has supported the US policy of involvement with China since then, when he was the Vice President of the Obama administrationXi JinpingAt that timeVice President of the StateandPolitical Bureau Standing Committee MemberHu JintaoGeneral secretaryandSupreme leaderI have been interacting personally since the time when I was regarded as a successor.[262], "Know well that of him, very wisely's strict not ready at all the democratic idea but" the Xi Jinping to know well from Vice President era wrote the Guardian[263].

Biden has stated in his first foreign policy speech since taking office that he will position China as "the most serious competitor".[264], "There is no need to collide, but it will be fierce competition," he said.[265].. In 2019, when competing for the Democratic nomination, he said that China would not be a competitor to the United States and was accused by Republicans and President Trump of underestimating China's threat.[266][267], President TrumpHunter bidenCriticizing the business of Chinese companiesChinese governmentI was calling on Biden to investigate the parent and child[268][269]During the presidential campaign, Biden also attacked Trump by paying taxes to China to hold a secret bank account and do business in China.[270][271], By the Chinese governmentHong Kong protestsRepression andUighur concentration campIt is rapidly curing the attitude of China, such as is referred to as a "villain" the 習近 TairaSo secretary criticized (supreme leader), and the like[272]..In the background2010 eraThroughout the Republican and Democratic parties, the common understanding that China is a threat to the US-led world order has become established throughout American politics.[272].

Diplomat James Green said, "We need to protect ourselves from criticism that the new administration is sweet to China."2010 eraWe can't hope for a return to Sino-US relations in the middle. "[272].

In a speech after the presidential election, Biden said, "The best strategy for China is to be in line with all allies, which will be a top priority for the first few weeks of his inauguration." AgainstJapanShows the idea that a multilateral framework, including[273]..The Trump administration is a traditional allyJapan, South Korea,EuropeBiden has accused China of "free-riding security" and "fraudulent trade", but Biden did not do this and took cooperative action with China by deepening cooperation with allies. I promise to let you[272]..Biden also shifts US military priorities from the Middle East to Asia since the Obama administration(English editionSince it has become a driving force for China, it will continue to be in China.South China SeaThere is an analysis that it will maintain an Indo-Pacific region-focused strategy such as restraint on invasion.[272].

John Deni, a research professor at the U.S. Army College Strategic Research Institute, said the Trump administration imposes strict sanctions tariffs on China, but does not unite with its Indo-Pacific allies to counter China, and imposes the same economic tariffs on allies. Or South KoreaI have to request and pay 5 times the cost of staying in JapanUS Army in KoreaThreaten to withdraw or target ChinaTPPHe said that it was "chiguhagu na diplomacy" to withdraw from the country, while the Biden administration resolved such "chiguhagu" from a multilateral approach, in which the trade conflict between allies was aimed at early resolution, followed by We analyze that it may be a trend to expand existing trade and investment agreements between allies.Free tradeHe points out that the United States may rejoin the TPP, as the positive Republicans are expected to dominate the Senate.[274].

Biden, meanwhile, expressed a negative view during the presidential election campaign, saying that the Trump administration was putting pressure on China by raising and lowering tariffs, saying that it would not take punitive measures.However, after the election was confirmed, under the Trump administrationUS-China trade warHe said he would not move the US-China economic and trade agreement and tariffs on China that were realized in the above, saying that he would maintain them for the time being.He also stated that he would rigorously demand reforms from China, stating that he would promote trade policies to correct infringement of intellectual property rights and illegal industrial subsidies.[273].

Although national leaders and reports of shoo comes into Biden on November 2020, 11 gave the congratulations to one after another Biden, Xi Jinping Jintao (General Secretary) of China is not a while issued a congratulatory speech, made on November 7, Finally out[275](However, government spokesman congratulated on November 11th prior to that.[274]).The text almost congratulates Trump in 2016, calling for "no conflict, no opposition, mutual respect, cooperation and a win-win spirit" and "managing each other's disagreements." It was a follow-up, but the number of characters has decreased reflecting the deterioration of US-China relations.[275].

In a speech in Delaware on December 12, he stated that he would take China as a competitor and take a strong position on China due to human rights violations and trade issues.He criticized China's unfair trade practices and human rights violations, and made a speech "to hold the Chinese government accountable." "Our position will be further strengthened by allied with like-minded allies and partners in competing with China." "Japan alone accounts for only about 28% of the world economy, but it is a democratic partner. Allied with the state will more than double its economic influence, "he said, reiterating the need to work with allies to counter China and denying Trump's activism.[276][277].

On January 2021, 1 Xi Jinping in the "international community about the severe attitude toward the United States of ChinaNew Cold WarIf you set up, threaten other countries, decouple the economy and impose sanctions, it will only lead to the division of the world. "In response, President Biden's spokesmanJen PsakiAt a press conference, when asked if this claim by Xi would affect Biden's policy toward China, he asserted that it was "not" and said that China was "more authoritarian at home and abroad in recent years. We are becoming more dogmatic, challenging our safety, prosperity and values, and we need a new approach. "[278].."Our approach to China is the same as in the past few months (diplomatic relations with China under the Trump administration)," he said.[279], The "US First" route has been reiterated as a policy to deal with it through cooperation with allies. "We want to tackle this issue with strategic patience," he said, saying the White House will discuss the issue with Congress and its allies within the next few weeks.[278]..Also, a major Chinese telecommunications equipment companyHuaweiWhen asked if China would continue to take strict regulatory measures, China's industrial espionage and intellectual property theft remained a concern, and it was cautious about deregulation.[280].

On the other hand, Biden has stated that he is "ready to cooperate with the Chinese government if it is in the national interest."[264].. Special Envoy for Climate Change on January 1John Forbes KellyPointed out that China emits the most greenhouse gases in the world and argued for the importance of cooperation with China.However, he emphasized that he would not give in to China on issues such as the South China Sea and trade in order to obtain cooperation in combating global warming.He also stated that he would not deal in cooperation on global warming countermeasures over issues such as intellectual property infringement and the South China Sea, which set him apart from the former Trump administration, which preferred deals in foreign policy.[281][282].BrinkenThe Secretary of State also said at a press conference on the same day that it would be beneficial for both countries to work together to combat global warming, but on the other hand, "many concerns about our foreign policy and with China. Should be taken into account. "[283][284].

