New Corona XNUMX new infections in the prefecture, XNUMX dead
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, it was revealed that a mutant strain "N1Y", which is said to have strong infectivity and is likely to become severe, was newly detected in one infected person in the prefecture.
On the XNUMXnd, the prefecture announced the death of one hospitalized patient and seven new infections after being infected with the new corona.Also, in the prefecture ... → Continue reading
YBC Yamagata Broadcasting
This is Yamagata Broadcasting, a television and radio station in Yamagata Prefecture.
Daily news is provided with the catchphrase "Walk Together".
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Variant of SARS coronavirus 2
New coronavirus infection Causes (COVID-19)ウ イ ル スIsSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is like any other virusmutationDue to the high rate, many mutant strains occur over time.Notable in this itemVariant of SARS coronavirus 2(Thirds Coronavirus Two's Henkabu,English: variants of SARS-CoV-2), And noteworthy found in some or all of these mutantsMissense mutationWill also be described.
GISAID S clade / A system / The WIV19 / 04 base sequence belonging to the 2019B clade is believed to most likely most closely reflect the base sequence of the protovirus that infects humans, known as "sequence zero," and is used as a reference sequence. Be done.
Mutant control table
The appearance of SARS-CoV-2Bat OfSARSMrCoronavirusとPangolinMay be the result of recombination with coronavirus (by cross-species transmission)Mutations have been shown to play an important role in ongoing evolution and the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 mutants.
The following table provides information and risk levels for mutant strains that are or may be at high risk at this time.Confidence intervals are assumed to be 95% confidence unless otherwise stated.
|First detection||Naming date [note 1]||WHO label [note 2]||PANGO systematic name||Other systematic name||Notable missense mutations[note 3]||Evidence of clinical changes [note 4]||拡 散||Ref.|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||August, 2020||—||—||B.1.1.207||P681H||—||—||—||Between nations|||
|The United Kingdom||August, 2020||August, 2020||Alpha||B.1.1.7||VOC-20DEC-01, 20I / 501Y.V1||N501Y, 69–70del, P681H||~ 74% increase ()||~ 64% (32—104%) or more lethal ()||Decreased antigen activity (Ecdc)||Worldwide|||
|デンマーク||August, 2020||—||—||—||Cluster 5, ΔFVI-spike ()||Y453F, 69–70deltaHV||—||—||Moderate sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies (moderately reducedWHO)||Aspect of extinction|||
|South Africa||August, 2020||August, 2020||Beta||B.1.351||501.V2, 20H / 501Y.V2, |
|N501Y, K417N, E484K||~ 50% (20–113%) increase (Ecdc)||—||Antibodies reduce neutralization (ECDC)||Worldwide|||
|August, 2020||August, 2021||Gamma||P.1||B.1.1.28, VOC-21JAN-02, 20J / 501Y.V3 offspring||N501Y, E484K, K417T||Aspect of increase (CDC)||~ 45% (10–80%) or more lethal ()||Overall reduction of effective neutralization (Ecdc)||Between nations|||
| The United Kingdom|
|August, 2020||August, 2021||Eta||B.1.525||VUI-21FEB-03 (PHE), formerly UK1188||E484K, F888L||Aspect of increase (CDC)||Aspect of increase (CDC)||"Moderately" reduced neutralization ()||Between nations|||
|India||August, 2020||August, 2021||Kappa||B.1.617.1||VUI-21APR-01|
G / 452R.V3
|G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, Q1071H|||
|India||August, 2020||August, 2021||Delta||B.1.617.2||VOC-21APR-02|
G / 452R.V3
|T19R, G142D, del157 / 158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N|||
|America||August, 2020||August, 2021||Epsilon||B.1.429||CAL.20C||I4205V, D1183Y, S13I, W152C, L452R||~ 20% increase (CDC)||investigating||"Moderate but significantly" reduced neutralization ()||Between nations|||
- ^ Date of designation.
- ^ Not in this table, but also Zeta (P.2), Theta (P.3), Iota (B.1.526) Was also labeled as "Variants of Interest (yellow)", which is similar to "Variants of Concern (orange)".
- ^ Mutant strains to be screened as an active epidemiological survey are shown in bold.
- ^ "—" Indicates that no reliable source of information could be found.
|PANGO strain (Naming convention suggestions, Nature (See)||Notes to the PANGO lineage (Alm et al. (See)||Nextstrain Clade, 2021||GISAID Clade||Notable mutant strain|
|A.1–A.6||19B||S||Contains the "reference array" WIV04 / 2019|
|B.3–B.7, B.9, B.10, B.13–B.16||19A||L|
|B.1||B.1.5–B.1.72||20A||G||Strain B.1 in the PANGO line|
|B.1.9, B.1.13, B.1.22, B.1.26, B.1.37||GH|
|20G||Generally predominant in the United States, January 2021|
|20H||B.1.351 Also known as 20H / 501Y.V2 or 501.V2 systemincluding|
|20D||P.1And P.2 included|
|20||Lineage B.1.1.7 Also known as VOC-20DEC-01 or 20I / 501Y.V1 including|
|B.1.177||20E (EU1)||GV[Annotation 1]||Derived from 20A|
No consistent nomenclature for SARS-CoV-2 has been established..For mutant strains, including the government and the press, although they may refer to the country that was first identified., January 2021 Now, who (WHO) says "Do not refer to geographical location COVID-2Working on "standard nomenclature for mutant strains".
There are thousands of variants of SARS-CoV-2, Virus variants, strains andCladeCan be classified into larger taxa such as[Annotation 2]..The following three main and commonly used nomenclaturesIs proposed,
- August, 2021GISAID(SARS-CoV-2 is called "hCoV-19") Is identified as eight global clades (S, O, L, V, G, GH, GR, GV). Now,
- In 2017, Hadfield and colleagues aimed to "track the evolution of pathogens in real time." announced.. Nextstrain was later used to track SARS-CoV-2, January 2021 NowIn 11 clades (19A, 19B, 20A-20I) [Annotation 3] Identify.
- In 2020, Rambaut et al.Articles by the software teamProposed in "Dynamic Nomenclature of SARS-CoV-2 Strains Focusing on Actively Epidemic Virus Strains and Virus Strains Spreading to New Locations", October 2021 NowIdentify six major strains (A, B, B.6, B.1, B.1.1, B.1.177) in.
Each country (NPHIs) can also establish their own naming system for the purpose of tracking specific mutant strains.For example In the (PHE) naming system, each mutant strain to be tracked is specified by year, month, and number in the format of [YYYY] [MM] / [NN], and "VUI(Variant Under Investigation; mutant strain under investigation) or "VOC(Variant of Concern; Variant of concern) Is displayed at the beginning..This system is currently being modified, with months written in the format [YY] [MMM]-[NN] using a three-letter code..
Classification by WHO
Clade / Clade
|First confirmation||Designated date|
|Variant of concern (VOC)|
(Old GR / 501Y.V1)
|20I (V1)||＋ S: 484K|
＋ S: 452R
|GH / 501Y.V2||20H (V2)||na||South Africa|
|GR / 501Y.V3||20J (V3)||＋ S: 681H||Brazil|
|G / 478K.V1||21A||na||India|
|Variant of Interest (VOI)|
|GH / 452R.V1||21C||na||米 国|
|P.2||GR / 484K.V2||20B / S.484K||na||Brazil|
|B.1.525||G / 484K.V3||21D||na||Multiple countries|
|P.3||GR / 1092K.V1||21E||na||フィリピン|
|B.1.526||GH / 253G.V1||21F||na||米 国|
|B.1.617.1||G / 452R.V3||21B||na||India|
|C.37||GR / 452Q.V1||20D||na||ペルー|
|WHO||PANGO||GISAID||Nextstrain||Other mutations||First appearance||Designated date|
Criteria for attention
Viruses usually acquire mutations over time, creating new mutant strains.If a new mutant appears to be growing in a population, it is labeled as a "new mutant".
