Breaking news New coronavirus Okinawa Prefecture XNUMX new infections
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Okinawa Prefecture announced on the 9th that 103 new people were infected with the new coronavirus.
This is an account of "Okinawa TV Broadcasting" (Fuji TV series) news. We will send you the latest news from Okinawa.
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New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important..
In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in. (Human) Coronavirus against humanityEndemic diseaseIs believed to becoldCauses (common cold) -like symptoms,Is prevalent as a serious infection, often accompanied by pneumonia.
The following viruses were positioned as new coronaviruses before their official names were given.
|Formal name||Other names||Susceptible host[† 1]||First discovery location (discovery year)||Infection|
|SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2]||2019-Ncov|
SARS virus 2
Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)
|Bat,Scale armor||Chugoku-Wuhan(2019)||New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3]|
|MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4]||Middle east virus|
Camel flu virus
|camel,Bat||Saudi Arabia-Jeddah(2012)||Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).|
|Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)||New Haven Virus||A mouse||Hong Kong (2005)||Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia|
|SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2]||SARS virus||Chinese cabbage,Bat||Chugoku-Foshan(2002)||Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)|
All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.
Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention of a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOIt complies with the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by.  
- 2002 SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) -From November 2002 to July 11Severe acute respiratory syndrome The virus that causes (SARS).
- 2005 Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)
- 2012 MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) -In July 2012Erasmus University Medical CenterIt was originally called HCoV-EMC (Human coronavirus- Erasmus Medical Center) because the coronavirus was isolated in.. Originally called "new coronavirus"But in May 2013International Virus Classification Committee PathogenNamed "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)"Received WHO decisionMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare named the virus MERS (Mars) coronavirus and named the infectious disease.Middle East respiratory syndrome Decided to be (MERS).
- SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)- 2019 New Coronavirus.. The first infected person appeared in November 2019, and the new model was launched in January 11.CoronavirusWas confirmed.
- ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
- ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
- ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
- ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020th of February 5Browse.
- ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020th of February 5Browse.
- ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News .
- ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
- ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
- ^ a b "What is the new coronavirus?”. Joetsu Community Medical Center Hospital. 2021th of February 5Browse.
- ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
- ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
- ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
- ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301.
- ^ Host jump capability may not persist
- ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
- ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
- ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013
Kagoshima OfSatsunan Islandsexcept forNansei IslandsIslands (Okinawa Islands,Sakishima Islands,Daito Islands),East China SeaとThe Pacific OceanSandwiched between. It covers an area of 2,281 square kilometers and is the smallest in Japan's prefectures.Kagawa,Osaka,TokyoIt is the 4th largest after Japan and is also the prefecture that includes the southernmost region of Japan where people live.[Note 2]. Also,Yaeyama DistrictYonaguni TownIs in the westernmost part of JapanMunicipalitiesAndYonaguni IslandAt the northwest end ofTuisiIs the westernmost point in Japan.
About 9% of the population of the prefectureOkinawa main island8% of the prefecture's population is concentrated in the central and southern part of the main island.Naha city centerThree major metropolitan areasEqual toThe population densityThere is.
Sea transport (Sea lane) And military points (First archipelago line) Located in important places asUS military bases in JapanExists. As the main US military facilities,Kadena Air Base,Futenma Air Base,Camp, butlerAnd so on.
From historical background (described later), religion, culture and customs, personal names and dialects, cuisine,Food culture:And industries, demographics and income disparitiesYoshimaThere is a big difference with.Popularly speaking of Okinawa "outside the prefecture"Inland(Nichi)" and Japanese outside Okinawa may be called "Nichia".
One of the best in Japan because it is one of the few southern islands in JapanResortIt became a place and became a standard summer tourist destination for Japanese people.in particular2001 OfTV drama"ChuraAfter the broadcast, Okinawan culture has become more familiar than the boom outside the prefecture, and the number of tourists and immigrants from outside the prefecture has increased significantly.Cultural experience as Okinawa Prefecture,Okinawan cuisine,leisure,Marine Sports,War ruinsEtc. as a strengthTourismWe are particularly focusing on the field.The global name recognition of Okinawa as a whole is still low,Zamami IslandOnly Michelin Green Guide Japan has won two stars and has become a national park, so it has been widely introduced as a tourist attraction in Japan overseas and has gained a certain degree of name recognition..
Looking at the industry ratio in Okinawa prefecture, it includes tourismTertiary industryAccount for 79.2%Primary industryIs 5.4%,Secondary industryIs low at 15.4%.. Okinawa isPacific highLocated on the south side ofTropical cycloneBecause it is close to the sea area where typhoons occur, the weather in Okinawa tends to be rough from the beginning of September to the beginning of November during the typhoon season, and it departs and arrives in Okinawa.Passenger planeIs easy to cancel. However, since September is the off-season despite the high temperature, it is possible to travel cheaply under almost the same conditions as in summer.
In the martial arts worldkarateIt is world-famous as the birthplace of Ryukyu Karate, and many foreign students are practicing in the karate dojo in the prefecture. From boxing in IshigakiGushiken High SchoolHas produced many world champions and famous players.
The origin of the place name "Okinawa" comes from "Oki (offshore) (fish) is (place)" which means "offshore fishing ground" (Inami Fuyu), and "Oki (Oki/Far) Naha (place)", which means "a place off the coast" or "a place far" (Hiro Onna).
Tankai MifuneWritten byKangenIn the biography of "Toudaiwajo Toseiden", which was established in 779,Tenpyo KatsuhoIt is stated that the envoy to Tang China arrived at Akonahashima on November 5, 753.[Note 3]I heard that this island was referring to the main island of Okinawa.. Later, it was called “Ryukyu” or “Ryukyu” by the Chinese name.
Ryukyu disposalAt the time ofMeiji governmentWithinRyukyu prefectureWas also considered. this is1879(12th year of Meiji),Ryukyu DomainWas abandoned and was climbing up when Okinawa was established. Lord of the InteriorIto HirobumiFrom the Prime MinisterMimi SanjoThe text on the Ryukyu disposal dated March 3 of the same year, which was submitted to Ryukyu Prefecture, states that "Ryukyu Clan was abolished, Ryukyu Prefecture was abandoned, and the fact that it was announced was declared by the Prefectural Office Ha Shuri Ni." Was used, but it was not adopted. The history of this period is unknown,ChineseIt can be inferred that Okinawa was selected because the intention to belong to Japan became clearer than the origin of Ryukyu.Also oldShinano country Nagano, OldUeno country GunmaIt is thought that one of the reasons is that there was a principle that a wide range of area names such as the old country name should not be used as the name of the prefecture.Originally, "Okinawa" as a termOkinawa main islandThe Amami archipelago was officially incorporated into Japan with the establishment of Okinawa Prefecture.Okinawa Islands-Sakishima IslandsThe whole area came to be called "Okinawa" and it was also broadly interpreted..
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismOkinawa, which is one of Japan's 14 regional divisions, consists of only one prefecture in Okinawa.[Note 4].. In addition, it may be called a part of "Kyushu region" or "Kyushu/Okinawa region" ("Kyushu #Modern "Kyushu"See).Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs "Okinawa main island","NativeIt's one of the five islands[Note 5][Note 6]. Geographical Survey Institute,Japan Coast GuardAccording to Okinawa Prefecture consists of 363 islands.. 49 manned islands and numerousUninhabited islandConsisting of 0.01km2There are 160 islands with the above area.. About 1,000 from the easternmost point to the westernmost pointkmWith a vast prefectural area, the northernmost to the southernmost area is about 400km... The Nansei Islands extend from Kagoshima Prefecture to near Taiwan, and are geographically distributed in the north.Tokara IslandsUp toAmami archipelagoとOkinawa IslandsandSakishima IslandsIt is roughly divided into three. Okinawa main islandとMiyakojimaBetweenMiyako KaikyoIt is called 145 even in the narrowest sectionnautical mile(About 270km), of which about 48 nautical miles (about 89km)WatersとConnected water areaAnd the remaining 97 nautical miles (about 180 km)Exclusive economic zoneIt has become. The distance between Yonaguni Island and Taiwan is about 54 nautical miles (about 100 km).
|Northernmost||Iwo Torishima||Kumejima Town||Limited to manned islandsIheya Island|
|Southernmost point||Hateruma Island||Taketomi Town||Japan's southernmost inhabited island|
|Easternmost point||Kitadaito Island||Kitadaito Village|
|Westernmost point||Yonaguni Island||Yonaguni Town||Japan's westernmost island|
Although there are many remote islands, medical care in remote islands is lacking due to human resources or economic reasons,hospitalWithoutClinicThere are many islands called Minami. Therefore, in the case of emergency patients who cannot be treated on remote islandsOkinawa main islandBy airJapan Ground Self-Defense Force,Japan Coast GuardIs going. In addition,Miyakojima,IshigakijimaSince there are prefectural general hospitals in the area, emergency cases on remote islands around these islands may be transported to Miyako Island or Ishigaki Island instead of Okinawa main island.
Within a radius of 1,000 km of Naha City, which is the prefectural capitalKyushu IslandWhole areaShimonoseki,Shanghai,Fuzhou,Taiwan IslandThe entire area is included, and within 1,500 kmOsaka,Nanjing,Seoul,Pyongyang,Manila,Hong KongAnd so on. Within 2000 kmTokyo,Sendai,Beijing,Shenyang,Haikou City, Hainan Province,Changchun,VladivostokEtc., and within 2500 kmWakkanai,成都,Chongqing,Hanoi,Guam,北 マ リ ア ナ 諸島,パラオIs exactlyEast Asia-Southeast AsiaとJapanIt is in a position that can be said to be a contact point with.
The central and southern part of the main island of OkinawaNaha,Okinawa CityUrbanization and population concentration are progressing mainly in, and more than 5 million people live in about one-fifth of the total area (Okinawa main island See also). Moreover,Extraterritorial lawThere are many U.S. military bases, and the available area is even more limited. for that reasonThe population densityIs the 9th place in the whole country,Three major metropolitan areasExcluding the prefectures ofFukuokaSecond highest after.
Ryukyu Islands on the Pacific Ocean sideRyukyu TrenchAnd on the East China Sea sideOkinawa TroughSandwiched between. Ryukyu TrenchPhilippine Sea Plate Eurasia plateIt was made by diving intoNankai TroughThe cause is similar to. In the back sea basin Okinawa trough, the Eurasian plate was torn in a new age and collapsed 1000-2000mIt is a pit and there are hydrothermal deposits. Geologically, Okinawa Island and Amami Oshima of the Ryukyu Islands (islands) are called Naka Ryukyu, which is sandwiched between the Kerama Sea Fissure and the Tokara Straits. When the Philippine Sea Plate sinks below the Eurasia Plate, which becomes the land-side slope, it is composed of sediment on the oceanic crust that is pressed against the edge of the land-side slope Eurasia Plate of the trench) It is roughly divided into the northern side of Okinawa Island, which is made from old accretionary deposits of 3 million years ago, and the southern side of Okinawa Island, which is made up of local deposits made 5000 million years ago.
- SubtropicalIn the zoneBiology Blessed with a favorable climate, there are many valuable flora and fauna. In the northern part of Okinawa main islandYamaharaと 呼 ば れ る森林Has spread,Noguchi Gera,Yanbaru Kina,Yambaru Tenaga Kogane such asNatural treasureAnd precious creatures inhabit. Part of the coastline between Yamahara and the main island of Okinawa,Kerama IslandsEtc.Okinawa Coast National MonumentIs specified in. A part of Iriomote Island and Ishigaki IslandIriomote Ishigaki National ParkHas been designatedmangroveIn addition to spreading the forest,Iriomote WildcatSuch precious creatures inhabit. In addition,Ministry of the EnvironmentSpecified byImportant wetlands in Japan 500Of these, 55 are in Okinawa Prefecture. this is,HokkaidoThis is the second largest number in Japan after (61 locations).
- (I.e.とWater shortage
- 2005From (17)2007(19) Each year6ToRainy season frontWith heavy rainThunderAttacked the main island of Okinawa, flooding everywhere,Landslide,LandslideAnd so on. In the normal year, there is a lot of precipitation throughout the year,rainy seasonとtyphoonDue to the fact that there is a lot of rainfall due to rain, large fluctuations from year to year, and because there is no large river and it immediately flows into the sea, it is easy to fall into a water shortage in terms of climate and topography... In addition, the population of about 1946 in 51 was restored to the mainland.1972(Showa 47) increased to about 96,1990 eraOften due to lack of water until the first halfWater outageWas made.. Especially1981-1982 droughtIn Japan, water supply was restricted for 326 days, the longest in Japan. Therefore, many houses have a water tank installed on the roof. However, the water transfer from the northern part of the Okinawa main island to the southern part has progressed,1997(9) stable water supply possible regardless of climateDesalinationFacilityChatan TownBecause it was completed in,2005Although the prefecture's population increased to about 17 million in 136, the number of people running out of water has decreased.
- In Japan, which is called an "earthquake powerhouse,"KyusyuAs with the above, the number of (feeling) earthquakes per year is small. But,Non-life insurance rate calculation mechanismAccording to the latest collection of statistics, the area is second-class, and it is no longer considered to be an area with a particularly low risk. in the past1771 OfYaeyama earthquakebyBig tsunamiso,Sakishima IslandsHas caused a lot of damage. recently2010(22)Earthquake near the main island of OkinawaFor the first time in about 100 years, we observed seismic intensity of 5 or more on the main island of Okinawa,Katsuren Castle RuinsPart of the castle wall collapsed.
