The effect of calling for "self-restraint of support along the road" is the effect of the Olympic marathon test tournament.
If you write the contents roughly
Audience: "It's a little disappointing to think that the Olympics will be held quietly." At the water supply station, water-containing sponges were eliminated and PET bottles were used instead of paper cups.
"Hokkaido / Sapporo Marathon Festival 2021" was a test tournament for the Tokyo Olympics Marathon.Sapporo city and tournament actual ... → Continue reading
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About 9% of plastic bottlesBeverageUsed for containers.other,seasoning-CosmeticsIt is also used in.Until thenガ ラ スbottle,canSome of the things that were put in etc. were replaced with PET bottles.Also called a pet.The above isJapanIn English-speaking countries, the difference in materials is usually not subdivided by the name and pronunciation in.PEBottles andPVC PET, which is the material that makes up PET bottles, is usually called a plastic bottle (indistinguishable from a bottle) in English-speaking countries.PeteOr as it isPTeeRead).
1967,DuPontAmerican scientist(British: Nathaniel Wyeth） soda drinkStarted developing plastic containers for PET bottles in 1973.PatentWas acquired.DuPont PET bottles in 1974Pepsi ColaIt was adopted as a beverage container in Japan and became the world's first application example of PET bottles..
Initially in JapanFood Sanitation ActBecause there was no description of PET resin in, it could not be used for soft drinks.. In 1977KikkomanとYoshino Industry soy sauceIt was approved to be used for beverages in 1982, and from that yearJapan Coca-Cola(Nationwide since 1983), since 1985Kirin Beverage(at that timeKirin Beer) Is 1.5literReleased beverages in PET bottles.Since then, it has been used by many manufacturers, and PET bottles have replaced large soft drink containers of 1 liter or more, which were mainly in glass bottles.1996Has lifted the ban on small sizes of 500 ml or less due to the relaxation of self-regulation.
Form of container
polyethylene terephthalate(PET: Polyethyleneterephthalate) is the main raw material..Polyethylene terephthalateoilOf originTerephthalic acidとethylene glycolThe high temperature and highvacuumBelowChemical reactionIt is a resin.
In addition, of the PET bottlecapIs polyolefin-basedpolypropylene,polyethyleneMade of..Also, the label ispolystyrene,PolyolefinMade of polypropylene or polyethylene.RecyclingBeverages in PET bottles without labels are also on sale due to environmental considerations such as ease of use and reduction of the amount of resources used..
PET bottles and other plastic bottles can be difficult to distinguish by appearance.. For this reason, in Japan, designated PET bottles (designated soft drinks, soy sauce, alcoholic beverages) are marked with a triangular identification mark..
Easy to color世界Then colored PET bottles are not uncommon.However, with regard to bottles produced in Japan, with the revision of the voluntary design guidelines of the PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council in 2001, colored bottles were completely banned and all were made colorless and transparent... White fiber made from colorless plastic bottles can be used as a raw material for clothing, but the demand for colored fibers made from colored plastic bottles is limited and this rule has been established..Colored bottles are in circulationCountryThen, a process of selecting colorless and colored is required..
As a method of making a colorless and transparent object look colored, there are a method of using the color of the liquid inside and a method of attaching a colored label around the plastic bottle.
Although not officially defined, it can be roughly classified into the following categories.
- Pressure-resistant PET bottle: Convex hemispherical PET bottle (for conventional and carbonated beverages)
- Appeared in 1982For early carbonated drinksPET bottles. Since there was no technology to process the bottom surface into a petaloid shape (described later) like the present, it was swollen into a convex hemisphere,ResinI made a base cup made of adhesive on the bottom and made it stand. The capacity was only 1.5L bottle.
- Pressure-resistant PET bottle: Petaloid-shaped PET bottle (for carbonated beverages)
- Cola,CiderSuch assoda drinkIs used for. A petaloid is a petal that is self-supporting with a five-legged petaloid... Mouth is transparent.. The bottom surface of a conventional convex hemispherical PET bottle is formed in a petaloid shape so that it stands without a base cup. With the development of this processing technology and deregulation in 1996, small bottles of 500 ml or less were made.
- Heat-resistant pressure plastic bottle: PETALOID plastic bottle (for carbonic acid)
- It is used for carbonated drinks containing fruit juice and can be sterilized with hot water after filling... Mouth is white.
- Heat-resistant PET bottle (for non-carbonated beverages)
- Fruit juice drink,Sports DrinkEtc.Non-carbonated drinkIs used for. Because the contents to be hot-filled are used, the mouth is made of heat-resistant plastic and the mouth is white... The bottom is concave.. Since the pressure is reduced after sealing, it is reinforced by adding unique uneven patterns and corners. Also, by processing a conventional cylinder into a rectangular parallelepiped, the capacity has increased by 3% and the 2L bottle has appeared.
- PET bottle for aseptic filling (for non-carbonated beverages and aseptic filling)
- tea,Sports DrinkEtc.Non-carbonated drinkIs used for. A so-called aseptic filling dedicated bottle that cools the contents liquid at room temperature after sterilization. The bottom is concave and the mouth is transparent.. Since it can be filled at room temperature, the wall thickness is extremely thin compared to other PET bottles. For that reason, unevenness, beads, and panel molding are performed to reinforce.