We made the first phone summit meeting with Xi Jinping on February 2.According to the White House announcement, Biden has stepped up its arbitrary actions in the region, including intimidating and unfair conduct in China's economics, increased control over Hong Kong, human rights violations in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and response to Taiwan. He said he expressed concern about what he was doing.According to a statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, Xi said that "cooperation between the two countries is the only right choice" and called for improvement of relations between the two countries, which had deteriorated under the former Trump administration. It is the internal affairs of China and is involved in the preservation of sovereignty and territory. The United States should respect China's core interests and act cautiously. "[285]..After exchanging views on common issues such as measures against the new coronavirus and climate change, he said on Twitter, "I told him that I would cooperate with China if it would benefit the American people," and cooperated on these global issues. Showed the intention to do[286].

On March 3, the U.S. governmentXinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionSanctions have been imposed on autonomous region officials who appear to be involved in the crackdown on human rights issues in collaboration with European countries. The EU has imposed sanctions on China since the Tiananmen Square Incident.Demanded the Chinese government to allow the liberation of detained Uighurs and other field surveys by the United Nations[287]..Regarding Japan's failure to join the US-Europe cooperation sanctions against China, the U.S. Department of State merely states that "we do not recommend that Japan decide on its own."[288].

March 3, for the Xi Jinping at the first formal press conference after taking office is a "democracy does not work, despotism is a good person of the head which is regarded as a future trend", the US-China relationship, "the 25st century The struggle between democracy and tyranny in. ""We don't want conflict, but it will be fierce competition. China must engage in fair competition and trade in accordance with the rules of the international community," he said. "China has become a world leader and the richest and strongest country. I have the goal of becoming. As long as I am the president, I will not let you do that. "[186].

Biden administration in China on April 4Super computerAnnounced that it will take sanctions to effectively ban the export of American products for being involved in military diversion of seven companies and national research groups that develop[289].

The Chinese government has expressed "strong dissatisfaction and decisive opposition" to mentioning Taiwan in a joint statement of the Japan-US summit meeting on April 4.He also criticized Japan and the United States for expressing "serious concern" about the human rights situation in Hong Kong and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, saying that it "deviates from the scope of bilateral relations and harms the interests of third countries."Shows an attitude of putting pressure on Japan[290].

On April 4, the United States and China issued a joint statement on climate change.President Kerry, who visited China, met with China's special envoy for climate change, Kai Zhenhua, and agreed that the two countries would cooperate in combating global warming.[291].

April 4, Biden President hosted a climate summit "Leaders Summit on Climate" in Washington, Xi Jinping Jintao of China was attended by[292].

In his policy speech in the House and Senate joint meeting on April 4, "the United States told Xi Jinping Jintao and to maintain a strong military force in India Pacific Ocean," he said.In addition to the provisions again as "despotism's" About Xi Jinping[191]Predicted US victory over China, saying, "Competing with China and other countries to win the 21st century" and "Tyranny will not win the future."[293].

Policy toward Japan

In the presidential election, Biden criticized Trump's disrespect for allies, saying, "We will strengthen our alliance to protect peace in East Asia. We will not threaten to withdraw our troops."With a history of visiting Japan as a senator and vice president, the Biden administration has returned to a relatively modest policy toward Japan and was shaken by the Trump administration.Japan-US relationshipIs strongly believed to regain calm[294].

However, according to US-Japan diplomatic sources, "Some of the Biden administration's ministerial candidates are dissatisfied with'Japan does not play a broad role as an ally'," and the Biden administration has taken hard measures against China. In that case, it is reported that Japan may be required to cooperate concretely, and conversely, if it shifts to a dialogue line, it may be confusing if there is no communication between Japan and the United States.[294]..Also, regarding the North Korean issue, the Prime MinisterYoshii KanIs the supreme leader of North Korea in the parliamentary statement of belief with the flow of US-North Korea dialogue under the Trump administration in mind.金正恩Although he expressed his willingness to "dialogue without preconditions" with him, Biden has shown a negative position to direct dialogue with Kim Jong Un, so he may return to "strategic neglect" during the Obama administration. In that case, Japan's "dialogue without preconditions" route may need to be reworked.[294]..Even within the Japanese government, the Biden administration is likely to take a hard line to North Korea to show the difference from the Trump administration, and there is a widespread view that it is unclear, including the priority of the North Korean issue.[295].

2021Burden of USFJ stationing expenses for 5 years fromCompassionate budget) Is in full swing.Whether the Trump administration's route of demanding a quadruple increase in burden on the Japanese side will be revised, the Japanese side is also considering a "provisional agreement" to continue the current burden for the time being, but it is acknowledged. It is reported that a foreign ministry official said, "I can't read what will happen."[294].

Regarding the impact on the Okinawa base problem, a professor at Okinawa International UniversityManabu SatoThe United States has positioned Okinawa as the forefront of countering China's military advance, and the premise of a hard-line stance toward China is likely to continue even after the Biden administration, so the situation surrounding Okinawa has changed. Analyzing that there will be no[296].

Free trade agreementWith the Trump administration over (FTA)Shinzo AbeConcluded by the administrationUS-Japan trade agreementThen, there are still concerns about additional tariffs by the United States because automobiles and other items are left behind.(Smolderinging[294]..Biden is also reluctant to make a new trade agreement, and it is speculated that the Trump administration's trade talks with Japan will be wait-and-see for a while.[297].

Japan and the United States were supposed to take the lead in rule-making against China.Trans-Pacific Economic Partnership AgreementRegarding (TPP), Biden was in a position to promote during the Obama administration, and even during the 2020 United States presidential election, he said, "TPP cannot rejoin under the current agreement, but there is room for renegotiation," and has a positive attitude. However, it is reported that it is unclear because the opposition to the return is deep-rooted within the Democratic Party.[298][299].

