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😷 | New Corona Infects XNUMX new people in the prefecture and kills XNUMX


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New Corona XNUMX new infections in the prefecture, XNUMX dead

 
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In addition, it was revealed that a mutant strain "N1Y", which is said to have strong infectivity and is likely to become severe, was newly detected in one infected person in the prefecture.
 

On the XNUMXnd, the prefecture announced the death of one hospitalized patient and seven new infections after being infected with the new corona.Also, in the prefecture ... → Continue reading

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Mutant strain

Variant of SARS coronavirus 2

New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) > Variant of SARS-CoV-2

New coronavirus infection Causes (COVID-19)ウ イ ル スIsSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is like any other virusmutationDue to the high rate, many mutant strains occur over time.Notable in this itemVariant of SARS coronavirus 2(Thirds Coronavirus Two's Henkabu,English: variants of SARS-CoV-2), And noteworthy found in some or all of these mutantsMissense mutationWill also be described.

GISAID S clade / (English edition A system / (English edition The WIV19 / 04 base sequence belonging to the 2019B clade is believed to most likely most closely reflect the base sequence of the protovirus that infects humans, known as "sequence zero," and is used as a reference sequence. Be done[2].

Mutant control table

The appearance of SARS-CoV-2Bat OfSARSMrCoronavirusPangolinMay be the result of recombination with coronavirus (by cross-species transmission)[3]Mutations have been shown to play an important role in ongoing evolution and the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 mutants.

The first mutants sampled and identified in China are considered by researchers to differ from the original genome by "three mutants"[4][5]..Therefore, there are many strains of SARS-CoV-2.

The following table provides information and risk levels for mutant strains that are or may be at high risk at this time.Confidence intervals are assumed to be 95% confidence unless otherwise stated.

First detectionNaming date [note 1]WHO label [note 2]PANGO systematic nameOther systematic nameNotable missense mutations[note 3]Evidence of clinical changes [note 4]拡 散Ref.
RegionDateInfectioustoxicityAntigenicity
Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAugust, 2020B.1.1.207P681HBetween nations[6][7]
British flag The United KingdomAugust, 2020August, 2020AlphaB.1.1.7VOC-20DEC-01, 20I / 501Y.V1N501Y, 69–70del, P681H~ 74% increase ()~ 64% (32—104%) or more lethal ()Decreased antigen activity (Ecdc)Worldwide[8][6][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
Danish flag デンマークAugust, 2020Cluster 5, ΔFVI-spike ()Y453F, 69–70deltaHVModerate sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies (moderately reducedWHO)Aspect of extinction[17][18][19]
South African flag South AfricaAugust, 2020August, 2020BetaB.1.351501.V2, 20H / 501Y.V2,
VOC-20DEC-02
N501Y, K417N, E484K~ 50% (20–113%) increase (Ecdc)Antibodies reduce neutralization (ECDC)Worldwide[8][6][20][21][9][22][23][24]
Japanese flag Japan
Brazilian flag Brazil
August, 2020August, 2021GammaP.1B.1.1.28, VOC-21JAN-02, 20J / 501Y.V3 offspringN501Y, E484K, K417TAspect of increase (CDC)~ 45% (10–80%) or more lethal ()Overall reduction of effective neutralization (Ecdc)Between nations[8][6][21][25][26][27][24][9][28]
British flag The United Kingdom
Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
August, 2020August, 2021EtaB.1.525VUI-21FEB-03 (PHE), formerly UK1188E484K, F888LAspect of increase (CDC)Aspect of increase (CDC)"Moderately" reduced neutralization ()Between nations[8][29][30][31]
Indian flag IndiaAugust, 2020August, 2021KappaB.1.617.1VUI-21APR-01
G / 452R.V3
G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, Q1071H[8][32]
Indian flag IndiaAugust, 2020August, 2021DeltaB.1.617.2VOC-21APR-02
G / 452R.V3
T19R, G142D, del157 / 158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N[8][32]
United States flag AmericaAugust, 2020August, 2021EpsilonB.1.429CAL.20CI4205V, D1183Y, S13I, W152C, L452R~ 20% increase (CDC)investigating"Moderate but significantly" reduced neutralization ()Between nations[8][33][34]
Notes
  1. ^ Date of designation.
  2. ^ Not in this table, but also Zeta (P.2), Theta (P.3), Iota (B.1.526) Was also labeled as "Variants of Interest (yellow)", which is similar to "Variants of Concern (orange)".
  3. ^ Mutant strains to be screened as an active epidemiological survey are shown in bold.
  4. ^ "—" Indicates that no reliable source of information could be found.