- Improved transmission rate
- Increased morbidity
- Increased mortality
- Ability to avoid detection by diagnostic tests
- Antiviral drugDecreased susceptibility to (if such drugs are available)
- Decreased sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies therapeutically (eg, convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies) or in laboratory experiments
- Ability to avoid innate immunity (eg, cause reinfection)
- Ability to infect vaccinated individuals
- Multiple organ inflammation syndromeIncreased risk of certain conditions such as
- Increased affinity for specific demographic or clinical groups, such as children and individuals with immunodeficiency
Mutants that appear to meet one or more of these criteria are "variants under investigation (VUI)" or "variant of concern" until these properties are validated and validated. It may be labeled as "variant of interest (VOI)". The main feature of the "notable mutant strain" is that it has an increased proportion of cases and an inherent outbreak.clusterIt is to show the evidence that is the cause of.However, epidemics or spreads need to be restricted at the national level.If that is not possible, the alert level is "Variant of concern(Variant of concern; VOC)..Also, if there is clear evidence that the effectiveness of preventive or interventional measures against a particular mutant has been significantly reduced, the mutant is a "variant of high consequence; VOHC". ).
Notable mutant strain
Early November 2020, Cluster 5 also known as ΔFVI spike by (SSI)  デンマーク OfNorth Denmark RegionWas found in.minkからIt is believed that it spread to humans via. November 2020, 11,TheselectionIt was announced that it would prevent the spread of this mutation and reduce the risk of new mutations occurring.Blockades and travel restrictions have been introduced in seven municipalities in North Jutland to prevent the spread of mutations.this is,COVID-19 PandemicIn Denmark against(English edition）Or adapt to international correspondence. By November 2020, 11, 5 mink-related human cases had been detected..
who (WHO) stated that Cluster 5 "has moderately reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies.".. SSI is under development by mutationCOVID-19 vaccineIt warned that it is unlikely to be useless, although it may be less effective.LockdownAnd large scaleInspectionAs a result, SSI announced on November 2020, 11 that Cluster 19 was probably extinct. .. As of February 2021, 2, all SSIPeer-reviewedThe authors of the paper evaluated that Cluster 5 was not endemic between humans..
Strain B.1.1.7 / Variant of Concern 20DEC-01
On the WHO labelAlpha strain(Alpha variant).
COVID-2020 pandemic in the UK in October 10First detected during the previous month's sample Lineage B.1.1.7As the first mutant strain under investigation in December 2020 (VUI–12 / 202012), And strain B.1.1.7 or 20I / 501Y.V1 (formerly 20B / 501Y.V1)Was previously known as.Since then thatPrevalenceDoubled every 6.5 days, which is the estimated generation interval..This correlates with a significant increase in COVID-19 infection rates in the United Kingdom.N501YPartially related to mutation.There is some evidence that this variant increases transmission rates by 40% to 80% (most estimates are in the middle to near the upper limit of this range)., Initial analysis suggests increased case fatality rate.
B.1.1.7 with E484K (Variant of Concern 21FEB-02)
"B.1.1.7 with E484K" by (PHE)Is described asVariant of concern VOC-21FEB-02 (formerly known asVOC-202102/02) is the same system as the Rambaut classification system,E484KMutations have been added. As of February 2021, 2, there were 18 cases in the UKVOC-21FEB-02 has been confirmed.. March 2021, 3, United StatesOregonB.484 with an E1.1.7K mutation was reported in.One of the 13 test samples analyzed had this combination.This appears to have occurred spontaneously and locally rather than being captured..
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFirst sequenced in August 2020.Transmission routeとPathogenicityThe impact on is unknown, but the United StatesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention Listed as a novel mutant by (CDC)..This variant, sequenced by the African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Nigerian Infectious Diseases, is from the United Kingdom.Lineage B.1.1.7Shared withP681HHas a mutation.It does not share other mutations with strain B.1.1.7, and as of late December 2020, this mutant accounted for approximately 12% of the viral genome sequenced in Nigeria, an increase. there's a possibility that.. By March 2021, strain B.3 has been detected in Japan, Peru, Germany, Singapore, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Costa Rica, South Korea, Canada, Australia, France, Italy, Ecuador, Mexico, United Kingdom and the United States..
Although B.1.1.317 is not considered a Variant of Concern (VOC),It is,Australia OfBrisbaneTwo hotel quarantines in Tokyo were infected with the mutant and forced an additional five days of quarantine in addition to the mandatory 2-day quarantine period..
On the WHO labelBeta stock(Beta variant).
2020年12月18日、501.V2変異株（501.V2、20H/501Y.V2（以前の20C/501Y.V2）、VOC-20DEC-02（旧称VOC-202012 / 02), or system B.1.351Also known as)Republic of South AfricaFirst detected inReported by..The prevalence of this mutant was high among adolescents without an underlying health condition and was reported to cause more frequent serious illness in these cases compared to other mutants...The South African Department of Health has also said that the variant is spreading at a faster pace than variants of other early viruses.COVID-19 pandemic in the countryShowed that it may be causing the second wave of.
Of the virusSpike protein OfReceptor binding domain To (RBD) N501Y, K417N,E484KIt was noted that the mutants contained several mutations that facilitated attachment to human cells due to the three mutations in. N3Y mutation has also been detected in the United Kingdom.
System B.1.429 / CAL.20C
On the WHO labelEpsilon strain(Epsilon variant).
系統 B.1.429としても知られるCAL.20Cは、5つの異なる変異（ORF1ab遺伝子のI4205VとD1183Y、およびスパイクタンパク質S遺伝子のS13I、W152C、L452R）によって定義され、そのうち L452R（以前は他の無関係な系統で検出された）は特に懸念された.. CAL.20C may be more susceptible to infection, but further investigation is needed to confirm this..COVID-19 pandemic in California, USA(English edition）Since the beginningLos Angeles CountyIn one of the 1,230 virus samples collected inCaliforniaFirst observed in July 2020 by researchers in..Rediscovery did not occur until September 2020, when it reappeared in California samples, and remained very low until November 9... In November 2020, CAL.11C mutants accounted for 20% of the samples collected at Cedars Sinai Medical Center, and by January 36, CAL.2021C mutants accounted for 1% of the samples... USAUniversity of California San Francisco,,andAccording to a joint press release by The mutant was also detected in several counties in northern California. From November to December 2020, the frequency of mutations in sequenced cases in Northern California increased from 11% to 12%...Pre-announcements explained that CAL.20C belongs to the clade 20C and accounts for about 36% of the sample, and a study focused on southern California found that new mutants from the 20G clade accounted for about 24% of the sample. Occupy.However, as of January 2021, the 1G clade predominates across the United States...Following an increase in the number of CAL.20C in California, mutant strains are detected at varying frequencies in most US states.In addition to North America, a small number have been detected in Europe, Asia, and Australia..
On the WHO labelEta stock(Eta variant).