January 2021, 1 (before dawn on January 27, 2021 Japan time), Prime MinisterYoshii KanHeld the first telephone talk after taking office.Japan-US AllianceThey agreed to work closely together to further strengthen the situation and realize a "free and open Indo-Pacific".Biden is from Okinawa prefecture尖 閣 諸島Established US Defense ObligationUS-Japan Security TreatyWhile declaring that it is subject to Article 5, it reaffirmed that it will continue to provide Japan with "extended deterrence" that protects Japan with military forces including nuclear forces.[300].

In a radio show on February 2thTokyo Olympics"The Japanese Prime Minister is working hard to hold the event safely. I hope it will be held, but it must be judged on the basis of science," he said.[301].

Chief Cabinet Secretary of March 3Katsunobu KatoAccording to the announcement, Suga will visit the United States in the first half of April to meet with Biden.Suga will be the first to meet with foreign leaders of Biden.It is reported that the reason for choosing Suga as the first meeting partner is to show the unity of the Japan-US alliance with China in mind.[302].

Suga, who visited the United States, had his first meeting with Biden at the White House on the afternoon of April 4 (before dawn on 16th Japan time).At a press conference after the meeting, Biden "confirmed unwavering support for the Japan-US alliance and mutual security. We will work together to face the challenge from China." "We are free and open in the Indo-Pacific. We promised to work together on challenges from China, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and North Korea. "" Japan and the United States are two powerful democratic nations in the region. We promise to protect and develop common values. "[303]..The joint document also included that maintaining peace and security in the Taiwan Strait is important for Japan's security.Taiwan was written in the document of the Japan-US summit meeting in 1969 (Showa 44), when the then Prime MinisterEisaku SatoAnd the president at that timeRichard NixonThis is the first time since Japan-China diplomatic relations were normalized in 1972 (Showa 47).[304]..According to Suga, he expressed his intention to hold the Tokyo Olympics as a symbol of unity in the world, and Biden supported him.[305].

Policy toward Taiwan

Taiwan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs thanked Biden after Biden expressed concern over China's oppressive stance on Taiwan at the first U.S.-China summit on February 2021, 2.[306].

Chinese Foreign MinisterWang YiWhite House spokesman argued that he had requested the Biden administration to revise the policies of the former administration, which had strengthened relations with Taiwan.[307].

The US government has determined that the possibility of China's invasion of Taiwan is increasing, and at the Japan-US Security Consultative Committee (3 plus 16) on March 2, the US and Japanese governments said, "Peace in the Taiwan Strait. And shared awareness of the importance of stability[308].

On March 3, the American Association of Taiwan Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in Taiwan signed a memorandum of understanding regarding the establishment of the Coast Guard Working Group.The content is that the United States Coast Guard and the Taiwan Coast Guard Administration will improve communication, build cooperative relationships, and share information.The first US-Taiwan coast guard agreement under the Biden administration[309].

On April 4, the Department of State will hold a U.S.-Taiwan practitioner-level meeting in the federal government building, which was previously prohibited due to consideration for China, in order to promote intergovernmental exchanges with Taiwan. Announced a new policy.Regarding the reason, the State Department said, "It reflected the deepening of informal relations with Taiwan." "Taiwan has strong democracy and is an important security and economic partner of the United States." It is thought that this is a move with an eye on China.[310].

On May 4Richard Armitage,James SteinbergWe sent them to Taiwan as an informal delegation. "The selection of three senior Taiwanese friends and personally close to President Biden is an important testament to US commitment to Taiwan and its democracy," the U.S. government said.[311].

The joint statement of the Japan-US summit meeting between Japan's Prime Minister Suga and Biden on April 4 stated "the importance of peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait."A spokesman for the Presidential Office Building in Taiwan expressed gratitude and appreciation for this on the 16th."Peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait has been raised from cross-strait relations to the Indo-Pacific region and thus to the global focus," a spokesman said.[312].

Policy toward South Korea

The Trump administration South KoreaThreatened to withdraw US forces in Korea unless the stationing expenses were increased five times.[274]In addition, more than 4000 Korean workers working in the USFK have been forced to take unpaid leave from April 2020 due to difficulties in negotiations on stationing expenses. After June, the South Korean government agreed with the U.S. government to pay their salaries until the negotiations were finalized, but there was no prospect of concluding the negotiations.[313].

About this, Biden announced on October 2020, 10, just before the presidential election, that South Korea ’sJoint newsContribution to the US-Korea AllianceKorean WarEmphasized that it is a "bloody alliance" that fought together[314], "Rather than forcing South Korea through the reckless threat of shrinking US forces in South Korea, as President of the United States, I will strengthen the alliance to support South Korea and protect peace in East Asia and other regions. "We will continue our efforts to denuclearize North Korea and unify the Korean Peninsula, aiming for rational diplomacy."[315].

Therefore, in Korea, the voice of relief is spreading for the time being to win Biden.The secretary-general of the U.S. Forces Korea Korean Trade Union in Korea said, "I sincerely congratulate Mr. Biden on winning the election. He requested that he work on improving the problem of unpaid leave.[313].

Since the US Democratic Party administration has traditionally emphasized security cooperation between Japan, the United States and South Korea, there are growing concerns within South Korea that Biden may intervene in historical issues between the two countries to restore Japan-South Korea relations.The Korean media said that the Japan-Korea agreement on the comfort women issue, which was concluded in December 2015, was that the Obama administration approached the two countries under the hood, and the Biden administration also embarked on similar arbitration on the recruitment issue. Communicating the view that there is a possibility[316].

Since the telephone conversation between Suga and Biden in Japan on January 2021, 1, in South KoreaWen ZaiyinThere were voices worried about the delay in Biden's telephone talks.[317], The first telephone summit meeting between Moon Jae-in and Biden was held on February 2th.Biden stated in the statement that he did not want a conflict between Japan and South Korea from the standpoint of emphasizing the strengthening of the alliance between Japan, the United States and South Korea, with a view to responding to China and North Korea, and requested that relations with Japan be improved. ..However, according to a South Korean government official, there was no mention of specific concerns between Japan and South Korea, such as the issue of recruitment work and the issue of comfort women.On the North Korean issue, the sentence called for "the importance of a dialogue solution," while Biden said, "the past way is not desirable," like Trump.金正恩He stabbed a nail if he did not take a top-down solution through the summit meeting.He also expressed his support for the "Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific Region," a concept common to Japan and the United States with China in mind, and expressed his willingness to cooperate as much as possible.[318].