The climate classification in JapanSouthern Japan climateBelong to.
Miyakojima,Tarama Island,Ishigakijima,Iriomote Island,Yonaguni Island,Hateruma IslandandOki Daitojima The熱 帯In a sex climateKöppen climate classificationThen.Rainforest climate (Af), other areasSubtropicalBy sexWarm and humid climate Belongs to (Cfa). High temperature and high humidity in each region of OkinawammAs a result, the average annual temperature is about 22.° CHas become. However, the maximum temperature exceeds 35℃Extremely hot dayAlmost never.. This is because Okinawa has a small land area and is surrounded by the sea (Oceanic climate) FromFern phenomenonAnd a large scale brought by the weak winds and urbanizationHeat island phenomenonThis is because there is no such factor (however, there are research reports on the small-scale heat island phenomenon in urban areas).Also in OkinawaTyphoon ginzaIs called and manytyphoonApproach. If we focus on each month,rainy seasonIt is common in May, which is the average period of entry, and in August, when many typhoons approach.In addition, the daylight hours are long in July and short in January and February in winter.In winter, there are many rainy and cloudy days due to the influence of the monsoon from the north.By the end of the rainy season,Summer solstice south wind(Kurachibe on the main island of Okinawa, Kurchibai around Miyako and Yaeyama) Called a strong southward wind with a speed of 10 m or more per second, signaling the arrival of summer(I.e.Known as.
It is very rare to have snow in winter,1977(52)May 2ToKumejimaso,2016(28)May 1In Kumejima and Nago City respectivelySleet(On the weather recordsnowSame treatment) was observed.Japanese Meteorological AgencyOfficially announced the only two snowfall records in Okinawa Prefecture, and Kumejima snowfall is the southernmost snowfall record in Japan..
1999(11)May 12And before and after that, there were several sightings reported that "it snowed" in Naha city etc.,NHK Okinawa Broadcasting StationThe video of the "Snow-like thing" was broadcasted in Japan, but the weather station was negative because the temperature was high., It is not an official snowfall record.
|Miyako Islands||Yaeyama Islands|
|Okinawa main island||Yi|
to East Malaysia
|Nago||Kin Town||Naha||Nanjo City|
Number of threads
|Tono Castle||Between Ihara||Sono||Ohara|
- National park
- National park
- Prefectural nature park
- Kumejima Prefectural Nature Park
- Irabu Prefectural Natural Park
- Tonaki Prefectural Natural Park
- Tarama Prefectural Natural Park (designated March 2015, 3)）
- Mt Odode (526m)-The highest peak in Okinawa Prefecture.
- Yonahatake (503m)-The highest peak on the main island of Okinawa.
- Furumidake (470m)
- Shiroyama (177m)
The characteristics of rivers in this prefecture are that they are steep and the length of the river is short,Basin areaIs small.. Therefore, the river flow rate changes significantly, and it is easy to fall into water shortages due to heavy rainfall and light rainfall. AlsomangroveIt forms a natural environment unique to the subtropical zone, such as forests.. Currently in northern OkinawaRed soilSpill, from a barn in the South CentralDrainageRivers affected by汚染Is a problem.
This prefecture is the only one in Japan,First-class riverDoes not exist.Second-class riverIs based on the request of the governorOkinawa Promotion Special Measures ActIs under the direct control of the Japanese government to carry out improvements and repairs..
- Urauchi River -With the longest river in Okinawa Prefecture, including the Mariyudu Waterfall.
- Shiokawa -The only river in Japan with a high salinity
- Source river
- Kuniba River
- Higashi River
- Haneji Okawa
- Miyara River
- Lakes and tidal flats
- Oike -Okinawa's largest natural lake
- Lake Fukugami -Largest in OkinawaArtificial lake
- Awase tidal flat
- Ikema wetland
- Nagura Ampal
As of 2019, there are 11 cities, 5 counties, 11 towns, and 19 villages in Okinawa Prefecture.
The southern remote island area may be included in the southern area, but excludes the main island of Okinawa, Ie Island, Iheya Island, and Izena Island.Okinawa IslandsとDaito IslandsIt is a concept that includes the towns and villages of the islands of.
In addition, the village areas of Iejima, Iheyajima, and Izenajima are included in the northern region (the term "northern remote island region" is not official).
However, it is a remote island around the main island and belongs to Kunigami Village, Ogimi Village, Nakijin Village, Motobu Town, Nago City, Onna Village, Uruma City, Tomigusuku City, Itoman City, Nanjo City.[Note 7]Is not included in these remote island areas.
- Northern region
- Chubu area
- Southern region
- Southern remote island area
Historical regional division
1896(29th year of Meiji)May 4 OfCounty systemWith the enforcement (Okinawa prefectural system)Naha Ward,Shuri WardWhen,Kunigami,Nakagami-gun,Shimajiri,Miyako-gun,Yaeyama District5 counties were established (2 wards, 5 counties).At this point, it had continued since the inauguration of Okinawa Prefecture.Old common policyThe Magiri system remained during the Ryukyu Kingdom era[Note 8][Note 9]..This continued until April 1908, 41 (Meiji 4), when Okinawa Prefecture's own island town and village system was enforced, and it was transferred from Magiri to the village (Son).
In particular, the county division at the time of the enforcement of the Okinawa prefectural system in 1896 was "oldCounty systemMay be said[Note 10], The custom of dividing into 5 areas (5 districts) with this boundary still remains in the system.
Due to this historical background, from the beginning of the old county system to the present dayIheya Village-Izena villageBelongs to Shimajiri District, but on the other hand, it is incorporated into the northern region as a modern administrative division.In addition, excluding the main island of Okinawa and Ie IslandOkinawa IslandsWhen,Daito IslandsMunicipalities of the islands also belong to Shimajiri-gun, and are included in the southern region (southern remote island region), which is not necessarily the southern region.
Other administrative divisions and metropolitan areas
In addition to the above, the regional divisions by the government are on the main island of Okinawa (including surrounding remote islands).Wide administrative areaAsNorthern wide area,Chubu Wide Area Municipal Area,Southern area municipalitieshave.
These wide-area administrative areas are influenced by the Okinawa metropolitan area and the Naha metropolitan area, and constitute areas that are more realistic in terms of administrative function and commerce.Therefore, Urasoe City, which belongs to the Chubu region, is included in the Southern Regional Municipal Area.Nishihara Town is officially a central metropolitan area, but there are some cases where it is treated more realistically in the south.
Okinawa main island (including remote islands around the main island, Iheya island, Izena island, Ie island)
- Northern wide area
- The range of (former) Kunigami-gun plus Iheyajima and Izenajima of Shimajiri-gun.It is also called "Kunigami district" from the name of the county.
- Ie Island(Kunigami)- Ie Village
- Iheya Island(Shimajiri)- Iheya Village
- Izena Island(Shimajiri-gun)- Izena village
- Chubu Wide Area Municipal Area
- The range excluding Urasoe City from the range of (former) Nakagami District.
- Okinawa City
- Uruma City
- Ginowan City
- Southern area municipalities
- (Old) Shimajiri-gun and oldNaha Ward, OldShuri Ward[Note 11]And the range including Urasoe City in the Chubu region (here, the main island of Okinawa is dealt with).
- Nishihara Town belongs to the Chubu region and the Chubu wide area municipal area, but some office unions may be joint with the South.
Okinawa Islands (excluding Iheya Island, Izena Island, Ie Island)
- Southern regional municipal area (remote island)
- Both belong to (former) Shimajiri-gun and the southern regional municipalities.It is also called "Southern remote island" with the same concept as the southern remote island area.
- Kumejima - Kumejima Town
- Kerama Islands
- Aguni Islands
- Daito Islands
- Miyako district
- Former Miyako branch office, range of (former) Miyako-gun
- Yaeyama district
- Former Yaeyama branch office, range of (former) Yaeyama-gun
Ancient timesJapanese sequelInEmperor Bunmu2 years(698), the order of the Imperial Court was sent to the South Island (Nantou) (Nansei Islands) by Dr. Mitsuhiro Nibun. At that time, Dr. Bunshin's mission was to confirm the relationship between Yakushima, Tanegashima, and Amami Oshima, which was the third year of Emperor Bunmu (699) Describes that he was awarded the rank because of his tribute to the court because of his many bounties, smuts, rewards and feelings. Since then, the Imperial Court has dispatched Koji to Tanegashima and also to Kumejima and Ishigakijima to send messengers.Wado8 years(715) Describes that the Amami, Yaku, Minkaku, Shinkaku, and Kumi Islanders of the South Island came to Japan in the morning and paid tribute to the people of the Ezo. OtherYoro4 years(720) To 232 South Islanders,Turtle4 years(727), the rank was awarded to 132 South Islanders, etc.
Ryukyu KingdomIt was compiled in the eraNakayama Seman"according to,Homoto no RanLost inIzuWashed awaySource morningTo escape from chasingUnten Port), the child was the first King of RyukyuShuntenIt is said to have become, and is treated as orthodox history. In the late 14th centurySanzanKingdom (Kitayama,中山,Namsan) Has risen and China (Light)TributeToothBookletReceivedRyukyu tradeWas going on. Nakayama King in 1429SatoshiDestroyed Nanzan and Kitayama, unified Ryukyu, and founded the Ryukyu Kingdom (First Sho).1469ToShou DeokKanemaru who was a vassal ofRobberyAnd selfNaoAnd was crownedSecond Sho). The prints will be expanded to the surrounding Sakishima Islands and the Amami Islands,1609(Keicho14 years)Satsuma DomainUnder the invasion ofKing NangSurrendered, under the rule of the kingdom at the timeAmami archipelagoCeded to Satsuma Domain[Note 12], The kingdom was under the control of the Satsuma Domain (Ryukyu invasion). Even after the invasion by Satsuma, the kingdom continued to be sealed in China, and it was a system of "both affiliations" with the Satsuma domain of Japan and Kiyokuni.IsolationOf both countries under the regimeRelay tradeIt played a role as a land and maintained its own culture and autonomy through trade. The relationship between mainland Japan and Okinawa at that time continues to the present day in JapanSouth Sea fantasyBecame the beginning of[Source required].
Entering the modern era on mainland JapanMeiji RestorationAngryOpeningWhat I did,1871(Meiji 4) The Nisshin Osamu Regulations were signed in SeptemberclearA diplomatic relationship was established with. However, in October of the same year, about a month laterMiyakojima Islander AccidentOccurs,Meiji governmentTo deal with diplomacyCentralizationRush to establish a nation,1872(5th year of Meiji),Ryukyu DomainIs installed in the Ryukyu kingSho TaiWas sealed as "Ryukyu Clan King" and a clan residence was set up in Tokyo.Sir FukushimaAfter negotiations with Qing by1874(Meiji 7)Taiwan troopsSo, the general authority such as not harming Japanese passengersThe United KingdomConfirmed by the post-treatment treaty by the ambassador's mediation, a diplomatic incident with Qing has resulted.1879May 4(Meiji12), the Meiji government abolished the Ryukyu clanOkinawaInstalled,Sho TaiMoved to a clan residence in TokyoEthnic familyBecomes The ruins of the castle ruins of the Gusk era areGusuku and related heritage groups of Ryukyu Kingdom]UNESCO Ofworld HeritageRegistered in.
1945(Showa20 years),Pacific WarIs called "the largest ground battle in Japan"[Note 13]Battle of OkinawaBecame the battlefield. US ArmyMay 4On the main island of OkinawaYomitan VillageImmediately landed on the coast of the island, and quickly controlled the northern half of the island, the Japanese army was attacked by the U.S. forces in the south and the Shurijo castle where the general headquarters was located burned down,May 6Of the Okinawa Defense Force Supreme CommanderUshijima ManLieutenant GeneralsMabuniThe self-determination ended the organized battle. Due to the fierce battle for about three months, one in four people in the prefecture was killed and the land was devastated. Mabuni is currentlyOkinawa Battlefield National MonumentHas been designated as, and June 6Memorial DayAs a holiday in Okinawa Prefecture.
After the war in OkinawaGHQ OfSCAPIN --677Nansei Islands by order[Note 14]Was under the U.S. military administration, Japan's administration was suspended, and Okinawa Prefecture as an administrative entity (under the Governor of the Ministry of Interior) once disappeared (Okinawa rule by the United States).Large-scale requisition of villages and farmland for base construction under U.S. military ruleRight-hand roadAs a currencyB yen,laterU.S. dollarTo travel to mainland JapanpassportAfter the war, post-war reconstruction was promoted in an American way.1952(Showa 27)GHQJapan, which was under the occupation ofRestoration of sovereigntyAfter that, Okinawa continued to be under the control of the US military.In the same year, the U.S. military administration ended, and a new U.S.-led initiativeRyukyu governmentEstablished and embarked on full-scale Ryukyu rule and reconstruction.
1950 eraAfter thatKorean War,Vietnam War, Okinawa became more important as a US military front supply base, and many U.S. military personnel were stationed there.B-52Etc.Strategic bomber,Defoliant,nuclear weapons such asWeapons of mass destructionMany were deployed, and it was feared by Vietnam as a “devil's island”.. While the economy relied heavily on bases, at the time the dollar appreciated against the yen.Fixed exchange rate systemPrices were cheap and lifestyles were stable, partly due to the influence of the, and the population doubled from about 50 immediately after the end of the war to about 27 million in just 100 years before returning to the mainland. However, the islanders were strongly opposed to the U.S. military's powerful and discriminatory administration, and large-scale anti-base movements calling for a return to the mainland were being carried out in various places (Island gurumi struggle).1971(Showa 46)Eisaku SatoWith the Prime MinisterRichard NixonWith the presidentOkinawa return agreementWas concluded and the next1972In 47, Okinawa returned to Japan, and Okinawa Prefecture was restored (Okinawa return）[Note 15][Note 16].. Base problems that have continued since the US military eraUnexploded ordnanceProblem of,US-Japan Status AgreementHas become a major political issue in the prefecture ("Futenma base relocation problemSee).