B.1.525 is VUI-21FEB-03 (formerly known as VUI-XNUMXFEB-XNUMX) by the English Public Health Agency (PHE).VUI-202102/03), formerly known as UK1188..This strainLineage B.1.1.7,501.V2 mutant strainandSystem P.1As seen in N501YNo mutation, but same as found on P.1, P.2, and 501.V2E484KHaving mutations, B.1.1.7, N439K mutants (B.1.141 and B.1.258), and Y453F mutants (B.XNUMX and B.XNUMX)Cluster 5) The same ΔH69 / ΔV70 deletion (amino acids at positions 69 and 70)HistidineandValineDeletion of).. B.1.525 has an E484K mutation and a new F888L mutation (in the S2 domain of the peplomer).Phenylalanine (F) isLeucine It differs from all other mutant strains in that it has both (replaced by (L)). As of March 2021, 3英国,デンマーク,フィンランド,ノルウェー, Netherlands,ベルギー,France,スペイン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ガーナ,Jordan,Japan,Singapore,Australia,カナダ,Germany,イタリア,スロベニア,オーストリア,Malaysia,スイス,Republic of Ireland,The United States of AmericaDetected in 23 countries including,France OfOverseas prefecture-MayotteBut it was reported..The first case was detected in the United Kingdom and Nigeria in December 2020, and as of February 12, 2021, it occurred most frequently in the samples of the latter country...As of February 2, the same year, 24 cases were found in the United Kingdom...Denmark, which sequenced all COVID-19 cases, discovered 1 cases of this mutant between January 14 and February 2 of the same year, seven of which were directly related to overseas travel to Nigeria..
British experts are studying it to understand how much risk it can pose.It is currently considered a "variant of concern" (VUI), but may become a "variant of concern" (VOC) depending on further research.Cambridge University OfProfessorwith the BBCB.1.525 is a "significant mutation" that is already found in some of the other new mutants, but is predictable and partially reassuring to the extent that it is likely to have an effect. Said he seems to have.
On the WHO labelIota strain(Iota variant).
2020 year 10 month,IndiaA new mutant strain was discovered in B.1.617. Little detection was detected until January 2021, but by April it had spread to at least 1 countries... Detected in about 5 countries by early May and on all continents except Antarctica.. It is classified into three sub-strains B.1.617.1-3, and among about 3 defined mutations, the spike mutations P15R and L681R are shared by these strains.The E452Q mutation is found in B.484 and B.1.617.1 but not in B.1.617.3.On the other hand, the T1.617.2K mutation in B.1.617.2 is not found in B.478 and B.1.617.1...Two of these mutations, E484Q and L452R, can cause easy evasion of antibodies...The Public Health Agency of England (PHE) has designated B.2021 as the variant under investigation "VUI-4APR-15" in an announcement on April 1.617, 21...On April 4, the same year, PHE added two more mutant strains, "VUI-29APR-2" and "VUI-21APR-02" (de facto B.21 and B.03). Specified.
On May 2021, 5, PHE evaluated that it was at least as infectious and transmissible as B.6, and a variant of concern from a variant of concern (VUI) investigating the B.1.1.7 strain. Raised to stock (VOC) and positioned as "VOC-1.617.2APR-21"..On May 5, the same year, WHO lifted the entire B.11 strain from the notable variant (VOI) and classified it as a Variant of Concern (VOC), but in Junepublic healthOnly the B.1.617.2 strains with the higher risk above are classified as VOCs (the other two sub-strains are downgraded)...This mutant strain started in February 2021Second wave of infection spread in IndiaIs considered to be one of the factors of.
On the WHO labelKappa stock(Kappa variant).
On the WHO labelDelta stock(Delta variant).
British scientists are "concerned" about B.2021 (especially those without the spike E5Q mutation) after flagging evidence in early May 1.617.2 that it spreads faster than the original version of the virus. Declared as a Variant of Concern (VOC).. WHO is also the only strain of strain B.1.617 to be classified as a Variant of Concern (VOC).
This mutant was first isolated in October 2020. It has an E10K mutation, which is the same mutation as B.1.351. West BengalSo it has increased significantly in the last few months.. As of April 2021, 4, the CoV-Lineages database showed 23 sequences found in India, with single-digit numbers in each of the other eight countries in the world..
On the WHO labelGamma strain(Gamma variant).
Lineage P.1 is VOC-21JAN-02 (formerly known as PHE) by the British Public Health Agency (PHE).VOC-202101/02), Called 20J / 501Y.V3,National Institute of Infectious Diseases Detected by (NIID) on January 2021, 1 in Tokyo.The new strain will be available on January 6, the same year.Brazil OfState of AmazonasFirst identified from the four who arrived in Tokyo from.. Aug. 1,Brazil-UK CADDE CenterEstablished 1 local cases of a new strain of P.13 in the Amazon rainforest.. This variant of SARS-CoV-2 was named strain P.1 (descendant to B.1.1.28, but named P.188.8.131.52 because the name B.1 is not allowed). It has 17 unique amino acid changes, of which 10 spike proteinsN501Y,E484K, K417T, including 3 mutations of concern.
The new strain is BrazilManaus, State of Amazonasで2020年3月から11月にかけて採取されたサンプルには存在しなかったが、2020年12月15日から23日までの採取時には42%、12月15日から31日までの期間では 52.2%、2021年1月1日から9日までの期間では 85.4%が同じ都市で検出された..In another Brazilian study,State of Rio de JaneiroAnother subline of strain B.1.1.28, which is endemic inSystem P.2(Zeta strain) Called..This strain has an E484K mutation but N501Y is not...Lineage P.2 was not directly related to Manaus lineage P.1 and evolved independently in Rio de Janeiro..
According to one study, P.1 infection can produce nearly 1.1.28 times the viral load compared to people infected with any of the other Brazilian mutants (B.1.195 or B.10). There is sex.In addition, P.1 shows 2.2 times higher infectivity in the ability to infect adults and the elderly, suggesting that it is more susceptible to infection than gender-independent young people..
From vaccine researchPfizerorModernaThose who received the complete vaccination of P.1 had a significantly reduced neutralizing effect on P.100.This means that vaccinated people are at a milder risk of P.1 infection, while being XNUMX% protected from hospitalization and mortality..
Preliminary data for the two studiesOxford-AstraZeneca VaccineShows that it is effective against P.1 mutants, but the exact level of efficacy has not been announced... BrazilPreliminary data for the studies conducted byCoronaVacSuggests that is also effective against P.1 mutants, and this study will be continued to obtain final data..
On the WHO labelZeta strain(Zeta variant).
The Zeta strain or strain P.2 is a substrain of B.1, similar to the gamma strain (P.1.1.28).State of Rio de JaneiroWas first detected in.E484KMutations are included, butN501YAnd K417T mutations are not included.Not directly related to the gamma strain in Manaus, it evolved independently in Rio de Janeiro.The Zeta strain was previously labeled by WHO as a Variant of Concern (VOI), but as of July 2021 it is not considered that way..
On the WHO labelTheta stock(Theta variant).
August 2021, 2,For genome sequence analysisCentral VisayasTwo mutations in COVID-7 were detected in a sample from a patient (known as "Region 19").later"E484K"and"N501YThis mutation, named "", was detected in 50 out of 37 samples, and both simultaneous mutations were detected in 29 samples.At this point, there was no official name for the variant, and the complete sequence was unspecified..
On March 2021, 3, the Ministry of Health of the Philippines confirmed the mutation and said "P.13 strain".(P.3 variant) "..On the same day, it will be the first in the countrySystem P.1によるCOVID-19症例も確認された。変異株P.1とP.3はどちらも系統B.1.1.28に由来するが、同省は、ワクチンの有効性と伝染性に対する系統 P.3の影響はまだ確定していないと述べた。フィリピンにおける系統 P.3による発症は、2021年3月13日時点で98症例であった..During the same month, strain P.3 was also confirmed in Japan..
On the WHO labelLambda stock(Lambda variant).
Missense mutation names follow the following naming convention.
