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😷 | Confirmed infection of 1386 people nationwide New coronavirus


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Confirmed infection of 1386 people nationwide New coronavirus

 
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In addition, 104 people were infected and 96 people died on the 13th, including 1,386 people in Okinawa prefecture and 32 people in Osaka prefecture.
 

On the 13th, 1,386 people were infected with the new coronavirus nationwide.In Tokyo on the 13th, 304 ... → Continue reading

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Okinawa

Okinawa(Okinawa,Okinawan: Uchina / ʔucinaa /[1][2],British: Okinawa Prefecture) IsJapan OfKyushu region(Kyushu and Okinawa region) Located inPrefecture.Prefectural office location TheNaha.

In the westernmost part of Japan,Okinawa main island,Miyakojima,IshigakijimaComposed of many islands[3].

Overview

Kagoshima OfSatsunan Islandsexcept forNansei IslandsIslands (Okinawa Islands,Sakishima Islands,Daito Islands),East China SeaThe Pacific OceanSandwiched between. It covers an area of ​​2,281 square kilometers and is the smallest in Japan's prefectures.Kagawa,Osaka,TokyoIt is the 4th largest after Japan and is also the prefecture that includes the southernmost region of Japan where people live.[Note 2]. Also,Yaeyama DistrictYonaguni TownIs in the westernmost part of JapanMunicipalitiesAndYonaguni IslandAt the northwest end ofTuisiIs the westernmost point in Japan[4].

About 9% of the population of the prefectureOkinawa main island8% of the prefecture's population is concentrated in the central and southern part of the main island.Naha city centerThree major metropolitan areasEqual toThe population densityThere is.

Almost allSubtropicalClimate, partly熱 帯Belongs to.It has a mild climate throughout the year, with minimum temperatures rarely below freezing.

Sea transport (Sea lane) And military points (First archipelago line) Located in important places asUS military bases in JapanExists. As the main US military facilities,Kadena Air Base,Futenma Air Base,Camp, butlerAnd so on.

From historical background (described later), religion, culture and customs, personal names and dialects, cuisine,Food culture:And industries, demographics and income disparitiesYoshimaThere is a big difference with.Popularly speaking of Okinawa "outside the prefecture"Inland(Nichi)" and Japanese outside Okinawa may be called "Nichia".

One of the best in Japan because it is one of the few southern islands in JapanResortIt became a place and became a standard summer tourist destination for Japanese people.in particular2001 OfTV drama"ChuraAfter the broadcast, Okinawan culture has become more familiar than the boom outside the prefecture, and the number of tourists and immigrants from outside the prefecture has increased significantly.Cultural experience as Okinawa Prefecture,Okinawan cuisine,leisure,Marine Sports,War ruinsEtc. as a strengthTourismWe are particularly focusing on the field.The global name recognition of Okinawa as a whole is still low,Zamami IslandOnly Michelin Green Guide Japan has won two stars and has become a national park, so it has been widely introduced as a tourist attraction in Japan overseas and has gained a certain degree of name recognition.[5].

Looking at the industry ratio in Okinawa prefecture, it includes tourismTertiary industryAccount for 79.2%Primary industryIs 5.4%,Secondary industryIs low at 15.4%[6].. Okinawa isPacific highLocated on the south side ofTropical cycloneBecause it is close to the sea area where typhoons occur, the weather in Okinawa tends to be rough from the beginning of September to the beginning of November during the typhoon season, and it departs and arrives in Okinawa.Passenger planeIs easy to cancel. However, since September is the off-season despite the high temperature, it is possible to travel cheaply under almost the same conditions as in summer.

In the martial arts worldkarateIt is world-famous as the birthplace of Ryukyu Karate, and many foreign students are practicing in the karate dojo in the prefecture. From boxing in IshigakiGushiken High SchoolHas produced many world champions and famous players.

Name

The origin of the place name "Okinawa" comes from "Oki (offshore) (fish) is (place)" which means "offshore fishing ground" (Inami Fuyu), and "Oki (Oki/Far) Naha (place)", which means "a place off the coast" or "a place far" (Hiro Onna).

Tankai MifuneWritten byKangenIn the biography of "Toudaiwajo Toseiden", which was established in 779,Tenpyo KatsuhoIt is stated that the envoy to Tang China arrived at Akonahashima on November 5, 753.[Note 3][7]I heard that this island was referring to the main island of Okinawa[8].. Later, it was called “Ryukyu” or “Ryukyu” by the Chinese name.

Ryukyu disposalAt the time ofMeiji governmentWithinRyukyu prefectureWas also considered. this is1879(12th year of Meiji),Ryukyu DomainWas abandoned and was climbing up when Okinawa was established. Lord of the InteriorIto HirobumiFrom the Prime MinisterMimi SanjoThe text on the Ryukyu disposal dated March 3 of the same year, which was submitted to Ryukyu Prefecture, states that "Ryukyu Clan was abolished, Ryukyu Prefecture was abandoned, and the fact that it was announced was declared by the Prefectural Office Ha Shuri Ni." Was used, but it was not adopted. The history of this period is unknown,ChineseIt can be inferred that Okinawa was selected because the intention to belong to Japan became clearer than the origin of Ryukyu.Also oldShinano country Nagano, OldUeno country GunmaIt is thought that one of the reasons is that there was a principle that a wide range of area names such as the old country name should not be used as the name of the prefecture.Originally, "Okinawa" as a termOkinawa main islandThe Amami archipelago was officially incorporated into Japan with the establishment of Okinawa Prefecture.Okinawa Islands-Sakishima IslandsThe whole area came to be called "Okinawa" and it was also broadly interpreted.[9].

Geography / Region / High Seas

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismOkinawa, which is one of Japan's 14 regional divisions, consists of only one prefecture in Okinawa.[Note 4].. In addition, it may be called a part of "Kyushu region" or "Kyushu/Okinawa region" ("Kyushu #Modern "Kyushu"See).Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs "Okinawa main island","NativeIt's one of the five islands[Note 5][Note 6]. Geographical Survey Institute,Japan Coast GuardAccording to Okinawa Prefecture consists of 363 islands[3].. 49 manned islands and numerousUninhabited islandConsisting of 0.01km2There are 160 islands with the above area[13].. About 1,000 from the easternmost point to the westernmost pointkmWith a vast prefectural area, the northernmost to the southernmost area is about 400km.[14].. The Nansei Islands extend from Kagoshima Prefecture to near Taiwan, and are geographically distributed in the north.Tokara IslandsUp toAmami archipelagoOkinawa IslandsandSakishima IslandsIt is roughly divided into three. Okinawa main islandMiyakojimaBetweenMiyako KaikyoIt is called 145 even in the narrowest sectionnautical mile(About 270km), of which about 48 nautical miles (about 89km)WatersConnected water areaAnd the remaining 97 nautical miles (about 180 km)Exclusive economic zoneIt has become. The distance between Yonaguni Island and Taiwan is about 54 nautical miles (about 100 km).

Edge of Okinawa[15]
(I.e.Local governmentRemarks位置
NorthernmostIwo TorishimaKumejima TownLimited to manned islandsIheya Island[16]
Location of Okinawa Prefecture (in the Nansei Islands)
Iwo Torishima
Iwo Torishima
Hateruma Island
Hateruma Island
Kitadaito Island
Kitadaito Island
Yonaguni Island
Yonaguni Island
Naha
Naha
Iheya Island
Iheya Island
Okinawa Prefecture (Nansei Islands)
Southernmost pointHateruma IslandTaketomi TownJapan's southernmost inhabited island[17]
Easternmost pointKitadaito IslandKitadaito Village
Westernmost pointYonaguni IslandYonaguni TownJapan's westernmost island[18]

Although there are many remote islands, medical care in remote islands is lacking due to human resources or economic reasons,hospitalWithoutClinicThere are many islands called Minami. Therefore, in the case of emergency patients who cannot be treated on remote islandsOkinawa main islandBy airJapan Ground Self-Defense Force,Japan Coast GuardIs going. In addition,Miyakojima,IshigakijimaSince there are prefectural general hospitals in the area, emergency cases on remote islands around these islands may be transported to Miyako Island or Ishigaki Island instead of Okinawa main island.

Within a radius of 1,000 km of Naha City, which is the prefectural capitalKyushu IslandWhole areaShimonoseki,Shanghai,Fuzhou,Taiwan IslandThe entire area is included, and within 1,500 kmOsaka,Nanjing,Seoul,Pyongyang,Manila,Hong KongAnd so on. Within 2000 kmTokyo,Sendai,Beijing,Shenyang,Haikou City, Hainan Province,Changchun,VladivostokEtc., and within 2500 kmWakkanai,成都,Chongqing,Hanoi,Guam,北 マ リ ア ナ 諸島,パラオIs exactlyEast Asia-Southeast AsiaJapanIt is in a position that can be said to be a contact point with.

The central and southern part of the main island of OkinawaNaha,Okinawa CityUrbanization and population concentration are progressing mainly in, and more than 5 million people live in about one-fifth of the total area (Okinawa main island See also). Moreover,Extraterritorial lawThere are many U.S. military bases, and the available area is even more limited. for that reasonThe population densityIs the 9th place in the whole country,Three major metropolitan areasExcluding the prefectures ofFukuokaSecond highest after.

Geology

Ryukyu Islands on the Pacific Ocean sideRyukyu TrenchAnd on the East China Sea sideOkinawa TroughSandwiched between. Ryukyu TrenchPhilippine Sea Plate Eurasia plateIt was made by diving intoNankai TroughThe cause is similar to. In the back sea basin Okinawa trough, the Eurasian plate was torn in a new age and collapsed 1000-2000mIt is a pit and there are hydrothermal deposits. Geologically, Okinawa Island and Amami Oshima of the Ryukyu Islands (islands) are called Naka Ryukyu, which is sandwiched between the Kerama Sea Fissure and the Tokara Straits. When the Philippine Sea Plate sinks below the Eurasia Plate, which becomes the land-side slope, it is composed of sediment on the oceanic crust that is pressed against the edge of the land-side slope Eurasia Plate of the trench) It is roughly divided into the northern side of Okinawa Island, which is made from old accretionary deposits of 3 million years ago, and the southern side of Okinawa Island, which is made up of local deposits made 5000 million years ago.

NATURE

Biology
SubtropicalIn the zoneBiology Blessed with a favorable climate, there are many valuable flora and fauna. In the northern part of Okinawa main islandYamaharaと 呼 ば れ る森林Has spread,Noguchi Gera,Yanbaru Kina,Yambaru Tenaga Kogane such asNatural treasureAnd precious creatures inhabit. Part of the coastline between Yamahara and the main island of Okinawa,Kerama IslandsEtc.Okinawa Coast National MonumentIs specified in. A part of Iriomote Island and Ishigaki IslandIriomote Ishigaki National ParkHas been designatedmangroveIn addition to spreading the forest,Iriomote WildcatSuch precious creatures inhabit. In addition,Ministry of the EnvironmentSpecified byImportant wetlands in Japan 500Of these, 55 are in Okinawa Prefecture. this is,HokkaidoThis is the second largest number in Japan after (61 locations).
(I.e.Water shortage
2005From (17)2007(19) Each year6ToRainy season frontWith heavy rainThunderAttacked the main island of Okinawa, flooding everywhere,Landslide,LandslideAnd so on. In the normal year, there is a lot of precipitation throughout the year,rainy seasontyphoonDue to the fact that there is a lot of rainfall due to rain, large fluctuations from year to year, and because there is no large river and it immediately flows into the sea, it is easy to fall into a water shortage in terms of climate and topography.[19].. In addition, the population of about 1946 in 51 was restored to the mainland.1972(Showa 47) increased to about 96,1990 eraOften due to lack of water until the first halfWater outageWas made[20][21].. Especially1981-1982 droughtIn Japan, water supply was restricted for 326 days, the longest in Japan. Therefore, many houses have a water tank installed on the roof. However, the water transfer from the northern part of the Okinawa main island to the southern part has progressed,1997(9) stable water supply possible regardless of climateDesalinationFacilityChatan TownBecause it was completed in[22],2005Although the prefecture's population increased to about 17 million in 136, the number of people running out of water has decreased.
Earthquake
In Japan, which is called an "earthquake powerhouse,"KyusyuAs with the above, the number of (feeling) earthquakes per year is small. But,Non-life insurance rate calculation mechanismAccording to the latest collection of statistics, the area is second-class, and it is no longer considered to be an area with a particularly low risk. in the past1771 OfYaeyama earthquakebyBig tsunamiso,Sakishima IslandsHas caused a lot of damage. recently2010(22)Earthquake near the main island of OkinawaFor the first time in about 100 years, we observed seismic intensity of 5 or more on the main island of Okinawa,Katsuren Castle RuinsPart of the castle wall collapsed[23].

climate

The climate classification in JapanSouthern Japan climateBelong to.

Miyakojima,Tarama Island,Ishigakijima,Iriomote Island,Yonaguni Island,Hateruma IslandandOki Daitojima The熱 帯In a sex climateKöppen climate classificationThen.Rainforest climate (Af), other areasSubtropicalBy sexWarm and humid climate Belongs to (Cfa). High temperature and high humidity in each region of OkinawammAs a result, the average annual temperature is about 22.° CHas become. However, the maximum temperature exceeds 35℃Extremely hot dayAlmost never[24].. This is because Okinawa has a small land area and is surrounded by the sea (Oceanic climate) FromFern phenomenonAnd a large scale brought by the weak winds and urbanizationHeat island phenomenonThis is because there is no such factor (however, there are research reports on the small-scale heat island phenomenon in urban areas).Also in OkinawaTyphoon ginzaIs called and manytyphoonApproach. If we focus on each month,rainy seasonIt is common in May, which is the average period of entry, and in August, when many typhoons approach.In addition, the daylight hours are long in July and short in January and February in winter.In winter, there are many rainy and cloudy days due to the influence of the monsoon from the north.By the end of the rainy season,Summer solstice south wind(Kurachibe on the main island of Okinawa, Kurchibai around Miyako and Yaeyama[25]) Called a strong southward wind with a speed of 10 m or more per second, signaling the arrival of summer(I.e.Known as[26].