- 1879(12th year of Meiji) April 4-Abolished the Ryukyu domain, established Okinawa Prefecture.Naoshima NaoshimaBecame the first prefectural ordinance (Ryukyu disposal）.
- 1896(29th year of Meiji)- Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public CorporationIs Kagoshima-Amami-Okinawa main islandSubmarine cableLaying.
- 1945(Showa20) December- Battle of Okinawaoutbreak. The battle ended on June 6 of the same year. Okinawa Prefecture is the whole islandU.S. ForcesPlaced under the occupation of. On September 9 of the same year, in the election for the city council held at the camp on the main island of Okinawa,Female suffrageIs accepted and general election is held.
- 1946(Showa 21) June- SCAPINTransferred from the Allies to US military administration by 677.
- 1946(Showa 21) April-Under the leadership of the US military,Okinawan GovernmentInauguration.Okinawa Advisory BoardWas elected byTakanobu ShikiyaBecame the governor. Established a parliament mainly based on former prefectural assembly members.
- 1948(23) October-"National Security Council recommendations for US policy recommendations to Japan (NSC/10)" by US military permanent retention of Okinawa, posted a policy of base development.
- 1950(Showa 25) June- Ryukyu Islands U.S. Government(United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands) and the name of the Okinawan governing body of the United States military administration changed. Start of large-scale base construction.
- 1951(Showa 26) April-General MacArthur dismissed.
- 1952(Showa 27) July 4- Ryukyu governmentEstablished.
- 1960(Showa 35) July 4- Okinawa Prefecture Homeland Return CouncilEstablished.
- 1970(Showa 45) July 12- Koza riotOccurrence.
- 1972(Showa 47) May 5-Returned to Japan and re-established Okinawa (Okinawa return).
- 1975(Showa 50) June- Okinawa International Ocean ExpoHeld. At that time, when Mr. and Mrs. Crown Prince Akihito (then) visited OkinawaTerrorist incidentOccurs.
- 1978(Showa 53) July 7- Change of in-person traffic.. The vehicle has changed from right-hand traffic to left-hand traffic. ("730').
- 1981(56) July-Implemented water supply restrictions for the longest 7 days in Japan. (Showa 56-57 Okinawa drought）
- 1987(62)- 42th National Sports FestivalHeld.
- 1992(Heisei4 years) November 11-Restoration of Shurijo Tadashi,Shurijo Castle ParkOpening.
- September 1995, 7- Okinawa U.S. Girl Assault CaseOccurs,Futenma base relocation problemSpread to.
- 1997(9)-Between Japan and the USFutenma Air BaseBasic agreement on a base relocation plan including the return of
- 2002(14) April 11- Okinawa Churaumi AquariumIs open. Large tanks and tank panels were the largest in the world at the time.
- 2003(15) April 8- Okinawa city monorail lineOpened.
- 2004 year (Heisei 16 year)
- 2012(23) April 9- Nationalization of the Senkaku Islands.
- 2013(25) April 12- Makoto NakaiGovernor is US ArmyFutenma Air BaseNago CityHenokoApproved landfill for relocation.
- 2014(26)- Governor electionAnd Nakata Makoto defeated,Oshi NagashiIs elected governor.
- 2015(27)-The prefecture and the country develop a legal battle over the relocation of Futenma Airfield to Henoko. Construction will be temporarily stopped and discussions will be held, but in September the construction broke down and construction resumed.
- 2016(28)-Consultation with the government based on the court settlement. On September 9, the Fukuoka High Court confirmed that the prefecture had lost the relocation of Henoko.
- 2018(30) August 8-Governor Onagao died (government governor first retired after returning to mainland).
- 2019(Heisei 31) February 2-Henoko asks the pros and cons of land reclamation for US military base constructionPrefectural voteWas implemented, and more than 7% of voters and more than a quarter of voters voted against it.
- 2019 years(ReiwaFirst year) October 10st-Shurijo Castle's main hall, north hall, and south hall are burned down by fire.
Of 2015CensusAs a result, the population of Okinawa prefecture increased by 2010 (4%) compared to the previous fiscal year 2.9,PrefecturesApartTokyo(2.7%), the highest population growth rate in Japan.. The population growth rate is the highest in Japan. By population, for the first time, the population over the age of 1 exceeded the population under the age of 65. Viewed by regionOkinawa main islandIncreased in the central and southern regions, with the northern part of the main island of OkinawaIshigakijimaIt is decreasing in most of the remote islands except.National Institute of Population and Social Security ResearchPredicts it will grow to 2025 by 143.. The rate of natural increase in 2010 is 5.0 per XNUMX population, the highest in Japan However, the rate of increase in society varies with each year.. Also in 2010Total fertility rateIs 1.87 And since 1975, it has maintained the number one position in Japan.. According to the 2015 national census, the ratio of people aged 65 and over (19.6%) exceeded that of people under the age of 15 (17.4%) since the start of the survey..Crude mortalityIs the lowest in Japan for both men and women,,Age-adjusted mortalityIs close to the national average, Especially adult men have the third or more age-adjusted mortality rates nationwide.. Living in OkinawaForeignerIt is,CitizenshipAs of 2010America(U.S. ArmyAnd its parties are not included. ) Is the most common,Chugoku- South KoreaThe number of foreigners registered is also increasing.. According to the 2015 census, the number of foreigners in the prefecture was 11,020, an increase of 2010 (3,369%) from 44..
The number of US military personnel, civilian employees, and their families not included in the demographics is 2013 as of 47,300.[Source required].
The statistics of tourists entering Okinawa Prefecture in 2016 reached a record high of 8,613,100 per year, averaging about 23,500 per day.[Source required].
In addition, I was transferred from outside the prefectureSDFOr nationalOfficeDue to the large number of seconded civil servants, the apparent population including these is 7 to 10 more than the statistics.[Source required].
|Okinawa Prefecture and National Population Distribution by Age (2005)||Okinawa Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)|
■Green-All over Japan
Changes in the population of Okinawa prefecture
|Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan|
- ■ Okinawa returnThe former governing mechanism in Okinawa was "Ryukyu government"and"Ryukyu Islands U.S. GovernmentSee.
- Number of members 48
- Term of office June 2020, 2 (Reiwa 6 years) --June 25, 2024 (Reiwa 6 years)
Okinawa prefectural assembly electionUnified local electionsThis is one of the few prefectural assembly elections that is not held inTokyo,Ibaraki,Iwate,Miyagi,Fukushima). This is the election after returning to Japan1972(47)May 6Because it was done in Tokyo, Ibaraki disbanded parliament, Iwate, Miyagi and FukushimaGreat East Japan EarthquakeIt is because of the postponement due to, and the situation is different.
- Standard financial scale 3567 yen
- Financial capability index 0.29 (prefecture average 0.47)
- Fiscal strength index is classified into E group (0.3 municipalities) less than 11
- Current account ratio 95.1% (prefecture average 94.6%)
- It is an index that indicates that fiscal consolidation is progressing
- Future burden ratio 81.3% (prefecture average 210.5%)
- Real debt service ratio 12.2% (prefecture average 14.1%)
- Number of employees per 100,000 population 1,412.52 (prefectural average 1,110.90)
- Laspeyres index 107.0 (prefecture average 107.4)
- Local bond balance
- Local account current amount of ordinary account 6829 million yen
- Current amount of local bonds (corporate bonds) for special accounts other than the above: 1541 million yen
Economic and industrial
Okinawa is one of Japan's leading tourist prefecturesService industryIs well developed and is the center of the prefecture's economy.In addition, Okinawa Prefecture has no outstanding industry other than tourism.[Source required]It is,US Army in JapanIt depends on the economy generated by the base (military employee income, military rent, stores/restaurants for US soldiers, etc.), while the economic dependence dropped from 1972% in 15.5 to 5.7% today. Occupy Offices, hospitals,Shopping centerThere are facilities such as about 9,000 prefecture residents working at the base facility,Okinawa Prefectural OfficeIt is the next largest employment destination.
The industrial structure of Okinawa Prefecture is characterized by a lower weight in the secondary industry and a higher weight in the tertiary industry than in the whole country, but this tendency has not changed at all since the return. The proportions of the secondary industry and the tertiary industry in the gross domestic product in 2 are 3% and 25%, respectively, and the difference is clear compared with 2% and 3% in the whole country. In particular, the percentage of the manufacturing industry is 13.9% in the whole country and 84.4% in Okinawa prefecture, showing a very large difference. In addition, the proportion of government service producers (economic activities such as public electricity, gas and water industries and public affairs) is as high as 24.4% in Okinawa (73.9). This high percentage has continued since the return..
2014(Heisei26) gross domestic product was 4 billion yen, and the economic growth rate compared to the previous year increased by 1749%. The nominal increase was 1.5 trillion yen to 3.5 billion yen, each showing positive growth for six consecutive years... The prefectural income per capita in 26 was 212 yen (national average was 9000 yen).Unemployment rateIs the highest in Japan, but in 2016 the unemployment rate in Okinawa fell to the 23% level for the first time in 3 years.
For products produced or supplied in Japan outside the prefecture, the time and cost will increase due to the transportation distance, and the transportation cost will be more expensive than outside the prefecture.Therefore, except for products produced in the prefecture, outside the prefectureRegionCompared to, the average retail price is not particularly low.For food and mobile phone services, Okinawa's own corporation (,Okinawa Cellular Phone) Is in charge of allOkiko,Orion,Blue sealIn some cases, Okinawan brands occupy a certain genre.
Taking advantage of Japan's leading subtropical climate in agriculture,mango,Acerola,Pineapple,Dragon fruitTropical fruits such assugar cane,tobacco,GoyaAgricultural products such as (bitter melon) are produced.In addition, rice cultivation is popular on Iheya Island.
There are sugar manufacturing industry, food and beverage manufacturing industry, and kiln and earth and stone products manufacturing industry, mainly cement manufacturing, but all are small.
On the main island of OkinawaMotobu PeninsulaThere are high-quality limestones that are mined as raw materials for cement and crushed stone and sand.Oki Daitojima,Kitadaito IslandThe phosphorus mine was once operated in Japan, but Kitadaito Island is depleted of good ore, and Okidaito Island remains designated as a US military shooting bombing site after the war.
On the seabed off Okinawa's main islandHydrothermal depositHas spread,copper,zincBesides,gallium,Bismuthな どRare metalAs a result, the prospecting survey is becoming active as a next-generation marine resource.
Natural gas and oil with estimated reserves of about 1000 billion barrels are sleeping on the bottom of the East China Sea,Mid-day lineAroundChugokuDispute over sovereignty (East China Sea gas field problem) Is occurring.
Can use plant resources for fuelBio ethanolWas in the limelight, and sugarcane produced in the prefecture was attracting attention as a raw material, and a trial operation was also conducted, but eventually it was not profitable and withdrew.
The main industries of the prefecture are tradition, history, nature, food culture and international colors.tourismAre listed. However, these tourism industries are easily affected by the economy. A resort hotel on the main island of OkinawaBeachA lot ofWaikiki BeachalikeArtificial beachAlthough it is a tourist resource, it is not the "nature of Okinawa". The total number of tourists in 2009 was 5,690,000 in Japan and overseas (Domestic: 5,443,800, Overseas: 246,200) Is. The number of foreign tourists visiting in 2019 reached 1,951,150,Taiwan (40.00%), South Korea (22.99%),Chugoku (18.38%),Hong Kong (10.26%),米 国 (3.51%).. Many tourists from the United States are related to US military bases.
2000(12)Major countries summitSince then, we are promoting the formation of a venue for events such as international conferences and conventions. In addition, prefecture advocates sports island conceptEco tourismIs also becoming active.
1998Based on (Okinawa Prefecture Multimedia Island Concept) from (10),Submarine cableBecause of the large number of landings, the word IX (Internet Exchange) is used to call for IT Exchange.Call centerAnd IT companies are actively attracting incentives. On the other hand, the facility is excellent from inside and outsideBox administrationThere are many criticisms.
2010 eraSince then, the development of smartphone applications has become popular.
Tax incentives/special cases
Many special cases for economic promotion Is set.
- Gasoline tax(1 from outside the prefectureliter(7 yen discount)Okinawa ExpresswayToll (from outside the prefectureAbout 4% off) Has been reduced.
- Regarding flights to and from Okinawa Prefecture,Aircraft fuel taxThere is also a 50% exemption, so it is about 5000 yen cheaper than the same distance route outside the prefecture As a result, it also contributes to attracting tourists.
- In tourism,Tourism return tax system, LaterSpecific duty-free shop systemHowever, it is a characteristic preferential tax system that other prefectures do not have.
- Liquor taxThere are mitigation measures (→Awamori,Orion beerreference).
- 2002(14) The Okinawa Promotion Special Measures Law, which came into effect in April 4, attracts IT-related companies and financial companies. Tax benefits (Corporate taxDeduction ofSpecial land retention taxTax exemption,Business taxDue to the exception of the taxation standard in Japan) and the low possibility of disasters such as large earthquakes, some companies are moving to special areas.