The shape of PET bottles is also affecting the image of products and the number of sales, and beverage manufacturers in particular are competing against each other.
The capacities of the major PET bottles for beverages distributed in Japan are as follows (Note: The capacity of the PET bottles themselves is not classified, but the content to be put into them is mainly classified).For those that are often seen
mℓ ■-Many hot beverages (orange cap)
mℓ ■-Lots of cold drinks
mℓ ■-Lots of cold drinks
mℓ ■-Lots of iced coffee
ℓ ■(1000 mℓ) --Mainly soy sauce
ℓ ■(1500 mℓ) --Large-capacity version of sparkling beverage
ℓ(1800 mℓ)- mainlyDistilled spirits,Sake,seasoning
ℓ ■(2000 mℓ) --Mainly drinking water,Japanese tea,Oolong TeaLarge-capacity versions of non-carbonated beverages, such as Coca-Cola exist in some areas for carbonated beverages.
ℓ(2700 mℓ)-Mainly shochu,whisky,Wine
ℓ(4000 mℓ)-Mainly shochu and whiskey
ℓ(5000 mℓ)-Mainly shochu
It depends on the application and capacity, but it is usually about 20-50 g.Even a small one weighs about 20-30 g, 350 mLaluminumIt is heavier than the 16 g of a can.Recently, the wall thickness and weight have been reduced, and even with 500 ml, the number of items around 12-15 g is increasing.
As a packaging container, quality maintenance, safety, hygiene, convenience, productability, economy, workability, environmental friendliness, etc. are required... Also, since it is a beverage/liquid food packaging, gas barrier properties, transparency, independence, etc. are particularly required... PET bottles are light, tough and flexible, and have the property of returning to their original state if they have a slight dent. Some PET bottles have characteristics such as heat resistance, pressure resistance, heat pressure resistance, and aseptic filling..
Many PET bottles are PET single layer bottles.. PET resinPolyolefinCompared to resin, it has excellent gas barrier properties, but it is not sufficient and is constant.gasThroughThere is.. Therefore, if stored for a long time, the contentsOxidation, For carbonated drinksCarbonic acidPressure drop,OdorOdor contamination occurs in some environments.Therefore, general metal cansbottleThe expiration date of beverages is one year, while the expiration date of PET bottled beverages is set to six months to nine months.
Gas barrier PET bottles include PET single-layer bottles coated and gas barrier resin (passive barrier material).oxygenThere is a co-injection blow multi-layer bottle using absorbent resin (active barrier material).
ResistanceOrganic solventThe sex is low.alcoholThe concentration is limited to 20%, and if you inject more alcohol concentrationTransesterification reactionTo saySubstitution reactionOccurs.ResistantacidResistancebaseThe sex is very low. However,VinegarDegree ofAcid dissociation constantThen it doesn't matter.However, some grades have high chemical resistance and are used in containers for high-concentration alcohol disinfectants.
Heat and cold resistance
Heat resistanceThe sex is very low. The heat resistance of PET itself is 50℃Degree and midsummerAutomobileIf left inside, it will be deformed.NormalHeat sterilizationIs not suitable forUltrafiltrationAseptic orhigh temperatureShort timeSterilizationAnd (acceptic filling).Even a heat-resistant bottle has a heat resistance of about 85 ° C, but it is barely possible to fill it in a heat-sterilized state.
Cold resistanceIs lower than bottles and cans, but cold resistance as a material is hardly a problem for beverages.Expansion due to freezing of the contents becomes a problem.
In the storage temperature zone (sales temperature zone), PET bottles are divided as follows.
- For standard temperature range
- Normal temperature,RefrigeratedA very common plastic bottle that is sometimes used. The cap color is basically white, but there are no particular restrictions and there are various colors (especially for overseas products such as Volvic).
- For high temperature range
- A PET bottle made on the assumption that the entire PET bottle container will be warmed.It has been improved so that the contents do not deteriorate even at high temperatures. The PET resin itself is oxygen permeable, and when the temperature rises, the permeability further increases, causing oxidative deterioration of the contents.However, in products for high temperature zones, the thickness of the container is increased, and an oxygen blocking layer is placed on the sandwich or DLC on the inner surface.Diamond-like carbon) Oxidative deterioration during heating is prevented by coating treatment.It does not get too hot compared to cans, and even if you hold it directly in your hand, you will not get burned. In 1999SangariaSucceeded in commercializing "warm tea", and since then it has spread rapidly.microwaveSome of them deform in shape when they reach the temperature range until they are heated.Can be stored in the standard temperature range.The color of the cap is orange.
- For freezing temperature range
- In 2003ice crystalsIt was first commercialized in the series. Appeared in response to the need to freeze PET bottled beverages and carry them.freezerIt was made on the assumption that the entire PET bottle will be cooled. We adopted a rectangular PET bottle to withstand the expansion of the content drink due to freezing. The labels and caps on the exterior are also improved and measures against cold are taken.. It can also be stored in the standard temperature range. The cap color is light blue.