- The left and right alphabets are abbreviations for amino acids.Amino acids that make up proteins # Gene expression and biochemistrySee).The alphabet on the left represents the amino acid before the mutation, and the right is the amino acid after the mutation.
- The number in the middle represents the number of the amino acid sequence.
For example, "D614G" means "the residue at position 614 of the amino acid sequence has been mutated from D (aspartic acid) to G (glycine)".
In the analysis of gene string mutations, it should be noted that, for example, "N501Y" feels like a strain of a British mutant strain, but the mutation of the gene string is independent of the phylogenetic tree. , The same mutation may occur in another area by chance, so even if "N501Y" is included, it cannot always be said that it was mutated from the British mutant strain.In the strain-related analysis, it is possible to make a high analogy based on the time of discovery of the new mutant strain and the travel history of the positive person, and the mutation from the British mutant strain to the South African mutant strain is possible with the keyword "N501Y". A widespread analogy is possible.
D614G Affects SARS-CoV-2 Spike ProteinMissense mutationIs.The frequency of this mutation in the viral population increased during the pandemic.In many countries (gradually in China and other East Asian regions, but especially in Europe), the 614th D (Aspartic acid) Is G (glycine) Was replaced.This supports the hypothesis that G increases infection rates and is consistent with high in vitro viral titers and infectivity. .. PANGOLIN gave this mutation the nickname "Doug".
In July 2020, it was reported that the more infectious D7G mutant became the predominant form of pandemic...The Public Health England (PHE) has confirmed that the D614G mutation has a "moderate effect on transmissibility" and is being followed internationally.
Global prevalence with D614G is olfactory loss as a symptom of COVID-19 (Anosmia) Correlates with higher binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) to the ACE2 receptor, or due to higher protein stabilityIs mediated by high infectivity to.
E484K for SARS-CoV-2Monoclonal antibodyEscape mutations from at least one form of the virus (ie, the virus's hostImmune systemMutations that improve the ability to avoid), And "AntigenicityIt shows the possibility of change in..Lineage described in Japan and Manaus P.1, Strain P.2 (known in Brazil as Strain B.1.1.248) And 501.V2 (South Africa) show this mutation.. A limited number of B.484 genomes with the E1.1.7K mutation have also been detected...Monoclonal and serum-derived antibodies have been reported to be 484 to 10 times less effective in neutralizing viruses with the E60K mutation... On February 2021, 2, British medical scientists reported that E2K was detected in 214,000 of the 11 samples.This mutation can compromise the effectiveness of current vaccines.
L452R is found in both delta and kappa mutants, which first prevailed in India but have since spread worldwide. L452R is a related mutation in this strain that can enhance ACE2 receptor binding and reduce the attachment of vaccine-stimulating antibodies to this altered peplomer.
According to some studies, L452R may even develop resistance to coronavirus against T cells, a class of cells needed to target and destroy virus-infected cells.They differ from antibodies that help block coronavirus particles and prevent them from multiplying.
This change is due to the changes in human cells ACE2 Combine toSpike protein OfReceptor binding domainBecause it is located inside, PHE isIs believed to increase.The data also support the hypothesis of increased binding affinity due to this change... For mutant strains of N501Y, P.1 (Japan / Brazil),Variant of concern 20DEC-01 (UK), 501.V2 (South Africa), and COH.20G / 501Y (US)Columbus, Ohio) Is included.It appears to have become the predominant form of the virus in Columbus from late December to January 2020 and evolved independently of other mutants..
S477G / N
A highly flexible region of the receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 continued from residue 475 to residue 485 and was identified in several studies using bioinformatics and statistical techniques.AustrianUniversity of GrazAnd Biotech Company InnophoreShowed in a recent publication that position S477 shows the highest structural flexibility..
S477 is also the most frequently exchanged amino acid residue in the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 mutant. Using molecular dynamics simulations of RBD during the binding process to hACE2, it was shown that both S477G and S477N enhance the binding of SARS-COV-2 spikes to the hACE2 receptor.Vaccine developer BioNTechAnnounced this amino acid exchange as a result related to future vaccine design in a pre-reviewed paper published in February 2021..
2021 year 1 month,Pre-reviewed paperIn, the mutation "P1.1.7H", which is characteristic of the important novel SARS-CoV-1.1.207 mutants detected in the United Kingdom (B.2) and Nigeria (B.681), was reported.The emergence of this mutant has shown the potential for significant exponential growth worldwide, similar to the currently prevalent D614G..
Detection and evaluation of new mutant strains
On January 2021, 1, the British Government announced thatGenome sequencingTo increase rates and track new mutantsgenomeAnnounced that it will share its sequencing capabilities with other countries and announced a "new mutant strain evaluation platform". August 2021 NowMore than half of the whole genome sequencing of COVID-19 was done in the United Kingdom.
Origin of mutant strain
ImmunodeficiencyIt has been suggested that multiple mutations may occur during the course of persistent infection in a patient.In particular, the virus is due to antibodiesSelective pressureIn the recovery period that is exposed toAntiserumUnder treatmentBy repeating the same deletion of surface antigens in different patients,Develop.
Differences in vaccine efficacy
- ^ a b In other sources, GISAID does not include the O clade, but names a set of seven clades that contain the GV clade..
- ^ According to WHO, "Lineages or clades can be defined based on viruses that share a phylogenetically determined common ancestor".
- ^ August, 2021
Now, To be counted as a Nextstrain clade, it must meet at least one of the following criteria (quoted from source):
- The clade retains a global frequency of> 2% for over 20 months
- The clade retains> 2% regional frequency for more than 30 months
- Recognized as VOC (Variant of Concern) (applicable to 2021Y.V1 and 6Y.V501 as of January 1, 501)
- ^ "Naming the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Virus That Causes It". World Health Organization (WHO). 2021/3/11Browse./ WHO Unofficial Japanese Translation (May 2020, 5): (PDF)
- ^ a b c d e Zhukova, Anna; Blassel, Luc; Lemoine, Frédéric; Morel, Marie; Voznica, Jakub; Gascuel, Olivier (2020-11-24). “Origin, evolution and global spread of SARS-CoV-2”. Comptes Rendus Biologies: 1–20. two:10.5802 / crbiol.29. PMID 33274614.
- ^ Shahhosseini, Nariman; Wong, Gary; Kobinger, Gary; Chinikar, Sadegh (2021). “SARS-CoV-2 spillover transmission due to recombination event”. Gene Reports 23: 101045. two:10.1016 / j.genrep.2021.101045. PMC: 7884226. PMID 33615041.
- ^ "An evolutionary portrait of the progenitor SARS-CoV-2 and its dominant offshoots in COVID-19 pandemic". Oxford Academic. 2020/5/10Browse.
- ^ "The ancestor of SARS-CoV-2's Wuhan strain was circulating in late October 2019". News Medical. 2020/5/10Browse. “Journal reference: Kumar, S. et al. (2021). An evolutionary portrait ...”
- ^ a b c d e f g h CDC (January 2021, 1). “Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants”(English). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021/3/13Browse. In this description,The United States of AmericaAt the innerPublic domainIs included.
- ^ a b Lineage B.1.1.207 cov-lineages.org, accessed 11 March 2021, Graphic shows B.1.1.207 detected in Peru, Germany, Singapore, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Costa Rica, South Korea, Canada, Australia, Japan, France, Italy, Ecuador, Mexico, UK and the USA
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants" (English). who.int. World Health Organization. 2021/7/9Browse.
- ^ a b c ECDC (January 2021, 1). “Risk related to the spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in the EU / EEA --first update". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. 2021/2/2Browse.
- ^ a b Gallagher, James (July 2021, 1). “Coronavirus: UK variant'may be more deadly'”. BBC News 2021/1/22Browse.