Within the prefecture, it is being deployed in Honshu, etc.CompanyThere are many local companies.
- Telecommunications carrier
- Telecommunications carrierThen on the mobile phone au As a regional company that provides the service ofOkinawa Cellular PhoneThere is. Since this company was established for the purpose of promoting the economy of Okinawa, it owns a majority stake in the company. KDDI Not only for local companiesOkinawa Electric PowerBesides, the business community and leading companies in the prefecture have also invested. There are also services that are unique to Okinawa Prefecture, so in other prefecturesmarket shareIs in the leadNTT DoCoMoIs suppressed (2005(17) Current market share is 49%). The company was excluded from the list due to political considerations.KDDI) Is the target.
- In addition,AstelGroup ofPHSFormerly the Okinawa Electric Power Group that provided the serviceAstel OkinawaTake over,2005(17)May 1Started business inWILLCOM Okinawa(HonshuTo provide PHS servicesWILLCOMEstablished as a subsidiary of (formerly DDI Pocket). LaterSoftbankBecame a subsidiary ofY! MobileThere is a brand).
- Alcoholic beverages
- beerHas a large market share in the prefecture as a manufacturerOrion beerExists. The company has a high share of the prefecture's market with liquor tax exemption measures in the prefecture, but the market share in Japan as a whole is around 1%.Antitrust lawIt is said that it does not conflict with.
- News (Chinese)
- Newspapers are printed locally due to transportation conditions.Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Within the prefectureLocal newspaperPrinting and publishing in partnership withSports Nippon-Nikkan SportsIt is a local newspaper because it is impossible to deliver it in the morning of the day (except the morning newspaper is delivered outside the prefecture during the evening delivery time).Okinawa TimesandRyukyu ShimpoAccount for most of the subscription rate. In addition, two newspapers are issued to Ishigakijima and Miyakojima, each of which sells mainly on the island or in neighboring remote islands.
- A financial institution has a head office in the prefectureLocal bankBesides 3 linesKoza Shinkin Bank,post office(Japan Post Bank) AndJA Bank(JA Okinawa) And many other stores.City bankabout,Mizuho BankOnly the Naha branch exists. Regional banks outside the prefectureKagoshima BankOkinawa branch of2015It is installed in and operates two stores in Naha City.
Major companies headquartered in Okinawa
- Manufacturing industry
- Okinawa Coca-Cola Bottling(Urasoe City）
- Orion beer(Tomigusuku City）
- Helios Brewery(Nago）
- Ryukyu cement(Urasoe City)
- Coral biotech(Naha）
- Formost Blue Seal(Urasoe City)
- Oppa dairy industry(Nakijin Village）
- Okinawa milling(Naha City)
- Okinawan ham(Yomitan Village）
- Okinawa Homer(Nakagusuku Village）
- Okinawa Food (Urasoe City)
- Retail trade
- General electricity business
- Okinawa Electric Power(Urasoe City)
- City gas business
- Okinawa gas(Naha City)
- Information and communication industry
- Newspaper industry
- Broadcasting industry
- Financial industry
- Restaurant business
- A & W Okinawa(Ginowan City)
Major companies with bases in Okinawa
- Nippon Iron Works (Itoman City)
Life and transportation
Due to the fact that it is an island prefecture, air routes are mainly used for movement outside the prefecture and between remote islands within the prefecture.In particular, for the Miyako Islands and Yaeyama Islands, regular passenger routes to and from outside the region have been suspended or abolished, and in principleAir routeIt is mandatory to move in.In the prefecture, the airports in the table belowIzen famous off-airfieldBesides,US Army in Japan baseTo use asKadena Air Base,Futenma Air Baseand so on.
|空港||Total passengers||Domestic flights||International flights|
|Number of passengers||regular service||Number of passengers||regular service|
|Naha||21,161,683||17,524,761||Outside the prefecture||New Chitose-Sendai-Ibaraki-Haneda-Narita・(Niigata)・(I.e.-Shizuoka-Central part-Itami-Kansai-Kobe-Okayama-Hiroshima-Iwakuni-Takamatsu-Matsuyama-Kochi-Kitakyushu-Fukuoka-Kumamoto-Nagasaki-Miyazaki-Kagoshima-Amami-Tokunoshima-Okinoerabu-Debate||3,636,922||Seoul-Busan-Daegu-Beijing-Shanghai-Tianjin-Hangzhou-Nanjing-Hong Kong-Taipei-Taichung-Kaohsiung-Bangkok-Singapore|
|Within the prefecture||Kitadaito-Minamidaito-Kumejima-Miyako-Ishigaki-Yonaguni|
|Ishigaki||2,497,171||2,411,480||Outside the prefecture||Haneda-Narita-Kansai-Central part·Fukuoka||85,691||Taipei|
|Within the prefecture||Naha/Miyako/Yonaguni|
|Miyako||1,700,590||1,699,901||Outside the prefecture||Haneda-Kansai-Central part·(Fukuoka)||689||-|
|Within the prefecture||Naha/Ishigaki/Tarama|
|Kumejima||258,640||258,640||Outside the prefecture||(Haneda）||0||-|
|Within the prefecture||Naha|
|Yonaguni||105,302||105,302||Within the prefecture||Naha/Ishigaki||0||-|
|Minamidaito||48,418||48,418||Within the prefecture||Naha/Kitadaito||0||-|
|Tarama||45,186||45,186||Within the prefecture||Miyako||0||-|
|Kitadaito||19,303||19,303||Within the prefecture||Naha/Minamidaito||0||-|
|Aguni||3,794||3,794||Within the prefecture||Naha||0||-|
- The destination is2019XNUM X Month X NUM X Date
- Charter flightsIncluding the number of passengers
- Brackets indicate routes that are not operated throughout the year (seasonally operated or have suspension periods)
- Three major metropolitan areasThe air route toTaiziNotation
Before the Pacific War, on the main island of OkinawaOkinawa prefectural railway,Okinawa Electric(Tram),Okinawa orbit,Itoman carriage orbitHowever, the Okinawa Electric tram and Itoman Wagon Orbit were abolished due to the rise of buses, and the remaining Okinawa Prefectural Railway and Okinawa OrbitBattle of OkinawaDestroyed and disappeared. After the war, there was no railroad line for a long time, but in 2003 (15)Okinawa city monorail line(Yui Rail) Naha Airport-Shuri (afterwardsUrasoe City OfTedako UraniHas been opened)[Note 17].
As of 2013, the concept of constructing a railway between Naha and Nago, which was revealed in 2006 (18), is the subject of construction and operation, except that the government will bear part (or all) of the construction cost. Are in the process of investigating and considering. AlsoMinamidaito VillageIn order to increase the number of tourists, plans to revive the "sugar train", a railway that had been operating on the island to transport sugar cane until 1983..
The only one in all prefectures,JRThe lines of each company are not laid. this isNational railwaySimilar from the times,Railway parcelaboutRyukyu ShippingIt was handled by contact transportation with.. In addition, once in Naha cityKyushu passenger railway(JR Kyushu)Okinawa branchAlthough it was installed, it closed on March 2017, 3, so there is no JR sales office at all.
On the main island of Okinawa, in Naha City and Urasoe CityOkinawa city monorailSince there is no railroad other than (Yui Rail), a bus route network has been developed throughout the island as a transportation system connecting cities and cities... In addition, Ishigaki Island and Miyako Island also have a bus route network as a means of transportation on the island.
In addition, there are many islands that operate small-scale local buses as a means of transportation that connects island ports, airports, central villages and tourist destinations.
- General boarding/general charter work
- General charter business
- Okinawa main island
- Chubu sightseeing bus
- Daito Transportation
- World trance
- Heianza comprehensive development
- Okinomiya sightseeing bus
- Succession planning
- Kuniwa first hire
- Okinawa south tourism
- Highway Okinawa
- Solar traffic
- Curry Attractions
- Location first
- And indie
- Fuji Sakura Tourism
- Island Limousines
- Tawada Location Service
- Okinawa Tourist
- Okinawa main island
- Naha Airport Grand Service
- Naha bus
- Yaeyama Islands
- East transport
- Kabira tourism traffic
- After returning to the mainland,1978(53)May 7Until then, the vehicle was driving on the right.■ 730 (transportation)See also
- Okinawa main island, especiallyNaha metropolitan areaThen.Traffic jamThe amount of traffic congestion loss per 1km in the prefectureThree major metropolitan areasNext to prefectures of.
- Due to the characteristics of the prefecture compared to other prefectures, the "wa" and "re" numbers that indicate rental cars, and the "Y" and "A" numbers that indicate that they are used by U.S. military personnel are extremely Many.
- The prefecture owns about one million cars.
- General national road
- National Route 58
- National Route 329
- National Route 330
- National Route 331
- National Route 332
- National Route 390
- National Route 449
- National Route 505
- National Route 506
- National Route 507
- Prefectural road
Ships are widely used to move between adjacent islands without using an aircraft.
Medical and welfare
Targeting 2007th grade elementary school and 6rd grade junior high school students who started in 3National Achievement/Study Status SurveyThen, in 2011, Okinawa Prefecture is the lowest of all subjects. However, in the 2014 survey, Okinawa Prefecture was ranked second in the total number of students in the sixth grade of elementary school.
- University of the Ryukyus(The headquarters isNishihara TownHowever, the campus site is Nishihara Town,Nakagusuku Villageas well as the Ginowan City3市町村Straddle)
- Okinawa Prefectural College of Nursing(Naha）
- Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts(Naha City)
- Meisakura University(Nago.1994From the opening of (6)2010(22 was a private university until March)
- Okinawa University(Naha City)
- Okinawa International University(Ginowan City）
- Okinawa Christian University(Nishihara Town)
- Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University(KunigamiOnna village.. (Established in 2011)
- Junior college
- College of technology
- Okinawa National College of Technology(Nago City)
- High school, junior high school, elementary school, other schools
See the list article below.
- List of special support schools in Okinawa
- List of Okinawa Prefectural Colleges
- List of Okinawa High Schools
- Okinawa Junior High School List
- Okinawa Elementary School List
- List of Okinawa kindergartens
- List of Okinawa English schools
Top 2Prefectural paperThe total market share ofNational newspaper(General paper) has a very low share compared to other prefectures due to the following circumstances. Also,Sakishima IslandsThen ownRegional paperHas been issued.
- Prefectural paper
- Regional paper of Sakishima Islands
- Miyako Mainichi Newspaper,Miyako Shimpo(Miyako Islands）
- Yaeyama Mainichi Newspaper,Yaeyama Daily[Note 18](Yaeyama Islands）
- Local paper and others
West Japan NewspaperAlso issued a newspaper as a de facto "business" for government offices and libraries in Okinawa Prefecture, as well as for offices of companies and corporations headquartered in Kyushu (Okinawa branch etc.),2009Issuance was stopped in (21). The newspaper1967(Showa 42)-1977(Showa 52)2000(12)-The Naha branch was established in 2009 (21).
- National newspaper
Yomiuri Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,Asahi Shimbun,Nihon Keizai Shimbun,Sankei ShimbunEach company has a bureau/branch office in the prefecture.2008(20)May 11Nikkei started local printing by consignment to Ryukyu Shinposha,National newspaperHowever, only the morning and evening editions (only the morning edition from January 2018, the evening edition was abolished) are delivered at the same time as the local newspaper. The Yomiuri, Mainichi, and Asahi versions of the Tokyo Headquarters and the Western Headquarters are sold, and the Sankei versions of the Osaka Headquarters are sold. All of these regular papers are shipped by air from the place of issue, so delivery is delayed in the afternoon of the day (simultaneous delivery with the evening edition of the previous day). Sakishima Islands andDaito IslandsRegarding, as for not only nationwide newspapers but also two local prefecture newspapers are printed and delivered by air or sea, the delivery of morning newspapers will be delayed compared to the main island.
- Sports paper
sports newspaperIt is,Nikkan SportsとSports Nippon(Shinpo Sponichi) Does local printing in the prefecture, but both papersHonshuUnlike newspapers published in, etc., it is published in 10 to 12 pages (in Okinawa PrefecturePublic competitionSince there is no facility for public competition, it is not posted.A TV scheduleAlso not posted). At some convenience stores in Naha Airport and in Naha City, the Tokyo headquarters version of each paper is air-shipped and sold on the day of issue, but the price is 50 yen, which is 180 yen higher than the list price.
- Daily newspaper
Sacred newspaperIs doing local printing in the prefecture. AlsoRed flagIs printed by a print shop in Fukuoka Prefecture and sent by air, and like the national newspaper, it will be delivered from early afternoon,South Korea OfReligious groupOperated byWorld daily reportAs with general national newspapers and sports newspapers, newspapers issued in Tokyo are air-shipped and sold in the afternoon at major airport terminals and convenience stores, and outsourced to some regular newspapers (regardless of national or regional newspapers). It takes the form of home delivery[Note 19].. For this reasonA TV scheduleIn addition to those in the Tokyo metropolitan area, two starting stations in Okinawa Prefecture[Note 20] The program schedule from noon of the day to morning of the next day is recorded.
- NHK Okinawa Broadcasting Station -OldOkinawa Broadcasting Association
- Ryukyu Broadcasting (RBC) (TV:JNN radio:JRN）
- Okinawa TV Broadcast (OTV) (FNN/FNS)
- Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting (QAB) (ANN)
- Radio Okinawa (ROK) (NRN)
- FM Okinawa (JFN)
- AFN -US military broadcast in Japan. Unlike stations in Honshu and Nagasaki prefectures, it produces and broadcasts programs not only on medium wave (AM) radio but also on TV and FM radio.