Snowfall

It is very rare to have snow in winter,1977(52)May 2ToKumejimaso,2016(28)May 1In Kumejima and Nago City respectivelySleet(On the weather recordsnowSame treatment) was observed[27][28].Japanese Meteorological AgencyOfficially announced the only two snowfall records in Okinawa Prefecture, and Kumejima snowfall is the southernmost snowfall record in Japan.[29].

Before the start of observation,Ryukyu KingdomAccording to the "Kyuyo"1774,1816,1843,1845,1857Each of them records that there was snowfall in the current area of ​​Okinawa prefecture.[30].

Incidentally,Heavy snowfall in January 38Then in various parts of the prefectureFrost,Hailstone,leopardEtc. have been observed and damage to agricultural products has occurred.[31].

1999(11)May 12And before and after that, there were several sightings reported that "it snowed" in Naha city etc.,NHK Okinawa Broadcasting StationThe video of the "Snow-like thing" was broadcasted in Japan, but the weather station was negative because the temperature was high.[32][33], It is not an official snowfall record.

Meteorological data for various areas in Okinawa Prefecture[34]
Average price
(Monthly)
Okinawa IslandsDaito
Islands
Miyako IslandsYaeyama Islands
Okinawa main islandYi
Be
First name
(I.e.
Handing over
Jia
apply
(I.e.
Long time
Rice
(I.e.
south
L
to East Malaysia
(I.e.
Palace
ancient
(I.e.
many
good
while
(I.e.
IshigakijimaIriomote Island
Photo
while
(I.e.
versus
that
Country
(I.e.
Kunigami Village
Oh
NagoKin TownNahaNanjo City
Number of threads
Tono CastleBetween IharaSonoOhara
Climate classificationcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAAfAfAfAfAfAfAfAf
average
temperature

()
Warmest
Month
26.7
(May)
28.8
(May)
28.6
(May)
28.9
(May)
27.1
(May)
28.3
(May)
26.7
(May)
28.8
(May)
28.5
(May)
28.7
(May)
29.0
(May)
29.5
(May)
28.8
(May)
28.9
(May)
28.9
(May)
28.9
(May)
28.8
(May)
The coldest
Month
14.5
(May)
16.3
(May)
16.2
(May)
17.0
(May)
15.2
(May)
16.1
(May)
15.3
(May)
16.7
(May)
17.7
(May)
18.0
(May)
18.4
(May)
18.6
(May)
18.3
(May)
18.3
(May)
18.0
(May)
18.8
(May)
18.4
(May)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
most
Month
309.5
(May)
248.2
(May)
228.8
(May)
260.5
(May)
253.3
(May)
269.9
(May)
268.8
(May)
263.9
(May)
200.6
(May)
262.5
(May)
249.6
(May)
261.6
(May)
250.6
(May)
273.6
(May)
284.1
(May)
197.7
(May)
293.2
(May)
Minimum
Month
138.3
(May)
96.2
(May)
78.3
(May)
102.8
(May)
111.7
(May)
97.5
(May)
124.1
(May)
119.0
(May)
84.7
(May)
130.8
(May)
127.2
(May)
126.3
(May)
122.3
(May)
141.6
(May)
137.6
(May)
106.2
(May)
138.5
(May)
sunshine
Time

(Time
Longest
Month
239.2
(May)
245.7
(May)
218.1
(May)
238.8
(May)
210.1
(May)
289.8
(May)
230.5
(May)
255.4
(May)
278.8
(May)
246.7
(May)
199.1
(May)
264.5
(May)
245.6
(May)
253.2
(May)
245.4
(May)
259.3
(May)
258.9
(May)
Shortest
Month
78.3
(May)
86.2
(May)
88.3
(May)
87.1
(May)
93.0
(May)
91.5
(May)
87.8
(May)
77.4
(May)
114.5
(May)
82.6
(May)
73.9
(May)
82.1
(May)
70.5
(May)
74.5
(May)
86.5
(May)
91.9
(May)
55.7
(May)
  • Average value from 1981 to 2010 (However, from 1971 to 2000 for Kin Town and Tarama Island)

islands

nature Park

terrain

Mountain
River

The characteristics of rivers in this prefecture are that they are steep and the length of the river is short,Basin areaIs small[39].. Therefore, the river flow rate changes significantly, and it is easy to fall into water shortages due to heavy rainfall and light rainfall. AlsomangroveIt forms a natural environment unique to the subtropical zone, such as forests[40].. Currently in northern OkinawaRed soilSpill, from a barn in the South CentralDrainageRivers affected by汚染Is a problem[41][42].

This prefecture is the only one in Japan,First-class riverDoes not exist.Second-class riverIs based on the request of the governorOkinawa Promotion Special Measures ActIs under the direct control of the Japanese government to carry out improvements and repairs.[43].

  • Urauchi River -With the longest river in Okinawa Prefecture, including the Mariyudu Waterfall.
Lakes and tidal flats

Area classification

As of 2019, there are 11 cities, 5 counties, 11 towns, and 19 villages in Okinawa Prefecture.

In modern times (2020), the area of ​​Okinawa Prefecture isNorthern region,Chubu region, southern region (southern remote island region), Miyako / Yaeyama regionOita[44][45].

The southern remote island area may be included in the southern area, but excludes the main island of Okinawa, Ie Island, Iheya Island, and Izena Island.Okinawa IslandsDaito IslandsIt is a concept that includes the towns and villages of the islands of.

In addition, the village areas of Iejima, Iheyajima, and Izenajima are included in the northern region (the term "northern remote island region" is not official).

However, it is a remote island around the main island and belongs to Kunigami Village, Ogimi Village, Nakijin Village, Motobu Town, Nago City, Onna Village, Uruma City, Tomigusuku City, Itoman City, Nanjo City.[Note 7]Is not included in these remote island areas.

Historical regional division

1896(29th year of Meiji)May 4 OfCounty systemWith the enforcement (Okinawa prefectural system)Naha Ward,Shuri WardWhen,Kunigami,Nakagami-gun,Shimajiri,Miyako-gun,Yaeyama District5 counties were established (2 wards, 5 counties).At this point, it had continued since the inauguration of Okinawa Prefecture.Old common policyThe Magiri system remained during the Ryukyu Kingdom era[Note 8][Note 9]..This continued until April 1908, 41 (Meiji 4), when Okinawa Prefecture's own island town and village system was enforced, and it was transferred from Magiri to the village (Son).

In particular, the county division at the time of the enforcement of the Okinawa prefectural system in 1896 was "oldCounty systemMay be said[Note 10], The custom of dividing into 5 areas (5 districts) with this boundary still remains in the system.

Due to this historical background, from the beginning of the old county system to the present dayIheya Village-Izena villageBelongs to Shimajiri District, but on the other hand, it is incorporated into the northern region as a modern administrative division.In addition, excluding the main island of Okinawa and Ie IslandOkinawa IslandsWhen,Daito IslandsMunicipalities of the islands also belong to Shimajiri-gun, and are included in the southern region (southern remote island region), which is not necessarily the southern region.

Other administrative divisions and metropolitan areas

In addition to the above, the regional divisions by the government are on the main island of Okinawa (including surrounding remote islands).Wide administrative areaAsNorthern wide area,Chubu Wide Area Municipal Area,Southern area municipalitieshave.

These wide-area administrative areas are influenced by the Okinawa metropolitan area and the Naha metropolitan area, and constitute areas that are more realistic in terms of administrative function and commerce.Therefore, Urasoe City, which belongs to the Chubu region, is included in the Southern Regional Municipal Area.Nishihara Town is officially a central metropolitan area, but there are some cases where it is treated more realistically in the south.

Okinawa main island (including remote islands around the main island, Iheya island, Izena island, Ie island)

Northern wide area
The range of (former) Kunigami-gun plus Iheyajima and Izenajima of Shimajiri-gun.It is also called "Kunigami district" from the name of the county.
Chubu Wide Area Municipal Area
The range excluding Urasoe City from the range of (former) Nakagami District.
Southern area municipalities
(Old) Shimajiri-gun and oldNaha Ward, OldShuri Ward[Note 11]And the range including Urasoe City in the Chubu region (here, the main island of Okinawa is dealt with).
Nishihara Town belongs to the Chubu region and the Chubu wide area municipal area, but some office unions may be joint with the South.


Okinawa Islands (excluding Iheya Island, Izena Island, Ie Island)

Southern regional municipal area (remote island)
Both belong to (former) Shimajiri-gun and the southern regional municipalities.It is also called "Southern remote island" with the same concept as the southern remote island area.

Sakishima Islands

Miyako district
Former Miyako branch office, range of (former) Miyako-gun
Yaeyama district
Former Yaeyama branch office, range of (former) Yaeyama-gun

American base

As of 2017, dedicated facilities of the U.S. forces in Japan occupy 15% of the total area of ​​the main island of Okinawa.[46][47].

History

Outline

Ancient timesJapanese sequelInEmperor Bunmu2 years(698), the order of the Imperial Court was sent to the South Island (Nantou) (Nansei Islands) by Dr. Mitsuhiro Nibun. At that time, Dr. Bunshin's mission was to confirm the relationship between Yakushima, Tanegashima, and Amami Oshima, which was the third year of Emperor Bunmu (699) Describes that he was awarded the rank because of his tribute to the court because of his many bounties, smuts, rewards and feelings. Since then, the Imperial Court has dispatched Koji to Tanegashima and also to Kumejima and Ishigakijima to send messengers.Wado8 years(715) Describes that the Amami, Yaku, Minkaku, Shinkaku, and Kumi Islanders of the South Island came to Japan in the morning and paid tribute to the people of the Ezo. OtherYoro4 years(720) To 232 South Islanders,Turtle4 years(727), the rank was awarded to 132 South Islanders, etc.

Ryukyu KingdomIt was compiled in the eraNakayama Seman"according to,Homoto no RanLost inIzuWashed awaySource morningTo escape from chasingUnten Port), the child was the first King of RyukyuShuntenIt is said to have become, and is treated as orthodox history. In the late 14th centurySanzanKingdom (Kitayama,中山,Namsan) Has risen and China (Light)TributeToothBookletReceivedRyukyu tradeWas going on. Nakayama King in 1429SatoshiDestroyed Nanzan and Kitayama, unified Ryukyu, and founded the Ryukyu Kingdom (First Sho).1469ToShou DeokKanemaru who was a vassal ofRobberyAnd selfNaoAnd was crownedSecond Sho). The prints will be expanded to the surrounding Sakishima Islands and the Amami Islands,1609(Keicho14 years)Satsuma DomainUnder the invasion ofKing NangSurrendered, under the rule of the kingdom at the timeAmami archipelagoCeded to Satsuma Domain[Note 12], The kingdom was under the control of the Satsuma Domain (Ryukyu invasion). Even after the invasion by Satsuma, the kingdom continued to be sealed in China, and it was a system of "both affiliations" with the Satsuma domain of Japan and Kiyokuni.IsolationOf both countries under the regimeRelay tradeIt played a role as a land and maintained its own culture and autonomy through trade. The relationship between mainland Japan and Okinawa at that time continues to the present day in JapanSouth Sea fantasyBecame the beginning of[Source required].

Entering the modern era on mainland JapanMeiji RestorationAngryOpeningWhat I did,1871(Meiji 4) The Nisshin Osamu Regulations were signed in SeptemberclearA diplomatic relationship was established with. However, in October of the same year, about a month laterMiyakojima Islander AccidentOccurs,Meiji governmentTo deal with diplomacyCentralizationRush to establish a nation,1872(5th year of Meiji),Ryukyu DomainIs installed in the Ryukyu kingSho TaiWas sealed as "Ryukyu Clan King" and a clan residence was set up in Tokyo.Sir FukushimaAfter negotiations with Qing by1874(Meiji 7)Taiwan troopsSo, the general authority such as not harming Japanese passengersThe United KingdomConfirmed by the post-treatment treaty by the ambassador's mediation, a diplomatic incident with Qing has resulted.1879May 4(Meiji12), the Meiji government abolished the Ryukyu clanOkinawaInstalled,Sho TaiMoved to a clan residence in TokyoEthnic familyBecomes The ruins of the castle ruins of the Gusk era areGusuku and related heritage groups of Ryukyu Kingdom]UNESCO Ofworld HeritageRegistered in.

1945(Showa20 years),Pacific WarIs called "the largest ground battle in Japan"[Note 13]Battle of OkinawaBecame the battlefield. US ArmyMay 4On the main island of OkinawaYomitan VillageImmediately landed on the coast of the island, and quickly controlled the northern half of the island, the Japanese army was attacked by the U.S. forces in the south and the Shurijo castle where the general headquarters was located burned down,May 6Of the Okinawa Defense Force Supreme CommanderUshijima ManLieutenant GeneralsMabuniThe self-determination ended the organized battle. Due to the fierce battle for about three months, one in four people in the prefecture was killed and the land was devastated. Mabuni is currentlyOkinawa Battlefield National MonumentHas been designated as, and June 6Memorial DayAs a holiday in Okinawa Prefecture.

After the war in OkinawaGHQ OfSCAPIN --677Nansei Islands by order[Note 14]Was under the U.S. military administration, Japan's administration was suspended, and Okinawa Prefecture as an administrative entity (under the Governor of the Ministry of Interior) once disappeared (Okinawa rule by the United States).Large-scale requisition of villages and farmland for base construction under U.S. military ruleRight-hand roadAs a currencyB yen,laterU.S. dollarTo travel to mainland JapanpassportAfter the war, post-war reconstruction was promoted in an American way.1952(Showa 27)GHQJapan, which was under the occupation ofRestoration of sovereigntyAfter that, Okinawa continued to be under the control of the US military.In the same year, the U.S. military administration ended, and a new U.S.-led initiativeRyukyu governmentEstablished and embarked on full-scale Ryukyu rule and reconstruction.