Nomenclature

Corresponding system name of SARS-CoV-2[35]
PANGO strain (Naming convention suggestions, Nature (See)Notes to the PANGO lineage (Alm et al. (See)Nextstrain Clade, 2021[36]GISAID CladeNotable mutant strain
A.1–A.619BSContains the "reference array" WIV04 / 2019[2]
B.3–B.7, B.9, B.10, B.13–B.1619AL
O[Annotation 1]
B.2V
B.1B.1.5–B.1.7220AGStrain B.1 in the PANGO line
B.1.9, B.1.13, B.1.22, B.1.26, B.1.37GH
B.1.3–B.1.6620CCAL.20C including[37]
20GGenerally predominant in the United States, January 2021[37]
20HB.1.351 Also known as 20H / 501Y.V2 or 501.V2 systemincluding
B.1.120BGRB.1.1.207including
20DP.1And P.2 included[38]
20F
20Lineage B.1.1.7 Also known as VOC-20DEC-01 or 20I / 501Y.V1 including
B.1.17720E (EU1)[36]GV[Annotation 1]Derived from 20A[36]

No consistent nomenclature for SARS-CoV-2 has been established[40]..For mutant strains, including the government and the press, although they may refer to the country that was first identified.[41][42][43], January 2021 (2021-01 )Now, who (WHO) says "Do not refer to geographical location COVID-2Working on "standard nomenclature for mutant strains"[44].

There are thousands of variants of SARS-CoV-2[45], Virus variants, strains andCladeCan be classified into larger taxa such as[Annotation 2]..The following three main and commonly used nomenclatures[40]Is proposed,

  • August, 2021 (2021-01 )Now, GISAID(SARS-CoV-2 is called "hCoV-19"[46]) Is identified as eight global clades (S, O, L, V, G, GH, GR, GV)[47].
  • In 2017, Hadfield and colleagues aimed to "track the evolution of pathogens in real time." (English edition announced[48].. Nextstrain was later used to track SARS-CoV-2, January 2021 (2021-01 )NowIn 11 clades (19A, 19B, 20A-20I) [Annotation 3] Identify[49].
  • In 2020, Rambaut et al.(English edition[50]Articles by the software team[51]Proposed in "Dynamic Nomenclature of SARS-CoV-2 Strains Focusing on Actively Epidemic Virus Strains and Virus Strains Spreading to New Locations"[40], October 2021 (2021-02 )NowIdentify six major strains (A, B, B.6, B.1, B.1.1, B.1.177) in[52][53].

Each country(English edition (NPHIs) can also establish their own naming system for the purpose of tracking specific mutant strains.For example(English edition In the (PHE) naming system, each mutant strain to be tracked is specified by year, month, and number in the format of [YYYY] [MM] / [NN], and "VUI(Variant Under Investigation; mutant strain under investigation) or "VOC(Variant of Concern; Variant of concern) Is displayed at the beginning[29]..This system is currently being modified, with months written in the format [YY] [MMM]-[NN] using a three-letter code.[29].

On May 2021, 5, WHOGreek alphabetAnnounced a new nomenclature that uses[54]..Later"alpha(Alpha /α) Stocks ”and“delta(Delta /δ) Stocks have been renamed[55].

Classification by WHO

As of July 2021, 7, WHO has selected four Variant of Concern Variant of Concern (VOC) and seven Notable Variant of Concern (VOI).[8].(English edition,GISAID,(English editionIs a classification by another organization.