Special notes on TV broadcasting
The NHK receiving fee payment rate was 23%, the lowest in the whole country at the time of the initial announcement at the end of 42.0.
- Special notes on Sakishima Islands and Daito Islands
- Daito IslandsSince I could not receive the TV broadcast in the prefecture for a long time, in analog broadcastKanto wide areaOf the TV stations that are targeted for broadcastingNippon TV-Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.Broadcast of each station exceptOgasawara IslandsWas relayed using a satellite line that was transmitted toNHK satellite 1st-NHK satellite 2stTV also broadcast on the ground). In addition, about the topic in the prefecture, the caption information using the telephone line was inserted as needed. afterwards,2011(23) It became possible to send TV broadcast waves from the Okinawa main island by the signal sent by the submarine optical cable whose construction work was started from the beginning, and the NHK Okinawa Broadcasting Station and commercial broadcasting stations in July of the same year With the opening of the digital relay station, RBC became available for viewing 7 years after the start of TV broadcasting on the main island, OTV for 51 years after the opening of the main island, and QAB for 52 years after the opening of the main island.Daito Islands #TVSee).
- Sakishima IslandsRegarding the above, as for the beginning of the television broadcasting, the relay stations of the starting 3 companies and 4 stations (each of NHK and 2 commercial channels) were not installed, and the radio waves from the Naha main station were directly received, or via the cable TV relay line. Reception was also technically impossible, so199312I couldn't receive any ground wave in Japan until the relay station was opened. for that reason,Miyako TV,Ishigaki Cable TVIn the independent broadcasting of theKey stationFromProgram salesThe state that the program which purchased independently was netted continued.
- In addition, Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting (QAB)1995Since the relay station in the Sakishima Islands was not maintained even after the station opened in Miyako, Ishigaki continued to be broadcast by cable TV.TV AsahiI was broadcasting the program of staggered,2009(21) On October 10, a QAB relay station was set up as a new digital station, and it was finally available 21 years after the opening of the main island. Along with this, even on cable TV in Miyako and Ishigaki, as an alternative to not installing a relay station,Digi-ana conversion[Note 21] Was doing a complementary rebroadcast by.
- Blank for network affiliates
- There are no broadcasting stations of both NTV and TV Tokyo affiliates in the prefecture (along with Saga prefecture, NTV affiliates including cross-net stations are also outside the broadcasting target area), Some of the programs produced by each of these affiliated stations belong to other affiliated stations in the prefecture and are broadcast in the local frame. On OTV, the annual summer broadcast "24-hour TV], [High school quiz"andNew Year's Holidayof"High school soccerIn addition to participating in the broadcast of "(Okinawa Prefectural Games and Matches of Okinawa National Teams at National Games), Nippon Television has acquired broadcasting rights.FIFA World Cup OfRepresentation from JapanBattleSummer olympic OfWomen's marathonResponsible for the online competition broadcast in Okinawa Prefecture. (If the broadcast time falls during the time zone of a national broadcast program of the Fuji TV series, the program will be temporarily returned to the Internet or will be broadcast at a later date.)
- On NTV, for the purpose of news coverage in the prefecture where there is no affiliated stationNippon Television Naha BranchHas been installed. Regarding affiliated stations of the same station in the 1990sSouthwest broadcastWas scheduled to open, but it did not happen.
- Events due to isolation from other prefectures
- All of the prefectureCable tv stationThen, there are problems such as topography and technology in both analog and digital,Redelivery outside the prefectureWas not done at all, but from September 2019, 9Okinawa Cable NetworkIn the independent TV program "TV Mirai"Kagoshima Yomiuri TVStarted the internet of some programs of (Nippon Television Network System). From October 2020, 10 "NTV live distribution”, But it will be possible to watch programs of the Nippon TV series for a limited time.. AlsoRyukyu Shimpo-Okinawa Times OfA TV scheduleAlso, the out-of-prefecture broadcasting including Kagoshima prefecture is not posted at all, including the radio.[Note 22].
About AM radio stations
- Okinawa main islandNorth,Sakishima IslandsAnd in the Daito Islands, since it is easy to receive interference from neighboring countries mainly at night-early morning,Using FM radio wavesRelay broadcasting is being conducted.
- FM Okinawa1984AM radio station until converted toFar East BroadcastingWas being broadcast as.
- After returning to Okinawa, English broadcasting by private broadcasting continued for a while, and broadcasting by Ryukyu broadcasting (KSBK→ JORO) when returning1973Until, Far East Broadcasting Company (American corporation. Japanese broadcasting was handed over to Far East Broadcasting in December 1972)1977Was continued until.
About FM radio stations
- FM Okinawa cannot be directly received because there are no relay stations in the south of Tarama Island and the Daito Islands of Sakishima Islands.[Note 23].. NHK-FM cannot be received directly because there is currently no relay station in the Daito Islands[Note 24].
- またCommunity FM stationIs located in all cities of the prefecture, with a total of 2020 stations as of August 8[Note 25]Is broadcasting.
Rebroadcast on internet radio
- radikoThen, RBC i Radio, Radio Okinawa, and FM Okinawa are distributed for free distribution within Okinawa Prefecture and for services with a paid membership "radiko.jp Premium (Area Free Listening)" in other prefectures.
- NHK Net Radio Rajiru RajiruIn, you can listen to radios 1 and 2 and FM by selecting prefectural broadcasting of each broadcasting station in Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Sendai, Hiroshima, Matsuyama, but you can not select local broadcasting in Okinawa prefecture You can't listen with the same app.
Ryukyu KingdomBefore it was establishedJapanNativeUnder the influence ofMainland China,East AsiaAccepts and mixes cultures ofcultureHas built up. AlsoPacific WarlaterOkinawa returnFor a long timeRuled by the US ArmyBecause it had beenThe United States of AmericaThe culture of is also widespread.
animismIs based on the mainland of JapanShintoOriginal form of (Old Shinto) Is said to be close.Ryukyu ShintoAlso known as, outside the prefectureShrineAs something that hitsChopsticksThere is. Also,Ancestor worshipThe wind also remains strong.
BuddhismIs believed only by the royal family and some upper classes, and has hardly permeated ordinary farmers,funeralIt was only used as part of the rituals of. Even now, the number of Buddhist believers (danke) is extremely small compared to outside the prefecture. In recent years, funerals have come to be held in Buddhist ceremonies, but they are often held by non-denominational monks, rather than by denominational monks like outside the prefecture. Also, apart from the monkUtahThere are also cases of calling.
GraveWas influenced by China from rocky tombs using natural dens and graves dug into cliffs.Tortoiseshell graveHas changed toGable tombIs common. Also, how to process the remainsCremation,Bone washingThere was a unique custom of doing exercises, but in recent years, as a result of the guidance of public health centers and the women's movement,CremationCame to be implemented.
After the war, due to the influence of the US militaryキ リ ス ト 教Faith is also prosperous. Many of themProtestantBelong to a faction. About 210 places in the prefectureChristian churchExists and has the highest proportion of Christian population in the country.[Source required]
The words used in Okinawa can be roughly divided into the following three,Baby boom generationThe common language is remarkably common among prefectural citizens born laterHeiseiAfter that (especially2000When it comes to the citizens of the generation born after that, not only the Ryukyu language but also the Okinawan Japanese language (Uchina Yamatoguchi) has declined significantly, but no particularly strong protection policy has been taken.
- Ryukyu -From the standpoint of the Japanese government, although it is often treated as the Ryukyu dialect, which is the Japanese dialect,UNESCOIs different from Japanese among international organizations such asJaponicIs said to be an independent language belonging to. Although it is a traditional Okinawan language, its daily use is mostly limited to the elderly. From Meiji to the middle of Showa periodDialectIn addition to the promotion of a powerful movement to spread the standard language using, through the movement to return to the mainland and the post-war mass media and the development of school education,RyukyuWhile neglectingStandard languageSince the number of opportunities to come into contact with Ryukyu has increased overwhelmingly, the use of Ryukyu has become extremely rare, and it is particularly difficult for most of the generations born after Heisei to understand it. Roughly,National acronym(Kunigami dialect),Okinawan(Okinawa dialect),Miyako(Miyako dialect),Yaeyama(Yaeyama dialect),YonaguniAlthough they are divided into (Yonaguni dialects), there are some differences between these languages (dialogues) that may be different languages.Endangered languageIt has been.
- Uchina Yamatoguchi -Most of Okinawans' words are used on a daily basis, and the elements of Ryukyu are mixed based on the common Japanese language.New dialectIs said to be.Also known as the Okinawa Ben.However, even Uchina Yamatoguchi has a marked decline as the age of Okinawans born after Heisei (especially after 2000).accentIn terms of vocabularycommon languageIn many cases, there is almost no difference.
- Japanese common language ――It is used in mass media, school education and public institutions.Ryukyu, Okinawan, and common languages are used by the elderly born by the early Showa period (generally until the 1930s).Trilingual, A common language with Okinawa Ben in the generation born from the postwar period to the end of the Showa period (generally from the 1940s to the 1980s)bilingualMost of them can be used properly.On the other hand, in the generation born after Heisei (generally after the 1990s), a common language (Metropolitan dialect) Has a strong tendency to speak almost the same language, and is close to monolingual with almost only common languages.Also, the tendency is getting stronger year by year as the age goes down... In this way, it is feared that it is a region in Japan that is becoming increasingly common.
- English - Okinawa under American ruleSo English is virtually[Note 26]SecondOfficial terminologyMet.Elderly people who are still educated in English, military employees who are still working in the U.S. military base even after returning to work, those who are doing business with the U.S. military and soldiers, and families who are married to U.S. There are many people who understand English.
People with ancestors in the land of Okinawa are ``from the geographical, historical and cultural background.Ryukyu peopleThere is a position to say. Racially, it is said that northern traits (Kyushu, etc.) were introduced from prehistoric times to the 10th century,Molecular biologyIt has been confirmed that this study is genetically similar to the Japanese archipelago race (Yamato people).The Japanese government calls the Ryukyu people "Indigenous peopleAlthough it has not been certified, in August 2014United Nations Committee on the Elimination of RacismIs in conflict with the fact that it is an "indigenous people" with the reason that "the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization recognizes the unique ethnicity, history, culture and traditions of Ryukyu and Okinawa."..There is growing opposition from the Japanese government and LDP lawmakers that it is an "ethnic division work"..
Many of Okinawa's surnames are derived from place names. In the Ryukyu Kingdom era, royal families and samurai are equivalent to their current surnames.family nameName yourself,territoryIt changed every time was changed.Satsuma DomainOf the Satsuma domain after the invasion bypolicyとRyukyu Royal Government OfMeasureAs a result, many families have changed their family names from Japanese-style surnames to so-called Okinawan-style surnames. After disposing of Ryukyu, it is also possible for ordinary people to give their surnames, and after the Meiji era, many of the surnames in Ryukyu Yomi were changed to Japanese Yomi.
Traditional building techniques in Okinawa developed mainly in the late Ryukyu period (early modern times). Many buildings are constructed in the surrounding area (mainly in terms of construction style, materials, technology, etc.).Japanese architecture・There are many similarities with the Chinese architecture, but the unique development of Okinawa can be seen because of the different resource status and climate.
During the dynasty, the tiled wooden structure of the Ryukyu tribe, Nukija, and the common people are mainly called anaya.HutHad a residence in. Besides the residence,Castle wall,BridgeFor stone buildings such asRyukyu limestoneMany buildings were used, but many buildings were lost due to the Battle of Okinawa. Not only many wooden houses but also forests disappeared due to the war, a lot of craftsmen and materials were lost, and the American military led the reconstruction.Two by fourMany structural buildings were built.
Built outside the base for residence of U.S. military personnel and their familiesForeign houseThe number of households continued to increase even after returning to work, contrary to the reduction of bases outside the prefecture.Demand for housing to accommodate an increasing number of U.S. military personnel has increased, and private investment has led to large-scale land reclamation and residential construction for Americans.Even now, there are "foreigner residential areas" in Ginowan City, Kitanakagusuku Village, Okinawa City, Uruma City, Chatan Town, etc., forming a unique cityscape.
- Important traditional buildings preservation area
- Kumejima Tsumugi(fabric,1975）
- Miyako Jofu(Woven fabric, 1975)
- Yomitan Kaori (textile,1976）
- Yomitan mountain mincer(Woven fabric, 1976)
- Ryukyu Kasuri (woven fabric,1983）
- Shuri Ori (textile, 1983)
- Yonaguni Ori (weaving,1987）
- Kijoka Bashofu(fabric,1988）
- Yaeyama Mincer(fabric,1989）
- Yaeyama Jofu(Woven fabric, 1989)
- Ryukyu Bingata(Dyed products,1984）
- Tsuboya ware(Ceramics, 1976)
- Ryukyu lacquerware(lacquerware,1986）
- Chibana Kaori (woven fabric,2012）
In the era of American rule,Koza City(CurrentOkinawa City) Then,Korean War,Vietnam WarMany hard rock musicians played an active part in the popularization of clubs and live houses for the US soldiers who had lost their lives. The end of the war,U.S. dollarDecline in relative value of,A signAlthough it declined due to changes in the environment such as the closure of the bar, many musicians are still active throughout the country.
Celebrities from Okinawa Prefecture are also active today,Okinawa Actors SchoolHas produced many singers, idols, and talents, led by the graduates of.