For carbonated beverage bottles, round (square) bottles are used to withstand the pressure of carbon dioxide, and the bottom is uneven, and it is reinforced to disperse the pressure of carbon dioxide and withstand the internal pressure. .. The shape of this bottom is called a petaloid shape. Previously the bottom was a convex hemisphere and was covered with a base cup to stand.
The pressure resistance value of carbonated beverage bottles immediately after production is about 16 atm, but the pressure resistance value decreases due to scratches and deterioration over time.
According to the journal "", which is reviewed by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in the United States, PET is used normally.Endocrine disruptorIt has been suggested that it may occur.
Use of container
PET bottles have become the main form of beverage container. Especially small plastic bottlesvending machine,convenience storeIt is widely used because it can be recapped and is convenient to carry..
- Beverage (soft drink)
- Alcoholic beverages
- Sake -There are many 200-300 ml items for returning incense.
- Shochu / Whiskey-Many large bottles of 1.8-5L.
- Shochu High
- Wine -It was considered unsuitable because it has oxygen permeability, but it has been cheap overseas for a long time.Table wineAsahi beer is sold in large 2.7L bottles in Japan as well.In addition, due to the competition for lower prices due to the economic downturn, even Beaujolais Nouveau, which was lifted on November 2009, 11, was temporarily consumed in a short period of time, so PET bottled wine was temporarily sold..
In particular, small PET bottled beverages are often drunk by so-called mouth-drinking, in which the mouth is directly attached to the container...Especially for small PET bottled beverages, which are often swallowed by mouth, it is necessary to consider safety by drinking as soon as possible after opening the bottle, and if it takes time to drink, store in a cold place or transfer to a cup. ing.
Asahi beerAnnounced that it will release Japan's first major PET bottled beer in 2004But internationalEnvironmental protection group OfGreenpeace・ The release was postponed due to environmental criticism from Japan...Although PET bottled beer is sold overseas, Asahi Breweries became isolated because other companies did not follow suit in Japan, and the release notice had to be withdrawn.
Plastic bottlemilkWas not allowed for a long time due to legal regulations, but industry groups included a law amendment aimed at increasing milk consumption.DeregulationIt was recognized in 2006 due to the movement to seek.However, it is said that it will cost billions of yen to install equipment for filling PET bottles with milk, and there are not so many consumer needs, so no manufacturer sells it.On the other hand, milk-based milk coffeeCoconut milkEtc. are recognized, and there are many products.
Manufacture of containers
Molding of containers
injection moldingA test tube-shaped preform (parison) using a machine and stretched the preformBlow moldingMold into a bottle with a machine.For bottles with a white mouth, PET is crystallized by applying heat only to the mouth after preform molding.Husky of Canada for injection molding machines and Siber of France for machines, etc., have a high share of overseas manufacturers in the manufacture of PET bottles in Japan.The reason for crystallizing the mouth part is to prevent the shape from changing due to high temperature during sterilization when filling the contents.The one with a transparent mouth is for aseptic filling.
The method of performing preform molding and blow molding in the same equipment in a series of steps is called the "hot parison method (1 stage method)", and the method of performing it in different equipment is called the "cold parison method (2 stage method)". The cold parison method is a method in which a preform is manufactured in advance and blow molding is performed near a place where a bottle is used, and is suitable for mass production.
Beverage filling method
Non-carbonated beverage filling methods include hot filling, in which heat-resistant bottles are filled and sealed with high-temperature contents to sterilize, and aseptic filling, in which aseptic filling bottles are filled at room temperature in a clean room..
Disposal and reuse of containers
Disposal (discharging) method
Although the disposal (discharging) method differs depending on each local government,
- Use (drink) all contents.
- Lightly rinse the inside with water.
- Remove the cap.
- Discharge according to the method of the local government,Supermarket,convenience storePut it in the plastic bottle collection box.
That point is common.
Regarding the label, the area to put out after removing and the area to put out without removingThe area is divided by and, and the area that is put out after crushing it with hands or feet etc. and the area that is put out without crushingIt is divided by and.
There is some dirt lefttobaccoIf the cigarette butts are put in, it may not be recyclable. For caps and labels, take the specified disposal (discharging) method.
Relationship with 3R
For plastic packaging materials such as PET bottles, packaging design based on 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) is performed..
Business associations are working to reduce weight and thickness in the manufacturing stage.
Production is smallReuseThere are also possible PET bottles.Reuse PET bottles in 1986West GermanyIntroduced inNordicIt is also implemented in various countries, but Germany is the only major system... Originally, not only plastic bottles but also returnable containers were widely adopted in Germany, and there are over 100 types... In Germany, the number of returnable PET bottles peaked in 2003 and has decreased, and the number of one-way PET bottles has increased... In Japan, plastic bottles are rarely reused (recycled) (there are examples of demonstration experiments on the sale of mineral water in returnable PET bottles)..
On the other hand, ordinary PET bottles (one-way PET bottles) are also used in various containers for storing and carrying beverages made at home. However, since it is a disposable container, it is not suitable for long-term use. Also, if hot contents are placed in a non-heat-resistant aseptic filling bottle at home, there is a risk that the contents will overflow due to shrinkage... Since 2011, multifunctional water bottles have been introduced, and the share of water bottles is expanding again. According to a survey conducted by Greenpeace Japan, an international environmental NGO, one out of every two people in Tokyo owns my bottle..