SARS-CoV-2 classification by WHO[8]
WHO
label
PANGO
系統
GISAID
Clade / Clade
Nextstrain
Clade
Other
Monitoring mutation
First confirmationDesignated date
Variant of concern (VOC)
alpha
α: Alpha
B.1.1.7GRY
(Old GR / 501Y.V1)
20I (V1)+ S: 484K
+ S: 452R
英国
August, 2020
2020-12-18
beta
β: Beta
B.1.351
B.1.351.2
B.1.351.3
GH / 501Y.V220H (V2)naSouth Africa
August, 2020
2020-12-18
gamma
γ: Gamma
P.1
P.1.1
P.1.2
GR / 501Y.V320J (V3)+ S: 681HBrazil
August, 2020
2021-01-11
delta
Δ: Delta
B.1.617.2
AY.1
AY.2
G / 478K.V121AnaIndia
August, 2020
VOI:
2021-04-04
VOC:
2021-05-11
Variant of Interest (VOI)
Epsilon
ε: Epsilon
B.1.427
B.1.429
GH / 452R.V121Cna米 国
August, 2020
2021-03-05
Zeta
ζ: Zeta
P.2GR / 484K.V220B / S.484KnaBrazil
August, 2020
2021-03-17
Eater
η: Eta
B.1.525G / 484K.V321DnaMultiple countries
August, 2020
2021-03-17
Theta
θ: Theta
P.3GR / 1092K.V121Enaフィリピン
August, 2021
2021-03-24
Jota
ι: Iota
B.1.526GH / 253G.V121Fna米 国
August, 2020
2021-03-24
Kappa
κ: Kappa
B.1.617.1G / 452R.V321BnaIndia
August, 2020
2021-04-04
lambda
λ: Lambda
C.37GR / 452Q.V120Dnaペルー
August, 2020
2021-06-14
WHOPANGOGISAIDNextstrainOther mutationsFirst appearanceDesignated date

Criteria for attention

Viruses usually acquire mutations over time, creating new mutant strains.If a new mutant appears to be growing in a population, it is labeled as a "new mutant".

The signs to label as a new mutant are:[6][56],

  • Improved transmission rate
  • Increased morbidity
  • Increased mortality
  • Ability to avoid detection by diagnostic tests
  • Antiviral drugDecreased susceptibility to (if such drugs are available)
  • Decreased sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies therapeutically (eg, convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies) or in laboratory experiments
  • Ability to avoid innate immunity (eg, cause reinfection)
  • Ability to infect vaccinated individuals
  • Multiple organ inflammation syndrome(English editionIncreased risk of certain conditions such as
  • Increased affinity for specific demographic or clinical groups, such as children and individuals with immunodeficiency

Mutants that appear to meet one or more of these criteria are "variants under investigation (VUI)" or "variant of concern" until these properties are validated and validated. It may be labeled as "variant of interest (VOI)". The main feature of the "notable mutant strain" is that it has an increased proportion of cases and an inherent outbreak.clusterIt is to show the evidence that is the cause of.However, epidemics or spreads need to be restricted at the national level.If that is not possible, the alert level is "Variant of concern(Variant of concern; VOC)[57][58]..Also, if there is clear evidence that the effectiveness of preventive or interventional measures against a particular mutant has been significantly reduced, the mutant is a "variant of high consequence; VOHC". )[59].

Notable mutant strain

Cluster 5

Early November 2020,(English edition Cluster 5 also known as ΔFVI spike by (SSI) [17] デンマーク OfNorth Denmark RegionWas found in.minkから(English editionIt is believed that it spread to humans via. November 2020, 11,(English editionTheselectionIt was announced that it would prevent the spread of this mutation and reduce the risk of new mutations occurring.Blockades and travel restrictions have been introduced in seven municipalities in North Jutland to prevent the spread of mutations.this is,COVID-19 PandemicIn Denmark against(English editionOr adapt to international correspondence. By November 2020, 11, 5 mink-related human cases had been detected.[60].

who (WHO) stated that Cluster 5 "has moderately reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies."[18].. SSI is under development by mutationCOVID-19 vaccineIt warned that it is unlikely to be useless, although it may be less effective.LockdownAnd large scaleInspectionAs a result, SSI announced on November 2020, 11 that Cluster 19 was probably extinct. [19].. As of February 2021, 2, all SSIPeer-reviewedThe authors of the paper evaluated that Cluster 5 was not endemic between humans.[61].

Strain B.1.1.7 / Variant of Concern 20DEC-01

On the WHO labelAlpha strain(Alpha variant).

COVID-2020 pandemic in the UK in October 10First detected during the previous month's sample[62] Lineage B.1.1.7[63]As the first mutant strain under investigation in December 2020 (VUI–12 / 202012)[64], And strain B.1.1.7 or 20I / 501Y.V1 (formerly 20B / 501Y.V1)[65][66][6]Was previously known as.Since then thatPrevalenceDoubled every 6.5 days, which is the estimated generation interval[67][68]..This correlates with a significant increase in COVID-19 infection rates in the United Kingdom.N501YPartially related to mutation.There is some evidence that this variant increases transmission rates by 40% to 80% (most estimates are in the middle to near the upper limit of this range).[69], Initial analysis suggests increased case fatality rate[10][70].

