Photo: Constitution of Japan, preamble
-Thinking about Constitution Memorial Day- Isn't "self-restraint" meaning "voluntary judgment" becoming "peer pressure" in Japan? ...
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The choice between "freedom and safety" has been debated for a long time, but the fear that the new coronavirus gives to the people is probably "excessive freedom restriction" because it emphasizes "safety". There is a risk of tilting.
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According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, there are some fears that are not concrete and have clear objects.worry".In addition, the ones that are not in a concrete situation and have no clear target are "不安".
When positioning a state of strong fear of a particular situation or thing as a disease (such as when the person feels inconvenient),PhobiaSay.PhobiaCognitive behavioral therapyIt may be possible to treat by such as.
Britannica International EncyclopediaAccording to, fear is typicalEmotionIn one of the harmful situationsDangerIt is said that it occurs when it is difficult to effectively deal with such a situation..Hayao Kawai"Human is his ownView of life,View of the world,システムI live while having, but something that shakes it somewhere. "DefinitionAfter that, it seems that it is better not to be afraid, and it is safe to continue such a state, but it is the same as dead.Fear always comes into the experience of living.existIf you are good at it, new things will be opened, but if you are not good at it, it will be catastrophic.In other words, fear is just the boundary between the two.Furthermore, for example, to the object of fear, "deadHowever, for those who have a strong mood for death, it cannot be scared, and as they get closer to it, the boundary between life and death disappears, and the fear disappears.If that happens,LivingHe states that neither death nor death is of any use.Modern people have very little inherent fear, and modern people are in a very state of state.ambivalenceIs supposed to be.
Feared state, object of fear
In Western Europe around the 14th and 18th centuriesPlagueI was very afraid to get (black death). In France at the end of the 18th century, it was unilaterally regarded as an "opposition" by Robespierre and others.ExecutionI was afraid to beFear politics).19st century Of英国The most feared thing in was forgotten by people, dead but not mourned by anyone,povertyDie in the state, finallyDissectionIt was to be put on a table.20st centurySo many peoplePediatric paralysisI was afraid to suffer from the illness of dying a part of my body and getting stuck for the rest of my life.2001th of February 9LaterAmerica(OrEurope) Then,terrorismThe fear of was widespread.
Signs and symptoms
In a state of fear, a person reacts in various ways, including:.
- pupilExpansion (visual response to fear)
- lungBronchiole dilation (increasing oxygen absorption)
- blood pressureとHeartbeatSoaring (supplying energy to the brain and muscles)
- liver OfglycogenDisassembly (increases instantaneous power)
- ア ド レ ナ リ ンLarge release of blood flow including (improvement of physiological defense)
- spleenContraction (preparation to supply white blood cells)
- bladderとcolonPreparation to empty (preparation for energy consumption)
- Constriction of capillaries in the digestive system (concentrates blood flow to the muscle side)
- Standing hair (GoosebumpPhenomenon that hair stands upright, such as standing up.It is thought that it is a remnant of the appearance of the body to the enemy)
The reaction to fearLimbic system OftonsilIt is linked to the activity, which is a relatively old part of the function of the brain, and the warning issued by the amygdalaCentral nervous system-Autonomic nervesPromotes various physiological responses to..Patients with amygdala abnormalities do not feel fear.
Fear can make humans frightened and unilaterally obey the wishes of others.On the other hand, humans are also violent and can fight for their lives.
Psychological explanation / research
PsychologyIn, remembering the object of fear isFear conditioning (en: fear conditioning) ”ResearchHas been done.The first one was Watson1920Went to (en: Little Albert experiment) So, in this study, 11 months oldAn infantSucceeded in conditioned the laboratory white rat to be frightening.
Specific subjects (eg, by study)Animal, Height) is another object (eg, height)flower,(I.e.) Has been found to be more likely to cause fear.It is also easier to instill fear in these subjects in the subject.
Cognitive behavioral therapyHas succeeded in helping people overcome their fears.Forgetting and deleting memories is not easy, so the approach of repeatedly confronting people with their fears is aggressive and more successful.By confronting one's fears in a safe way, one can suppress the memories and stimuli that cause them..