For secondary use at homeScissors,cutter knifeUsingWorkmanshipAndaccessory case,BowlIt may be used as. In addition, some of them can be used as hangers by fitting them into bottle caps... other than thisPlastic bottle rocketAs,teaching materialAlso used as.
In addition, add waterEntranceBy putting it firstCatInformation that it would be avoided was distributed and became popular, but the effect is not certain (""#Plastic bottle incidents/accidentsWill be described later).
- Chemical recycling: High molecularThemonomerIt is chemically decomposed to return it to its original state. A typical example is one that re-polymerizes after that and aims to recycle pets to pets. However, the actual implementation of monomerization has problems of cost and input energy.TeijinIn 2003, put into practical use a facility that manufactures PET bottles from PET bottles.However, due to problems such as cost, production at the factory was stopped in July 2005 (for details, see ".#Challenges of recycling"reference).
- Material recycling: The collected waste PET bottles are crushed and washed to remove foreign substances such as metals, and then made into flakes and pellets.thisPET materialA sheet of egg packs orpolyesterRemanufactured as fiber.
- Mechanical recycling: A method of recovering physical properties such as viscosity (IV value) as a polymer compound by a chemical reaction called recondensation polymerization reaction, instead of decomposing to the molecular level as in chemical recycling.After crushing and washing waste PET bottles, if the flakes are treated in a vacuum at a high temperature of 200 ° C or higher for a certain period of time, the molecular chains cut by ultraviolet rays or heat are recombined and the original physical properties are restored.
- Thermal recycling: The collected waste PET bottles are burned and used as a heat source.Heat recovery,Power generation, RDF and RPFWaste solid fuelThere is. I don't reuse the material,Thermal power generationIt has the effect of indirectly reducing the amount of crude oil consumed.
- Cross-border recycling: The PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council has set the actual recovery rate including estimated overseas exports, and although it is not included in the amount of recycled products, waste PET bottles exported from JapanPeople's Republic of ChinaThe status of recycling in Japan is posted in the annual report, and it is taken as a fact that this is also recycling, but due to the ban on acceptance in China, the situation is overflowing in Japan.
The breakdown of the business model of PET bottle to PET bottle was pointed out in the following case.2003, Teijin Group subsidiaryTeijin FiberTokuyama Factory (Yamaguchi Shunan City), the first mass production plant in Japan to recycle plastic bottles from waste plastic bottles was launched.2005After July, the factory stopped production due to difficulty in procuring raw materials due to soaring prices of waste plastic bottlesAfter the demand for heat-resistant bottles that had been recycled and supplied fell,2008Withdrew from the PET bottle recycling business in November.Recycling from PET bottles has been integrated into a high-value-added fiber recycling business..
2006After the second halfCrude oil priceBy highPET resinDue to the soaring price of raw materials, waste plastic bottles can be sold for a fee, and at the municipal level, they are being handed over to bidders (contractors other than the specified business operators specified in the Container Recycling Law) and export intermediaries. Changes have been pointed out.
- 2018The total commission for remanufacturing is JPY 2. In the past, the commission was 8,909 yen in 361, but it has decreased sharply to about 2002/89 due to the impact of the export of waste pets to China and others... The unit price for remanufacturing contracts, which used to exceed 100 yen per kg, was only 2020 yen in 3.2.Regarding bidding, the successful bid unit price of the re-commercialization company turned negative on a weighted average from 2006, and it is minus 2018 yen in 36.7..
- 2003There were 2,348 waste plastic bottle trading municipalities in Japan, but peaked this year.2007By then 1,082 municipalities were depressed. And2009In 1,211, the number of municipalities increased to 2018 and remained around 1,200 municipalities until 2018, reaching 1,210 municipalities in XNUMX, which was about half of the peak time..
- 2017The recyclable amount of PET bottles was 38 tons.. On the contrary, the amount of recycled products increased by 2% from the previous year to 15 tons.Only about 3/5 of the recycling facilities are dormant on average. It is also strongly pointed out that the business model on the premise of subsidies for public funds, etc. may have failed completely.
The consumption of petroleum resources in the entire process, from the sorting and collection of PET bottles to recycling plants and marine transportation,carbon dioxide(CO2) EmissionsLife cycle assessmentAccording to the results of the survey by the method described above, the resources consumed by domestic land transportation and sea transportation to China are far lower than the resources saved in the entire recycling process, and the recycling of PET bottles ultimately reduces the resources consumed. It is said that it can be confirmed that the savings have been made. In 2008, the Japan LCA Society analyzed the recycling of PET bottles between Japan and China in a research paper based on the data of electric power and fossil fuel consumed in each course based on the data of Industrial Environmental Management Association and Petroleum Industry Revitalization Center. The resource consumption is mainly due to the processing and recycling processes, and the resources consumed by transportation to China are very small.. Also,Ministry of the EnvironmentEven in the comprehensive research report of Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Waste Disposal, etc., CO2 emitted and consumed by the export of crushed PET bottles and flakes from Japan to ChinaFossil resourcesIs considered to be very small compared to the amount saved by recycling.