B.1.1.7 with E484K (Variant of Concern 21FEB-02)

(English edition "B.1.1.7 with E484K" by (PHE)[29]Is described asVariant of concern VOC-21FEB-02 (formerly known asVOC-202102/02) is the same system as the Rambaut classification system,E484KMutations have been added. As of February 2021, 2, there were 18 cases in the UKVOC-21FEB-02 has been confirmed[29].. March 2021, 3, United StatesOregonB.484 with an E1.1.7K mutation was reported in.One of the 13 test samples analyzed had this combination.This appears to have occurred spontaneously and locally rather than being captured.[71][72][73].

Lineage B.1.1.207

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFirst sequenced in August 2020[74].Transmission routePathogenicityThe impact on is unknown, but the United StatesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention Listed as a novel mutant by (CDC)[6]..This variant, sequenced by the African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Nigerian Infectious Diseases, is from the United Kingdom.Lineage B.1.1.7Shared withP681HHas a mutation.It does not share other mutations with strain B.1.1.7, and as of late December 2020, this mutant accounted for approximately 12% of the viral genome sequenced in Nigeria, an increase. there's a possibility that[74].. By March 2021, strain B.3 has been detected in Japan, Peru, Germany, Singapore, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Costa Rica, South Korea, Canada, Australia, France, Italy, Ecuador, Mexico, United Kingdom and the United States.[7].

Lineage B.1.1.317

Although B.1.1.317 is not considered a Variant of Concern (VOC),(English editionIt is,Australia OfBrisbaneTwo hotel quarantines in Tokyo were infected with the mutant and forced an additional five days of quarantine in addition to the mandatory 2-day quarantine period.[75].

Lineage B.1.1.318

系統 B.1.1.318は、2021年2月24日にPHEによって調査中の変異株 (VUI-21FEB-04、旧称VUI-202102/04) として指定された。英国では同年3月4日時点で16症例が検出されている[76][77].

Lineage B.1.351

On the WHO labelBeta stock(Beta variant).

2020年12月18日、501.V2変異株(501.V2、20H/501Y.V2(以前の20C/501Y.V2)、VOC-20DEC-02(旧称VOC-202012 / 02), or system B.1.351[6]Also known as)Republic of South AfricaFirst detected in(English editionReported by[78]..The prevalence of this mutant was high among adolescents without an underlying health condition and was reported to cause more frequent serious illness in these cases compared to other mutants.[79][80]..The South African Department of Health has also said that the variant is spreading at a faster pace than variants of other early viruses.COVID-19 pandemic in the countryShowed that it may be causing the second wave of[78][79].

Of the virusSpike protein OfReceptor binding domain To (RBD) N501Y[78][81], K417N,E484K[20][82]It was noted that the mutants contained several mutations that facilitated attachment to human cells due to the three mutations in. N3Y mutation has also been detected in the United Kingdom[78][83].

System B.1.429 / CAL.20C

On the WHO labelEpsilon strain(Epsilon variant).

系統 B.1.429としても知られるCAL.20Cは、5つの異なる変異(ORF1ab遺伝子のI4205VとD1183Y、およびスパイクタンパク質S遺伝子のS13I、W152C、L452R)によって定義され、そのうち L452R(以前は他の無関係な系統で検出された)は特に懸念された[37][84].. CAL.20C may be more susceptible to infection, but further investigation is needed to confirm this[84]..COVID-19 pandemic in California, USA(English editionSince the beginningLos Angeles CountyIn one of the 1,230 virus samples collected inCalifornia(English editionFirst observed in July 2020 by researchers in[85]..Rediscovery did not occur until September 2020, when it reappeared in California samples, and remained very low until November 9.[86][87].. In November 2020, CAL.11C mutants accounted for 20% of the samples collected at Cedars Sinai Medical Center, and by January 36, CAL.2021C mutants accounted for 1% of the samples.[84].. USAUniversity of California San Francisco,(English edition,and(English editionAccording to a joint press release by [88]The mutant was also detected in several counties in northern California. From November to December 2020, the frequency of mutations in sequenced cases in Northern California increased from 11% to 12%.[89]..Pre-announcements explained that CAL.20C belongs to the clade 20C and accounts for about 36% of the sample, and a study focused on southern California found that new mutants from the 20G clade accounted for about 24% of the sample. Occupy.However, as of January 2021, the 1G clade predominates across the United States.[37]..Following an increase in the number of CAL.20C in California, mutant strains are detected at varying frequencies in most US states.In addition to North America, a small number have been detected in Europe, Asia, and Australia.[86][87].