After the war, residents living in the camp were provided with clothing released by the US military.Even after the camp was dismantled, U.S. military-released clothing was used for durability and convenience, and continues to this day.[Source required]It is on sale.
Okinawa's unique martial arts that existed beforeHandWas introduced during the Ryukyu Kingdom eraChinese martial artsWas born by fusingKarate(Starting from today), and laterkarateDeveloped into.. After the war, he went to overseas from Japan and American soldiers who learned karate.KarateHas gradually spread to the world.
Broad senseRyukyu martial artsConsists of manual karatetsu (karate) and weaponry. Generally, old martial arts refers to the latter, but karate and weaponry are closely related to each other..Stickman,TonfaThere are various techniques, but especiallyNunchakuWeapon technique using is famous in the world.
Compete for beauty, not speedAncient horse racing.. The Ryukyu Horse Racing (Nmaharashi) has been held for about 300-500 years, and since the Meiji era it has become an event for all citizens of the prefecture until the Pacific War.Ryukyu Horse RacingWas actively performed. From 2013 as a revival business of Ryukyu horse racingOkinawa Children's CountryWill be held in.
In mainland Japan7st centuryOr later,Rice cultivationWhile sacred toCarnivore TheFilthWas considered and was ostensibly contraindicated.However, Okinawa did not have this idea, and meat dishes developed from early on.Especially because of the influence of China豚 肉Cooking is traditionally developed.牛,(I.e.,boar,(I.e.Chii Richa, which cooks goat meat and blood, is unique to Okinawa.Ryukyu cuisine is far from the tradition of a maritime trading nationHokkaidoProductionKelpHas been used for a long time.
One of the best in JapanlongevityHealthy traditional for the reason of being a regionFood culture:It is thought that there may be.On the other hand, it developed during the U.S. military ruleFast food,American foodHas taken root, and the westernization of food is progressing.
In addition, the food culture of the American occupation has been passed down today.
Discrimination by Ryukyu people
Nimbucha (Nembutsu, Chongdara) under the jurisdiction of the Chuzan royal government (Ryukyu kingdom royal government) during the Ryukyu Kingdom era:Kyotaro) Other thanDiscriminatory peopleThere was noBecause of YamatoBuraku discriminationAlthough there is no such thing, it was an identity system society in which the disparity between royalty and samurai and the common people (serfs) was enormous.Also outside the cityShima societyThe old practice of still remains strong,Male and femaleAnd there is a tendency to exclude outsiders. What is "Sima"?islands"In addition to the"VillageIt also means "division".Mainland JapanVillage societyThere is a composition similar to.
Discrimination by Yamato
In mainland Japan, Okinawans were often treated discriminatoryly as being foreign. In 1903, at an exhibition, a prostitute from OkinawaAinu,Native TaiwaneseAlong with that, there was an incident that "exhibited" as a different ethnic group, causing repulsion of Okinawans (for details,Human Hall IncidentSee). When the number of migrants from Okinawa to the outside of the prefecture increased from the Taisho era to the early Showa period, there were many people unfamiliar with the language and customs outside the prefecture, such as the standard language and the sense of time. There was a proviso that "No Ryukyu people".
Opposition by the U.S. forces in Okinawa
During the post-war American era, the US military seized the land with bayonets and bulldozers, and a series of robbery, rape, and murder cases by US soldiers spurred anti-American sentiment among Okinawans. EspeciallyPaul W. CallawayHigh Commissioner for the Ryukyu IslandsSuppressed Okinawans with a very powerful attitude in those days (Caraway whirlwind).1970In December, triggered by a traffic accident by U.S. military personnelKoza riotHas evolved to.
Discrimination against people from Amami
Geographically and culturally closeAmami archipelagoWas invaded by the Ryukyu Kingdom from the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, but the Ryukyu Kingdom was the Satsuma Domain.Indirect controlReceivedBakuhan systemEven after entering below and being annexed from the Meiji Restoration through the Ryukyu disposition, it was still a region where human exchange with Okinawa was active.But,Pacific WarWhen the Amami Islands returned to their homeland first under the administration of the U.S. Occupation Army, basic human rights such as expulsion of Amami natives who returned to "Japanese nationality", deprivation of suffrage, and restrictions on property rights were severely restricted. Measures to be taken were introduced one after another by the petition of the residents of the main island of Okinawa.In addition, discriminatory sentiment spread to the private sector.The Okinawan media also reported on these issues.
Suppression of the Sakishima Islands
The Nakayama kingdom (Ryukyu kingdom) is harsh against the Sakishima islands that were in the Ryukyu Kingdom eraHead taxWas introduced and forced into oppression. In addition to the Satsuma domain and the royal palace, the history of double exploitation, forced enforcement, oppression and persecution of farmers by the local rulers of the Sakishima Islands continued until the extinction of the Ryukyu Kingdom, and even after the Meiji Restoration after Ryukyu disposal.Old common policy-Based forced exploitation by local rulers continued through the 20th century.. Due to the oppression by the authorities of Satsuma and the royal government, forced migration of farmers by the royal government and ruling groups, poor crops due to droughts and storms, andBig tsunamiNatural disasters such as these, epidemics and outbreaks of famine caused a great decline in the population.Yaeyama earthquake"reference).
The head tax of the Sakishima Islands1637It is said that it was institutionalized, and was taxed even in the year when the tax was heavy and the harvest was small, which caused the islanders to suffer. The head tax was taken to reinforce the vested interests of the former Ryukyu Kingdom even after the Ryukyu disposal.Old habitationSurvived by the plan.1893(Meiji26 years)Nakamura Jusaku,Joan Masayasu, Maira Hirara and Gama NishizatoOkinawa main islandAt the time, the petition of the Diet was overcome by overcoming the obstacles of government officials and samuraiInterior MinisterMetJun InoueWas delivered to. Nakamura's hometown (Niigata)ofYomiuri ShimbunA reporterYoshikazu MasudaArticle was made known to the public and was supported by public opinion. 8thImperial AssemblyIn1903(Meiji 36) Abolished, JapanNativeSimilar toland taxWas switched to.
Discrimination against mixed-race children
Children born between Americans and Asians, especially American soldiers who came to the Asian region and local womenAmerasianCalled. Many American military personnel and military members still live in Okinawa today, and many Amerasians continue to be born, but discrimination is deep-rooted. What you see on US military bases and on TV is often all about American culture that Amerasians raised in Okinawa know... Nonetheless, I can not be put in a public pool that is decided to be American by appearance and is picked up from a store Have been discriminated against.EspeciallyAfrican AmericanThis tendency is strong for mixed-race children.Before and after Memorial Day at public schoolsAnti-AmericanAs learning progresses,Yankee・Go home"BullyingTake a bath.. Moreover, not only Amerasian, but also her mother is being discriminated against and prejudiced... Also, the new school building site of Okinawa Christian School International, where many Amerasians were gathered,Industrial wasteWhen the students suffered from nausea and skin irritation due to the dumping traces, Okinawa PrefectureDioxin,PCBI issued a "safety declaration" without conducting an inspection, and eventually about 80 people dropped out of school..
Discrimination against leprosy
Okinawa PrefectureLeprosyIt is a region where a lot of cases have occurred, and from the end of the 20th century, 6% to 7% of new cases of Japanese are from Okinawa prefecture. However, discrimination and persecution against leprosy in the Okinawan society were severe..StripedIn Hansen's disease (called "Kuncher".beggarIs a Ryukyu dialect that meansGamaThere was a culture that quarantined cliffs, rubbish dumps, etc., and prohibited them from returning to Shima... If you die, do not put it in the clan's tomb, bury it upside down, and never be born againcurseApplied.. In the 50'sCrematoriumSince the number of funerals has increased, funerals outside the prefecture have spread to Okinawa. However, a curse that puts roasted beans on the remains (under the meaning of "This should come back to life if it sprouts, but never sprout because it is roasted") is still underneath..
Okinawans strongly resisted the movement to create a modern medical leprosy field..National Hansen's Disease SanatoriumA riot (Arashiyama incident) happened to prevent the installation, and a sanatorium was installed.Keiya AokiIn some cases, leprosy patients are being burnt. Aoki et al. finally reached the opening of the Okinawa Prefectural Kunigami Airakuen (currentlyNational sanatorium Okinawa Airakuen) Had less interaction with the community than other sanatoriums.
The misunderstanding about infectiousness is persistent,Ryukyu ShimpoArgued for the false idea that the faculty during treatment was spreading to children (later pointed out by other reporters as "the biggest spot on postwar Okinawa journalism").Leprosy prevention methodAbolition (1996), a public opinion poll before 87) found that XNUMX% of the population agreed to isolate all leprosy patients..
Discrimination against people with mental illness
A pre-return survey found that Okinawa had twice the prevalence of mental illness as outside the prefecture.In recent years, mental illness, sexual violence, family violence, school violence, suicide, etc. are top-level nationally..
What is characteristic of Okinawa is the view of disability based on indigenous beliefs and old practices that are not consistent with Western medicine. Family with mental illnessZashiki prisonLock inPrivate houseWas banned outside the prefecture in 1950, but in Okinawa, people with disabilities remained in prison even after returning, and their families were alienated from the local community and abandoned... Mental disorders are evil spirits (Madimun), and call for denial of this as superstitionPsychiatristWhile there isUtahChristianity is indigenous to the influence of faithOkinawa Christian GospelCriticized the claim itself as being said by evil spirits,schizophrenia,EpilepsyToEvil spirit payerIt is carried out.. There is a saying, "half a doctor, half a Utah," and there are cases where psychiatrists recommend Utah to patients with mental illness..
On the other hand, there are many people who recognize that people with mental illness are useful to society from the perspective that Utah is close to people with mental illness... Of those who have suffered from mental disorders, those who have come into contact with or possess possession with gods and ancestors are called Kamidari, and can exist as "positive madness" that is accepted by society..
Discrimination against SDF
Occupational discriminationAs,SDFThere is discrimination against.Return to mainlandAlong withSDFWas deployed to Okinawa, the SDF officers were called murderers,Self-defense personnelChildren were unable to attend school for more than half a year. In addition, after being shut down by various events, he was not allowed to claim himself as a Self-Defense Force even if he was allowed to participate. In some cases, local governments refused to register residents of SDF and their families, and refused to dispose of garbage.Naha HarleyIt was in 2001 that I was allowed to join the SDF in.
September 2017, 3Miyakojima City CouncilKaoru Ishimine isFacebook"(US) Marine CorpsTrained fromJapan Ground Self-Defense Force MiyakojimaWhen you come toU.S. ArmyWill never comeWoman assaultAn incident will happen”BurningTherefore, I apologized that "I am not criticizing the entire Self-Defense Forces" and referred to "(criticized) the mechanism of the army for war", but it became a flame again and Ishimine posted two posts Deleted from Facebook.. Miyakojima city council said, "Posting is a professional discrimination against SDF personnel and U.S. Marines, it must be said that it is a rant that can not be forgiven and it seriously damages the dignity of the city council." Passed 20, Opposition 3, Absence 1). Ishimine refuses to resign, saying, "I am not a member of parliament.".
- Creed Aniya Baseball Club
- FC Ryukyu(サ ッ カ ーJ League）
- Ryukyu Golden Kings(basketballB League）
- Ryukyu Corazon(Japan Handball League）
- Ryukyu Astida(Table tennisT League）
- Ryukyu Boxing Gym
Main sports event
Professional baseball OfSpring campThe land is concentrated in Okinawa Prefecture,2011(23), 12 teams out of 10 teams (only one army) camp in the prefecture. Below are the main sports parks andBaseball fieldWas mentioned.