Another psychotherapySystematic desensitizationIt aims to completely eliminate or replace the fear with an aversive reaction to it.Behavior therapyIt is one of.Through the reactionRelaxationWill be replaced by this.Through this treatment, muscle tension is weakened, and deep breathing techniques can help relieve tension.
Finding peace in religion is another way to deal with your fears.For exampleAfter deathHaving something to answer questions about your fears, such as what happens to you or the world after death, helps your fears of death.Having an answer reduces the room for uncertainty.Religion does not ignore one's fears, but provides a way to understand and feel..
"I was corneredmouseIs a good example of a state of fear.The mousePredationSomeone tries to escape (until they are finally cornered), but when they are cornered, they turn into a warlike attitude and fight back until they can escape or are caught.[Source required].
Joseph LeDouxAccording to the study of, the amygdala is also a part that consciously stores memories such as fear, threat, and danger.Fight or run away or reactControls conditional fear such as.MostvertebrateTocerebellumIt is considered that all the cerebellar tonsils of these animals have the same function..
- ^ goo dictionary "fear"
- ^ a b c d Britannica International Encyclopedia, [Fear, fear]
- ^ Hayao Kawai "Dialogue Life and Death" (Daiwa Shobo, February 2006, 2)
- ^ a b c Donna Hart, Robert W. Sussman "Human was eaten and evolved" Translated by Nobuko Ito Kagaku-Dojin 2007 ISBN 9784759810820 pp. 104-108.
- ^ A woman who doesn't feel any fear, a hint for PTSD treatment --AFP BB News December 2010, 12
- ^ Sandi, C. (2011). “Healing anxiety disorders with glucocorticoids”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (16): 6343–344. bibcode: 2011 PNAS ..108.6343S. two:10.1073 / pnas.1103410108. PMC: 3080972. PMID 21482789.
- ^ a b Kaplan, JS; Tolin, DF (2011). “Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: Theoretical mechanisms of exposure and treatment strategies”. Psychiatric Times 28 (9): 33–37 .
- ^ Travis, John (2004). “Fear not: Scientists are learning how people can unlearn fear”. Science News 165 (3): 42–44. two:10.2307/4014925. JSTOR 4014925.
- ^ “Cure Your Fear – Phobia Treatment” (English). FearOf.net 2018th of February 11Browse.
New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important..
In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in. (Human) Coronavirus against humanityEndemic diseaseIs believed to becoldCauses (common cold) -like symptoms,Is prevalent as a serious infection, often accompanied by pneumonia.
The following viruses were positioned as new coronaviruses before their official names were given.
|Formal name||Other names||Susceptible host[† 1]||First discovery location (discovery year)||Infection|
|SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2]||2019-Ncov|
SARS virus 2
Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)
|Bat,Scale armor||Chugoku-Wuhan(2019)||New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3]|
|MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4]||Middle east virus|
Camel flu virus
|camel,Bat||Saudi Arabia-Jeddah(2012)||Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).|
|Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)||New Haven Virus||A mouse||Hong Kong (2005)||Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia|
|SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2]||SARS virus||Chinese cabbage,Bat||Chugoku-Foshan(2002)||Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)|
All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.
Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention of a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOIt complies with the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by.  
- 2002 SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) -From November 2002 to July 11Severe acute respiratory syndrome The virus that causes (SARS).
- 2005 Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)
- 2012 MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) -In July 2012Erasmus University Medical CenterIt was originally called HCoV-EMC (Human coronavirus- Erasmus Medical Center) because the coronavirus was isolated in.. Originally called "new coronavirus"But in May 2013International Virus Classification Committee PathogenNamed "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)"Received WHO decisionMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare named the virus MERS (Mars) coronavirus and named the infectious disease.Middle East respiratory syndrome Decided to be (MERS).
- SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)- 2019 New Coronavirus.. The first infected person appeared in November 2019, and the new model was launched in January 11.CoronavirusWas confirmed.
- ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
- ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
- ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
- ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020th of February 5Browse.
- ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020th of February 5Browse.
- ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News .
- ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
- ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
- ^ a b "What is the new coronavirus?”. Joetsu Community Medical Center Hospital. 2021th of February 5Browse.
- ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
- ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
- ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
- ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301.
- ^ Host jump capability may not persist
- ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
- ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
- ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013