1950 eraAfter thatKorean War,Vietnam War, Okinawa became more important as a US military front supply base, and many U.S. military personnel were stationed there.B-52Etc.Strategic bomber,Defoliant,nuclear weapons such asWeapons of mass destructionMany were deployed, and it was feared by Vietnam as a “devil's island”[49].. While the economy relied heavily on bases, at the time the dollar appreciated against the yen.Fixed exchange rate systemPrices were cheap and lifestyles were stable, partly due to the influence of the, and the population doubled from about 50 immediately after the end of the war to about 27 million in just 100 years before returning to the mainland. However, the islanders were strongly opposed to the U.S. military's powerful and discriminatory administration, and large-scale anti-base movements calling for a return to the mainland were being carried out in various places (Island gurumi struggle).1971(Showa 46)Eisaku SatoWith the Prime MinisterRichard NixonWith the presidentOkinawa return agreementWas concluded and the next1972In 47, Okinawa returned to Japan, and Okinawa Prefecture was restored (Okinawa return[Note 15][Note 16].. Base problems that have continued since the US military eraUnexploded ordnanceProblem of,US-Japan Status AgreementHas become a major political issue in the prefecture ("Futenma base relocation problemSee).

Chronological Table

population

Of 2015CensusAs a result, the population of Okinawa prefecture increased by 2010 (4%) compared to the previous fiscal year 2.9,PrefecturesApartTokyo(2.7%), the highest population growth rate in Japan[54].. The population growth rate is the highest in Japan. By population, for the first time, the population over the age of 1 exceeded the population under the age of 65. Viewed by regionOkinawa main islandIncreased in the central and southern regions, with the northern part of the main island of OkinawaIshigakijimaIt is decreasing in most of the remote islands except.National Institute of Population and Social Security ResearchPredicts it will grow to 2025 by 143[55].. The rate of natural increase in 2010 is 5.0 per XNUMX population, the highest in Japan[56] However, the rate of increase in society varies with each year[57].. Also in 2010Total fertility rateIs 1.87[56] And since 1975, it has maintained the number one position in Japan[58].. According to the 2015 national census, the ratio of people aged 65 and over (19.6%) exceeded that of people under the age of 15 (17.4%) since the start of the survey.[59].Crude mortalityIs the lowest in Japan for both men and women,[60],Age-adjusted mortalityIs close to the national average[60], Especially adult men have the third or more age-adjusted mortality rates nationwide[61].. Living in OkinawaForeignerIt is,CitizenshipAs of 2010America(U.S. ArmyAnd its parties are not included. ) Is the most common,Chugoku- South KoreaThe number of foreigners registered is also increasing[62].. According to the 2015 census, the number of foreigners in the prefecture was 11,020, an increase of 2010 (3,369%) from 44.[59].

The number of US military personnel, civilian employees, and their families not included in the demographics is 2013 as of 47,300.[Source required].

The statistics of tourists entering Okinawa Prefecture in 2016 reached a record high of 8,613,100 per year, averaging about 23,500 per day.[Source required].

In addition, I was transferred from outside the prefectureSDFOr nationalOfficeDue to the large number of seconded civil servants, the apparent population including these is 7 to 10 more than the statistics.[Source required].

Demography47000.svg
Okinawa Prefecture and National Population Distribution by Age (2005)Okinawa Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Okinawa
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Okinawa prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Politics

Okinawa returnThe former governing mechanism in Okinawa was "Ryukyu government"and"Ryukyu Islands U.S. GovernmentSee.

Governor

Governor of Okinawa
NameTenureperiodBirth PlaceFinal Education
1Yana Asanae
Yara
1972(47)May 5
- 1976(51)May 6
2Nakagami-gunYomitan VillageHiroshima Higher Normal Schoolgraduate
(CurrentHiroshima University
2Yoshiyuki Taira
I'm Koichi
1976(51)May 6
- 1978(53)May 11
1Nakagami-gunNishihara TownOkinawa Normal Schoolgraduate
3Saimei Junji
Junji
1978(53)May 12
- 1990(2)May 12
3ShimajiriChinen Village
(CurrentNanjo City
Tokyo UniversityFaculty of Lawgraduate
4Masahide Ohta
Masahide Ota
1990(2)May 12
- 1998(10)May 12
2ShimajiriGushigawa Village
(CurrentKumejima Town
米 国Syracuse UniversityGraduated
5Keiichi Inamine
Inamine Keiichi
1998(10)May 12
- 2006(18)May 12
2KantoDalian
(CurrentChugokuLiaoningDalian
Keio UniversityFaculty of Economicsgraduate
6Makoto Nakai
Nakaima Hirokazu
2006(18)May 12
- 2014(26)May 12
2OsakaOsakaTokyo UniversityFaculty of Engineeringgraduate
7Oshi Nagashi
Takeshi Nagana
2014(26)May 12
- 2018(30)May 8
1Mawashi Village(Current: Naha City)Hosei UniversityFaculty of Lawgraduate
8Tamaki Denny
Tamaki Denny
2018(30)May 10 -1Nakagami-gunYonagi Village(Current:Uruma CitySophia College of Social Welfaregraduate

Organization/Government building

Parliament

  • Number of members 48
  • Term of office June 2020, 2 (Reiwa 6 years) --June 25, 2024 (Reiwa 6 years)

Okinawa prefectural assembly electionUnified local electionsThis is one of the few prefectural assembly elections that is not held inTokyo,Ibaraki,Iwate,Miyagi,Fukushima). This is the election after returning to Japan1972(47)May 6Because it was done in Tokyo, Ibaraki disbanded parliament, Iwate, Miyagi and FukushimaGreat East Japan EarthquakeIt is because of the postponement due to, and the situation is different.

finance

2015

  • Standard financial scale 3567 yen
  • Financial capability index 0.29 (prefecture average 0.47)
    • Fiscal strength index is classified into E group (0.3 municipalities) less than 11
  • Current account ratio 95.1% (prefecture average 94.6%)
    • It is an index that indicates that fiscal consolidation is progressing
  • Future burden ratio 81.3% (prefecture average 210.5%)
  • Real debt service ratio 12.2% (prefecture average 14.1%)
  • Number of employees per 100,000 population 1,412.52 (prefectural average 1,110.90)
  • Laspeyres index 107.0 (prefecture average 107.4)
Local bond balance
  • Local account current amount of ordinary account 6829 million yen
  • Current amount of local bonds (corporate bonds) for special accounts other than the above: 1541 million yen

Economic and industrial

industry

Okinawa is one of Japan's leading tourist prefecturesService industryIs well developed and is the center of the prefecture's economy.In addition, Okinawa Prefecture has no outstanding industry other than tourism.[Source required]It is,US Army in JapanIt depends on the economy generated by the base (military employee income, military rent, stores/restaurants for US soldiers, etc.), while the economic dependence dropped from 1972% in 15.5 to 5.7% today. Occupy Offices, hospitals,Shopping centerThere are facilities such as about 9,000 prefecture residents working at the base facility,Okinawa Prefectural OfficeIt is the next largest employment destination.

The industrial structure of Okinawa Prefecture is characterized by a lower weight in the secondary industry and a higher weight in the tertiary industry than in the whole country, but this tendency has not changed at all since the return. The proportions of the secondary industry and the tertiary industry in the gross domestic product in 2 are 3% and 25%, respectively, and the difference is clear compared with 2% and 3% in the whole country. In particular, the percentage of the manufacturing industry is 13.9% in the whole country and 84.4% in Okinawa prefecture, showing a very large difference. In addition, the proportion of government service producers (economic activities such as public electricity, gas and water industries and public affairs) is as high as 24.4% in Okinawa (73.9). This high percentage has continued since the return.[63].

2014(Heisei26) gross domestic product was 4 billion yen, and the economic growth rate compared to the previous year increased by 1749%. The nominal increase was 1.5 trillion yen to 3.5 billion yen, each showing positive growth for six consecutive years.[64].. The prefectural income per capita in 26 was 212 yen (national average was 9000 yen).Unemployment rateIs the highest in Japan, but in 2016 the unemployment rate in Okinawa fell to the 23% level for the first time in 3 years.

For products produced or supplied in Japan outside the prefecture, the time and cost will increase due to the transportation distance, and the transportation cost will be more expensive than outside the prefecture.Therefore, except for products produced in the prefecture, outside the prefectureRegionCompared to, the average retail price is not particularly low.For food and mobile phone services, Okinawa's own corporation (,Okinawa Cellular Phone) Is in charge of allOkiko,Orion,Blue sealIn some cases, Okinawan brands occupy a certain genre.

Agriculture/Fishery

Taking advantage of Japan's leading subtropical climate in agriculture,mango,Acerola,Pineapple,Dragon fruitTropical fruits such assugar cane,tobacco,GoyaAgricultural products such as (bitter melon) are produced.In addition, rice cultivation is popular on Iheya Island.

In the fisheryTuna,squid,Yellowtail,Scorpionfish,Horse mackerel, Etc., etc.Prawns,Mozuku[65]Aquaculture is also popular[66].

In the livestock industry, pig farming has been popular since ancient timesAguIs famous. AlsoGoat,cowIs also produced.

Industry/Mining

There are sugar manufacturing industry, food and beverage manufacturing industry, and kiln and earth and stone products manufacturing industry, mainly cement manufacturing, but all are small.

On the main island of OkinawaMotobu PeninsulaThere are high-quality limestones that are mined as raw materials for cement and crushed stone and sand.Oki Daitojima,Kitadaito IslandThe phosphorus mine was once operated in Japan, but Kitadaito Island is depleted of good ore, and Okidaito Island remains designated as a US military shooting bombing site after the war.

On the seabed off Okinawa's main islandHydrothermal depositHas spread,copper,zincBesides,gallium,Bismuthな どRare metalAs a result, the prospecting survey is becoming active as a next-generation marine resource.

Natural gas and oil with estimated reserves of about 1000 billion barrels are sleeping on the bottom of the East China Sea,Mid-day lineAroundChugokuDispute over sovereignty (East China Sea gas field problem) Is occurring.

Can use plant resources for fuelBio ethanolWas in the limelight, and sugarcane produced in the prefecture was attracting attention as a raw material, and a trial operation was also conducted, but eventually it was not profitable and withdrew.

tourism

The main industries of the prefecture are tradition, history, nature, food culture and international colors.tourismAre listed. However, these tourism industries are easily affected by the economy. A resort hotel on the main island of OkinawaBeachA lot ofWaikiki BeachalikeArtificial beachAlthough it is a tourist resource, it is not the "nature of Okinawa". The total number of tourists in 2009 was 5,690,000 in Japan and overseas (Domestic: 5,443,800, Overseas: 246,200)[67] Is. The number of foreign tourists visiting in 2019 reached 1,951,150,Taiwan (40.00%), South Korea (22.99%),Chugoku (18.38%),Hong Kong (10.26%),米 国 (3.51%)[68].. Many tourists from the United States are related to US military bases.

2000(12)Major countries summitSince then, we are promoting the formation of a venue for events such as international conferences and conventions. In addition, prefecture advocates sports island conceptEco tourismIs also becoming active.

情报

1998Based on (Okinawa Prefecture Multimedia Island Concept) from (10),Submarine cableBecause of the large number of landings, the word IX (Internet Exchange) is used to call for IT Exchange.Call centerAnd IT companies are actively attracting incentives. On the other hand, the facility is excellent from inside and outsideBox administrationThere are many criticisms.

2010 eraSince then, the development of smartphone applications has become popular.

Tax incentives/special cases

Many special cases for economic promotion[69] Is set.

Company

Within the prefecture, it is being deployed in Honshu, etc.CompanyThere are many local companies.

Telecommunications carrier
Telecommunications carrierThen on the mobile phone au As a regional company that provides the service ofOkinawa Cellular PhoneThere is. Since this company was established for the purpose of promoting the economy of Okinawa, it owns a majority stake in the company. KDDI Not only for local companiesOkinawa Electric PowerBesides, the business community and leading companies in the prefecture have also invested. There are also services that are unique to Okinawa Prefecture, so in other prefecturesmarket shareIs in the leadNTT DoCoMoIs suppressed (2005(17) Current market share is 49%). The company was excluded from the list due to political considerations.KDDI) Is the target.
In addition,AstelGroup ofPHSFormerly the Okinawa Electric Power Group that provided the serviceAstel OkinawaTake over,2005(17)May 1Started business inWILLCOM Okinawa(HonshuTo provide PHS servicesWILLCOMEstablished as a subsidiary of (formerly DDI Pocket). LaterSoftbankBecame a subsidiary ofY! MobileThere is a brand).
Alcoholic beverages
beerHas a large market share in the prefecture as a manufacturerOrion beerExists. The company has a high share of the prefecture's market with liquor tax exemption measures in the prefecture, but the market share in Japan as a whole is around 1%.Antitrust lawIt is said that it does not conflict with.
News (Chinese)
Newspapers are printed locally due to transportation conditions.Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Within the prefectureLocal newspaperPrinting and publishing in partnership withSports Nippon-Nikkan SportsIt is a local newspaper because it is impossible to deliver it in the morning of the day (except the morning newspaper is delivered outside the prefecture during the evening delivery time).Okinawa TimesandRyukyu ShimpoAccount for most of the subscription rate. In addition, two newspapers are issued to Ishigakijima and Miyakojima, each of which sells mainly on the island or in neighboring remote islands.
金融
A financial institution has a head office in the prefectureLocal bankBesides 3 linesKoza Shinkin Bank,post office(Japan Post Bank) AndJA Bank(JA Okinawa) And many other stores.City bankabout,Mizuho BankOnly the Naha branch exists. Regional banks outside the prefectureKagoshima BankOkinawa branch of2015It is installed in and operates two stores in Naha City.