Lineage B.1.525

On the WHO labelEta stock(Eta variant)[8].

B.1.525 is VUI-21FEB-03 (formerly known as VUI-XNUMXFEB-XNUMX) by the English Public Health Agency (PHE).VUI-202102/03), formerly known as UK1188[29]..This strainLineage B.1.1.7,501.V2 mutant strainandSystem P.1As seen in N501YNo mutation, but same as found on P.1, P.2, and 501.V2E484KHaving mutations, B.1.1.7, N439K mutants (B.1.141 and B.1.258), and Y453F mutants (B.XNUMX and B.XNUMX)Cluster 5) The same ΔH69 / ΔV70 deletion (amino acids at positions 69 and 70)HistidineandValineDeletion of)[90].. B.1.525 has an E484K mutation and a new F888L mutation (in the S2 domain of the peplomer).Phenylalanine (F) isLeucine It differs from all other mutant strains in that it has both (replaced by (L)). As of March 2021, 3英国,デンマーク,フィンランド,ノルウェー, Netherlands,ベルギー,France,スペイン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ガーナ,Jordan,Japan,Singapore,Australia,カナダ,Germany,イタリア,スロベニア,オーストリア,Malaysia,スイス,Republic of Ireland,The United States of AmericaDetected in 23 countries including[91][92][93][31][94][95][96],France OfOverseas prefecture-MayotteBut it was reported[91]..The first case was detected in the United Kingdom and Nigeria in December 2020, and as of February 12, 2021, it occurred most frequently in the samples of the latter country.[31]..As of February 2, the same year, 24 cases were found in the United Kingdom.[29]..Denmark, which sequenced all COVID-19 cases, discovered 1 cases of this mutant between January 14 and February 2 of the same year, seven of which were directly related to overseas travel to Nigeria.[92].

British experts are studying it to understand how much risk it can pose.It is currently considered a "variant of concern" (VUI), but may become a "variant of concern" (VOC) depending on further research.Cambridge University Of(English editionProfessorwith the BBCB.1.525 is a "significant mutation" that is already found in some of the other new mutants, but is predictable and partially reassuring to the extent that it is likely to have an effect. Said he seems to have[30].

Lineage B.1.526

On the WHO labelIota strain(Iota variant).

2020 year 11 month,New York CityA new variant was discovered in B.1.526[97].. As of April 2021, 4, the mutant has been detected in at least 11 states and 48 countries in the United States.

Lineage B.1.617

2020 year 10 month,IndiaA new mutant strain was discovered in B.1.617. Little detection was detected until January 2021, but by April it had spread to at least 1 countries.[98][99][100].. Detected in about 5 countries by early May and on all continents except Antarctica[101].. It is classified into three sub-strains B.1.617.1-3, and among about 3 defined mutations, the spike mutations P15R and L681R are shared by these strains.The E452Q mutation is found in B.484 and B.1.617.1 but not in B.1.617.3.On the other hand, the T1.617.2K mutation in B.1.617.2 is not found in B.478 and B.1.617.1.[102][103]..Two of these mutations, E484Q and L452R, can cause easy evasion of antibodies.[104]..The Public Health Agency of England (PHE) has designated B.2021 as the variant under investigation "VUI-4APR-15" in an announcement on April 1.617, 21.[105]..On April 4, the same year, PHE added two more mutant strains, "VUI-29APR-2" and "VUI-21APR-02" (de facto B.21 and B.03). Specified[106].

On May 2021, 5, PHE evaluated that it was at least as infectious and transmissible as B.6, and a variant of concern from a variant of concern (VUI) investigating the B.1.1.7 strain. Raised to stock (VOC) and positioned as "VOC-1.617.2APR-21"[107]..On May 5, the same year, WHO lifted the entire B.11 strain from the notable variant (VOI) and classified it as a Variant of Concern (VOC), but in Junepublic healthOnly the B.1.617.2 strains with the higher risk above are classified as VOCs (the other two sub-strains are downgraded).[108]..This mutant strain started in February 2021Second wave of infection spread in IndiaIs considered to be one of the factors of[109][110][111].