- ^ a b Chand et al., "Potential impact of spike variant N501Y" (p. 6).
- ^ "PANGO lineages". cov-lineages.org. 2021/3/11Browse.
- ^ Challen R, Brooks-Pollock E, Read JM, Dyson L, Tsaneva-Atanasova K, Danon L et al. Risk of mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/1: matched cohort study BMJ 2021; 372: n579 doi: 10.1136 / bmj.n579
- ^ Volz, Erik; Mishra, Swapnil; Chand, Meera; Barrett, Jeffrey C .; Johnson, Robert; Geidelberg, Lily; Hinsley, Wes R; Laydon, Daniel J et al. (4 January 2021) (preprint). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage B.1.1.7 in England: Insights from linking epidemiological and genetic data (Report). two:10.1101/2020.12.30.20249034.
- ^ "New evidence on VUI-202012 / 01 and review of the public health risk assessment". 2021/1/4Browse.
- ^ "COG-UK Showcase Event". YouTube. 2020/12/25Browse.
- ^ a b Lassa unière, Ria (November 2020, 11). “SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations arising in Danish mink and their spread to humans”. Statens Serum Institut. 2020/11/11Browse.
- ^ a b "SARS-CoV-2 mink-associated variant strain – Denmark". World Health Organization (September 2020, 11). 2021/1/16Browse.
- ^ a b "De fleste restriktioner lempes i Nordjylland”. Sundheds- og Ældreministeriet (November 2020, 11). 2021/1/16Browse. “Sekventeringen af de positive prøver viser samtidig, at der ikke er påvist yderligere tilfæl de af minkvariant med cluster 5 siden den 15. september, hvorfor Statens Serums Institut vurderer, at denne variant med stor sandsynlighed ..] died out ")"
- ^ a b Lowe, Derek (December 2020, 12). “The New Mutations". In the Pipeline. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2020/12/23Browse. “I should note here that there's another strain in South Africa that is bringing on similar concerns. This one has eight mutations in the Spike protein, with three of them (K417N, E484K and N501Y) that may have some functional role.”
- ^ a b Kupferschmidt, Kai (15 January 2021). “New coronavirus variants could cause more reinfections, require updated vaccines”. Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science). two:10.1126 / science.abg6028 2021/2/2Browse..
- ^ “Coronavirus variants and mutations: The science explained” (English). BBC News(July 2021, 1) 2021/2/2Browse.
- ^ a b c d “Brief report: New Variant Strain of SARS-CoV-2 Identified in Travelers from Brazil” (Press Release), Japan: National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID; National Institute of Infectious Diseases), (January 2021, 1) 2021/1/14Browse.
- ^ a b c Kupferschmidt, Kai (January 22, 2021). “New mutations raise specter of'immune escape'”. Science 371 (6527): 329–330. two:10.1126 / science.371.6527.329. PMID 33479129 2021/1/25Browse..
- ^ "Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Figure 5." (year 2020). 2021/1/15Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Genomic characterization of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus: preliminary findings" (English). Virological (September 2021, 1). 2021/1/23Browse.
- ^ Lovett, Samuel (January 2021, 1). “What we know about the new Brazilian coronavirus variant”. The Independent (London) 2021/1/14Browse.
- ^ a b Faria, Nuno (February 2021, 2). “Genomics and epidemiology of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil”. Github. 2021/3/2Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Public Health England (February 2021, 2). “Variants: distribution of cases data" (English). GOV.UK. 2021/2/18Browse.
- ^ a b Roberts, Michelle (February 2021, 2). “Another new coronavirus variant seen in the UK”. BBC NEWS... 16 February 2021 2021/2/16Browse.
- ^ a b c "B.1.525". Rambaut Group, University of Edinburgh. PANGO Lineages (February 2021, 2). 2021/2/16Browse.
- ^ a b "SARS-CoV-2 mutant strain B.1.617 (XNUMXnd report)”. National Institute of Infectious Diseases (January 2021, 5). 2021/6/1Browse.
- ^ Wadman, Meredith (23 February 2021). “California coronavirus strain may be more infectious—and lethal” (English). Science. two:10.1126 / science.abh2101 2021/3/17Browse..
- ^ "Southern California COVID-19 Strain Expands Global Reach" (English). Cedars-Sinai Newsroom. 2021/3/17Browse.
- ^ This table is an adaptation and expansion of Alm et al., figure 1.
- ^ a b c d "Updated Nextstrain SARS-CoV-2 clade naming strategy". nextstrain.org/blog (September 2021, 1). 2021/1/19Browse.
- ^ a b c d Zhang, Wenjuan; Davis, Brian D .; Chen, Stephanie S .; Martinez, Jorge M Sincuir; Plummer, Jasmine T .; Vail, Eric (2021). Emergence of a novel SARS-CoV-2 strain in Southern California, USA. two:10.1101/2021.01.18.21249786.
- ^ "PANGO lineages-Lineage B.1.1.28". cov-lineages.org. 2021/2/4Browse.
- ^ "clade tree (from'Clade and lineage nomenclature')". www.gisaid.org (September 2020, 7). 2021/1/7Browse.
- ^ a b c d WHO Headquarters (8 January 2021). “3.6 Considerations for virus naming and nomenclature”. SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing for public health goals: Interim guidance, 8 January 2021. who (WHO). P. 6 2021/3/11Browse.
- ^ "Don't call it the'British variant.' Use the correct name: B.1.1.7" (English). STAT (September 2021, 2). 2021/2/12Browse.
- ^ Flanagan, Ryan (February 2021, 2). “Why the WHO won't call it the'UK variant', and you shouldn't either" (English). Coronavirus. 2021/2/12Browse.
- ^ For a list of sources using names referring to the country in which the variants were first identified, see, for example, and.
- ^ who (WHO) (January 2021, 1). “Statement on the sixth meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic". 2021/1/18Browse.
- ^ Koyama, Takahiko; Platt, Daniel; Parida, Laxmi (June 2020). “Variant analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes”. 98 (7): 495–504. two:10.2471 / BLT.20.253591. PMC: 7375210. PMID 32742035"We detected in total 65776 variants with 5775 distinct variants."
- ^ Alm, E .; Broberg, EK; Connor, T .; Hodcroft, EB; Komissarov, AB; Maurer-Stroh, S .; Melidou, A .; Neher, RA et al. (2020). “Geographical and temporal distribution of SARS-CoV-2 clades in the WHO European Region, January to June 2020”. 25 (32). two:10.2807 / 1560-7917.ES.2020.25.32.2001410. PMC: 7427299. PMID 32794443.
- ^ "Global phylogeny, updated by Nextstrain”. GISAID (January 2021, 1). 2021/1/19Browse.
- ^ Hadfield, J .; Megill, C; Bell, SM; Huddleston, J .; Potter, B .; Callender, C. (May 2018). “Nextstrain: real-time tracking of pathogen evolution.”. 34 (23): 4121–4123. two:10.1093 / bioinformatics / bty407. PMC: 6247931. PMID 29790939.
Preprint: ——— (November 2017). Nextstrain: real-time tracking of pathogen evolution.. two:10.1101/224048.
- ^ "Nextclade (What are the clades?) ”. clades.nextstrain.org. 2021/1/19Browse.
- ^ "cov-lineages / pangolin: Software package for assigning SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences to global lineages”. Github. 2021/1/2Browse.
- ^ Rambaut, A .; Holmes, EC; O'Toole, Á. (2020). “A dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS-CoV-2 lineages to assist genomic epidemiology”. Nature Microbiology 5 (11): 1403–1407. two:10.1038 / s41564-020-0770-5. PMID 32669681. Cited in Alm et al.