Major companies headquartered in Okinawa

  • Wholesale trade

Major companies with bases in Okinawa

工場
  • Nippon Iron Works (Itoman City)

Life and transportation

Policemen

Transportation

空港

Due to the fact that it is an island prefecture, air routes are mainly used for movement outside the prefecture and between remote islands within the prefecture.In particular, for the Miyako Islands and Yaeyama Islands, regular passenger routes to and from outside the region have been suspended or abolished, and in principleAir routeIt is mandatory to move in.In the prefecture, the airports in the table belowIzen famous off-airfieldBesides,US Army in Japan baseTo use asKadena Air Base,Futenma Air Baseand so on.

2017 passenger numbers[71]
空港Total passengersDomestic flightsInternational flights
Number of passengersregular serviceNumber of passengersregular service
Naha21,161,68317,524,761Outside the prefectureNew Chitose-Sendai-Ibaraki-Haneda-Narita・(Niigata)・(I.e.-Shizuoka-Central part-Itami-Kansai-Kobe-Okayama-Hiroshima-Iwakuni-Takamatsu-Matsuyama-Kochi-Kitakyushu-Fukuoka-Kumamoto-Nagasaki-Miyazaki-Kagoshima-Amami-Tokunoshima-Okinoerabu-Debate3,636,922Seoul-Busan-Daegu-Beijing-Shanghai-Tianjin-Hangzhou-Nanjing-Hong Kong-Taipei-Taichung-Kaohsiung-Bangkok-Singapore
Within the prefectureKitadaito-Minamidaito-Kumejima-Miyako-Ishigaki-Yonaguni
Ishigaki2,497,1712,411,480Outside the prefectureHaneda-Narita-Kansai-Central part·Fukuoka85,691Taipei
Within the prefectureNaha/Miyako/Yonaguni
Miyako1,700,5901,699,901Outside the prefectureHaneda-Kansai-Central part·(Fukuoka)689-
Within the prefectureNaha/Ishigaki/Tarama
Kumejima258,640258,640Outside the prefecture(Haneda0-
Within the prefectureNaha
Yonaguni105,302105,302Within the prefectureNaha/Ishigaki0-
Minamidaito48,41848,418Within the prefectureNaha/Kitadaito0-
Tarama45,18645,186Within the prefectureMiyako0-
Kitadaito19,30319,303Within the prefectureNaha/Minamidaito0-
Aguni3,7943,794Within the prefectureNaha0-
Kerama490490--0-
Ie Island00--0-
Shimojishima00--0-
Hateruma00--0-
  • The destination is2019XNUM X Month X NUM X Date
  • Charter flightsIncluding the number of passengers
  • Brackets indicate routes that are not operated throughout the year (seasonally operated or have suspension periods)
  • Three major metropolitan areasThe air route toTaiziNotation

Railway line

Before the Pacific War, on the main island of OkinawaOkinawa prefectural railway,Okinawa Electric(Tram),Okinawa orbit,Itoman carriage orbitHowever, the Okinawa Electric tram and Itoman Wagon Orbit were abolished due to the rise of buses, and the remaining Okinawa Prefectural Railway and Okinawa OrbitBattle of OkinawaDestroyed and disappeared. After the war, there was no railroad line for a long time, but in 2003 (15)Okinawa city monorail line(Yui Rail) Naha Airport-Shuri (afterwardsUrasoe City OfTedako UraniHas been opened)[Note 17].

As of 2013, the concept of constructing a railway between Naha and Nago, which was revealed in 2006 (18), is the subject of construction and operation, except that the government will bear part (or all) of the construction cost. Are in the process of investigating and considering[72]. AlsoMinamidaito VillageIn order to increase the number of tourists, plans to revive the "sugar train", a railway that had been operating on the island to transport sugar cane until 1983.[73].

The only one in all prefectures,JRThe lines of each company are not laid. this isNational railwaySimilar from the times,Railway parcelaboutRyukyu ShippingIt was handled by contact transportation with[74].. In addition, once in Naha cityKyushu passenger railway(JR Kyushu)Okinawa branchAlthough it was installed, it closed on March 2017, 3, so there is no JR sales office at all.

other than this,Railway Business LawComply withcablewayAs a lift was installed in Shigira Resort on Miyako Island on April 2016, 4[75][76].

bus

On the main island of Okinawa, in Naha City and Urasoe CityOkinawa city monorailSince there is no railroad other than (Yui Rail), a bus route network has been developed throughout the island as a transportation system connecting cities and cities.[77].. In addition, Ishigaki Island and Miyako Island also have a bus route network as a means of transportation on the island.

In addition, there are many islands that operate small-scale local buses as a means of transportation that connects island ports, airports, central villages and tourist destinations.

Also, Okinawa Prefecture is the only one in Japan,JNR busAnd of the posteriorJR busThe regular passenger business route is a prefecture that has never existed in history.

General boarding/general charter work
General charter business
  • Okinawa main island
    • Chubu sightseeing bus
    • Daito Transportation
    • World trance
    • Heianza comprehensive development
    • Okinomiya sightseeing bus
    • Connection
    • Succession planning
    • Churashima
    • Kuniwa first hire
    • Shoyo
    • Okinawa south tourism
    • Highway Okinawa
    • Solar traffic
    • Curry Attractions
    • Location first
    • And indie
    • Fuji Sakura Tourism
    • Island Limousines
    • Tawada Location Service
    • Daito
    • Okinawa Tourist
specific

道路

  • After returning to the mainland,1978(53)May 7Until then, the vehicle was driving on the right.730 (transportation)See also
  • Okinawa main island, especiallyNaha metropolitan areaThen.Traffic jamThe amount of traffic congestion loss per 1km in the prefectureThree major metropolitan areasNext to prefectures of[78].
  • Due to the characteristics of the prefecture compared to other prefectures, the "wa" and "re" numbers that indicate rental cars, and the "Y" and "A" numbers that indicate that they are used by U.S. military personnel are extremely Many.
  • The prefecture owns about one million cars.
highway
General national road
Prefectural road

Port

Ships are widely used to move between adjacent islands without using an aircraft.

Important port

Medical and welfare

Disaster base hospital
Nursery

Education

Targeting 2007th grade elementary school and 6rd grade junior high school students who started in 3National Achievement/Study Status SurveyThen, in 2011, Okinawa Prefecture is the lowest of all subjects.[79] However, in the 2014 survey, Okinawa Prefecture was ranked second in the total number of students in the sixth grade of elementary school.

University

National

public

private

Junior college
College of technology

National

High school, junior high school, elementary school, other schools

See the list article below.

Mass media

News (Chinese)

Top 2Prefectural paperThe total market share ofNational newspaper(General paper) has a very low share compared to other prefectures due to the following circumstances[80]. Also,Sakishima IslandsThen ownRegional paperHas been issued.

Prefectural paper
Regional paper of Sakishima Islands
Local paper and others

West Japan NewspaperAlso issued a newspaper as a de facto "business" for government offices and libraries in Okinawa Prefecture, as well as for offices of companies and corporations headquartered in Kyushu (Okinawa branch etc.),2009Issuance was stopped in (21). The newspaper1967(Showa 42)-1977(Showa 52)2000(12)-The Naha branch was established in 2009 (21).

National newspaper

Yomiuri Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,Asahi Shimbun,Nihon Keizai Shimbun,Sankei ShimbunEach company has a bureau/branch office in the prefecture.2008(20)May 11Nikkei started local printing by consignment to Ryukyu Shinposha,National newspaperHowever, only the morning and evening editions (only the morning edition from January 2018, the evening edition was abolished) are delivered at the same time as the local newspaper. The Yomiuri, Mainichi, and Asahi versions of the Tokyo Headquarters and the Western Headquarters are sold, and the Sankei versions of the Osaka Headquarters are sold. All of these regular papers are shipped by air from the place of issue, so delivery is delayed in the afternoon of the day (simultaneous delivery with the evening edition of the previous day). Sakishima Islands andDaito IslandsRegarding, as for not only nationwide newspapers but also two local prefecture newspapers are printed and delivered by air or sea, the delivery of morning newspapers will be delayed compared to the main island.

Sports paper

sports newspaperIt is,Nikkan SportsSports Nippon(Shinpo Sponichi) Does local printing in the prefecture, but both papersHonshuUnlike newspapers published in, etc., it is published in 10 to 12 pages (in Okinawa PrefecturePublic competitionSince there is no facility for public competition, it is not posted.A TV scheduleAlso not posted). At some convenience stores in Naha Airport and in Naha City, the Tokyo headquarters version of each paper is air-shipped and sold on the day of issue, but the price is 50 yen, which is 180 yen higher than the list price.

Daily newspaper

Sacred newspaperIs doing local printing in the prefecture. AlsoRed flagIs printed by a print shop in Fukuoka Prefecture and sent by air, and like the national newspaper, it will be delivered from early afternoon,South Korea OfReligious groupOperated byWorld daily reportAs with general national newspapers and sports newspapers, newspapers issued in Tokyo are air-shipped and sold in the afternoon at major airport terminals and convenience stores, and outsourced to some regular newspapers (regardless of national or regional newspapers). It takes the form of home delivery[Note 19].. For this reasonA TV scheduleIn addition to those in the Tokyo metropolitan area, two starting stations in Okinawa Prefecture[Note 20] The program schedule from noon of the day to morning of the next day is recorded.

Broadcaster


Special notes on TV broadcasting

The NHK receiving fee payment rate was 23%, the lowest in the whole country at the time of the initial announcement at the end of 42.0.

Special notes on Sakishima Islands and Daito Islands
Daito IslandsSince I could not receive the TV broadcast in the prefecture for a long time, in analog broadcastKanto wide areaOf the TV stations that are targeted for broadcastingNippon TV-Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.Broadcast of each station exceptOgasawara IslandsWas relayed using a satellite line that was transmitted toNHK satellite 1st-NHK satellite 2stTV also broadcast on the ground). In addition, about the topic in the prefecture, the caption information using the telephone line was inserted as needed. afterwards,2011(23) It became possible to send TV broadcast waves from the Okinawa main island by the signal sent by the submarine optical cable whose construction work was started from the beginning, and the NHK Okinawa Broadcasting Station and commercial broadcasting stations in July of the same year With the opening of the digital relay station, RBC became available for viewing 7 years after the start of TV broadcasting on the main island, OTV for 51 years after the opening of the main island, and QAB for 52 years after the opening of the main island.Daito Islands #TV BroadcastSee).
Sakishima IslandsRegarding the above, as for the beginning of the television broadcasting, the relay stations of the starting 3 companies and 4 stations (each of NHK and 2 commercial channels) were not installed, and the radio waves from the Naha main station were directly received, or via the cable TV relay line. Reception was also technically impossible, so199312I couldn't receive any ground wave in Japan until the relay station was opened. for that reason,Miyako TV,Ishigaki Cable TVIn the independent broadcasting of theKey stationFromProgram salesThe state that the program which purchased independently was netted continued.
In addition, Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting (QAB)1995Since the relay station in the Sakishima Islands was not maintained even after the station opened in Miyako, Ishigaki continued to be broadcast by cable TV.TV AsahiI was broadcasting the program of staggered,2009(21) On October 10, a QAB relay station was set up as a new digital station, and it was finally available 21 years after the opening of the main island. Along with this, even on cable TV in Miyako and Ishigaki, as an alternative to not installing a relay station,Digi-ana conversion[Note 21] Was doing a complementary rebroadcast by.
Blank for network affiliates
There are no broadcasting stations of both NTV and TV Tokyo affiliates in the prefecture (along with Saga prefecture, NTV affiliates including cross-net stations are also outside the broadcasting target area), Some of the programs produced by each of these affiliated stations belong to other affiliated stations in the prefecture and are broadcast in the local frame. On OTV, the annual summer broadcast "24-hour TV], [High school quiz"andNew Year's Holidayof"High school soccerIn addition to participating in the broadcast of "(Okinawa Prefectural Games and Matches of Okinawa National Teams at National Games), Nippon Television has acquired broadcasting rights.FIFA World Cup OfRepresentation from JapanBattleSummer olympic OfWomen's marathonResponsible for the online competition broadcast in Okinawa Prefecture. (If the broadcast time falls during the time zone of a national broadcast program of the Fuji TV series, the program will be temporarily returned to the Internet or will be broadcast at a later date.)
On NTV, for the purpose of news coverage in the prefecture where there is no affiliated stationNippon Television Naha BranchHas been installed. Regarding affiliated stations of the same station in the 1990sSouthwest broadcastWas scheduled to open, but it did not happen.
Events due to isolation from other prefectures
All of the prefectureCable tv stationThen, there are problems such as topography and technology in both analog and digital,Redelivery outside the prefectureWas not done at all, but from September 2019, 9Okinawa Cable NetworkIn the independent TV program "TV Mirai"Kagoshima Yomiuri TVStarted the internet of some programs of (Nippon Television Network System). From October 2020, 10 "NTV live distribution”, But it will be possible to watch programs of the Nippon TV series for a limited time.[82]. AlsoRyukyu Shimpo-Okinawa Times OfA TV scheduleAlso, the out-of-prefecture broadcasting including Kagoshima prefecture is not posted at all, including the radio.[Note 22].
About AM radio stations
  • Okinawa main islandNorth,Sakishima IslandsAnd in the Daito Islands, since it is easy to receive interference from neighboring countries mainly at night-early morning,Using FM radio wavesRelay broadcasting is being conducted.
  • FM Okinawa1984AM radio station until converted toFar East BroadcastingWas being broadcast as.
  • After returning to Okinawa, English broadcasting by private broadcasting continued for a while, and broadcasting by Ryukyu broadcasting (KSBK→ JORO) when returning1973Until, Far East Broadcasting Company (American corporation. Japanese broadcasting was handed over to Far East Broadcasting in December 1972)1977Was continued until.
About FM radio stations
  • FM Okinawa cannot be directly received because there are no relay stations in the south of Tarama Island and the Daito Islands of Sakishima Islands.[Note 23].. NHK-FM cannot be received directly because there is currently no relay station in the Daito Islands[Note 24].
Rebroadcast on internet radio
  • radikoThen, RBC i Radio, Radio Okinawa, and FM Okinawa are distributed for free distribution within Okinawa Prefecture and for services with a paid membership "radiko.jp Premium (Area Free Listening)" in other prefectures.
  • NHK Net Radio Rajiru RajiruIn, you can listen to radios 1 and 2 and FM by selecting prefectural broadcasting of each broadcasting station in Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Sendai, Hiroshima, Matsuyama, but you can not select local broadcasting in Okinawa prefecture You can't listen with the same app.
About callsign

The United States of AmericaUnder the administration of KSxx I used to return to the mainland (1972(Showa 47)) After that JOxx Is used.