Lineage B.1.617.1

On the WHO labelKappa stock(Kappa variant).

Lineage B.1.617.2

On the WHO labelDelta stock(Delta variant)[108].

British scientists are "concerned" about B.2021 (especially those without the spike E5Q mutation) after flagging evidence in early May 1.617.2 that it spreads faster than the original version of the virus. Declared as a Variant of Concern (VOC)[112][113].. WHO is also the only strain of strain B.1.617 to be classified as a Variant of Concern (VOC).

Lineage B.1.618

This mutant was first isolated in October 2020. It has an E10K mutation, which is the same mutation as B.1.351. West BengalSo it has increased significantly in the last few months[114][115].. As of April 2021, 4, the CoV-Lineages database showed 23 sequences found in India, with single-digit numbers in each of the other eight countries in the world.[116].

System P.1

On the WHO labelGamma strain(Gamma variant).

Lineage P.1 is VOC-21JAN-02 (formerly known as PHE) by the British Public Health Agency (PHE).VOC-202101/02)[29], Called 20J / 501Y.V3[117][118],National Institute of Infectious Diseases Detected by (NIID) on January 2021, 1 in Tokyo.The new strain will be available on January 6, the same year.Brazil OfState of AmazonasFirst identified from the four who arrived in Tokyo from[119].. Aug. 1,Brazil-UK CADDE CenterEstablished 1 local cases of a new strain of P.13 in the Amazon rainforest[26].. This variant of SARS-CoV-2 was named strain P.1 (descendant to B.1.1.28, but named P.1.1.28.1 because the name B.1 is not allowed). It has 17 unique amino acid changes, of which 10 spike proteinsN501Y,E484K, K417T, including 3 mutations of concern[26][120][121].

The new strain is BrazilManaus, State of Amazonasで2020年3月から11月にかけて採取されたサンプルには存在しなかったが、2020年12月15日から23日までの採取時には42%、12月15日から31日までの期間では 52.2%、2021年1月1日から9日までの期間では 85.4%が同じ都市で検出された[26]..In another Brazilian study,State of Rio de JaneiroAnother subline of strain B.1.1.28, which is endemic inSystem P.2(Zeta strain) Called[122]..This strain has an E484K mutation but N501Y is not.[123][124]..Lineage P.2 was not directly related to Manaus lineage P.1 and evolved independently in Rio de Janeiro.[26].

According to one study, P.1 infection can produce nearly 1.1.28 times the viral load compared to people infected with any of the other Brazilian mutants (B.1.195 or B.10). There is sex.In addition, P.1 shows 2.2 times higher infectivity in the ability to infect adults and the elderly, suggesting that it is more susceptible to infection than gender-independent young people.[125].

2020年11月から2021年1月の間にマナウスで収集されたサンプルの研究は、系統P.1は1.4倍から2.2倍高い伝染性を持ち、以前のコロナウイルス罹患時による免疫の25%から61%を回避し、前回のCOVID-19感染から回復しても再感染の可能性があることを意味する。死亡率に関しても、P.1の感染は10%から80%も更に致死的である[126][127][28].

From vaccine researchPfizerorModernaThose who received the complete vaccination of P.1 had a significantly reduced neutralizing effect on P.100.This means that vaccinated people are at a milder risk of P.1 infection, while being XNUMX% protected from hospitalization and mortality.[128].

Preliminary data for the two studiesOxford-AstraZeneca VaccineShows that it is effective against P.1 mutants, but the exact level of efficacy has not been announced.[129][130].. Brazil(English editionPreliminary data for the studies conducted byCoronaVacSuggests that is also effective against P.1 mutants, and this study will be continued to obtain final data.[131].

System P.2

On the WHO labelZeta strain(Zeta variant).

The Zeta strain or strain P.2 is a substrain of B.1, similar to the gamma strain (P.1.1.28).State of Rio de JaneiroWas first detected in.E484KMutations are included, butN501YAnd K417T mutations are not included.Not directly related to the gamma strain in Manaus, it evolved independently in Rio de Janeiro.The Zeta strain was previously labeled by WHO as a Variant of Concern (VOI), but as of July 2021 it is not considered that way.[8].