- Okinawa Prefecture Ouyama Park
- Okinawa Prefectural Sports Park
- Urasoe Sports Park
- Ginowan City Baseball Stadium
- Chatan Park Baseball Field
- Okinawa City Baseball Stadium
- Ginoza Village Baseball Stadium
- Nago City Stadium
- Kumejima baseball field
- Miyakojima City Stadium
- Ishigaki Municipal Stadium
Works set in Okinawa Prefecture
- Himeyuri Monument (1953,Toei）
- Lightning karate(1956,Toei）
- The wolf yakuza kills me (1971, Toei)
- Turbulent Showa History Okinawa Battle (1971,Toho）
- Summer sister (1972,Japan ATG）
- Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla(1974,Toho）
- Okinawa Yakuza War(1976, Toei)
- Karate stupid generation (1977, Toei)
- The man is painful Torajiro Hibiscus flower (1980,Shochiku）
- Friend, quietly meditate(1985,Toei Central Film）
- Best Kid 2(1986）
- I want to see Marilyn(1988,Shochiku Fuji）
- A Sign Days (1989,Daiei）
- 3-4 x October(1990, Shochiku)
- Sonatine(1993, Shochiku)
- Mothra 2 Submarine Great Battle(1997, Toho)
- Fishing Fool Diary Eleven(2000, Shochiku)
- Letter from Niraikanai(2005, IMJ Entertainment = Xanadu = Ergo Brains = Visual Arts Institute)
- It looks like tears(2006, Toho)
- Waiting for Kafu(2009,Avex）
- Trumpet on the precipice (2016）
- Return negotiation person Someday, we will regain Okinawa(2018)
- Movie version Non Non Biyori Vacation(2018,KADOKAWA）
- TV drama
- crossroads (1978,NHK）
- Taiga drama Ryukyu Wind(NHK, 1993)
- Continuous tv novel(NHK)
- Song of sugar cane field(2003,TBS）
- Return negotiator -Someday regaining Okinawa-(2017,NHK BS Premium）
- Literary arts
- Disappeared tanker(Kyotaro Nishimura, 1975)
- Windmill festival(Eiichi Ikegami, 1997)
- Waiting for Kafu (Harada Maha, 2006)
- Kaze no Madim (Mahara Harada, 2010)
- Tsushima Maru — Goodbye Okinawa —(1982, Tsushima Maru Production Committee)
- White flag girl Ryuko (1988, Joint Film National Series Conference)
- Kankara Sanshin (1989, Kankara Sanshin Production Committee)
- Stratos Four(2003,UHF anime）
- BLOOD +(2005,MBS）
- Stitch!(2008, TV Tokyo)
- Let's go play!(2010）
- Eureka Seven AO(2012,MBS）
- Yatai Seven Leaf(2012,QAB）
- Love Live! (2nd term)(2014, Naha City/Onna Village/Motobu Town)
- Student council officers* (second term)(2014, Naha City, Taketomi Town)
- Haruka Receive(2018,RBC, Naha City/Uruma City)
- Summer sky Kanata
- Dolphin Divers
- Snow on the southern island
- Like a dragon 3
- I am an air traffic controller Airport Hero 3D Naha PREMIUM
- I am an air traffic controller 4 Naha
Honorary citizens of Okinawa
The title of the Honorary Citizens of Okinawa Prefecture is based on the Okinawa Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance (March 2003, 15 Okinawa Prefecture Ordinance No. 3) established on March 31, 15. Is given to those who are proud and respected by the citizens of the prefecture (Article 3 of the Ordinance).. The target person is "a person from Okinawa prefecture, a person who has lived in Okinawa prefecture or a person who is related to Okinawa prefecture, and contributes to the improvement of social welfare, the promotion of academic culture or sports or the industrial economy, and other social development. It is stipulated that the governor of Okinawa shall select the person with the consent of the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly (Article 2 of the Ordinance)... Those who are selected as honorary citizens will be presented with the honorary citizenship title of Okinawa prefecture, the Okinawan honorary citizenship badge and commemorative items (Article 3 of the Ordinance)..
|Name of winner||Occupation||Selection date||Remarks||Source|
|Yamanaka Sadanori||政治家||2003th of February 12||First generationOkinawa Development AgencySecretary|||
Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award
|Name of winner||Occupation||Date of award ceremony||Remarks||Source|
|Okinawa Shogaku High SchoolBaseball club||1999th of February 4||71th Selected High School Baseball TournamentFirst in OkinawaKoshienVictory.|||
|Hirokazu Uehara||wheelchairRace player||2008th of February 10||Beijing ParalympicsWheelchair marathonでsilver medalAcquisition.|||
|Konan High SchoolBaseball club||2010th of February 9||82th Selected High School Baseball TournamentandThe 92rd National High School Baseball ChampionshipWon. Koshien Spring-Summer consecutive title, the sixth school in history.|||
|Ai Miyazato||Professional golfer||2010th of February 12||5 wins on the US Women's Golf Tour of the same year.|||
|Susumu Nakazato||Wheelchair rugbyplayer||2016th of February 11||Rio de Janeiro ParalympicsWheelchair rugbyRepresentation from Japanplayer. Teambronze medalContribute to acquisition.|||
|Namie Amuro||singer||2018th of February 5||He has been active as a leading Japanese artist for 25 years.|||
- ^ Burned down in the 2019 Shurijo Castle fire.
- ^ The southernmost tip of JapanTokyoBelongs toOkinotorishimaHowever, people do not live in and civilians cannot enter freely.
- ^ Although there is a theory of "drifting", there are no documents or studies that interpret it as "drifting", and the original text is simply "Dou Agonawa".
- ^ 14 regions: Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto Inland, Kanto Seaside, Tokai, Hokuriku, Kinki Inland, Kinki Seaside, Sanin, Chugoku Sanyo, Shikoku, Kyushu Kitakyushu, Kyushu Minamikyushu, Okinawa.
- ^ In the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport,Island country(territoryIs all(I.e.6,852 islands that make up Japan, which is a country consisting of Remote islandDivided into 6,847 islands.. However, there is no such classification/division for the islands geographically.
- ^ Japanese(I.e.Top 10 islands by area:Honshu,Hokkaido,Kyusyu,Shikoku,Etorofu Island,Kunashiri Island,Okinawa main island,Sado Island,Amami Oshima,Tsushima.
- ^ Posted in the following "Locations of municipalities belonging to the main island of Okinawa".
- ^ In other words, it is probable that the Magiri system at this time almost inherited the Magiri system at the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom era (final).
- ^ In addition, the main island of Okinawa was roughly divided into three categories, "Kunigami", "Nakagami", and "Shimajiri".this isOld Ryukyu14-15th centurySanzan periodDerived from the national world (with some differences). "Underground three-way" in "Jiji-san Poshu Hanari" refers to Kunigami, Nakagami, and Shimajiri. "Morori" generally refers to the remote islands around the main island and the surrounding remote islands.
- ^ County officeIt refers to an era when it was functioning as an administrative entity.Since the abolition of the county system, the county remains a mere geographical name.The same is true outside Okinawa Prefecture, but the historical background is different in Okinawa Prefecture.
- ^ However, there was a time when Shuri Ward functioned as a part of Nakagami, such as the establishment of the Nakagami District Office for a period under the old county system.It was incorporated into Naha City after the war in Okinawa.
- ^ However, it was nominally regarded as a part of Ryukyu. Detail isThe history of the Amami archipelagoSee.
- ^ at that time,Inland(Non-colonial mainland Japan)Karafuto Agencyas well as the KurilButSoviet armyIt wasn't the "only ground battle"..
- ^ Osumi IslandsandKami Mishimaexcept for.
- ^ "Act on Special Measures for Return of OkinawaFormally, from the prewar Okinawa prefecture and the prewar prefecture's municipal system, after the warLocal government lawIt was decided that it would be inherited by Okinawa Prefecture and municipalities based on.It is just a matter of legal formal inheritance.
- ^ Upon return, Japan paid a total of $3 million to the United States (about 2000 billion yen at the current exchange rate (as of October 2016)).
- ^ As a result, the prefectures where the train is not runningTokushimaOnly became.
- ^ Yaeyama Daily2017On April 4st, the Okinawa main island version was published and the morning edition started, but from the end of February 1, it was integrated with the Yaeyama version and the delivery was canceled and switched to mail..
- ^ Currently, daily newspapers are sold mainly in the Tokyo metropolitan area (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama), and other areas are delivered by mail.
- ^ Ryukyu Broadcasting and Okinawa TV. Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting and radio are not posted.
- ^ On cable TV in Miyako and Ishigaki, the starting 3 companies and 4 stations also delivered analog broadcasting, but unlike those that had normal image quality of 4:3, QAB was started from the beginningLetterbox 16:9Was using.
- ^ In the past, there were many cases where re-transmission was not performed due to management reasons in other areas (equipment costs on the cable TV station side or pressure of existing stations in the prefecture), but the cable TV station in the center of the mainland prefectural office is It is common for all four major series to be retransmitted.In addition, since the two papers publish the program guide of the original channel of the major cable TV in the prefecture, the program guide of "TV Nirai" which partially retransmits the Kagoshima Yomiuri TV is posted.
- ^ A relay station was opened on Irabu Island in January 2019, and FM Okinawa can be received on Miyako Island and its surrounding remote islands.
- ^ However, NHK-FM2011(September 23) Since September, it has become possible to listen to it by simultaneous delivery via the Internet with the first and second radios, but since it is all broadcast from Tokyo, it is due to the original program of Okinawa prefecture and Kyushu/Okinawa block. If there is a program that is not delivered at the same time due to the reason, it cannot be heard unless a relay station is maintained. Two relay stations were opened in FY9, but the ones that were opened wereTokyoOgasawara IslandsOf a Chichijima-Hahajima both relay stations, for in Daito not still standing prospect of started broadcasting, Chichi-Hahajima both relay station after started broadcasting is to remain as the only NHK-FM area that can not be directly received by the radio broadcasting at the national Became.
- ^ 16 stations on the main island of Okinawa (2 stations in Naha City, Okinawa City, Ginowan City, Urazoe City, Tomigusuku City, Itoman City, Nanjo City, Uruma City, Nago City, Yonahara Town, Kitaya Town, Honbu Town, Yomitan Village 1 station), 1 station each on Kumejima (Kumejima Town), Miyakojima (Miyakojima City), Ishigakijima (Ishigaki City).
- ^ Although the official language is not specified in the Ryukyu Government Code and various laws and regulations, Japanese is used for the Ryukyu Government Code and various laws and regulations, and English is used for the decrees issued by the US military..
- ^ "Uchina”(Japanese). Shuri/Naha dialect voice database. 2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ National Institute of Japanese Language (2001) "National Institute for Japanese Language Institute 5 Okinawan Dictionary", Ministry of Finance, Printing Bureau, p. 538.
- ^ a b "Overview of remote islands / Okinawa Prefecture". 2017th of February 10Browse.
- ^ 260m north-northwest of the westernmost part of Japan Using rocks from Yonaguni Island, Okinawa Prefecture as a topographic map Ryukyu Shimpo, viewed June 2019, 6.[Broken link]
- ^ "[Island Trip Topic] Very popular with foreigners!5 remote islands in Japan ♪ | From island day, from travel day”(Japanese). shimatabibiyori.com. 2021th of February 5Browse.
- ^ Industry in Okinawa / Reason of Industry -2014-12-4 Browse
- ^ Yamazato (2004)
- ^ "Okinawa Compact Encyclopedia" Published by Ryukyu Shinposha, Akonawajima March 2003, 3
- ^ "Ryukyu History Dictionary" written by Morishige Nakayama, Ryukyu Educational Book, 1969
- ^ "Glossary”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2013th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism" website Remote island promotion section What is a remote island? (Basic knowledge of the island) Retrieved February 2009, 11
- ^ National Observatory (Edit)Science chronology 19 version P565 ISBN 4621077635
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture Area List by Island (160 of Okinawa Prefecture(I.e.Name and Area List) Okinawa Prefecture Land Countermeasures Section.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Nature Conservation Division, Culture and Environment Department, Okinawa Prefecture. 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Statistical data Okinawa's east, west, south and north ends”. Okinawa Prefecture Planning Department Land Measures Division. 2012th of February 8Browse.
- ^ "Knowledge/Travel/Summer Remote Island Information Site Shimajima in Okinawa Iheyajima / Nohojima”. Okinawa Prefecture Planning Department Regional Remote Island Division. 2012th of February 8Browse.
- ^ "Beautiful islands hateruma island”. Taketomi Town. 2012th of February 8Browse.
- ^ "Longitude and latitude of the north, south, east, and west end points of Japan". Geographical Survey Institute. 2012th of February 8Browse.
- ^ Okinawa Climate Okinawa Children's Land
- ^ Record of water supply restrictions (Okinawa Prefecture Enterprise Bureau)
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Seawater desalination facility (Okinawa Prefecture Enterprise Bureau)
- ^ Okinawa main island near sea earthquake Seismic intensity of less than 5 at Itoman Main island for the first time in 99 years Part of the ruins of Katsuren Castle collapsed -Ryukyu Shimpo (reported February 2010, 2)
- ^ "Press release Summer (June-August) weather". Japanese Meteorological Agency. pp. 17 (September 2010, 9). 2011th of February 7Browse.
- ^ "Today's summer solstice / bright clams". Ryukyu Shimpo (September 1999, 6). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Okinawa Compact Encyclopedia Kachibe”. Ryukyu Shimpo (March 2003, 3). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ “Okinawa observes snow for the second time in 39 years”. Okinawa Times(November 2016, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 2. 2021th of February 3Browse.
- ^ “Nago, Kumejima sleet for the first time in 39 years, the main island is the first“ snow ””. Ryukyu Shimpo(November 2016, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 3. 2021th of February 3Browse.
- ^ Japan Meteorological Agency About rain and snow "Have you ever snowed in Okinawa?"
- ^ "Snowfall at high temperatures-Limits and possibilities-Did it snow in Okinawa?"
- ^ (PDF) -Okinawa Meteorological Observatory, January 2016, 1
- ^ Asahi Shimbun January 2000, 1 The first page of the Asahi Shimbun "Tensei Human Language" (Asahi Shimbun compact edition, January 26, p. 1)
- ^ "Eh! Snow in Okinawa? Miyahara-san filmed a video". Ryukyu Shimpo: pp. Morning edition, 23 (this paper). (January 2000, 1) 2011th of February 8Browse. -12:20 on December 18, near Okinawa Prefectural Office,Pallet cloudSightings in front square
- ^ "Weather statistics”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2012th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)". Geographical Survey Institute (September 2016, 10). 2017th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Kerama Islands National Park was born -Okinawa Times (March 2014, 3, viewed on the same day)
- ^ “Yambaru National Park is born”. Okinawa Times: p. 1. (September 2016, 9)
- ^ "Tarama Prefectural Natural Park". Okinawa Prefecture. 2018th of February 8Browse.
- ^ Okinawa river -Okinawa Prefecture Civil Engineering Department River Division
- ^ Topography and geology of Okinawa and rivers, erosion control, coasts, etc. -Okinawa General Secretariat Development and Construction Department
- ^ University of the Ryukyus River characteristics and life history of fish in Okinawa
- ^ Okinawa International University Okinawa River
- ^ Okinawa river administration -Okinawa General Secretariat Development and Construction Department
- ^ "Chubu region / Okinawa prefecture". www.pref.okinawa.lg.jp. 2020th of February 11Browse.