Cable TV

Culture/Sport

Ryukyu KingdomBefore it was establishedJapanNativeUnder the influence ofMainland China,East AsiaAccepts and mixes cultures ofcultureHas built up[83]. AlsoPacific WarlaterOkinawa returnFor a long timeRuled by the US ArmyBecause it had beenThe United States of AmericaThe culture of is also widespread.

Religious

animismIs based on the mainland of JapanShintoOriginal form of (Old Shinto) Is said to be close.Ryukyu ShintoAlso known as, outside the prefectureShrineAs something that hitsChopsticksThere is. Also,Ancestor worshipThe wind also remains strong.

BuddhismIs believed only by the royal family and some upper classes, and has hardly permeated ordinary farmers,funeralIt was only used as part of the rituals of. Even now, the number of Buddhist believers (danke) is extremely small compared to outside the prefecture. In recent years, funerals have come to be held in Buddhist ceremonies, but they are often held by non-denominational monks, rather than by denominational monks like outside the prefecture. Also, apart from the monkUtahThere are also cases of calling.

GraveWas influenced by China from rocky tombs using natural dens and graves dug into cliffs.Tortoiseshell graveHas changed toGable tombIs common. Also, how to process the remainsCremation,Bone washingThere was a unique custom of doing exercises, but in recent years, as a result of the guidance of public health centers and the women's movement,CremationCame to be implemented.

After the war, due to the influence of the US militaryキ リ ス ト 教Faith is also prosperous. Many of themProtestantBelong to a faction. About 210 places in the prefectureChristian churchExists and has the highest proportion of Christian population in the country.[Source required]

Language/Dialogue

The words used in Okinawa can be roughly divided into the following three,Baby boom generationThe common language is remarkably common among prefectural citizens born laterHeiseiAfter that (especially2000When it comes to the citizens of the generation born after that, not only the Ryukyu language but also the Okinawan Japanese language (Uchina Yamatoguchi) has declined significantly, but no particularly strong protection policy has been taken.

  • Ryukyu -From the standpoint of the Japanese government, although it is often treated as the Ryukyu dialect, which is the Japanese dialect,UNESCOIs different from Japanese among international organizations such asJaponicIs said to be an independent language belonging to. Although it is a traditional Okinawan language, its daily use is mostly limited to the elderly. From Meiji to the middle of Showa periodDialectIn addition to the promotion of a powerful movement to spread the standard language using, through the movement to return to the mainland and the post-war mass media and the development of school education,RyukyuWhile neglectingStandard languageSince the number of opportunities to come into contact with Ryukyu has increased overwhelmingly, the use of Ryukyu has become extremely rare, and it is particularly difficult for most of the generations born after Heisei to understand it. Roughly,National acronym(Kunigami dialect),Okinawan(Okinawa dialect),Miyako(Miyako dialect),Yaeyama(Yaeyama dialect),YonaguniAlthough they are divided into (Yonaguni dialects), there are some differences between these languages ​​(dialogues) that may be different languages.Endangered languageIt has been.
  • Uchina Yamatoguchi -Most of Okinawans' words are used on a daily basis, and the elements of Ryukyu are mixed based on the common Japanese language.New dialectIs said to be.Also known as the Okinawa Ben.However, even Uchina Yamatoguchi has a marked decline as the age of Okinawans born after Heisei (especially after 2000).accentIn terms of vocabularycommon languageIn many cases, there is almost no difference.
  • Japanese common language ――It is used in mass media, school education and public institutions.Ryukyu, Okinawan, and common languages ​​are used by the elderly born by the early Showa period (generally until the 1930s).Trilingual, A common language with Okinawa Ben in the generation born from the postwar period to the end of the Showa period (generally from the 1940s to the 1980s)bilingualMost of them can be used properly.On the other hand, in the generation born after Heisei (generally after the 1990s), a common language (Metropolitan dialect) Has a strong tendency to speak almost the same language, and is close to monolingual with almost only common languages.Also, the tendency is getting stronger year by year as the age goes down.[84].. In this way, it is feared that it is a region in Japan that is becoming increasingly common.
  • English - Okinawa under American ruleSo English is virtually[Note 26]SecondOfficial terminologyMet.Elderly people who are still educated in English, military employees who are still working in the U.S. military base even after returning to work, those who are doing business with the U.S. military and soldiers, and families who are married to U.S. There are many people who understand English.

Race/ethnicity

People with ancestors in the land of Okinawa are ``from the geographical, historical and cultural background.Ryukyu peopleThere is a position to say. Racially, it is said that northern traits (Kyushu, etc.) were introduced from prehistoric times to the 10th century,Molecular biologyIt has been confirmed that this study is genetically similar to the Japanese archipelago race (Yamato people).The Japanese government calls the Ryukyu people "Indigenous peopleAlthough it has not been certified, in August 2014United Nations Committee on the Elimination of RacismIs in conflict with the fact that it is an "indigenous people" with the reason that "the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization recognizes the unique ethnicity, history, culture and traditions of Ryukyu and Okinawa."[86]..There is growing opposition from the Japanese government and LDP lawmakers that it is an "ethnic division work".[87].

Name

Many of Okinawa's surnames are derived from place names. In the Ryukyu Kingdom era, royal families and samurai are equivalent to their current surnames.family nameName yourself,territoryIt changed every time was changed.Satsuma DomainOf the Satsuma domain after the invasion bypolicyRyukyu Royal Government OfMeasureAs a result, many families have changed their family names from Japanese-style surnames to so-called Okinawan-style surnames. After disposing of Ryukyu, it is also possible for ordinary people to give their surnames, and after the Meiji era, many of the surnames in Ryukyu Yomi were changed to Japanese Yomi.

building

Traditional building techniques in Okinawa developed mainly in the late Ryukyu period (early modern times). Many buildings are constructed in the surrounding area (mainly in terms of construction style, materials, technology, etc.).Japanese architecture・There are many similarities with the Chinese architecture, but the unique development of Okinawa can be seen because of the different resource status and climate.

During the dynasty, the tiled wooden structure of the Ryukyu tribe, Nukija, and the common people are mainly called anaya.HutHad a residence in. Besides the residence,Castle wall,BridgeFor stone buildings such asRyukyu limestoneMany buildings were used, but many buildings were lost due to the Battle of Okinawa. Not only many wooden houses but also forests disappeared due to the war, a lot of craftsmen and materials were lost, and the American military led the reconstruction.Two by fourMany structural buildings were built.

Currently strong against typhoons and termitesReinforced concrete structureIn the water tank (without a big riverWater shortageHouses that have installed) are becoming more common[88][89].

Built outside the base for residence of U.S. military personnel and their familiesForeign houseThe number of households continued to increase even after returning to work, contrary to the reduction of bases outside the prefecture.Demand for housing to accommodate an increasing number of U.S. military personnel has increased, and private investment has led to large-scale land reclamation and residential construction for Americans.Even now, there are "foreigner residential areas" in Ginowan City, Kitanakagusuku Village, Okinawa City, Uruma City, Chatan Town, etc., forming a unique cityscape.

Traditional crafts

Traditional crafts designated by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry

Entertainment etc.

Acer TheJodo sect OfNembutsuIs a traditional performing art that was formed based onCreative acerIs also developing.

In the era of American rule,Koza City(CurrentOkinawa City) Then,Korean War,Vietnam WarMany hard rock musicians played an active part in the popularization of clubs and live houses for the US soldiers who had lost their lives. The end of the war,U.S. dollarDecline in relative value of,A signAlthough it declined due to changes in the environment such as the closure of the bar, many musicians are still active throughout the country.

Celebrities from Okinawa Prefecture are also active today,Okinawa Actors SchoolHas produced many singers, idols, and talents, led by the graduates of.

Clothing

It is a traditional costumeRyusoBesides, in recent yearsAloha shirtSimilar toKariyushi wearCan also be seen.

After the war, residents living in the camp were provided with clothing released by the US military.Even after the camp was dismantled, U.S. military-released clothing was used for durability and convenience, and continues to this day.[Source required]It is on sale.

Martial arts

Okinawa's unique martial arts that existed beforeHandWas introduced during the Ryukyu Kingdom eraChinese martial artsWas born by fusingKarate(Starting from today), and laterkarateDeveloped into[90].. After the war, he went to overseas from Japan and American soldiers who learned karate.KarateHas gradually spread to the world.

Broad senseRyukyu martial artsConsists of manual karatetsu (karate) and weaponry. Generally, old martial arts refers to the latter, but karate and weaponry are closely related to each other.[91][92].Stickman,TonfaThere are various techniques, but especiallyNunchakuWeapon technique using is famous in the world.

Equestrian

Compete for beauty, not speedAncient horse racing.. The Ryukyu Horse Racing (Nmaharashi) has been held for about 300-500 years, and since the Meiji era it has become an event for all citizens of the prefecture until the Pacific War.Ryukyu Horse RacingWas actively performed. From 2013 as a revival business of Ryukyu horse racingOkinawa Children's CountryWill be held in.

Cuisine

In mainland Japan7st centuryOr later,Rice cultivationWhile sacred toCarnivore TheFilthWas considered and was ostensibly contraindicated.However, Okinawa did not have this idea, and meat dishes developed from early on.Especially because of the influence of China豚 肉Cooking is traditionally developed.,(I.e.,boar,(I.e.Chii Richa, which cooks goat meat and blood, is unique to Okinawa.Ryukyu cuisine is far from the tradition of a maritime trading nationHokkaidoProductionKelpHas been used for a long time[93].

One of the best in JapanlongevityHealthy traditional for the reason of being a regionFood culture:It is thought that there may be.On the other hand, it developed during the U.S. military ruleFast food,American foodHas taken root, and the westernization of food is progressing.

In addition, the food culture of the American occupation has been passed down today.[94]

Discrimination, oppression

Discrimination by Ryukyu people

Nimbucha (Nembutsu, Chongdara) under the jurisdiction of the Chuzan royal government (Ryukyu kingdom royal government) during the Ryukyu Kingdom era:Kyotaro) Other thanDiscriminatory peopleThere was no[95]Because of YamatoBuraku discriminationAlthough there is no such thing, it was an identity system society in which the disparity between royalty and samurai and the common people (serfs) was enormous.Also outside the cityShima societyThe old practice of still remains strong,Male and femaleAnd there is a tendency to exclude outsiders. What is "Sima"?islands"In addition to the"VillageIt also means "division".Mainland JapanVillage societyThere is a composition similar to.

Discrimination by Yamato

In mainland Japan, Okinawans were often treated discriminatoryly as being foreign. In 1903, at an exhibition, a prostitute from OkinawaAinu,Native TaiwaneseAlong with that, there was an incident that "exhibited" as a different ethnic group, causing repulsion of Okinawans (for details,Human Hall IncidentSee). When the number of migrants from Okinawa to the outside of the prefecture increased from the Taisho era to the early Showa period, there were many people unfamiliar with the language and customs outside the prefecture, such as the standard language and the sense of time. There was a proviso that "No Ryukyu people".

Opposition by the U.S. forces in Okinawa

During the post-war American era, the US military seized the land with bayonets and bulldozers, and a series of robbery, rape, and murder cases by US soldiers spurred anti-American sentiment among Okinawans. EspeciallyPaul W. CallawayHigh Commissioner for the Ryukyu IslandsSuppressed Okinawans with a very powerful attitude in those days (Caraway whirlwind).1970In December, triggered by a traffic accident by U.S. military personnelKoza riotHas evolved to.

Discrimination against people from Amami

Geographically and culturally closeAmami archipelagoWas invaded by the Ryukyu Kingdom from the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, but the Ryukyu Kingdom was the Satsuma Domain.Indirect controlReceivedBakuhan systemEven after entering below and being annexed from the Meiji Restoration through the Ryukyu disposition, it was still a region where human exchange with Okinawa was active.But,Pacific WarWhen the Amami Islands returned to their homeland first under the administration of the U.S. Occupation Army, basic human rights such as expulsion of Amami natives who returned to "Japanese nationality", deprivation of suffrage, and restrictions on property rights were severely restricted. Measures to be taken were introduced one after another by the petition of the residents of the main island of Okinawa.In addition, discriminatory sentiment spread to the private sector.The Okinawan media also reported on these issues.

Suppression of the Sakishima Islands

The Nakayama kingdom (Ryukyu kingdom) is harsh against the Sakishima islands that were in the Ryukyu Kingdom eraHead taxWas introduced and forced into oppression. In addition to the Satsuma domain and the royal palace, the history of double exploitation, forced enforcement, oppression and persecution of farmers by the local rulers of the Sakishima Islands continued until the extinction of the Ryukyu Kingdom, and even after the Meiji Restoration after Ryukyu disposal.Old common policy-Based forced exploitation by local rulers continued through the 20th century[96].. Due to the oppression by the authorities of Satsuma and the royal government, forced migration of farmers by the royal government and ruling groups, poor crops due to droughts and storms, andBig tsunamiNatural disasters such as these, epidemics and outbreaks of famine caused a great decline in the population.Yaeyama earthquake"reference).