- ^ "Lineages”. Cov-lineages.org. 2020/12/24Browse.
- ^ "Addendum: A dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS-CoV-2 lineages to assist genomic epidemiology". Nature Microbiology (September 2020, 7). two:10.1038 / s41564-021-00872-5. 2021/3/3Browse.
- ^ "[Illustration] New coronavirus mutant strain, new name of WHO". AFPBB News. (February 2021, 6) 2021/6/4Browse.
- ^ “New corona mutant strain, using new name, Chief Cabinet Secretary Kato”. Current affairs dot comJiji Press. (October 2021, 6) 2021/6/1Browse.
- ^ Contributor, IDSA (February 2021, 2). “COVID "Mega-variant" and eight criteria for a template to assess all variants" (English). Science Speaks: Global ID News. 2021/2/20Browse.
- ^ "Variants: distribution of cases data". GOV.UK (September 2021, 1). 2021/2/19Browse. “SARS-CoV-2 variants, if considered to have concerning epidemiological, immunological, or pathogenic properties, are raised for formal investigation. At this point they are designated Variant Under Investigation (VUI) with a year, month, and number. Following a risk assessment with the relevant expert committee, they may be designated Variant of Concern (VOC) ”
- ^ "CanCOGeN Interim Recommendations for Naming, Identifying, and Reporting SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern". CanCOGeN (nccid.ca) (September 2021, 1). 2021/2/25Browse.
- ^ CDC (January 2020, 2). “Cases, Data, and Surveillance" (English). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021/3/16Browse.
- ^ "Detection of new SARS-CoV-2 variants related to mink". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (September 2020, 11). 2020/11/12Browse.
- ^ Larsen, Helle Daugaard; Fonager, Jannik; Lomholt, Frederikke Kristensen; Dalby, Tine; Benedetti, Guido; Kristensen, Brian; Urth, Tinna Ravnholt; Rasmussen, Morten et al. (2021-02-04). “Preliminary report of an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in mink and mink farmers associated with community spread, Denmark, June to November 2020”. Eurosurveillance 26 (5). two:10.2807 / 1560-7917.ES.2021.26.5.210009. ISSN 1025-496X. PMC: 7863232. PMID 33541485.
- ^ “Covid: Ireland, Italy, Belgium and Netherlands ban flights from UK”. BBC News(July 2020, 12)
- ^ Chand, Meera; Hopkins, Susan; Dabrera, Gavin; Achison, Christina; Barclay, Wendy; Ferguson, Neil; Volz, Erik; Loman, Nick et al. (21 December 2020). Investigation of novel SARS-COV-2 variant: Variant of Concern 202012 01/XNUMX (Report). 2020/12/23Browse..
- ^ "PHE investigating a novel strain of COVID-19”. Public Health England (PHE) (December 2020, 12). 2021/3/11Browse.
- ^ Rambaut, Andrew; Loman, Nick; Pybus, Oliver; Barclay, Wendy; Barrett, Jeff; Carabelli, Alesandro; Connor, Tom; Peacock, Tom; L. Robertson, David; Vol, Erik (2020). Preliminary genomic characterization of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in the UK defined by a novel set of spike mutations (Report). Written on behalf of COVID-19 Genomics Consortium UK 2020/12/20Browse..
- ^ Kupferschmidt, Kai (December 2020, 12). “Mutant coronavirus in the United Kingdom sets off alarms but its importance remains unclear" (English). Science Mag. 2020/12/21Browse.
- ^ "New evidence on VUI-202012 / 01 and review of the public health risk assessment". khub.net (September 2020, 12). 2021/3/11Browse.
- ^ "COG-UK Showcase Event --YouTube”. YouTube. 2020/12/25Browse.
- ^ "Estimated transmissibility and severity of novel SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern 202012 01/XNUMX in England”. CMMID Repository (December 2020, 12). 2021/1/24Browse.
Cited in European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) (January 2021, 1). “Risk related to the spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in the EU / EEA – first update”. Stockholm: ECDC. 2021/1/24Browse.
- ^ Peter Horby, Catherine Huntley, Nick Davies, John Edmunds, Neil Ferguson, Graham Medley, Andrew Hayward, Muge Cevik, Calum Semple (February 2021, 2).NERVTAG paper on COVID-19 variant of concern B.1.1.7: NERVTAG update note on B.1.1.7 severity (2021-02-11)". www.gov.uk. 2021/3/11Browse.
- ^ Mandavilli, Apoorva (March 2021, 3). “In Oregon, Scientists Find a Virus Variant With a Worrying Mutation --In a single sample, geneticists discovered a version of the coronavirus first identified in Britain with a mutation originally reported in South Africa.”. The New York Times 2021/3/6Browse.
- ^ Chen, Rita E. (4 March 2021). “Resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants to neutralization by monoclonal and serum-derived polyclonal antibodies”. Nature Medicine. two:10.1038 / s41591-021-01294-w 2021/3/6Browse..
- ^ "B.1.1.7 Lineage with S: E484K Report". outbreak.info (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/7Browse.
- ^ a b "Detection of SARS-CoV-2 P681H Spike Protein Variant in Nigeria" (English). Virological (September 2020, 12). 2021/1/1Browse.
- ^ “Queensland travelers have hotel quarantine extended after Russian variant of coronavirus detected” (English). www.abc.net.au(July 2021, 3) 2021/3/3Browse.
- ^ "Variants of concern or under investigation: data up to 3 March 2021". www.gov.uk (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/5Browse.
- ^ "Latest update: New Variant Under Investigation designated in the UK". www.gov.uk (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/5Browse.
- ^ a b c d "South Africa announces a new coronavirus variant". The New York Times (September 2020, 12). 2020/12/20Browse.
- ^ a b "South Africa coronavirus: Second wave fueled by new strain, teen'rage festivals'". The Washington Post (September 2020, 12). 2020/12/20Browse.
- ^ Mkhize, Dr Zwelini (December 2020, 12), “Update on Covid-19 (18th December 2020)” (Press Release), South Africa 2020/12/23Browse, "Our clinicians have also warned us that things have changed and that younger, previously healthy people are now becoming very sick."
- ^ Abdool Karim (December 2020, 12). “The 2nd Covid-19 wave in South Africa: Transmissibility & a 501.V2 variant, 11th slide”. Www.scribd.com. 2021/3/11Browse.
- ^ "Statement of the WHO Working Group on COVID-19 Animal Models (WHO-COM) about the UK and South African SARS-CoV-2 new variants". who (WHO) (April 2020, 12). 2020/12/23Browse.
- ^ “Novel mutation combination in spike receptor binding site” (Press release), GISAID, (March 2020, 12) 2020/12/23Browse.
- ^ a b c “New California Variant May Be Driving Virus Surge There, Study Suggests”. New York Times(July 2021, 1)
- ^ “Local COVID-19 Strain Found in Over One-Third of Los Angeles Patients” (Press Release), California: Cedars Sinai Medical Center, (January 2021, 1) 2021/3/3Browse.
- ^ a b "B.1.429". Rambaut Group, University of Edinburgh. PANGO Lineages (February 2021, 2). 2021/2/16Browse.
- ^ a b "B.1.429 Lineage Report". . outbreak.info (February 2021, 2). 2021/2/16Browse.
- ^ "COVID-19 Variant First Found in Other Countries and States Now Seen More Frequently in California". www.cdph.ca.gov. 2021/1/30Browse.
- ^ Weise, Karen Weintraub and Elizabeth. “New strains of COVID swiftly moving through the US need careful watch, scientists say" (English). USA TODAY. 2021/1/30Browse.