- As of 2018, approximately 68.6 tonsContainer Recycling LawPET bottles to be collected specified inOf the total, about 59.5 tons of PET bottles were collected (separated collection by municipalities: 31.8 tons, business-related collection: 27.7 tons)Met. About 22% of the total, 13.18 tons, is reused for fiber, and about 10%, 5.88 tons, is reused for sheets. In addition, the amount recycled as PET bottles was about 12%, or 7.27 million tons..
- Recycled plastic bottle volume in 2018 was 16 tonsAnd simply produced plastic bottles of 68 tons in the same year.When divided by, the recycling rate is about 25%. However, this production volume is only the domestic production volume of designated labeled products (soft drinks, liquors, soy sauces), and seasonings, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other PET bottles (approximately 5.6 tons), and 500 million bottles per year in terms of 7 mL. Equivalent to the aboveMineral waterImported amount (2018: 351,986 KL) Is not included. Actually, the total domestic consumption of PET bottles is about 60 tons (2018)Is seen.
- 90% PET bottle collection rate in JapanAt the same time as the world's highest level, the gap between the collection rate and the recycling rate is lower than in Europe and the United States.
- ヨーロッパの場合は、2017年の回収率は61.5%であるが、回収したペットボトルの約3/2はリサイクルされている。アメリカの場合は、2018年の回収率は28.9%と高くないが、回収したペットボトルの約7割はリサイクルされている。日本の場合は、2018年で回収量57.2万トン、リサイクル量52.9万トンであり、約85%がリサイクルされている.. However, this figure of 85% also includes about 1/3 of the amount of overseas resources recycled (the so-called "resource waste export" amount, which was exported from PET bottles or bundled bale PET or crushed flake PET as PET scrap). Statistic, which contains many things that are hard to call true recycling.. Further successful recycling of plastic waste is likely to require strengthening of legal regulations and cooperation between manufacturers and waste processors..
PET bottle recycling rate comparison table (2017)
|Japan||The United States of America||Europe||India |
- The recycling rate for plastic products was about 2018% in 84.200046% of2010From 77% of.. However, most of themGarbage power generation,Steel mill OfReducing agentIt has been pointed out that it is just burned as, and it is out of the purpose of recycling..
- Clothes (uniforms, etc.) and recycled PET bottlesCurtainTextile products such asfreezeとChicken eggsパックなどのシート材への転用が主で、ペットボトルとしての再生は帝人ファイバーが量産化事業を中止した影響で2004年度の2万3千トンをピークに大きく減少し2009年はわずか1千7百トンとなったが、その後増加し、2018年時点で7万2千7百トンとなり、ペットtoペット率も増加している。（2018年のペットtoペット率:26.3%）
- SupermarketPET bottles are collected at stores and convenience stores, but the obligations of the dischargers (mainly general consumers) stipulated in the Container Recycling Law of "simple cleaning" and "separation of caps" are not fulfilled. In many cases, recycling has many problems such as a large amount of cost and energy required in the post process.
- Suntory The2011In April, announced that it aims to use 4% of both mechanically recycled and chemically recycled raw materials as raw materials for PET bottles for beverages of some products... In May of the same year, we started selling tea drinks using PET bottles produced from recycled raw materials..
Although it is different from recycling PET bottles themselves, recently there is also a recycling method that is compatible with volunteers, which provides vaccines with the profit of selling PET bottle caps.
NPO corporationEco Cap Promotion AssociationEtc.Eco cap movementWill generate a large profit for a specific business operator who has a large industry scale and is obliged to recycle PET bottles, but the main income of the Eco-cap Promotion Association is the sales amount of PET bottle caps and activities that slightly exceed it. Since it is reported to be a subsidy, the support from specific companies in the PET bottle cap recycling campaign is too small compared to the profits earned by those industry groups, and the scale of activities such as vaccine provision is also industry groups. Is too small compared to the profits earned by.
- Kunihiko Takeda's assertion and pointed out
- Kunihiko Takeda"94% of collected PET bottles are incinerated, so most of the PET bottles that have been collected with a lot of money have not been reused," he wrote.Insisted on. On the other hand, the “reuse amount” data of the book was not the data of the council at allFabricationPointed out that.
- After that, this part was corrected in the reprinted edition of the same book, and the explanation that "the amount of reuse is calculated by Takeda Laboratory" was added..
- Kunihiko Takeda claims that the PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council does not disclose the recycling rate of PET bottles, but it is actually published every year..
Incidents/accidents related to plastic bottles
- If you put water in a plastic bottle and leave it at the front door etc.Stray catThere was a time when information was disseminated that it would be avoided.After that, such a scene can be seen in various places, but by doing this, the water in the PET bottleSun lightConvergefireBecame an accident (Astringent fireThere is). In addition, today, it is known that the effect of these water-filled plastic bottles is completely ineffective by a consumer group and a field test on a TV program..