Meeting with Moon Jae-in, who visited the United States on May 2021, 5.Sentence became the second foreign leader to meet with Biden after Suga in Japan.A joint statement by the two leaders included the statement that "diplomatic relations and dialogue are essential for the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and permanent peacebuilding" regarding North Korea.In addition, while avoiding the name of China in the Chinese issue, "the two leaders emphasize the importance of maintaining peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait."It also included the phrase, "I oppose any action that threatens and destabilizes the rules-based international order," which seems to have taken China's actions into consideration, and sought to respect freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.[319]..Biden also announced that it will provide the new coronavirus vaccine to 55 South Korean military personnel who work closely with the U.S. military.[320]..At the Japan-US summit meeting last month, Biden and Suga both masked and avoided shaking hands with Air Goo Touch, but from May 5st, the action guidelines for vaccinated people against the new coronavirus were relaxed. The meeting with Bun was held without a mask and with a handshake.For lunch with Biden and Bun, the East Coast dish "Crab Cake", which is a crab meat cooked like a hamburger, was served.The South Korean side was demanding more than a hamburger for lunch served in Suga last month.[321].

Policy toward North Korea

north koreaThe Biden administration is expected to take a stricter attitude than the Trump administration, and the North Korean issue itself is also considered to have a low priority, so South Korea's North-South reconciliation policy has been promoted.Wen ZaiyinIt is reported that the administration is trying to contact the Biden camp, which has few connections, in an attempt to keep the flow of dialogue born in the Trump administration.[322].

Trump in North Korea at a TV debate in the presidential electionKorean Labor Party Chairman金正恩While he was proud of his achievements in building a good relationship with him and avoiding the war, Biden criticized him as "a villain" and defined Kim Jong Un as a "villain".Nazi GermanyToAppeasement policy"We areHitlerWas in a friendly relationship until the invasion of Europe, "said criticizing the dialogue-oriented North Korean policy.[295]..And he stated that he was not going to make a personal friendship with Kim Jong Un.[323].

The conflict between Trump and Biden over North Korea was also at the time of the North Korean missile launch in May 2019.At this time, I asked North Korea to take strict measures.John BoltonPresident Trump did not criticize North Korea, rejecting the advice of the White House Chief of Staff, but Biden took a critical position on North Korea, so North Korea'sKorea Central Communications"Slandered the Supreme Leader" about Biden "I'm obsessed with power and I'm not sensible" "His remarks are a sophistry of a fool who has lost even the minimum human qualities as a politician He cursed him as "low intelligence quotient" and "low-powered idiot" as "just"[324]..Trump said at a press conference, "I agree with Kim Jong-un," and Trump's sympathy with Kim Jong-un became a problem.[325][326].."The president's remarks are not suitable for the dignity of the presidential office. He was abroad on Memorial Day of the war dead and repeatedly tuned in to the bloody dictator to attack the same American former vice president. It's outrageous. The president has consistently neglected the country's roots and warmly welcomed the dictator. "[327].

In November 2019, Chosun Central News also described Byden as "boldly blaming the dignity of the Supreme Leader."dementiaTerminal illness "" Freeing a mad dog like Biden will hurt many people "" Need to get rid ofRabies"A dog with a sickness"[328]In response, a spokesman for the Biden camp said, "It is becoming more prominent that unpleasant dictators and their admirers perceive Mr. Biden as a threat." "Mr. Biden has made safety, national interests, and values ​​in the United States. It is possible to regain US leadership in the world as a pillar of foreign policy. "[328].

After Biden's confirmation came out, North Korea was completely silent.The official North Korean media has not yet reported Biden's election.It is unusual for the silence to last for such a long time, as the past US presidential elections were reported within 10 days.KoreanNational Intelligence ServiceAccording to Kim Jong Un, he has an unusual decree not to stimulate Biden.[329]..Kim Jong Un is the only leader who has not sent a congratulatory message to Biden.[252][330].

At the first press conference after taking office on March 2021, 3, he criticized the launch of a North Korean short-range ballistic missile as "violating a UN Security Council resolution."Japan set itself apart from former President Trump, who was not in a position to consider the launch of short-range ballistic missiles that could reach the United States even though they were in range, and showed an attitude of respecting cooperation with Japan.[331].

In a policy speech on April 2021, 4, North Korea's nuclear development was "a serious threat to the security of the United States and the world," and "I would like to work closely with allies and deal with it with diplomacy and strict deterrence." Stated.In response, the North Korean Foreign Ministry criticized that "it is outrageous and infringement of the right of self-defense to curse our self-defense deterrence as a threat," and said, "The United States faces a very serious situation. I issued a warning statement saying "It will be."[332].

Policy toward Myanmar

By the military in Myanmar on February 2021, 2Coup d'etat"It's a direct attack on democracy and the transition to the rule of law," he said. "The international community immediately abandoned the power seized by the Myanmar Armed Forces, released detained activists and officials, and lifted restrictions on communications. And we should call for one voice to stop violence against the public. ""The United States has lifted sanctions on Myanmar over the past decade based on the progress of democratization. By reversing the progress, the law and authority on sanctions will be immediately reviewed and appropriate measures will be taken. It will be necessary, "he said, showing his willingness to revive sanctions.[333]

In this issue as well, Biden, unlike former President Trump's "US first principle", showed the idea of ​​demonstrating the power of the United States while keeping pace with other democratic nations, and with seven developed countries (G7) including Japan. After recognizing what happened in Myanmar as a "military coup" in the European Union (EU) to take power with illegal violence, it compiled a joint foreign minister's statement condemning the coup.On the other hand, the People's Republic of China has not criticized the armed forces and remains silent.At the UN Security Council, which includes China and Russia, which are suppressing freedom of speech in the country, it has already been factored in that strong criticism is not settled, but rather a siege network is created in democratic nations including India. The aim is to put pressure not only on Myanmar but also on China, which is becoming a major power by ignoring the values ​​of freedom and democracy, and Myanmar may become a new source of confrontation between the United States and China. Reported[334].