- ^ "Delta-PCR-testen"[The Delta PCR Test] (Danish). Statens Serum Institut (February 2021, 2). 2021/2/27Browse.
- ^ a b "GISAID hCOV19 Variants (see menu option'G / 484K.V3 (B.1.525)')". www.gisaid.org. 2021/3/4Browse.
- ^ a b "Status for udvikling af SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) i Danmark"[Status of development of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) in Denmark] (Danish). Statens Serum Institut (February 2021, 2). 2021/2/27Browse.
- ^ "Varianten van het coronavirus SARS-CoV-2[Variants of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2] (Dutch). Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, RIVM (February 2021, 2). 2021/2/16Browse.
- ^ “A coronavirus variant with a mutation that'likely helps it escape'antibodies is already in at least 11 countries, including the US”.Business Insider. (February 2021, 2) 2021/2/16Browse.
- ^ “En ny variant av koronaviruset er oppdaget i Norge. Hva vet vi om den?” (Norwegian). Aftenposten. (February 2021, 2) 2021/2/18Browse.
- ^ Cullen, Paul (February 2021, 2). “Coronavirus: Variant discovered in UK and Nigeria found in State for first time”. The Irish Times 2021/2/25Browse. Gataveckaite, Gabija (February 2021, 2). “First Irish case of B1525 strain of Covid-19 confirmed as R number increases”. 2021/2/25Browse. McGlynn, Michelle (February 2021, 2). “Nphet confirm new variant B1525 detected in Ireland as 35 deaths and 613 cases confirmed”. 2021/2/25Browse.
- ^ “A New Coronavirus Variant Is Spreading in New York, Researchers Report”. The New York Times(July 2021, 2)
- ^ "PANGO lineages". cov-lineages.org. 2021/4/18Browse.
- ^ a b “Coronavirus | Indian'double mutant' strain named B.1.617” (English). The Hindu(July 2021, 4)
- ^ “India's variant-fuelled second wave coincided with spike in infected flights landing in Canada”.. (January 2021, 4) 2021/4/10Browse.
- ^ "Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 --11 May 2021". World Health Organization (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/12Browse.
- ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/16Browse.
- ^ Di Giacomo, Simone; Mercatelli, Daniele; Rakhimov, Amir; Giorgi, Federico M. (2021). “Preliminary report on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike mutation T478K”. Journal of Medical Virology. two:10.1002 / jmv.27062. PMC: 8242375. PMID 33951211.
- ^ Haseltine WA. An Indian SARS-CoV-2 Variant Lands In California. More Danger Ahead? Forbes.com, Apr 12, 2021, accessed 14 April 2021
- ^ “Confirmed cases of COVID-19 variants identified in UK (see: Thursday 15 April / New Variant Under Investigation (VUI) designated)”(July 2021, 4) 2021/4/16Browse.
- ^ "Confirmed cases of COVID-19 variants identified in UK (see: Two VUIs added to B.1.617 group)". www.gov.uk (September 2021, 4). 2021/5/1Browse.
- ^ "expert reaction to VUI-21APR-02 / B.1.617.2 being classified by PHE as a variant of concern". Science Media Center (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/15Browse.
- ^ a b WHO Aims at "Delta Strain" Mutant Confirmed in India --AFPBB News (June 2021, 6)
- ^ WHO labels a Covid strain in India as a'variant of concern' — here's what we know, CNBC, 11 May 2021.
- ^ WHO says India Covid variant of'global concern', BBC News, 11 May 2021.
- ^ India's second COVID-19 wave, The Wire Science, 22 April 2021.
- ^ "British scientists warn over Indian coronavirus variant". Reuters (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/7Browse.
- ^ "SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern as of 6 May 2021" (English). European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. 2021/5/12Browse.
- ^ New coronavirus variant found in West Bengal www.thehindu.com, accessed 23 April 2021
- ^ What is the new'triple mutant variant' of Covid-19 virus found in Bengal? How bad is it? www.indiatoday.in, accessed 23 April 2021
- ^ PANGO lineages Lineage B.1.618 cov-lineages.org, accessed 23 April 2021
- ^ "Cases, Data, and Surveillance". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2020, 2). 2021/2/19Browse.
- ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Variants". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2020, 1). 2021/2/20Browse.
- ^ “Japan finds new coronavirus variant in travelers from Brazil”. Japan Today (Japan). (January 2021, 1) 2021/1/14Browse.
- ^ Covid-19 Genomics UK Consortium (January 2021, 1). “COG-UK Report on SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations of interest in the UK". www.cogconsortium.uk. 2021/1/25Browse.
- ^ "P.1 report". cov-lineages.org. 2021/2/8Browse.
- ^ "PANGO lineages Lineage P.2". COV lineages. 2021/1/28Browse. “P.2… Alias of B.184.108.40.206, Brazilian lineage”
- ^ a b Voloch, Carolina M .; F, Ronaldo da Silva; Almeida, Luiz GP de; Cardoso, Cynthia C .; Brustolini, Otavio J .; Gerber, Alexandra L .; Guimarães, Ana Paula de C .; Mariani, Diana et al. (2020-12-26). “Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil” (English). Le Phare de l'Esperanto. two:10.1101/2020.12.23.20248598. ISSN 2024-8598 .
- ^ Voloch, Carolina M. (March 2021, 3). “Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil”. Journal of Virology (ASM). two:10.1128 / JVI.00119-21 2021/3/7Browse.
- ^ Nascimento, Valdinete (February 2021, 2). “COVID-19 epidemic in the Brazilian state of Amazonas was driven by long-term persistence of endemic SARS-CoV-2 lineages and the recent emergence of the new Variant of Concern P.1”. Research Square. two:10.21203 / rs.3.rs-275494 / v1. 2021/3/2Browse.
- ^ Andreoni, Manuela; Londoño, Ernesto; Casado, Leticia (March 2021, 3). “Brazil's Covid Crisis Is a Warning to the Whole World, Scientists Say – Brazil is seeing a record number of deaths, and the spread of a more contagious coronavirus variant that may cause reinfection.”. The New York Times 2021/3/3Browse.
- ^ (September 2021, 3). “Virus Variant in Brazil Infected Many Who Had Already Recovered From Covid-19 – The first detailed studies of the so-called P.1 variant show how it devastated a Brazilian city. Now scientists want to know what it will do elsewhere.”. The New York Times 2021/3/3Browse.
- ^ Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo; Lam, Evan; Denis, Kerri (February 2021, 2). “Circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants escape neutralization by vaccine-induced humoral immunity”.medrxiv. two:10.1101/2021.02.14.21251704 2021/3/3Browse.
- ^ Gaier, Rodrigo (March 2021, 3). “Exclusive: Oxford study indicates AstraZeneca effective against Brazil variant, source says”. Reuters () 2021/3/9Browse.
- ^ “Exclusive: Oxford study indicates AstraZeneca effective against Brazil variant, source says”. Reuters (). (March 2021, 3) 2021/3/9Browse.
- ^ Simões, Eduardo; Gaier, Rodrigo (March 2021, 3). “CoronaVac e Oxford são eficazes contra variante de Manaus, dizem laboratórios” (Portuguese). News. Reuters Brazil 2021/3/9Browse.
- ^ News, ABS-CBN (February 2021, 2). “DOH confirms detection of 2 SARS-CoV-2 mutations in Region 7" (English). ABS-CBN News. 2021/3/13Browse.
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Santos, Eimor (March 2021, 3). “DOH reports COVID-19 variant'unique' to PH, first case of Brazil variant”. CNN Philippines 2021/3/17Browse.
- ^ News, ABS-CBN (February 2021, 3). “DOH confirms new COVID-19 variant first detected in PH, first case of Brazil variant" (English). ABS-CBN News. 2021/3/13Browse.