- For pet drinks,MoldSuch asforeign bodyIs often mixed and generated and collected by the manufacturer, but there are many cases where the precipitates in the contents are confused with foreign substances.Canned beverageCompared to the time when Yaya was the mainstream of distribution, the number of occurrences is higher because it is easier to find because the PET bottles are transparent.On the other hand, pet drinksstrawIn infants who are unfamiliar with inhaling straws when inhaling with a straw, the food waste in the oral cavity flows back into the bottle through the straw, and this is reported to the manufacturer as foreign matter or sterilized.baby bottleInstead, PET bottles are used, and there are cases where germs propagate due to food waste when the temperature is high.
- By leaving the leftover pet drink,fermentationAnd rupture,Bruise,fractureSeveral cases have been reported, such as injuries such as the above, and the lighting fixtures on the ceiling being damaged by blown caps. This is the environmentBudding yeast,Lactic acid bacteriaEnter the container,SugarCaused alcohol fermentationcarbon dioxideThis is because Care should be taken to drink all the drinks as soon as possible or to store them in a refrigerator. Therefore, in Japan in 2004,National Life CenterIssued a warning and is working to require manufacturers to display cautions. It is also very dangerous to put a carbonated drink in a freezer in order to cool it quickly. This is because freezing the beverage causes the container to burst due to carbon dioxide that cannot dissolve in water.
- Made a small holeWith water in a plastic bottledry iceThere is an experiment to make soda water by putting inWithout making a holeThere was an accident that the plastic bottle swelled and burst as a result of putting water and dry ice in the plastic bottle and closing the lid.Fire departmentThe National Life Center and others are calling for caution not to carry out such experiments, including the handling of dry ice.dry iceSee also the text.
- In many sports and concert facilities, pet drinks and drinks in glass bottles are restricted. EspeciallyJapanese professional baseball,J LeagueIn order to get many supporters to watch the game comfortably, the response varies depending on the team, but regarding bringing pet drinks, one of the following three points is set as a rule for watching games.
- As with glass bottles and canned beverages, it is completely forbidden to bring it with you regardless of the content, and you can use a paper cup at the time of admission.tumbler(In recent years, there are many cases where it becomes a tumbler due to environmental considerations). (Sapporo Dome,Rakuten Life Park Miyagi,Fukuoka PayPay Domeother. In 2021, many stadiums will stop the transfer service to tumblers and water bottles)
- It is possible to bring directly up to a certain volume (for example, containing 500 mL) (sometimes you can bring it with the lid, and you may need to remove it). If it exceeds that, replace it with a paper cup or tumbler as described above.
- No restrictions on carry-on (possible to bring directly. Handling the lid is the same as the previous section).
- 2012 FIFA U-20 Women's World CupFIFA (International Football Federation)'S "clean stadium" business, due to the contractual relationship with FIFA-approved sponsor Coca-Cola,Japan Coca-ColaYou can bring your own PET bottle products as they are, but you cannot bring other products from other companies in the same industry as they are, and you can either transfer them to a paper cup or remove the product label and bring them with you (you can bring them with you). Remove the lid even if it is a product).
- Since 2007, it has become impossible to carry liquids such as beverages and cosmetics contained in plastic containers of 100 ml or more, including plastic bottles, into international airplanes. I have to put a plastic container of 100 ml or less in a transparent plastic bag.Civil Aviation Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism,ANA,JAL.
- SuntoryReleased byGreen TeaBeverageIemon"ofbambooAt the beginning of the sale, the production of the PET bottle itself could not catch up with the 500ml PET bottle for stores that imitated a cylinder, and the sale was canceled.As a result, it attracted public attention and further ignited the popularity of Iyemon.[Source required].
- 2011 yearsGreat East Japan EarthquakeSo, as an industry initiative, we decided to unify the lids with plain white ones in order to deal with the damage to the factory that manufactures the lids and the increase in production capacity due to the rapid increase in demand for mineral water..
Plastic bottle lids
Until the early 1990s, PET bottle lids were made one size larger than they are today (so-called "wide-mouthed caps").However, since there were a number of cases in which a gap was created due to the large mouthpiece and the drink overflowed from there, a method of narrowing the range of the mouthpiece was adopted to prevent the drink from overflowing from the gap. It became a small lid (hereinafter referred to as a small cap) as it is today.In addition, the wide-mouthed cap has a situation that the manufacturing cost is unnecessarily high.In recent years, Suntory's "Bikkle""Gatorade"Dy Drincoof"Leaf tea, Kirin Beverage's "Volvic Lemon"Coca Cola"Glassaw" series,ITO ENof"Oi Ocha with handle 2ℓ, Etc. used wide-mouthed caps, but "Bikkle," "Gatorade," and "Leaf Tea" were replaced with smaller caps, and "Volvic Lemon" and "Oi Ocha with Handle 2ℓ" were discontinued. Coca-Cola's "Gatorade" series is the only regular product in PET bottle soft drinks that still uses a wide-mouthed cap.However, each beverage manufacturer may release a product that uses a wide-mouthed cap as a planned product (limited time, limited quantity, limited area, etc.).
The lid of the PET bottle is not PET, but the sealing property is improved, so it is soft and easily deformed.polyethylene,polypropyleneIs commonly used. PET bottle lids are separated by gravity in the recycling process.