On February 2, a presidential decree ordered the military executives who led the coup, their families, and companies closely related to the military to be sanctioned.He also said he would prevent military executives from accessing the $ 11 billion fund of the Myanmar government in the United States and impose economic sanctions on trade.[335]..The Biden administration is ready to give up additional sanctions, depending on the military response.[336].

Security forces repeatedly fired at protesters protesting the military coup, killing more than 50 people (announced by the United Nations). Myanmar has issued additional sanctions and announced that it will effectively ban the export of U.S. products to Myanmar's Ministry of Defense and major military-related companies.[337].

On March 3, the Myanmar Armed Forces fired on civilians, saying, "It's terrible. It's definitely out of the ordinary. According to media reports, a large number of people have been killed without any need."[338]On March 3, all trade and investment under the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) signed with Myanmar in 29 as part of sanctions against the coup and its crackdown on protests was immediately suspended.[339].

judicial

Biden has a strong image as foreign transportation, but is known for being familiar with judicial policy.Especially the activities of the Senate Judiciary Committee1977It has been about 30 years since he first became a member of the committee.Therefore, he has abundant work experience in the committee, and as mentioned above,1987から1995In addition to serving as chairman for eight years1981From 19871995から1997Twice, he was a ranking minority member of the committee. (A "minority party representative in a committee" is a representative of a member from a minority party in each committee and is treated in the same manner as a vice chairman in the committee (actually appointed as vice chairman). It is a key position (including committees). In many committees, the position, along with the chairman, is a member of all subcommittees under each committee, and when the ruling and opposition parties are reversed in parliament. In many cases, a minority party representative will be appointed as the next chairman.)

He is also a member of five subcommittees connected to the Judiciary Committee, and as mentioned above, he is the chairman of the subcommittee on crime and narcotics. The five subcommittees are as follows.

  • Subcommittee on crime and narcotics
  • Subcommittee on Antitrust Competition Policy and Consumer Rights
  • Subcommittee on Human Rights and Law
  • Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security and Refugees
  • Subcommittee on Terrorism / Technology and Homeland Security

In parallel with the above committee activities, the Senate International Narcotics Control Committee (which monitors and advises the federal government on drug policy.The United States Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control) In addition to chairing the SenateNATOオ ブ ザ ー バ ーHe is also the co-chair of the group.

Main policies

As a judiciary, Biden is working on a variety of issues, but he is enthusiastic about drug policy.In addition to drug policy, it is also actively working on crime prevention policy and human rights policy.

Supreme Court Approval Issue

One of the key tasks of the House Judiciary Committee is the approval of the US Supreme Court judge.The Judiciary Committee prior to voting at the Senate plenary sessionPublic hearingBiden, as chairman of the committee, hosts two highly controversial hearings, in which the president-nominated candidate for judge is examined by question-and-answer and voting.

  • Robert BorkHearing to candidates (1987
    Biden's first hearing of a candidate judge was for conservative tycoon Robert Bork.
    BalkRonald ReaganBiden, who was nominated as a candidate for judge by the president, stated his opposition shortly after the nomination.However, the early opposition was angry with conservatives, saying that he could not run a fair hearing, as he had expressed his willingness to agree in an interview he received when Balk's nomination was confirmed the previous year. Bought.However, he ended up organizing the hearing fairly, with great humor and courage, despite his presidential election campaign being frustrated and withdrawn during the hearing. It was highly evaluated.
    Opposition to the Balk nomination is persistent in the first place, and he is a moderate and member of the Senate Judiciary Committee within the Republican Party.Arlen SpecterThe situation was such that lawmakers expressed their opposition.At the hearing, Specter andEdward KennedyThey asked Balk a fierce question.Biden asked in his questionUnited States ConstitutionThe rights of freedom and privacy stipulated in the above are expanded beyond what is clearly stated in the Constitution, and this point is centered on the issue that Balk's strong power may be ideologically incompatible. I asked a question.
    Eventually, Balk's proposal was rejected by both the House Judiciary Committee and the Senate plenary session.By the way, the Judiciary Committee had 5 votes in favor and 9 votes against, and the Senate plenary session had 42 votes in favor and 58 votes against.By the way, Biden himself voted against it, as he had previously expressed his opposition.
  • Clarence ThomasHearing to candidates (1991
    Biden's second hearing on the candidate judge was for conservative candidate Clarence Thomas, as was Balk.
    Thomas was known as the first black federal Supreme Court judgeThurgood MarshallAs a successor toGeorge Herbert Walker BushThe president nominated him as a candidate for judge and held a hearing.Biden at a hearing against ThomasProperty rightI asked about constitutional issues about the question, which was often long and complicated, and the answerer, Thomas, forgot the question.Thomas later described this time as "Mr. Biden's question was like a hit by pitch."[340].
    However, a major problem becomes apparent when the hearing is nearing the end.Formerly a subordinate when Thomas was chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity CommitteeAnita Hill(CurrentBrandeis UniversityProfessor) said, "From Mr. Thomassexual harassmentWas receiving "AccusationWith the Judiciary Committee stating what they didFBIReport,National public radioIt was leaked to Nina Totenberg, a reporter in charge of the Supreme Court, and this triggered the sexual harassment issue of Thomas to be taken up in the media every day, and it suddenly emerged.The hearing at that time was televised nationwide and attracted a great deal of interest from the American people.
    At this time Biden1987Hesitated to step into personal issues due to his own bitter experience in the presidential election (described later), and announced the facts of the accusation within the committee because Hill himself did not intend to swear. I didn't make it public completely.In addition, after Hill testified at a hearing, Angela Wright, who had made similar accusations,harassmentHe did not allow any further testimony by other witnesses who supported her, such as the expert in question."It's a step taken to protect Mr. Thomas' right to privacy and the dignity of the Commission," Biden said.
    After all, Thomas' approval proposal wasArlen SpecterAfter a heated debate, including asking offensive questions about Hill's testimony being unreliable, the Senate passed the Senate plenary session with a close margin of 52 votes in favor and 48 votes against.Biden again voted against, but then heliberalHe was strongly criticized by a group of lawyers and women's groups, saying, "I did not fully support the witness Hill (although he was the chairman) and made a mistake in the proceedings of the hearing."After this, he searched for women working on the Judiciary Committee and made an excuse, emphasizing that "the issue of women is one of the legislative agendas of the committee."