- ^ https://www.pref.okinawa.lg.jp/site/doboku/kowan/keikaku/documents/documents/p1~10.pdf
- ^ Nippon.com [Japan's security] 18% of the area of Okinawa's US military base Okinawa main island Read September 2014
- ^ [Return to Okinawa 45 years] 70% of US military facilities are still concentrated 15% of the main island
- ^ Okinawa Ground Wars Japan's only → The largest government in Japan decides the Cabinet(Ryukyu Shimpo)
- ^ "Kadena of 1962 Okinawa "nuclear arsenal"" Mainichi Shimbun February 2016, 2 Tokyo evening edition
- ^ Jie Liu / Hiroshi Mitani / Daikei Yang, "History Recognition Across Borders" 12p University of Tokyo Press ISBN-4 13-023053-0
- ^ From "XNUMX Years of Submarine Lines"-Chronology of submarine communication cables in Japan/NTT World Engineering Marine HP
- ^ http://www.archives.pref.okinawa.jp/publication/2012/09/post-93.html
- ^ Governor Ono Nagashi died in Okinawa, XNUMX years old -Asahi Shimbun Digital November 2018, 8
- ^ "(PDF)". Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (September 2016, 2). 2016th of February 11Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Management Materials Group, Statistics Division, Planning Department, Okinawa Prefecture (February 2012). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ a b "(PDF)”. Okinawa Prefecture (December 2011, 12). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Prefecture population exceeded 140 million 12 increase in 10 years". Ryukyu Shimpo (September 2011, 9). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Health Promotion Division, Health and Welfare Department, Okinawa Prefecture. 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ a b “Census prefecture population 143 people”. Ryukyu Shimpo: p. 6. (September 2016, 11)
- ^ a b "(PDF)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2012, 3). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ Naomi Kuwae et al. (2006). “(PDF)". Okinawa Prefectural Institute for Health and Environmental Research No. 40University Hospital Medical Information Network Research Center. 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Okinawa Prefecture Planning Department Statistics Division (October 2011, 10). 2012th of February 6Browse.
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Okinawa Mozuku
- ^ Living Information Center, editorial department, "Collection of fish catch, aquaculture, processing, import/export, distribution, consumption 2005" Living Information Center, 2005
- ^ General Statistics on Tourists to the Area in 2009 (Okinawa Prefecture Tourism Planning Division)
- ^ "Inbound demand in Okinawa”(Japanese). Visit Lab. 2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ Request for tax reform in 19 5. Promotion of Okinawa -Cabinet Office (read October 2010, 10)
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ "29 (FY) Standings by Airport (EXCEL) ”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismCivil Aviation Bureau (August 2018, 8). 2019th of February 2Browse.
- ^ “Government considers support for Okinawa railway concept Station on the site of Futenma”. MSN Sankei NewsSangyo Keizai Shimbun. (November 2013, 8)
- ^ "Minami Daito Village plans to revive the railway "Sugar Train"". Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2013, 9)
- ^ Okinawa geography trivia(Although it is introduced as "National Railway Naha Port Station" in the link, it was accurately connected with the national railway.Ryukyu ShippingIs the station of
- ^ Okinawa's first pair lift "The Shigira Lift Ocean Sky" - Unimat Group, August 2016, 4
- ^ (PDF) - Cabinet OfficeOkinawa General Bureau, August 2014, 8
- ^ For a list of bus operators,(PDF) More excerpts.
- ^ Congestion loss amount per 1km by prefecture (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
- ^ “The bottom of the academic ability test is important to create a learning environment”. Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2012, 8) 2012th of February 10Browse.
- ^ Yomiuri Shimbun Advertising Guide Average number of copies sold by prefecture in the second half of 2010 (read September 2011, 9)
- ^ "Notice of cancellation of morning edition of Okinawa mainland version" (Press Release), Yaeyama Daily, (February 2019, 2)
- ^ "[NTV / Yomiuri TV / Chukyo TV] Trial for live distribution of terrestrial prime time on TVer Starts at 10 o'clock on Saturday, October 3!". Nippon Television Network Corporation, Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation, Chukyo Television Broadcasting Co., Ltd. (September 2020, 9). 2020th of February 9Browse.
- ^ Ryukyu Culture Overview Ryukyu Culture Archive
- ^ Internationalization of Japanese and language situation in Okinawa Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Fumio Inoue
- ^ Okinawa Prefectural Archivesreference
- ^ "United Nations Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Recommends Respect for Okinawan People's Will to Japan”(Japanese). Ryukyu Shimpo. 2020th of February 10Browse.
- ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “The Liberal Democratic Party vehemently opposes the UN view "Okinawa people are indigenous peoples" "It is an ethnic division work"”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020th of February 10Browse.
- ^ Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education Okinawa History and Culture
- ^ Okinawan residence
- ^ Okinawa's traditional karate and old martial arts
- ^ History of Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts
- ^ Koden Karate/Recommendation for Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts
- ^ "Forty-seven Prefectures Unchiku Encyclopedia," page 47 publisher-PHP library and author-Kazuro Yawata
- ^ Post-war American food culture
- ^ Akasaka, Norio, "Is there a discriminated person in Okinawa (below)?" Buraku Liberation, No. 554, 2005, p.55.
- ^ "Examine the Ryukyu Yaeyama head tax". K-aiser Collection search. Kokugakuin University.As of August 2018, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2018th of February 5Browse.
- ^ "Okinawa Prefecture Miyakojima Island Cost Reduction and Island Reform petition" (Meiji 28 (1895) XNUMXth Imperial Assembly approval)
- ^ Kurakichi Takara "People's Tax" ("National History Dictionary 15" (Hirobun Yoshikawa, 1996)) ISBN 978-4-642-00515-9）
- ^ Local children interact with marines-JSDF.ORG
- ^ Lee Kyo-Ai, Toyozumi Marcia, Naomi Noiri, Ran Haei, Tokuhei Akibe, Enoki Enui "Thoughts of "Japan" and "New Japan" living in Japanese society"Mukuge, No. 173, 2003
- ^ Kazumi Uesato "Amerasian Another Okinawa", Kamagawa Publishing, 1998, p.28, 46
- ^ Hiroshi Noro "A Study on "Amerasian School in Okinawa"", Bulletin of Tokyo Polytechnic University Humanities and Society, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2004, p.28
- ^ Kazumi Uezato "Amerasian Another Okinawa", Kamagawa Publishing, 1998, p.15
- ^ Hiroshi Noro "A Study on "Amerasian School in Okinawa"", Bulletin of Tokyo Polytechnic University Humanities and Society, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2004, p.27
- ^ Japan Leprosy Association Hansen's Disease New Surveillance Group “Statistical analysis of new leprosy patients (1993-2000) “Journal of the Japanese Leprosy Society” 71, 2002, p.224
- ^ Norihisa Ishii, Yasuyuki Sugita, Hiroshi Nakajima "Trends in New Leprosy: From 1993 to 1997", The Journal of the Japanese Dermatological Association, vol. 109, 1999, p.763.
- ^ JFBA Legal Research Foundation Verification Committee on Hansen's Disease Problem “Verification Meeting on Hansen's Disease Problem Final Report” 2005, p.697
- ^ Fumaya Nakamura "<Location of people with Hansen's disease-Okinawa society and <isolation place>"" Bulletin of Faculty of Social Welfare, Yamaguchi Prefectural University, No. 14, 2008, p.42, 44
- ^ Fumaya Nakamura "Two Funeral Rituals in Okinawan Society: The Problem of Hansen's Disease in Okinawa and the "Special Funeral Law"", Bulletin of Faculty of Social Welfare, Yamaguchi Prefectural University, No. 11, 2005, p.44-46
- ^ Ryoko Shiogetsu, "The Present Day of Death in Okinawa: Spread of Cremation, Use of Funeral Services, Requests to Monks," Bulletin of Nihonbashi Gakukan University, No. 7, 2008, p.52, 61
- ^ Fumaya Nakamura “Two Funeral Rituals in Okinawan Society: Problems of Hansen's Disease in Okinawa and “Special Funeral Law””, Bulletin of Faculty of Social Welfare, Yamaguchi Prefectural University, No. 11, 2005, p.24
- ^ Koba, A., Ishii, N., Mori, S., & Fine, PEM (2009). "The decline of leprosy in Japan: patterns and trends 1964-2008". Leprosy Review: 80, P.439
- ^ JFBA Legal Research Foundation Verification Committee on Hansen's Disease Problem “Verification Meeting on Hansen's Disease Problem Final Report” 2005, p.698
- ^ Naomi Ayana "Voice of Silence: Mental Illness in the Battle of Okinawa," Quarterly War Responsibility Study, No. 52, 2006, p.9
- ^ (PDF) 40th Anniversary Okinawa International Symposium "Okinawa Studies to date"
- ^ Shimaro, "Social Change and Treatment of People with Mental Illness-Experience in Okinawa-", Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, Vol. 77, 1975, p.450
- ^ Kiwako Naito "Thinking from Ie Island, Okinawa""Monthly Normalization" November 1999 issue
- ^ Yoshimasa Ikegami, “The Stage of Evil and Holy Spirits, The Salvation World in Okinawa's Popular Christianity,” Animal Publishing, 1991, p.84, 138
- ^ "The "cultification" of the Christian Church"July 2008, 7 issue of "AERA"
- ^ Yasuyo Nomura, "Issues on "Coexistence" between Facilities and Communities-From a Survey of Facilities for People with Mental Illness in Okinawa Prefecture"" Bulletin of Kansai University of Welfare Sciences, Vol. 14, 2010, p.92
- ^ Yasuyo Nomura, "Issues on "Coexistence" between Facilities and Communities-From a Survey of Facilities for People with Mental Illness in Okinawa Prefecture"" Bulletin of Kansai University of Welfare Sciences, Vol. 14, 2010, p.90
- ^ Ryoko Shiotsuki "Sacred Madness: The Possession of Okinawa Shamanism" Musashi Tachikawa (ed.) Healing and salvation Learning from Asian religious traditions Tamagawa University Press, 2001
- ^ “Is the base of the Self-Defense Forces a nuisance facility in Okinawa?”Yomiuri Shimbun. (June 2012, 5). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 5. 2017th of February 3Browse.
- ^ Facebook of Miyakojima City Council burns down "A woman assault case will occur if the Self-Defense Forces trained by the US military come" Sankei Shimbun 2017.3.12
- ^ “Resignation to Kaori Ishimine/Miyakojima city council, who posted on FB when “Self-Defense Forces come and rape women”” Miyakojima city council approved by majority. Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 3)
- ^ "Announced on NHK morning serial heroine" Asaichi "The next stage is Okinawa". Okinawa Times(November 2021, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 3. 2021th of February 3Browse.
- ^ "NHK morning drama starring Yuina Kuroshima's hometown Okinawa stage" Chimudondon "next spring broadcast". Ryukyu Shimpo(November 2021, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 3. 2021th of February 3Browse.
- ^ a b c Okinawa Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance -Okinawa prefecture, browsed on July 2019, 7.
- ^ Those selected as honorary citizens -Okinawa prefecture, browsed on July 2019, 5.
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award Commendation Rules -Okinawa prefecture, browsed on July 2019, 7.
- ^ Those who received the prefectural honor prize -Okinawa Prefecture Governor's Office Secretary Division, updated November 2012, 11
- ^ Prefectural Citizen's Honor Award to Beijing “Gin” Kamyonara -Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting Q Plus, October 2008, 10
- ^ Konan High School Baseball Club awarded "Prefecture Award" -Miyako Shimpo, September 2010, 9
- ^ Indigo Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award "Hope and spirit" -Nikkan Sports, August 2010, 12
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award Commendation Ceremony (11 November) -Okinawa Prefecture Governor's Office Secretary Division, updated November 2017, 2
- ^ Commencement ceremony for the Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award for Namie Amuro (May 5) -Okinawa Prefecture Governor's Office Secretary Division, updated November 2018, 6
- Category: Okinawa
- Okinawa memorial day -A holiday in Okinawa, which was set by the Ordinance as a memorial day for the Battle of Okinawa.
- Sightseeing spots in Okinawa
- List of Japanese local governments
- Geography of japan,Region of Japan
- Japanese archipelago,Nansei Islands,Ryukyu Islands
- Native, Remote island
- (I.e.,Island country,List of islands
- Taisho Ward - OsakaOsakaWard. It is called "Little Okinawa" because it is a region with many immigrants from Okinawa Prefecture and handles a lot of Okinawan food and ingredients.
- Okinawa Emigration(Colonia Okinawa, West: Colonia Okinawa)- ボリビアSanta Cruz DepartmentA settlement set up by migrants from Okinawa, Japan.
- Okinawa(Ryukyu Wikipedia）
- OkinawaGeographic data related to- Open street map
- For Wikitravel,OkinawaThere is a travel guide about.
- Official website
- Okinawa Tourism Information Website Okinawa Story -Okinawa Tourism Convention Bureau
- Okinawa Prefecture Area List by Island 160 of Okinawa Prefecture(I.e.Name and Area List-Land Preservation Section, Okinawa Prefecture
|Changes in administrative districts|
1879 - 1945 (First Okinawa Prefecture)
Ryukyu Islands US Military Government
Ryukyu Islands U.S. Government
|Changes in administrative districts|
1972 - (First Okinawa Prefecture)