System P.3

On the WHO labelTheta stock(Theta variant).

August 2021, 2,(English editionFor genome sequence analysisCentral VisayasTwo mutations in COVID-7 were detected in a sample from a patient (known as "Region 19").later"E484K"and"N501YThis mutation, named "", was detected in 50 out of 37 samples, and both simultaneous mutations were detected in 29 samples.At this point, there was no official name for the variant, and the complete sequence was unspecified.[132].

On March 2021, 3, the Ministry of Health of the Philippines confirmed the mutation and said "P.13 strain".[133](P.3 variant) "[134]..On the same day, it will be the first in the countrySystem P.1によるCOVID-19症例も確認された。変異株P.1とP.3はどちらも系統B.1.1.28に由来するが、同省は、ワクチンの有効性と伝染性に対する系統 P.3の影響はまだ確定していないと述べた。フィリピンにおける系統 P.3による発症は、2021年3月13日時点で98症例であった[135]..During the same month, strain P.3 was also confirmed in Japan.[136].

System C.37

On the WHO labelLambda stock(Lambda variant).

January 2020ペルーFirst identified in[8].. On June 2021, 6, WHO named the strain Lambda and added it to the notable mutant strain (VOI).[8].

The stock has spread to at least 30 countries around the world[137],Alpha strain,Gamma strainMay be more infectious[138]May be more resistant to COVID-19 vaccine than other strains[138][139].

Missense mutation

Missense mutation names follow the following naming convention.

  1. The left and right alphabets are abbreviations for amino acids.Amino acids that make up proteins # Gene expression and biochemistrySee).The alphabet on the left represents the amino acid before the mutation, and the right is the amino acid after the mutation.
  2. The number in the middle represents the number of the amino acid sequence.

For example, "D614G" means "the residue at position 614 of the amino acid sequence has been mutated from D (aspartic acid) to G (glycine)".

In the analysis of gene string mutations, it should be noted that, for example, "N501Y" feels like a strain of a British mutant strain, but the mutation of the gene string is independent of the phylogenetic tree. , The same mutation may occur in another area by chance, so even if "N501Y" is included, it cannot always be said that it was mutated from the British mutant strain.In the strain-related analysis, it is possible to make a high analogy based on the time of discovery of the new mutant strain and the travel history of the positive person, and the mutation from the British mutant strain to the South African mutant strain is possible with the keyword "N501Y". A widespread analogy is possible.

A701V

701 thamino acidIn positionAlanine(A) isValineIndicates that it has been replaced with (V).

D614G

D614G Affects SARS-CoV-2 Spike ProteinMissense mutationIs.The frequency of this mutation in the viral population increased during the pandemic.In many countries (gradually in China and other East Asian regions, but especially in Europe), the 614th D (Aspartic acid) Is G (glycine) Was replaced.This supports the hypothesis that G increases infection rates and is consistent with high in vitro viral titers and infectivity.[2] .. PANGOLIN gave this mutation the nickname "Doug"[141].

In July 2020, it was reported that the more infectious D7G mutant became the predominant form of pandemic.[142][143][144][145]..The Public Health England (PHE) has confirmed that the D614G mutation has a "moderate effect on transmissibility" and is being followed internationally[146].

Global prevalence with D614G is olfactory loss as a symptom of COVID-19 (Anosmia) Correlates with higher binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) to the ACE2 receptor, or due to higher protein stability(English editionIs mediated by high infectivity to[147].

Mutant strains containing the D614G mutation are G-clades by GISAID.[2]And found in the B.1 clade by the PANGOLIN tool[2].

E484K

Mutation name E484K is the 484thGlutamic acid (E) islysine Indicates that it has been replaced by (K)[148]..This replacement was nicknamed "Eeek"[141].

E484K for SARS-CoV-2Monoclonal antibodyEscape mutations from at least one form of the virus (ie, the virus's hostImmune systemMutations that improve the ability to avoid[149][150]), And "AntigenicityIt shows the possibility of change in[23]..Lineage described in Japan and Manaus P.1[26], Strain P.2 (known in Brazil as Strain B.1.1.248)[123] And 501.V2 (South Africa) show this mutation[23].. A limited number of B.484 genomes with the E1.1.7K mutation have also been detected.[151]..Monoclonal and serum-derived antibodies have been reported to be 484 to 10 times less effective in neutralizing viruses with the E60K mutation.[152][24].. On February 2021, 2, British medical scientists reported that E2K was detected in 214,000 of the 11 samples.This mutation can compromise the effectiveness of current vaccines[153][154].