Enactment of crime-related bills

Biden has been involved in a number of crime-related federal legislations.1984In the enactment of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act, which he was involved in while serving as a member of the Democratic Party's proceedings, some provisions were amended, but the amendments passed and passed the law. Citizen as it had a great influence onLibertarianismReceived high praise from the person (Civil Libertarian).

また1994"Violent Crime Prevention and Law Enforcement Law"Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (VCCLEA)), He took the lead in drafting the law and its related laws, and made efforts to enact it.This law, commonly known as the "Biden Crime Law," is widely recognized as his greatest achievement.The main points stipulated by this law are as follows.

  • "Violence against women" (Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) )
    The "Violence Act against Women" (VAWA) was established in the form of Chapter 4 of VCCLEA. VAWADomestic violenceIs epoch-making at that time in that it stipulates that is a crime and pursues the responsibility of the perpetrator, and is particularly highly evaluated in the series of bills on VCCLEA (Violence Crime Prevention and Law Enforcement Law). ing.In addition, the law will invest $ 16 billion in federal budgets to strengthen the investigation and prosecution of violence against women, increase pretrial detention of defendants, and enforce and automatically indemnify them if convicted. It was stipulated that the lawsuit should be imposed and that civil remedies should be granted even if the person is not prosecuted.
    VAWA (Women's Violence Act) is a five-year time-limited legislation that requires parliamentary re-approval to extend. VAWA (Violence against Women)20002005Has been re-approved twice.But in 2Federal Supreme CourtHowever, regarding the provisions regarding civil remedies,FederalismFrom the point of view ofUnconstitutionBecause of the decision, the business that was being carried out in accordance with this clause has virtually stopped.
    "We consider VAWA to be the only and most important legislature involved in 35 years of senator life," Biden said of VAWA.
    In this regard20043ToTexasAustinWhen the related organization "National Domestic Violence Hotline" based in Japan had a problem, it investigated the problem with the cooperation of a major technology company and donated equipment.
  • Abolition of education for prisoners
    The VCCLEA (Crime Prevention and Law Enforcement Act) stipulates important provisions regarding education for prisoners.1965Stipulated inHigher educationIt is an amendment to the law.The Higher Education Act allows prisoners to receive higher education after their release, even during imprisonment with the Pell Grant,Ministry of EducationIs a scholarship system funded by the above-mentioned Higher Education Law.The name Pell is named after Senator Claiborne Pell, who was instrumental in enacting the relevant provisions. However, the amendment changed the policy 180 degrees and "do not give basic scholarships to anyone in prison in a federal or state prison." It was decided.This amendment is for low-income prisoners during their sentencecollege educationIt is controversial because it effectively deprives prisoners of the opportunity to receive them and leaves the education level of prisoners in prison unimproved.
  • Enactment of the Federal Death Penalty Act
    The Federal Death Penalty Act was enacted in the form of Chapter 6 of this Act.Originally, the United States of America is a country with a death penalty, but under this lawterrorism60 crimes, including acts, illegal drug trafficking, and murder by shooting from a moving car, have been newly added to the death penalty.This law is still in operation without major changes.
    By the way, a few months after this law came into forceOklahoma City Federal Government Building Bombing CaseThere has occurred.Was the main culprit in the caseTimothy McBayWas executed by this law.
  • Regulation of semi-automatic firearms considered as anti-personnel weapons
    Chapter 11 of the law regulated 19 types of semi-automatic firearms that were considered anti-personnel weapons.DetachableMagazineHaveAssault rifleWas regulated, and guns equipped with two or more of the following six types of equipment were subject to regulation.
Biden said, "Semi-automatic firearms are difficult to handle. For self-defense," the law was invalidated in 2004 and sales of semi-automatic firearms increased.shotgunShould be used. "But,National Rifle AssociationAnd the gun possession supporters criticized that "shotguns have a heavy reaction and are not particularly suitable for women's self-defense."
  • Strengthening the police and prison system
    This law strengthened the police and prison system.It was decided to hire more than 10 police officers as a measure to strengthen the police organization.In addition, as a measure to strengthen the prison and rehabilitation system, a corrective boot camp for juvenile delinquents was started, and刑 務 所It was decided to allocate a sufficient budget for the construction of.The enforcement of this clause is estimated to have lowered the crime rate in the United States to the lowest level in a generation.
  • Designation of a new federal crime
    Under this law, 50 new crimes are federal crimes (Federal Bureau of InvestigationWas designated as a crime with investigative authority).Especially famousgangIt is a clause that is guilty of joining the company, and in some respectsBill of RightsGuaranteed byFreedom of associationThere is a debate that it may be infringing.

Against President Clinton's scandal issue

During President Bill Clinton's term in the 1990s, Whitewater allegations (ClintonArkansasIt is suspected that he may have made fraudulent land transactions and loans in connection with the real estate development company "White Water" that he co-owned with his acquaintance when he was governor. ) AndMonica RuinskyA number of scandals about the president emerged, including allegations of affair with him and Vincent Foster, who was the president's deputy legal adviser at the time, committed suicide.George HW BushIn the administrationLitigation SecretaryServed asKenneth StarWas appointed to, and a strict investigation and pursuit was carried out.Biden is particularly critical of Star's investigation into two cases, Whitewater and Lewinsky, against President Clinton.impeachmentHe also voted against the bill.