The head tax of the Sakishima Islands1637It is said that it was institutionalized, and was taxed even in the year when the tax was heavy and the harvest was small, which caused the islanders to suffer. The head tax was taken to reinforce the vested interests of the former Ryukyu Kingdom even after the Ryukyu disposal.Old habitationSurvived by the plan.1893(Meiji26 years)Nakamura Jusaku,Joan Masayasu, Maira Hirara and Gama NishizatoOkinawa main islandAt the time, the petition of the Diet was overcome by overcoming the obstacles of government officials and samuraiInterior MinisterMetJun InoueWas delivered to. Nakamura's hometown (Niigata)ofYomiuri ShimbunA reporterYoshikazu MasudaArticle was made known to the public and was supported by public opinion. 8thImperial Assembly[97]In1903(Meiji 36) Abolished, JapanNativeSimilar toland taxWas switched to[98].

Discrimination against mixed-race children

Children born between Americans and Asians, especially American soldiers who came to the Asian region and local womenAmerasianCalled. Many American military personnel and military members still live in Okinawa today, and many Amerasians continue to be born, but discrimination is deep-rooted. What you see on US military bases and on TV is often all about American culture that Amerasians raised in Okinawa know.[99].. Nonetheless, I can not be put in a public pool that is decided to be American by appearance and is picked up from a store[100] Have been discriminated against.EspeciallyAfrican AmericanThis tendency is strong for mixed-race children.Before and after Memorial Day at public schoolsAnti-AmericanAs learning progresses,Yankee・Go home"BullyingTake a bath[101].. Moreover, not only Amerasian, but also her mother is being discriminated against and prejudiced.[102].. Also, the new school building site of Okinawa Christian School International, where many Amerasians were gathered,Industrial wasteWhen the students suffered from nausea and skin irritation due to the dumping traces, Okinawa PrefectureDioxin,PCBI issued a "safety declaration" without conducting an inspection, and eventually about 80 people dropped out of school.[103][104].

Discrimination against leprosy

Okinawa PrefectureLeprosyIt is a region where a lot of cases have occurred, and from the end of the 20th century, 6% to 7% of new cases of Japanese are from Okinawa prefecture.[105][106] However, discrimination and persecution against leprosy in the Okinawan society were severe.[107].StripedIn Hansen's disease (called "Kuncher".beggarIs a Ryukyu dialect that meansGamaThere was a culture that quarantined cliffs, rubbish dumps, etc., and prohibited them from returning to Shima.[108].. If you die, do not put it in the clan's tomb, bury it upside down, and never be born againcurseApplied[109].. In the 50'sCrematoriumSince the number of funerals has increased, funerals outside the prefecture have spread to Okinawa.[110] However, a curse that puts roasted beans on the remains (under the meaning of "This should come back to life if it sprouts, but never sprout because it is roasted") is still underneath.[111].

Okinawans strongly resisted the movement to create a modern medical leprosy field.[112].National Hansen's Disease SanatoriumA riot (Arashiyama incident) happened to prevent the installation, and a sanatorium was installed.Keiya AokiIn some cases, leprosy patients are being burnt. Aoki et al. finally reached the opening of the Okinawa Prefectural Kunigami Airakuen (currentlyNational sanatorium Okinawa Airakuen) Had less interaction with the community than other sanatoriums.

The misunderstanding about infectiousness is persistent,Ryukyu ShimpoArgued for the false idea that the faculty during treatment was spreading to children (later pointed out by other reporters as "the biggest spot on postwar Okinawa journalism").Leprosy prevention methodAbolition (1996), a public opinion poll before 87) found that XNUMX% of the population agreed to isolate all leprosy patients.[113].

Discrimination against people with mental illness

A pre-return survey found that Okinawa had twice the prevalence of mental illness as outside the prefecture.[114]In recent years, mental illness, sexual violence, family violence, school violence, suicide, etc. are top-level nationally.[115].

What is characteristic of Okinawa is the view of disability based on indigenous beliefs and old practices that are not consistent with Western medicine. Family with mental illnessZashiki prisonLock inPrivate houseWas banned outside the prefecture in 1950, but in Okinawa, people with disabilities remained in prison even after returning, and their families were alienated from the local community and abandoned.[116][117].. Mental disorders are evil spirits (Madimun), and call for denial of this as superstitionPsychiatristWhile there isUtahChristianity is indigenous to the influence of faithOkinawa Christian GospelCriticized the claim itself as being said by evil spirits,schizophrenia,EpilepsyToEvil spirit payerIt is carried out[118][119].. There is a saying, "half a doctor, half a Utah," and there are cases where psychiatrists recommend Utah to patients with mental illness.[120].

On the other hand, there are many people who recognize that people with mental illness are useful to society from the perspective that Utah is close to people with mental illness.[121].. Of those who have suffered from mental disorders, those who have come into contact with or possess possession with gods and ancestors are called Kamidari, and can exist as "positive madness" that is accepted by society.[122].

Discrimination against SDF

Occupational discriminationAs,SDFThere is discrimination against.Return to mainlandAlong withSDFWas deployed to Okinawa, the SDF officers were called murderers,Self-defense personnelChildren were unable to attend school for more than half a year. In addition, after being shut down by various events, he was not allowed to claim himself as a Self-Defense Force even if he was allowed to participate. In some cases, local governments refused to register residents of SDF and their families, and refused to dispose of garbage.Naha HarleyIt was in 2001 that I was allowed to join the SDF in[123].

September 2017, 3Miyakojima City CouncilKaoru Ishimine isFacebook"(US) Marine CorpsTrained fromJapan Ground Self-Defense Force MiyakojimaWhen you come toU.S. ArmyWill never comeWoman assaultAn incident will happen”BurningTherefore, I apologized that "I am not criticizing the entire Self-Defense Forces" and referred to "(criticized) the mechanism of the army for war", but it became a flame again and Ishimine posted two posts Deleted from Facebook[124].. Miyakojima city council said, "Posting is a professional discrimination against SDF personnel and U.S. Marines, it must be said that it is a rant that can not be forgiven and it seriously damages the dignity of the city council." Passed 20, Opposition 3, Absence 1). Ishimine refuses to resign, saying, "I am not a member of parliament."[125].

Sports

Sports team

Main sports event

Sports Facilities

Professional baseball OfSpring campThe land is concentrated in Okinawa Prefecture,2011(23), 12 teams out of 10 teams (only one army) camp in the prefecture. Below are the main sports parks andBaseball fieldWas mentioned.

Tourism

Works set in Okinawa Prefecture

movies
TV drama
Literary arts
Anime
ゲーム

person

Honorary citizens of Okinawa

The title of the Honorary Citizens of Okinawa Prefecture is based on the Okinawa Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance (March 2003, 15 Okinawa Prefecture Ordinance No. 3) established on March 31, 15. Is given to those who are proud and respected by the citizens of the prefecture (Article 3 of the Ordinance)[128].. The target person is "a person from Okinawa prefecture, a person who has lived in Okinawa prefecture or a person who is related to Okinawa prefecture, and contributes to the improvement of social welfare, the promotion of academic culture or sports or the industrial economy, and other social development. It is stipulated that the governor of Okinawa shall select the person with the consent of the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly (Article 2 of the Ordinance).[128].. Those who are selected as honorary citizens will be presented with the honorary citizenship title of Okinawa prefecture, the Okinawan honorary citizenship badge and commemorative items (Article 3 of the Ordinance).[128].

Name of winnerOccupationSelection dateRemarksSource
Yamanaka Sadanori政治家2003/12/17First generationOkinawa Development AgencySecretary[129]

Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award

沖縄県県民栄誉賞は、1999年(平成11年)4月8日に制定された沖縄県県民栄誉賞表彰規則(平成11年4月8日沖縄県規則第45号)に基づき、「広く県民に敬愛され、県民に明るい希望と活力を与える顕著な功績があったもの」へ、沖縄県知事から贈られる(規則第1条・第2条)[130].

Name of winnerOccupationDate of award ceremonyRemarksSource
Okinawa Shogaku High SchoolBaseball club1999/4/1971th Selected High School Baseball TournamentFirst in OkinawaKoshienVictory.[131]
Hirokazu UeharawheelchairRace player2008/10/23Beijing ParalympicsWheelchair marathonsilver medalAcquisition.[132]
Konan High SchoolBaseball club2010/9/1382th Selected High School Baseball TournamentandThe 92rd National High School Baseball ChampionshipWon. Koshien Spring-Summer consecutive title, the sixth school in history.[133]
Ai MiyazatoProfessional golfer2010/12/275 wins on the US Women's Golf Tour of the same year.[134]
Susumu NakazatoWheelchair rugbyplayer2016/11/22Rio de Janeiro ParalympicsWheelchair rugbyRepresentation from Japanplayer. Teambronze medalContribute to acquisition.[135]
Namie Amurosinger2018/5/23He has been active as a leading Japanese artist for 25 years.[136]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Burned down in the 2019 Shurijo Castle fire.
  2. ^ The southernmost tip of JapanTokyoBelongs toOkinotorishimaHowever, people do not live in and civilians cannot enter freely.
  3. ^ Although there is a theory of "drifting", there are no documents or studies that interpret it as "drifting", and the original text is simply "Dou Agonawa".
  4. ^ 14 regions: Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto Inland, Kanto Seaside, Tokai, Hokuriku, Kinki Inland, Kinki Seaside, Sanin, Chugoku Sanyo, Shikoku, Kyushu Kitakyushu, Kyushu Minamikyushu, Okinawa[10].
  5. ^ In the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport,Island country(territoryIs all(I.e.6,852 islands that make up Japan, which is a country consisting of Remote islandDivided into 6,847 islands[11].. However, there is no such classification/division for the islands geographically.
  6. ^ Japanese(I.e.Top 10 islands by area:Honshu,Hokkaido,Kyusyu,Shikoku,Etorofu Island,Kunashiri Island,Okinawa main island,Sado Island,Amami Oshima,Tsushima[12].
  7. ^ Posted in the following "Locations of municipalities belonging to the main island of Okinawa".
  8. ^ In other words, it is probable that the Magiri system at this time almost inherited the Magiri system at the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom era (final).
  9. ^ In addition, the main island of Okinawa was roughly divided into three categories, "Kunigami", "Nakagami", and "Shimajiri".this isOld Ryukyu14-15th centurySanzan periodDerived from the national world (with some differences). "Underground three-way" in "Jiji-san Poshu Hanari" refers to Kunigami, Nakagami, and Shimajiri. "Morori" generally refers to the remote islands around the main island and the surrounding remote islands.
  10. ^ County officeIt refers to an era when it was functioning as an administrative entity.Since the abolition of the county system, the county remains a mere geographical name.The same is true outside Okinawa Prefecture, but the historical background is different in Okinawa Prefecture.
  11. ^ However, there was a time when Shuri Ward functioned as a part of Nakagami, such as the establishment of the Nakagami District Office for a period under the old county system.It was incorporated into Naha City after the war in Okinawa.
  12. ^ However, it was nominally regarded as a part of Ryukyu. Detail isThe history of the Amami archipelagoSee.
  13. ^ at that time,Inland(Non-colonial mainland Japan)Karafuto Agencyas well as the KurilButSoviet armyIt wasn't the "only ground battle".[48].
  14. ^ Osumi IslandsandKami Mishimaexcept for.
  15. ^ "Act on Special Measures for Return of OkinawaFormally, from the prewar Okinawa prefecture and the prewar prefecture's municipal system, after the warLocal government lawIt was decided that it would be inherited by Okinawa Prefecture and municipalities based on.It is just a matter of legal formal inheritance.
  16. ^ Upon return, Japan paid a total of $3 million to the United States (about 2000 billion yen at the current exchange rate (as of October 2016)).
  17. ^ As a result, the prefectures where the train is not runningTokushimaOnly became.
  18. ^ Yaeyama Daily2017On April 4st, the Okinawa main island version was published and the morning edition started, but from the end of February 1, it was integrated with the Yaeyama version and the delivery was canceled and switched to mail.[81].
  19. ^ Currently, daily newspapers are sold mainly in the Tokyo metropolitan area (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama), and other areas are delivered by mail.
  20. ^ Ryukyu Broadcasting and Okinawa TV. Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting and radio are not posted.
  21. ^ On cable TV in Miyako and Ishigaki, the starting 3 companies and 4 stations also delivered analog broadcasting, but unlike those that had normal image quality of 4:3, QAB was started from the beginningLetterbox 16:9Was using.
  22. ^ In the past, there were many cases where re-transmission was not performed due to management reasons in other areas (equipment costs on the cable TV station side or pressure of existing stations in the prefecture), but the cable TV station in the center of the mainland prefectural office is It is common for all four major series to be retransmitted.In addition, since the two papers publish the program guide of the original channel of the major cable TV in the prefecture, the program guide of "TV Nirai" which partially retransmits the Kagoshima Yomiuri TV is posted.
  23. ^ A relay station was opened on Irabu Island in January 2019, and FM Okinawa can be received on Miyako Island and its surrounding remote islands.
  24. ^ However, NHK-FM2011(September 23) Since September, it has become possible to listen to it by simultaneous delivery via the Internet with the first and second radios, but since it is all broadcast from Tokyo, it is due to the original program of Okinawa prefecture and Kyushu/Okinawa block. If there is a program that is not delivered at the same time due to the reason, it cannot be heard unless a relay station is maintained. Two relay stations were opened in FY9, but the ones that were opened wereTokyoOgasawara IslandsOf a Chichijima-Hahajima both relay stations, for in Daito not still standing prospect of started broadcasting, Chichi-Hahajima both relay station after started broadcasting is to remain as the only NHK-FM area that can not be directly received by the radio broadcasting at the national Became.
  25. ^ 16 stations on the main island of Okinawa (2 stations in Naha City, Okinawa City, Ginowan City, Urazoe City, Tomigusuku City, Itoman City, Nanjo City, Uruma City, Nago City, Yonahara Town, Kitaya Town, Honbu Town, Yomitan Village 1 station), 1 station each on Kumejima (Kumejima Town), Miyakojima (Miyakojima City), Ishigakijima (Ishigaki City).
  26. ^ Although the official language is not specified in the Ryukyu Government Code and various laws and regulations, Japanese is used for the Ryukyu Government Code and various laws and regulations, and English is used for the decrees issued by the US military.[85].