- ^ “PH discovered new COVID-19 variant earlier than Japan, expert clarifies”. CNN Philippines(July 2021, 3) 2021/3/17Browse.
- ^ “Covid 19 coronavirus: Ultra-contagious Lambda variant detected in Australia”
- ^ a b “COVID-19: Lambda variant may be more resistant to vaccines than other strains”
- ^ “Lambda variant: What is the new strain of Covid detected in the UK?”
- ^ a b c Maison, David P .; Ching, Lauren L .; Shikuma, Cecilia M .; Nerurkar, Vivek R. (7 January 2021). “Genetic Characteristics and Phylogeny of 969-bp S Gene Sequence of SARS-CoV-2 from Hawaii Reveals the Worldwide Emerging P681H Mutation” (English). bioRxiv: The Preprint Server for Biology: 2021.01.06.425497. two:10.1101/2021.01.06.425497. PMC: 7805472. PMID 33442699 2021/2/11Browse.. Available under CC BY 4.0.
- ^ a b c Mandavilli, Apoorva; Mueller, Benjamin (March 2021, 3). “Why Virus Variants Have Such Weird Names”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 2021/3/2Browse.
- ^ Schraer, Rachel (July 2020, 7). “Coronavirus: Are mutations making it more infectious?”. BBC News 2021/1/3Browse.
- ^ “New, more infectious strain of COVID-19 now dominates global cases of virus: study” (English). medicalxpress.com 2020/8/16Browse.
- ^ Korber, Bette; Fischer, Will M .; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Yoon, Hyejin; Theiler, James; Abfalterer, Werner et al. (2 July 2020). “Tracking Changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike: Evidence that D614G Increases Infectivity of the COVID-19 Virus” (English). Cell 182 (4): 812–827.e19. two:10.1016 / j.cell.2020.06.043. ISSN 0092-8674 . PMC: 7332439. PMID 32697968.
- ^ "SARS-CoV-2 D614G variant exhibits efficient replication ex vivo and transmission in vivo". science.sciencemag.org (September 2020, 12). 2021/1/14Browse. “An emergent Asp614 → Gly (D614G) substitution in the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 strains that is now the most prevalent form globally”
- ^ a b COG-UK update on SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations of special interest: Report 1 (Report). COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium (COG-UK). (20 December 2020). P. 7 2020/12/31Browse..
- ^ Butowt, R .; Bilinska, K .; Von Bartheld, C. S. (2020-10-21). “Chemosensory Dysfunction in COVID-19: Integration of Genetic and Epidemiological Data Points to D614G Spike Protein Variant as a Contributing Factor”. ACS Chem Neurosci. 11 (20): 3180–3184. two:10.1021 / acschemneuro.0c00596. PMC: 7581292. PMID 32997488.
- ^ Greenwood, Michael (January 2021, 1). “"What Mutations of SARS-CoV-2 are Causing Concern?"] ” News Medical Lifesciences. 2021/1/16Browse.
- ^ "escape mutation”. (June 2012, 10). 2021/2/19Browse.
- ^ Wise, Jacqui (5 February 2021). “Covid-19: The E484K mutation and the risks it poses”. 372: n359. two:10.1136 / bmj.n359. ISSN 1756-1833 . PMID 33547053.
- ^ "Technical briefing 5". Gov.uk. Public Health England. P. 17. 2021/2/2Browse.
- ^ Greaney, Allison (January 4, 2021). Comprehensive mapping of mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain that affect recognition by polyclonal human serum antibodies. two:10.1101/2020.12.31.425021 2021/1/25Browse..
- ^ Rettner, Rachael (February 2021, 2). “UK coronavirus variant develops vaccine-evading mutation --In a handful of instances, the UK coronavirus variant has developed a mutation called E484K, which may impact vaccine effectiveness.”. 2021/2/2Browse.
- ^ Achenbach, Joel; Booth, William (February 2021, 2). “Worrisome coronavirus mutation seen in UK variant and in some US samples”. The Washington Post 2021/2/2Browse.
- ^ "An Indian city locks down after receiving a report of a highly infectious new coronavirus mutant "N440K", but experts point out that "the virus is on the decline"". 2021/6/26Browse.
- ^ "Researchers Discover New Variant of COVID-19 Virus in Columbus, Ohio". wexnermedical.osu.edu (September 2021, 1). 2021/1/16Browse.
- ^ Tu, Huolin; Avenarius, Matthew R .; Kubatko, Laura; Hunt, Matthew; Pan, Xiaokang; Ru, Peng; Garee, Jason; Thomas, Keelie et al. (26 January 2021). “Distinct Patterns of Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Variants including N501Y in Clinical Samples in Columbus Ohio” (English). bioRxiv: 2021.01.12.426407. two:10.1101/2021.01.12.426407.
- ^ "University of Graz". www.uni-graz.at. 2021/2/22Browse.
- ^ "Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (formerly known as Wuhan coronavirus and 2019-nCoV) --what we can find out on a structural bioinformatics level" (English). Innophore (September 2020, 1). 2021/2/22Browse.
- ^ Singh, Amit; Steinkellner, Georg; Köchl, Katharina; Gruber, Karl; Gruber, Christian C. (2021-02-22). “Serine 477 plays a crucial role in the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the human receptor ACE2” (English). Scientific Reports 11 (1): 4320. two:10.1038 / s41598-021-83761-5. ISSN 2045-2322 .
- ^ "BioNTech: We aspire to individualize cancer medicine" (English). BionTech. 2021/2/22Browse.
- ^ Schrörs, Barbara; Gudimella, Ranganath; Bukur, Thomas; Rösler, Thomas; Löwer, Martin; Sahin, Ugur (2021-02-04). “Large-scale analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-glycoprotein mutants demonstrates the need for continuous screening of virus isolates” (English). bioRxiv. two:10.1101/2021.02.04.429765.
- ^ “Study shows P681H mutation is becoming globally prevalent among SARS-CoV-2 sequences” (English). News-Medical.net(July 2021, 1) 2021/2/11Browse.
- ^ Smout, Alistair (January 2021, 1). “Britain to help other countries track down coronavirus variants". www.reuters.com. 2021/1/27Browse.
- ^ Donnelly, Laura (January 2021, 1). “UK to help sequence mutations of Covid around world to find dangerous new variants". www.telegraph.co.uk. 2021/1/28Browse.
- ^ Kupferschmidt, Kai (December 2020, 12). “UK variant puts spotlight on immunocompromised patients' role in the COVID-19 pandemic”. Science
- ^ Sutherland, Stephani (February 2021, 2). “COVID Variants May Arise in People with Compromised Immune Systems”. Scientific American
- ^ McCarthy, Kevin R .; Rennick, Linda J .; Nambulli, Sham; Robinson-McCarthy, Lindsey R .; Bain, William G .; Haidar, Ghady; Duprex, W. Paul (3 Feb 2021). “Recurrent deletions in the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein drive antibody escape”. Science. two:10.1126 / science.abf6950.
- Variant of concern (VOC)
- --A known bat vector virus with the closest gene sequence to SARS-CoV-2
|ScholiaToMutant strain of SARS coronavirus 2 (Q104450895)I have a profile about.|
- Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants(English) --World Health Organization (WHO)
- Variants and Genomic Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2(English) --Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- PANGO lineages(English)
- About New Coronavirus Infections -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- Press Release on Coronavirus Infectious Disease Mutant Strain -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- About new coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) related information --National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID)
- New mutant strain of new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which is concerned about increased infectivity / transmission and changes in antigenicity -National Institute of Infectious Diseases