Drug policy

As mentioned above, Biden is the chairman of the "Senate International Drug Control Conference," which is made up of volunteers from the Senate, and is enthusiastic about drug control policy.As chair of the conference, Biden drafted a bill to create a "Drug Czar" to oversee the federal government's drug control policy.
2002Rave method (RAVE Act) Was proposed to Congress.The law covers all acts related to personally regulated drugs, from the act of intentionally holding a drug to make it usable, the act of making a profit from manufacturing and sales, and the act of actually using it. Is prohibited.
This bill was proposed and deliberated during the 107th Congress, but it was closed during the deliberation.2003May 1Proposed again at the beginning of the 108th Congress, which opened in (the official proposal date is2003May 1).At the time of the re-proposal, Senator Tom Daschle (then) was the main proponent, and Biden was named as one of the ten supporters.However, at this time, the passage failed because two lawmakers withdrew their approval.
After this failure, the rave law itself was never re-proposed.However, the "illegal drug anti-diffusion method" has almost the same content (Illicit Drug Anti-Proliferation Act) Was enacted on April 2003, 4, and it can be said that the purpose of the rave law was achieved.
It became a social problem because it was used by many athletes and the general public.Androstenedione(Andro)steroidThe law that outlaws2004Was established in.During this time, Congress said, "It is a foul to get stronger with medicine.Not American. Chris Bell, even though he gave a speech with[341] On the other hand, "No, I think it's the other way around, and it's very American. I argue.
The drug-related policies he is currently working on are:Date rape・ A type of drug called a drugEcstasy (MDMA)-KetamineThere are two types of drug regulations.Of these, the former isFlunitrazepamIt is a drug represented byAmnesiaIt is often abused for date rape because it causes symptoms such as.The latter is a drug that is rapidly spreading mainly among young people and has become a serious social problem.

Other achievements

Among Biden's judicial achievements, lesser-known is education-related legislation.He is "Kids 2000" (Kids 2000) Involved in the enactment of the law.
The bill decided to support the following items:
  • Supporting and promoting household spending on higher education
    For the purpose of supporting and promoting household spending on higher educationincome taxIt is a system to deduct.Households that provide tuition assistance to higher-educated families or take tuition loans are now eligible for a deduction of up to $ 1 per year in income tax paid by the family.
  • Digital divideCorrective support
    It aims to establish a partnership between public institutions and the private sector with the aim of providing digital education to young people.This partnership provides young people with computer centers and professional teachers,インターネットThe goal is to improve the level of computer and internet education by providing access and other professional training, correct the digital divide, low household income and potential delinquency. The boy is the main target.

Abortion

AbortionI have taken the opposite position to2019May 6Has stated that it is in favor of federal funding for abortion costs.[342].."Let's make a law recognizing the right to abortion, and we're not afraid of anything," he said at a rally in southern South Carolina in June of the same year.[343].

Suspicion

Suspicion over pressure on Ukraine

2016As Vice President of the United StatesウクライナJoe Biden's second son when he visitedHunter bidenWas suspected that the investigation was terminated after demanding the resignation of the country's prosecutor-general, who was in a position to oversee the investigation of the country's gas company where[344]..However, there is no evidence that Hunter Biden was the subject of the investigation.[345].

またDonald TrumpThe president raises this suspicionPresidential electionMaybe because he tried to use it as a material to overthrow the leading opposition Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden just before the UkrainianWolodimir ZelenskyThe Trump administration's diplomatic team pressured the president to investigate the alleged natural gas company and negotiated directly with him, but instead abused diplomatic security for private bargaining. A whistleblower was accused by the U.S. intelligence agency of betraying the people for violating the constitution and the president's oath, and the House of Representatives was impeached for "abuse of power."[345].

Suspicion of sexual harassment and sexual assault

Biden has been to women so farSexual harassmentSuspicion has been raised.

Female Democrat and former Nevada Parliamentarian in March 2019(English: Lucy FloresSaid Biden approached from behind during the 2014 campaign, smelled his hair, and slowly kissed his back of his head, accusing him of "I've never experienced such a blatantly inappropriate imitation."[346][347]..Biden argued in a statement on March 3 that he had no perception of improper behavior, but subsequently a second woman claimed to have been improperly contacted by him.She said she was disappointed with his response to the matter and filed a complaint herself.[348] .. April 4rd, BidentwitterI explained about my sexual harassment problem in the video posted on[349]After that, the accusations continued, and as of April 2019, 4, seven women have come forward.[350].

Since his time as Vice President during the Obama administration, his excessive contact with women (including minors and children) has been talked about in some media and the Internet.[351][352]..In April of the same year, Amy Rappos, an aide to Congressman Jim Hines (Democratic Party), accused Biden of being improperly touched in the kitchen by wrapping Rappos' face with both hands and rubbing his nose.[353]..Rappos says, "A man who touches inappropriately or sexually harasses and promotes rape culture should not be in power." "Such behavior is called" just a favor, "" like a grandpa, "and" friendly. " That in itself is a sign of a great deal of disregard for this issue and is part of the issue. "[346].

As a background to the growing criticism, the Democratic Party thoroughly pursued the past allegations of sexual assault by Supreme Court Judge Brett Kavanaugh in 2018, while Biden's allegations of sexual harassment are trying to dismiss it as "no problem". , From both the left and conservativesDouble standardIt was criticized as "hypocritical response", and Biden himself once criticized the suspicion of others to listen to the woman's claim that "you should believe in the woman who came forward".[354]In addition, the Democratic Party, which is the supporting body, has also actively accused President Trump of sexual assault, which is the political enemy of the presidential election.[355] was there.

Biden2019He apologized for alleging that four women had been improperly contacted in a video when he announced that he would run for the presidential election in April, saying that social norms are changing. I posted a video on Twitter that says, "We will give more consideration and respect to people's personal spaces."[356].

2020May 3Tara Reid, a female office worker in her twenties at the time, was hired by Biden in 1993.Tara Reade) Claimed to have been sexually assaulted by Biden[357][358][359]..According to Reed, Biden kissed after pressing against the wall and put his hand in the skirt.genitalHe inserted his finger into and whispered, "Would you like to go somewhere else?"[360]..Reed criticized the Biden camp, saying the Democratic Party "is in a position to create a country where all women can speak safely, but I didn't have the opportunity," and evidence from Biden's supporters. Withoutロシア OfspyI was accused of being murderedSocial MediaAccountThehackingAnd said that personal information was extracted[360].. On May 5, Biden totally denied Reed's allegations as untrue[360][361][362].

honor

Honorary degree

Biden from the next universityHonorary degreeIs receiving.