Source

  1. ^ "Uchina”(Japanese). Shuri/Naha dialect voice database. 2020/6/9Browse.
  2. ^ National Institute of Japanese Language (2001) "National Institute for Japanese Language Institute 5 Okinawan Dictionary", Ministry of Finance, Printing Bureau, p. 538.
  3. ^ a b "Overview of remote islands / Okinawa Prefecture". 2017/10/12Browse.
  4. ^ 260m north-northwest of the westernmost part of Japan Using rocks from Yonaguni Island, Okinawa Prefecture as a topographic map Ryukyu Shimpo, viewed June 2019, 6.[Broken link]
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  31. ^ About low temperature accompanied by strong cold (PDF) -Okinawa Meteorological Observatory, January 2016, 1
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  35. ^ "28 Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns, and villages (PDF)". Geographical Survey Institute (September 2016, 10). 2017/2/27Browse.
  36. ^ Kerama Islands National Park was born -Okinawa Times (March 2014, 3, viewed on the same day)
  37. ^ “Yambaru National Park is born”. Okinawa Times: p. 1. (September 2016, 9) 
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  39. ^ Okinawa river -Okinawa Prefecture Civil Engineering Department River Division
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  41. ^ University of the Ryukyus River characteristics and life history of fish in Okinawa
  42. ^ Okinawa International University Okinawa River
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  47. ^ [Return to Okinawa 45 years] 70% of US military facilities are still concentrated 15% of the main island
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  51. ^ From "XNUMX Years of Submarine Lines"-Chronology of submarine communication cables in Japan/NTT World Engineering Marine HP
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  57. ^ "Prefecture population exceeded 140 million 12 increase in 10 years". Ryukyu Shimpo (September 2011, 9). 2012/6/28Browse.
  58. ^ "Healthy Parents and Children Okinawa 2010 Chapter 2 Present Situation of Maternal and Child Health (PDF)”. Health Promotion Division, Health and Welfare Department, Okinawa Prefecture. 2012/6/28Browse.
  59. ^ a b “Census prefecture population 143 people”. Ryukyu Shimpo: p. 6. (September 2016, 11) 
  60. ^ a b "Deaths by Prefecture -22 Age-Adjusted Mortality by Prefecture- (PDF)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2012, 3). 2012/6/28Browse.
  61. ^ Naomi Kuwae et al. (2006). “Changes in life expectancy, age-adjusted mortality rate, and mortality rate by age group in Okinawa Prefecture (1973-2002) (PDF)". Okinawa Prefectural Institute for Health and Environmental Research No. 40University Hospital Medical Information Network Research Center. 2012/6/28Browse.
  62. ^ "Okinawa Prefecture Population, Households, Housing (PDF)”. Okinawa Prefecture Planning Department Statistics Division (October 2011, 10). 2012/6/28Browse.
  63. ^ Fiscal 28 Economic overview of Okinawa (PDF)
  64. ^ 26 prefectural economic calculation (PDF)
  65. ^ Okinawa Mozuku
  66. ^ Living Information Center, editorial department, "Collection of fish catch, aquaculture, processing, import/export, distribution, consumption 2005" Living Information Center, 2005
  67. ^ General Statistics on Tourists to the Area in 2009 (Okinawa Prefecture Tourism Planning Division)
  68. ^ "Inbound demand in Okinawa”(Japanese). Visit Lab. 2020/6/29Browse.
  69. ^ Request for tax reform in 19 5. Promotion of Okinawa -Cabinet Office (read October 2010, 10)
  70. ^ Request for tax reform in 19 (PDF)
  71. ^ "29 (FY) Standings by Airport (EXCEL) ”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismCivil Aviation Bureau (August 2018, 8). 2019/2/24Browse.
  72. ^ “Government considers support for Okinawa railway concept Station on the site of Futenma”. MSN Sankei NewsSangyo Keizai Shimbun. (November 2013, 8). http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/130821/plc13082101370001-n1.htm 
  73. ^ "Minami Daito Village plans to revive the railway "Sugar Train"". Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2013, 9). http://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/storyid-212834-storytopic-5.html 
  74. ^ Okinawa geography trivia(Although it is introduced as "National Railway Naha Port Station" in the link, it was accurately connected with the national railway.Ryukyu ShippingIs the station of
  75. ^ Okinawa's first pair lift "The Shigira Lift Ocean Sky" - Unimat Group, August 2016, 4
  76. ^ Authorized Okinawa's first cableway project (PDF) - Cabinet OfficeOkinawa General Bureau, August 2014, 8
  77. ^ For a list of bus operators,Okinawa General Bureau Transportation Department FY 19 Transportation Manual (PDF) More excerpts.
  78. ^ Congestion loss amount per 1km by prefecture (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
  79. ^ “The bottom of the academic ability test is important to create a learning environment”. Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2012, 8). http://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/storyid-195444-storytopic-11.html 2012/10/8Browse. 
  80. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun Advertising Guide Average number of copies sold by prefecture in the second half of 2010 (read September 2011, 9)
  81. ^ "Notice of cancellation of morning edition of Okinawa mainland version" (Press Release), Yaeyama Daily, (February 2019, 2), http://www.yaeyama-nippo.co.jp/archives/news/%E6%B2%96%E7%B8%84%E6%9C%AC%E5%B3%B6%E7%89%88-%E6%9C%9D%E5%88%8A%E9%85%8D%E9%81%94%E4%B8%AD%E6%AD%A2%E3%81%AE%E3%81%8A%E7%9F%A5%E3%82%89%E3%81%9B 
  82. ^ "[NTV / Yomiuri TV / Chukyo TV] Trial for live distribution of terrestrial prime time on TVer Starts at 10 o'clock on Saturday, October 3!". Nippon Television Network Corporation, Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation, Chukyo Television Broadcasting Co., Ltd. (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/21Browse.
  83. ^ Ryukyu Culture Overview Ryukyu Culture Archive
  84. ^ Internationalization of Japanese and language situation in Okinawa Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Fumio Inoue
  85. ^ Okinawa Prefectural Archivesreference
  86. ^ "United Nations Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Recommends Respect for Okinawan People's Will to Japan”(Japanese). Ryukyu Shimpo. 2020/10/28Browse.
  87. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “The Liberal Democratic Party vehemently opposes the UN view "Okinawa people are indigenous peoples" "It is an ethnic division work"”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/10/28Browse.
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  90. ^ Okinawa's traditional karate and old martial arts
  91. ^ History of Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts
  92. ^ Koden Karate/Recommendation for Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts
  93. ^ "Forty-seven Prefectures Unchiku Encyclopedia," page 47 publisher-PHP library and author-Kazuro Yawata
  94. ^ Post-war American food culture
  95. ^ Akasaka, Norio, "Is there a discriminated person in Okinawa (below)?" Buraku Liberation, No. 554, 2005, p.55.
  96. ^ "Examine the Ryukyu Yaeyama head tax". K-aiser Collection search. Kokugakuin University.As of August 2018, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2018/5/27Browse.
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  98. ^ Kurakichi Takara "People's Tax" ("National History Dictionary 15" (Hirobun Yoshikawa, 1996)) ISBN 978-4-642-00515-9
  99. ^ Local children interact with marines-JSDF.ORG
  100. ^ Lee Kyo-Ai, Toyozumi Marcia, Naomi Noiri, Ran Haei, Tokuhei Akibe, Enoki Enui "Thoughts of "Japan" and "New Japan" living in Japanese society"Mukuge, No. 173, 2003
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  106. ^ Norihisa Ishii, Yasuyuki Sugita, Hiroshi Nakajima "Trends in New Leprosy: From 1993 to 1997", The Journal of the Japanese Dermatological Association, vol. 109, 1999, p.763.
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  108. ^ Fumaya Nakamura "<Location of people with Hansen's disease-Okinawa society and <isolation place>"" Bulletin of Faculty of Social Welfare, Yamaguchi Prefectural University, No. 14, 2008, p.42, 44
  109. ^ Fumaya Nakamura "Two Funeral Rituals in Okinawan Society: The Problem of Hansen's Disease in Okinawa and the "Special Funeral Law"", Bulletin of Faculty of Social Welfare, Yamaguchi Prefectural University, No. 11, 2005, p.44-46
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Related item

外部 リンク

Predecessor:
Ryukyu Domain
Changes in administrative districts
1879 - 1945 (First Okinawa Prefecture)
Next generation:
Ryukyu Islands US Military Government
Predecessor:
Ryukyu Islands U.S. Government
Ryukyu government
Changes in administrative districts
1972 - (First Okinawa Prefecture)
Next generation:
-----

Osaka

Osaka(Osaka Prefecture,British: Osaka Prefecture) IsJapan OfKinkiに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office TheOsaka.

Overview

The location of the government office isOsaka.Regulatory country OfSettsuEastern (7county)andKawachi countryIzumi countryIt consists of the whole area ofSetagawa IzumiIt is also called (impossible), but from Kyoto PrefectureKashidaWhole area andKameokaPart ofTransboundary transferSince 1958Tamba countryThe southeastern part (a small part) is also included. In addition,Sakai prefectureFrom 1881 of transfer to 1887 of Nara re-installation,YamatoIt also included the entire area of.

Kinki OfEconomy-TransportationIs the center ofpopulationIs the third largest in Japan with about 883 people (9,000 census).Daytime populationas well as the The population density TheTokyoIt is second only to the whole country.Gross domestic productIs actually the 2nd place in the whole country and the nominal 3rd place in the whole country.The entire prefectureOsaka metropolitan areaBelongs to and highly advancedUrbanizationWas doneRegionThere are many.

Economist Intelligence UnitIn the "Most Liveable Cities" ranking (2019 edition) byVienna,Melbourne,SydneyRanked 4rd in the world after[1].America OfBrookings InstitutionBut the main in the worldBig cityIn 7 categoriesSortIn the research I did, Osaka (HanshinMetropolitan area)ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,UK,Paris,Tokyo,Los AngelesWith the bestratingof"globalGiantIt was evaluated.

Ancient times,Emperor JimmuTo Naniwasaki before the coronationIkutama ShrineFounded.Kofun period,Emperor OshinNamba Osumimiya (Naniwa Osumi no Miya)Emperor Nintoku OfNamba Takatsunomiya(Naniwa no Takatsunomiya),Emperor KinmeiNamba Celebration Tsunomiya (Naniwa no Hafuritsunomiya) was run.Namba Kozu Shrine is also simply Kozu Shrine.CurrentTakatsunomiya (Takatsu Shrine)Is said to have begun by exploring the ruins of this palace, building a shrine there, and performing a ritual.Osaka CastleWas around[2].Emperor Kotoku OfDifficult wavelength pattern Tonomiya(First half of Namba Palace),Emperor Shomu OfNamba Palace(Late Namba Palace) etc.,NagaokakyoConsistently until the capital movedcapital,ShadoWas treated as a (vice capital).

中 世The names "Osaka" and "Osaka" have appeared inMeijiTo "Osaka(OsakaWas revised." "Slope"Uemachi PlateauIt is said to be derived from.In addition, "Naniwa" (Naniwa), which is said to be a corruption of "Namihaya"Naniwa-Namba・ Naniwa / Naniwa) ”has been called until now.Central TokyoIt is often used as another name for a department.

For Osaka before modern timesOsakaSee also.

Geography/Region

Osaka Prefecture is located in the central part of the Kinki region and borders Kyoto Prefecture, Nara Prefecture, Hyogo Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture. Since ancient timesAboveIt is a key point for water transportation leading to. SouthwestOsaka Bay.

Formerly the smallest prefectures (46th isKagawa), but on October 1988, 10Geographical Survey InstituteReviewed the calculation method,OkayamaTamano-shiKagawa Prefecture where there is an undecided part betweenNaoshima TownBecause the area of ​​Kagawa prefecture (14.2 km²) was not included in the total area of ​​the prefecture, the area of ​​Kagawa prefecture decreased and it was reversed to Osaka prefecture, and it was ranked 46th.[3][4].. Then in OsakaKIXLand reclamation was promoted due to the opening of the port and the development of the western part of Osaka City, etc.[5].

climate

The whole area of ​​Osaka prefectureSeto Inland Sea climate, Which is warm throughout the year, has few rainy days in Japan, andHeat islandThe phenomenon is remarkable, and it is difficult for the nighttime temperature to drop. In the winter, the plains often have little snow, even a few centimeters.

nature Park

Adjacent municipalities

Municipalities

Currently, there are a total of 33 cities, 9 cities, 1 towns and 43 village in Osaka Prefecture.MunicipalitiesThere is (of these,Government-designated city2 cities,Core city7 cities,Special city at the time of enforcement2 cities). The way to read the town is "chou". There is only one village, Chihaya Akasaka Village, and the village is read as "mura". Osaka Prefecture has 1 cities with a population of 10 or more, the largest number in Japan. If Osaka is divided into 22 areas, it will be Toyono area, Mishima area, Osaka city, Kitakawachi area, Nakakochi area, Minamikawachi area, Senboku area, Sennan area. On April 8, 2006, Sakai City moved to an ordinance-designated city,FukuokaAfter Kanagawa Prefecture, it became a prefecture with multiple ordinance-designated cities. In addition, on April 4 of the following year, following Osaka Prefecture,ShizuokaIs also a prefecture with multiple ordinance-designated cities.

List of municipalities

Ordinance-designated cities, core cities, and special cities at the time of enforcement市町村Are arranged in order of enforcement. Area classification is defined by Osaka Prefecture[6] by.

OsakaToyonoMishimaSenbokuSennanKitakawachiNakakochiMinamikawachi
Government-designated city
      
Core city
    
Special city at the time of enforcement
      
Other municipalities
 

Administrative region of ordinance-designated city

Osaka City is now 4 wards as of November 5 after undergoing 2017 reorganizations from the original 11 wards. It is the largest number of administrative districts in ordinance-designated cities. In addition, at the maximum, it was 24 wards, which is two more wards.