- ^ "pet | Definition of pet in English by Oxford Dictionaries". 2018th of February 9Browse. The Oxford Dictionary uses the former reading, but if you read it as it is, you may not be able to read it or it may be difficult to read (PVC made of vinyl chloride resin), or VIP (VIP) that points to a VIP. If it sounds vulgar when read as it is (when read as it isSecond World WarIt sounds the same as the derogatory term "Jap" that refers to the Japanese inside), and it is customary to read the alphabet as it is.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Tadahiko Kuzura "History and function of plastic packaging and containers"Journal of the Society for Waste Resource Recycling," Vol. 21, No. 5, 2010, pp. 273-280,2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "New economic dictionary". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2014th of February 3Browse.
- ^ Sadashige Aoki; Seriously! . “The Power of Culture: The Way of Cultural Marketing". NTT Publishing. 2014th of February 3Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Chapter 1 Basic Information on PET Bottles”. PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council. 2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ [Sugogi Nippon] CO2 reduction with Japan's first bio-PET bottle!Pay attention to Mitsuya Cider (1.5 liters) Sankei News(April 2018, 2) Viewed June 3, 2021
- ^ "Coca-Cola Japan, unlabeled PET bottle water"Nihon Keizai ShimbunNews site (December 2020, 4) Read January 8, 2021
- ^ a b c "Chapter 5 Documents”. PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council. 2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "History of voluntary design guidelines”. PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council. 2020th of February 7Browse.
- ^ Michikazu Kojima, "Recycling and the World Economy," p. 57.
- ^ Michikazu Kojima, Recycling and the World Economy, pp. 58-59.
- ^ Some PET bottles have a white mouth. Is the material the same as the container body? Also, what is the difference between a white and transparent mouthpiece? DAIDO DRINCO Customer Service Office
- ^ "Frozen plastic bottle was born from the voice of a golfer”. Golf Digest (July 2015, 7). 2020th of February 7Browse.
- ^ Leonard Sax (2010). “Polyethylene Terephthalate May Yield Endocrine Disruptors”. Environmental Health Perspectives 118 (4): 445–8. two:10.1289 / ehp.0901253. PMC: 2854718. PMID 20368129.
- ^ a b c Miho Yoshii, Miki Yatsuka, Tomomi Yasuda "Examination of safety in using small PET bottle beverage"Journal of the Japanese Society of Nursing Research," Vol. 32, No. 1, 2009, pp. 125-129,2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Beaujolais also has price competition, PET bottles that cut XNUMX yen have appeared""Yomiuri Shimbun] June 2009, 11
- ^ Cold water for Nouveau? "Prohibition of entering PET bottles", representative of the production area"Sankei Shimbun] June 2009, 11
- ^ Asahi Breweries, Ltd. Containers and Packaging Research Institute Developed "PET bottles for beer" with dramatically improved gas barrier and light-shielding properties. Launched new products that take advantage of the characteristics of PET bottles by the end of the year. -Asahi Breweries News Release July 2004, 7
- ^ Notice of new beer product in PET bottle container announced on July 7 -Asahi Breweries News Release July 2004, 9
- ^ In the example of the area where it is decided not to remove it, it says "because it is possible to judge whether the label is a plastic bottle." Example:How to put out plastic bottles. - FukuokaChikushinoHome Page
- ^ In an example of an area where crushing is not stipulated, "it is easier to select foreign matter if not crushed, and if it is crushed from the beginning, it is difficult to compress it." Example:Yatsu-cho, Tottori homepage
- ^ a b c d e "Chapter 2 Promotion of PET Bottle 3R”. PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council. 2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "One in two Tokyo residents owns my bottle, but what about water supply? -Clearing my bottle usage trends and challenges”(Japanese). International Environment NGO Greenpeace. 2020th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Launched "Rethink Hanger," an eco-hanger for clothing that uses PET bottles -Green Agent June 2010, 6
- ^ a b (English) "PET bottles" - The Japan Times 2005th of February 5
- ^ "New recycling challenged by Suntory " -ECO JAPAN October 2011, 10
- ^ "The Teijin PET bottle recycling business is reflected in the suspension of operations of the" 100 billion yen factory ".Nikkei BP
- ^ Teijin Limited Press Release
- ^ Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association (June 2019, 6). “Outsourcing fees (total amount) to remanufacturing companies Detailed data". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association (June 2019, 11). “Reiwa 2nd year "Re-commercialization implementation consignment unit price", Reiwa 2st year "Contribution consignment unit price", Reiwa 2nd year "Calculation coefficient (provisional value)" and Reiwa XNUMXnd year "Specific business application period and application document shipping About "delayed" contact". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association (June 2019, 6). “Detailed data on the unit price of successful bids over time". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association (2018). “Number of municipalities to be picked up Aged data". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association (June 2017, 3). “Changes in recyclable amount PET bottles". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ a b Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association (June 2019, 7). “PET bottle". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Jun Nakatani, Minoru Fujii, Yuichi Moriguchi et al.Life cycle evaluation of domestic recycling and used recycling between used PET bottles"Journal of the Japan LCA Society," 2008, Vol. 4, No. 4, p.324-333, two:10.3370 / lca.4.324
- ^ Ministry of the Environment Waste Treatment Scientific Research Grant Subsidy General Research Report Summary Version
- ^ a b PET Bottle Recycling Council (April 2019). “Trends in PET resin demand for bottles". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ PET Bottle Recycling Council (2018). “Material flow of PET resin (FY2018)". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ PET Bottle Recycling Council (2018). “Amount of recycled flakes by domestic use". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Japan Mineral Water Association (March 2019, 3). “(PDF)". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ a b PET Bottle Recycling Council (2018). “Trend of PET bottle collection rate (conventional index)". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ a b PET Bottle Recycling Council (2018). “Comparison of recycling situation between Japan, US and Europe". 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ PET Bottle Recycling Council (2018). “Calculation of recycling rate". 2020th of February 3Browse.