Awards

  • From Syracuse UniversityChancellor Medal (1980)George Arents Pioneer Medal (2005)Was awarded[378][379]
  • In 2008, he said, "We have improved the quality of life for Americans through a family-friendly labor policy."Working motherThe magazine awarded the Best of Congress Award[380]
  • In 2008PakistanThe government said that it "contributed to continued support for Pakistan."(English editionWith Senator(English editionWas given[381]
  • In 2009(I.e.In the 1990s, a free gold medal was awarded as an achievement to support Kosovo's independence.[382]
  • (English editionToPalaceEntered[383]
  • In 2009(English editionNamed in[384]
  • August 2016, 5,Notre Dame UniversitySpeaker of the House of RepresentativesJohn BoehnerTogether with them, it is regarded as the highest honor of American Catholicism.(English editionWas given[385][386]
  • August 2016, 6,アイルランド-LouthWas awarded[387]
  • 2017May 1Is the highest honor in the United States, which has only been given to a very limited number of people.Presidential Medal of FreedomThe presidentBarack ObamaWas given by.Obama praised Biden, saying, "I believed in my fellow Americans, loved the country, and spent my life devoting myself to the country."According to Biden, he was not informed of the award at all, and was deeply moved to tears.[388].
  • 2018May 12,University of DelawareThe Faculty of Political Science is "Joseph R. Biden, Junior Faculty of Political Science (Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration) ”.Biden Institute (Biden Institute) Also exists there[389]
  • 2020May 12, With BidenKamala HarrisBut"time』Magazine"Person of the YearWas selected. Time magazine describes the two awards as "demonstrating that the power of empathy is greater than the wrath of division, and providing a healing outlook for the grieving world."[390].

Election campaign history

New Castle County Parliamentary Elections

Delaware(English edition4th ward election member election
Election yearBidenOpposition candidate
CommentAffiliation partyNumber of votes obtainedVoting rateCommentNameAffiliation partyNumber of votes obtainedVoting rate
1970[32]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party10,573 vote55%Red XNdropLawrence MezicRepublican Party8,192 vote43%

Senate election

CongressSenateDelawareElection member election
Election yearBidenOpposition candidate
CommentAffiliation partyNumber of votes obtainedVoting rateCommentNameAffiliation partyNumber of votes obtainedVoting rate
(English edition[391]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party116,006 vote50%Red XNdrop(English editionRepublican Party112,844 vote49%
(English edition[37]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party93,930 vote58%Red XNdropJames BaxterRepublican Party66,479 vote41%
(English edition[38]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party147,831 vote60%Red XNdropJohn BarrisRepublican Party98,101 vote40%
(English edition[392]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party112,918 vote63%Red XNdrop(English editionRepublican Party64,554 vote36%
(English edition[393]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party165,465 vote60%Red XNdropRay KratworthyRepublican Party105,088 vote38%
(English edition[394]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party135,253 vote58%Red XNdropRay KratworthyRepublican Party94,793 vote41%
(English edition[395]Green tickYThisDemocratic Party257,484 vote65%Red XNdrop(English editionRepublican Party140,584 vote35%

Presidential / Vice Presidential Election

President-Vice PresidentTerritorial election
Election yearOwn campConflict camp
CommentPresidential candidate
(Vice Presidential Candidate)
Affiliation partyNumber of votes obtainedVoting rateElectorCommentPresidential candidate
(Vice Presidential Candidate)
Affiliation partyNumber of votes obtainedVoting rateElector
2008Green tickYThisBarack Obama
(Joe Biden)
Democratic Party69,498,516 vote53%365Red XNdropJohn McCain
(Sarah Palin
Republican Party59,948,323 vote46%173
2012Green tickYThisBarack Obama
(Joe Biden)
Democratic Party65,915,795 vote51%332Red XNdropMitt Romney
(Paul Ryan
Republican Party60,933,504 vote47%206
20201Green tickYThisJoe Biden
(Kamala Harris
Democratic Party81,282,896 vote51%306Red XNdropDonald Trump
(Mike Pence
Republican Party74,222,484 vote47%232
  1. ^ Numbers as of December 2020, 12 (ballot counting rate 9%)[396].

book

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ Joseph(joseph) Is nicknamedJoe("Joe"[2].
  2. ^ In fact, the trailer driver was not charged, but suffered for a long time in the accident.1999Died in.He is also his bereaved familyDrunk drivingI suffered for a long time after being swept away by the hoax that I was doing.Biden himself mentioned this at least twice,2007"The driver was reportedly drunk driving," he claimed.When the rumors spread in the media, the driver's daughter argued that this was not the case.2008Biden withdrew his remarks in the fall[35]Call her and apologize[34].
  3. ^ At a debate on June 2019, 6, Kamala Harris said, "You (Biden) worked with them (racist senators) to oppose delivery by bus. A girl in California I was put in a second class for the integration of public schools and was taken to school by bus every day. The girl is me. "Biden argued, "It's a false characterization of my overall political position. I don't admire racists. That's not true."[42]..For Biden, the attack was "unexpected"[43]
  4. ^ Although it is bundled with the presidential decree, legally, nine executive orders, two proclamations, two presidential memorandums, notices (cancellation of WHO withdrawal, to the Paris Agreement) (Return) Two.[175]
  5. ^ There are eight Executive Orders, one Presidential Memorandam, and one National Security Directive.[175]
  6. ^ Churchill's bust is the work of sculptor Sir Jacob EpsteinLindon johnsonIt was a member of the White House collection during the presidency.[178]..President Barack Obama removed the bust from the Oval Office and was the then British Foreign Minister.Boris Johnson"(Obama)British EmpireI have hated him since my ancestors, "he said.He was returned to the office after President Trump took office[179].

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