L452R

452 thamino acidIn positionLeucine(L) isArginineIndicates that it has been replaced with (R).

L452R is found in both delta and kappa mutants, which first prevailed in India but have since spread worldwide. L452R is a related mutation in this strain that can enhance ACE2 receptor binding and reduce the attachment of vaccine-stimulating antibodies to this altered peplomer.

According to some studies, L452R may even develop resistance to coronavirus against T cells, a class of cells needed to target and destroy virus-infected cells.They differ from antibodies that help block coronavirus particles and prevent them from multiplying[99].

E484Q

484 thamino acidIn positionGlutamic acid(E) isglutamineIndicates that it has been replaced with (Q).

P681R

681 thamino acidIn positionProline(P) isArginineIndicates that it has been replaced with (R).

N440K

440 thamino acidIn positionAsparagine(N) islysineIndicates that it has been replaced with (K).Strong infectivity[155].

N501Y

N501Y is the 501stamino acidIn positionAsparagine From (N)Tyrosine Indicates that it has been replaced with (Y)[146].. N501Y was given the popular name "Nelly"[141].

This change is due to the changes in human cells ACE2 Combine toSpike protein OfReceptor binding domainBecause it is located inside, PHE is(English editionIs believed to increase.The data also support the hypothesis of increased binding affinity due to this change.[11].. For mutant strains of N501Y, P.1 (Japan / Brazil)[23][26],Variant of concern 20DEC-01 (UK), 501.V2 (South Africa), and COH.20G / 501Y (US)Columbus, Ohio) Is included.It appears to have become the predominant form of the virus in Columbus from late December to January 2020 and evolved independently of other mutants.[156][157].

S477G / N

A highly flexible region of the receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 continued from residue 475 to residue 485 and was identified in several studies using bioinformatics and statistical techniques.AustrianUniversity of Graz[158]And Biotech Company Innophore[159]Showed in a recent publication that position S477 shows the highest structural flexibility.[160].

S477 is also the most frequently exchanged amino acid residue in the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 mutant. Using molecular dynamics simulations of RBD during the binding process to hACE2, it was shown that both S477G and S477N enhance the binding of SARS-COV-2 spikes to the hACE2 receptor.Vaccine developer BioNTech[161]Announced this amino acid exchange as a result related to future vaccine design in a pre-reviewed paper published in February 2021.[162].

P681H

2021 year 1 month,Pre-reviewed paperIn, the mutation "P1.1.7H", which is characteristic of the important novel SARS-CoV-1.1.207 mutants detected in the United Kingdom (B.2) and Nigeria (B.681), was reported.The emergence of this mutant has shown the potential for significant exponential growth worldwide, similar to the currently prevalent D614G.[163][140].

Detection and evaluation of new mutant strains

On January 2021, 1, the British Government announced thatGenome sequencingTo increase rates and track new mutantsgenomeAnnounced that it will share its sequencing capabilities with other countries and announced a "new mutant strain evaluation platform"[164]. August 2021 (2021-01 )NowMore than half of the whole genome sequencing of COVID-19 was done in the United Kingdom[165].

Origin of mutant strain

ImmunodeficiencyIt has been suggested that multiple mutations may occur during the course of persistent infection in a patient.In particular, the virus is due to antibodiesSelective pressureIn the recovery period that is exposed toAntiserumUnder treatment[166][167]By repeating the same deletion of surface antigens in different patients[168],(English editionDevelop.

Differences in vaccine efficacy

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b In other sources, GISAID does not include the O clade, but names a set of seven clades that contain the GV clade.[39].
  2. ^ According to WHO, "Lineages or clades can be defined based on viruses that share a phylogenetically determined common ancestor".[40]
  3. ^ August, 2021 (2021-01 )Now, To be counted as a Nextstrain clade, it must meet at least one of the following criteria (quoted from source):[36]
    1. The clade retains a global frequency of> 2% for over 20 months
    2. The clade retains> 2% regional frequency for more than 30 months
    3. Recognized as VOC (Variant of Concern) (applicable to 2021Y.V1 and 6Y.V501 as of January 1, 501)

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