- ^ Japan streets ahead in global plastic recycling race
- ^ “India recycle 90% of its PETwaste”(July 2017, 2) 2020th of February 7Browse. NCL and PET Packaging Association for Clean Environment (PACE) A year-long survey published in February 2017 suggests that India's strikingly high numbers are in the presence of scrap pickers.In the country₹It is said to be 32 billion industries.
- ^ Plastic Recycling Association (2019-12) (PDF). 2018 Status of production, disposal, recycling, and disposal of plastic products Material flow chart (Report) 2020th of February 2Browse..
- ^ Kenji Ouma (January 2019, 1). “Actual status of “plastic waste recycling rate of 84%” in Japan that deviates from global standards” (Japanese). ForbesJapan: pp. 2-3 2020th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Suntory News Release -XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X Day
- ^ Suntory HP "First in Japan. Realization of mechanical recycling method to recycle used PET bottles into bottles”
- ^ Kunihiko Takeda, "Why do lies go through environmental problems?" P.18 (Yosensha, 2007,ISBN 978-4-86248-122-1）
- ^ PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council Press:About the data fabrication of our council in the book "Why do lies go through environmental problems?"(Retrieved September 2021, 1)
- ^ "About Wikipedia description". 2008th of February 1Browse. Additional information is confirmed in Figure 2007-10 of 29 prints on October 11, 1, "Why lies lie in environmental problems?"
- ^ PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council-Calculation of recycling rate
- ^ To everyone watching the FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup Japan 2012 stadium
- ^ About the Great East Japan Earthquake-Regarding common use of plastic caps for PET bottles (white plain) with increasing demand for mineral water- Ministry of AgricultureNews Release, April 2011, 4
- ^ "Section1 Basic Knowledge of PET Bottles | PET Bottle Q & A | PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council". www.petbottle-rec.gr.jp. 2020th of February 2Browse.
- Michikazu Kojima "Recycling and the World Economy" Chuokoron-sha (Chuko Shinsho), 2018.
- PET bottle recycling recommended mark
- PET bottle syndrome
- Plastic bottle rocket
- Bottle flip
- Eco cap movement
- Blow molding
- injection molding
- Nissei ASB Machine
- Cap throw --Competition using PET bottle caps
- Cap Revolution Bottleman --Toys that use PET bottle caps
- PET Bottle Recycling Promotion Council
- Japan Containers and Packaging Recycling Association
- National Disability Welfare Support Association Eco Cap Association
Molding machine manufacturer
Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.
Infection control can be roughly divided into two.
- Preventive activity
- Trend measures
- Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.
Infection control in medical institutions
Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.
actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventableInfection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.
Preventing the spread of infection
Standard precautions centered on hand washing
Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to.Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing"..
Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United StatesRequires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.
In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control CouncilAnd other guidelines were formulated in 2002.
- It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
- Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
- When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
- Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.
In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.
Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation
- Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
- In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.
Isolation of droplet infection
- A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
- When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.
Contact infection isolation
- Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
- Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
- Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.
The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.
Personal protective equipment
(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.
In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.
Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.
Vaccination of medical staff
Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.
Survey during an epidemic
When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.
Infection control and medical epidemiology training system
There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.
In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.
In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).
Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee
- The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).
Infection control profession
- Infectious disease specialist
- Infection control doctor(ICD)
- Infection control nurse(Infectious disease control nurse) (ICN)
- Infection control pharmacist(ICPH)
- Infection control certified clinical microbiological technologist(ICMT)
- (Type XNUMX/Type XNUMX)
- Medical environment manager
- ^ Weinstein et al
- ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
- ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
- ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
- ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
- ^ CDC Vaccine Site
- ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.
- Infection control
- Infection/Epidemic/Zoonosis/Infection control clothing/quarantine
- Nosocomial infection/Community infection(Ichii infection)
- Japan Society for Environmental Infections/Japanese Society of Infectious Diseases/Japanese Society for Oral Infections
- Public health/Epidemiology/Pharmacy
- Medical science/Dentistry/Pharmacy/Veterinary medicine/Bacteriology(Oral bacteriology)/Virology/Myciology/Microbiology
- Infection control doctor(Infection control doctor)
- Infection control team/Infection Control Committee
- American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)/National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- Biosafety level
- Avoid hospital,,
- Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, APIC Is a group of infection control activists led by nurses and medical technicians.
- The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, SHEAIs mainly conducted by doctors and doctoral level epidemiologists.