CityYearAdministrative district
L
Saka
City
August, 1889
August, 1925
August, 1932
August, 1943
August, 1974
August, 1989
  • Chuo-ku(Prefecture building location)
  • Kita(City Hall location)
Sakai
City
August, 2006

Wide bowl(Kobo

According to the Geographical Survey Institute's national prefectural areas by area, Osaka Prefecture has an area of ​​1905.14 square kilometers.[7].

The ends of north, south, east, and west of Osaka Prefecture are as follows:[8][9].. North endTenno PassNear the south endOsaka Prefectural Route 751The west-southwest and eastern end of the Saruzaka Pass isTanabe Nishi InterchangeThe southwest and western ends are just west of Sumiyoshi Shrine in Misaki Town. AlsoStatistics BureauAccording to the 22 census, the population center of gravity is near 1 Tsuruhashi, Ikuno-ku, Osaka[10].

Center of gravity
North Latitude 34 Degrees 37 Minutes 34 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 30 min 30 sec /34.62611 degrees north latitude 135.50833 degrees east longitude / 34.62611; 135.50833 (Center of gravity of Osaka)

Northern end
North Latitude 35 Degrees 03 Minutes 05 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 21 min 06 sec /35.05139 degrees north latitude 135.35167 degrees east longitude / 35.05139; 135.35167 (The northernmost tip of Osaka Prefecture)
Center of gravity
North Latitude 34 Degrees 39 Minutes 47.55 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 31 min 53.29 sec /34.6632083 degrees north latitude 135.5314694 degrees east longitude / 34.6632083; 135.5314694 (Osaka center of population)
West end
North Latitude 34 Degrees 18 Minutes 54 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 05 min 36 sec /34.31500 degrees north latitude 135.09333 degrees east longitude / 34.31500; 135.09333 (The westernmost part of Osaka Prefecture)
Osaka Prefectural Government Office Location
North Latitude 34 Degrees 41 Minutes 11 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 31 min 12 sec /34.68639 degrees north latitude 135.52000 degrees east longitude / 34.68639; 135.52000 (Osaka Prefectural Government)
Eastern end
North Latitude 34 Degrees 48 Minutes 06 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 44 min 48 sec /34.80167 degrees north latitude 135.74667 degrees east longitude / 34.80167; 135.74667 (The easternmost point of Osaka Prefecture)

Southern tip
North Latitude 34 Degrees 16 Minutes 19 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 06 min 41 sec /34.27194 degrees north latitude 135.11139 degrees east longitude / 34.27194; 135.11139 (The southernmost tip of Osaka Prefecture)

History

Ancient to modern

Mr. Otomo,Mr. MonobeIs the place whereAncient timesIt was a port city and was the center of domestic distribution.Seto Inland SeaNear the Sumiyoshi Taisha Shrine (Sumiyoshi Ward, Osaka City) as the end point of the route passing throughSumiyoshitsu,NambatsuWas working. SumiyoshitsuYamato kingshipSumiyoshi Taisha, which was in charge of managing Sumiyoshitsu, had a deep connection withShrinewas. Emperor JimmuBefore the coronation, in NambazakiIkutama ShrineFounded.Kofun period,Emperor OshinNamba Osumimiya (Naniwa Osumi no Miya) and "Record of Ancient Matters"Or"Japanese calligraphy"according toEmperor NintokuEstablished the capital in Namba and designated it as Namba Kozu Shrine.Uemachi PlateauToEmperor KinmeiNamba Celebration Tsunomiya (Naniwa no Hafuritsunomiya),Emperor Kotoku,Emperor Shomu OfNamba Palace(Naniwa no Miya) etc. were run (#Overviewreference). Also,Anti-Emperor OfTanbi Shiba Umiya,Emperor KeitaiThe camphor tree (Emperor Keitai #Imperial Palace),Emperor SatatsuBaekje Oimiya (Emperor Satada # Imperial PalaceThe current land of Osaka Prefecture, etc.Palace,Miyakonojo,PalaceAnd the capital were placed. Daisen Tomb (Emperor Nintoku/Sakai City)Mozu Bird Burial Mounds,Old city tombsLarge and smallTomb of the Emperor/Old tombWas built around the Kawachi area.Emperor SuikoNew Year (593) Is the Ikutama Shrine andSumiyoshi TaishaIs said to be the oldest in Japan on the Uemachi plateau whereTempleIsShitennoji(Tennoji Ward, Osaka City) was built,Otomi's strange(DahuaFirst year645>) Later, Emperor KotokuTransfer of capital, Difficult wavelength patternThe first half of the year(Chuo-ku, Osaka City) was built, and after that, with the use of the national name of JapanEraIs said to have begun to be used. After that, Namba Palace (Late Namba Palace) And so oncapital,Sub capitalWas placed.

Heian periodIs located at the mouth of the Yodo River,京都And tied by water transport (Watanabe Tsu), The relationship through this water transport thenMeiji EraWill continue until the railway is laid. In the early Heian periodConqueror General OfSakaue Tamura MaroThe third son ofHirono Sakagami SettsuSumiyoshi-gunHiranoshoBecame the lord of (Hirano Ward, Osaka City) and said to be the descendantMr. SakagamiThe clan was responsible for the autonomy of the plains of the Middle Ages.

In the middle of Heian period,GenmanchuEldest son ofYorimitsuIs Tada of Settsu (currently:HyogoKawanishi CityNear), the third sonTrustIs Tsuchii in Kawachi (currentHabikino) Respectively. Of this,Gen Seiwathe first classGen KawachiBecame known and was known as Yorinobu's grandson, Taro HachimanOriginatorBecame the master of the samurai following the Bando warriors, and Minamikawachi in Osaka PrefecturesamuraiBecome the center of The XNUMXth generation descendants of this source familyKamakura ShogunateopenYoritomo GengenIs. Also, start with Minamoto no YorimitsuGenji SettsuAt the Noro Party,Gen Saga OfSourceDraw the flow ofWatanabe TsunaAncestorMr. WatanabeNear the current NakanoshimaWatanabe TsuWas the headquarters. [In the latter half of the Heian period, it was called Motosuga in the middle of KawachiHiraoka ShrineBecame a samurai group fromMr. MizusashiA clan emerged and became a major force by controlling the water transportation of the Yamato River and its tributaries.

Kamakura PeriodFrom the endNorthern and Northern DynastiesTo KawachiVillainOf a local Australian calledMasanari SuzukiCame out and played an active part. Mr. Kusunoki, including Masanari,Southern DynastyOften used by Kawachi as a leading military commanderTakashi AshikagaEt al.North morningBut MasanariBattle of MinatogawaAnd that childStraight lineAlsoBattle of ShijonawateHe died in battle and eventually weakened his power.

Muromachi PeriodWhen you enter KawachiMr. HatakeyamaHowever, in Settsu and IzumiMr. HosokawaRespectivelyGuardianWas entrusted to. However, both houses are three of the ShogunateJurisdictionIt is a family name that is named after the house, and the actual political affairs areGuardian feeWas often held byHigo countryKumamoto DomainMr. Hosokawa, who is the master of each, is a branch of the family that served as Izumi guardian).

Onin's rebellionrear,Sengoku periodWhen entering, both Mr. Hatakeyama and Mr. HosokawaFamilyIt was extremely confusing from the battle over.At this time, Sakai (Sakai City) IsCongregationWealthy calledTownspeopleHas formed a self-governing city centered around, and replaced Hyogo MinatoNichimei TradingProsperous as a relay port oftea ceremonyIs nurturing such a culture. Settsu Kuni Plain is alsoConqueror General OfSakaue Tamura MaroOf the childHirono SakagamiIs said to be a descendant ofSueyoshiIt flourished as an autonomous city by the townspeople around the Hirano seven famous households, and in Ishiyama of SettsuHokkeI left Kyoto because of the conflict with my followers.Jodo Shinshu OfLotus Ishiyama HonganjiErected. On the other hand, it is the vassals of Mr. Hosokawa who newly gained power in this area.AwakuniMr. Miyoshi, who was originally from Japan, was once proud of his power as a backing for the general,Nagayoshi MiyoshiAfter his death, he was weakened by the struggles of his family and then emerged.Oda NobunagaSuccumbed to. Was the head of the Jodo Shinshu sect for Nobunaga, who is expanding power in this regionObviousCalled on uprising to followers all over the country, and also held himself at Ishiyama Honganji Temple to confront Oda. thisIshiyama battleLasts for 10 years, but in the endTensho8 years(1580The end was reached by surrendering the Honganji Temple.

After Nobunaga's death, he inherited that territoryHideyoshi ToyotomiStarted the construction of Osaka Castle, which is their residence, on the site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple. This castle uses the terrain that originates from the mouth of the Yodo and Yamato rivers, and even the castle town is surrounded by a moat to be part of the castle.Delicate structureIt was a huge one. Its unrivaled firmnessOsaka winter teamIt was proved by, and at this time, the gatherer couldn't get inside. However, the moat was reclaimed until the summer, and the castle lost its function.ToyotomiWas destroyed.

Edo PeriodUpon entering Osaka, Osaka prospered again as a major economic and commercial center of the country.World kitchenWas called. Osaka, where routes from all over the country are gathered, is lined with warehouses of various domains, and since it was also a gathering place for products from various countries, we handle them.YodoyaA big merchant also appeared. Above all, it was a concentrated area of ​​annual tribute riceDojimaThen the world's first public establishmentFutures tradingSword "Dojima Rice ChamberIs opened,NakanoshimaWith it became the center of the Osaka economy. In an environment that matures as an economic city, various arts have also grown and developed. The center of the upper culture gradually moved from Kyoto to Osaka,Ibara NishitsuruAnd playwrightChikamatsu MonzaemonSuch a writer,Akinari Ueda-Tominaga NakamotoHas produced a number of excellent scholars who have a name in the history of posterity. It also originated from the Uemura Bunrakuken play that emerged in the same period.Bunraku(OsakaNingyo JoruriPlay)2009(Heisei21 years)UNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageRegistered in.Tempo8 years(1837)Positive studyWas holding a private school, Senshin-dongHeihachiro OshioFor poverty reliefHeihachiro Oshio's RebellionCausedBakumatsu,Ogata KoanWas openVocational schoolFromFukuzawa Yukichi,Masashiro Omura,Keisuke OtoriAnd so on, it created the talent that represented the Meiji era. [In addition, the clan placed in the Edo period has Osaka Castle (Settsukuni) under the direct control of the Shogunate,Takatsuki Domain,Asada Domain, In KawachiTannan Domain,Sayama DomainHowever, in Izumi countryHakuta Domain,Kishiwada Domainwas there. ]

Transition of local system in the first year of the Meiji era

Keio4 years/MeijiFirst yearMay 1(1868On February 2th, the Meiji governmentOsakazindaiDecided to install.May 1The Osaka Court was set up in Osaka[Annotation 1]Was renamed. April Establishment of the Agricultural Bureau in the Osaka Court, which has jurisdiction over the surrounding area excluding town areas. May 4, established in Osaka Prefecture. May 5, established in Nara Prefecture. June 2 The Osaka Prefectural Agriculture Department splits north and south. June 5, established in Sakai Prefecture. Meiji 19May 1(1869(February 2) Hokuji Agricultural BureauSettsu prefecture, Nanji Agriculture BureauKawachi PrefectureRenamed to. May 5 SettsuToyosaki PrefectureRenamed to. August 8 Merged Toyosaki prefecture into Hyogo prefecture and Kawachi prefecture into Sakai prefecture. September 2, Former Sumiyoshi-gun, Toyosaki PrefectureTosei District-Nishinari-gunIncorporated. December 12 Merged Sayama domain into Sakai prefecture. 26rd year of MeijiMay 2(1870May 3) Sakai prefectureIshikawa-Nishikibe-gunPart ofGojo prefectureTransferred to. 4th year of MeijiMay 7(1871May 8Abandoned Domain.May 11(February 12)Takatsuki Prefecture,AsadaMerged with Osaka Prefecture. Former Toyosaki PrefectureShimakami-gun-Shimashita-Toshima-Nose-gunIncorporated. November 4, 11 〈1872January 1〉)Kishiwada-Haku prefecture-Yoshimi Prefecture-TannanAnd a part of Gojo prefecture was transferred to Sakai prefecture.1876(Meiji 9) April 4, merged Nara Prefecture into Sakai Prefecture.1881(Meiji 14) February 2 Merged Sakai prefecture into Osaka prefecture.1887(20th year of Meiji) Nara prefecture was relocated on November 11th. (The date until 4 is the lunar calendar, and the current Nara prefecture area is an outline)

The area of ​​jurisdiction at the time of the establishment of Osaka Prefecture was 61 villages in Tosei-gun, Settsu-gun (Osaka Town Magistrate34 villages,Osaka castle22 villages,Kyoto office2 villages,Odawara Domain5 villages), 132 villages in Nishinari-gun (117 villages in Osaka Prefecture,Flag territory6 villages,Tayasu Tokugawa family9 villages,Kannomiya2 villages in the family territory, 37 villages in Sumiyoshi-gun (17 villages in Osaka, 14 villages in Sumiyoshi Taisha, 8 villages in the Odawara domain), Kawachi countryKatano-gun1 villages (Kano DomainDepository)Met.

Since modern times

Meiji RestorationAfter that, the capital function is from KyotoTokyoOsaka temporarily declined due to the move to Osaka and the fact that the Kurayashiki became unnecessary.Osaka was hit hard by the Meiji government's disposal of clan bonds, but commerce and industry developed mainly in the textile-related and other light industry sectors, and "OrientalManchester"The best commercial and industrial area in the Orient"[11] Is called, and the company that survives as a large company has risenMecenatWas actively done. In this eraHanshin ModernismIs called.1925(TaishoIn 14), the city of Osaka merged with the surrounding area to expand the city area, and at that timeGreat Kanto EarthquakeWas hit byTokyo cityIt has become the city with the largest population in Japan (Great Osaka era).

During the warThe city was attributed to Kaijin due to a thorough bombing of a machine shop in Amagasaki, a Mint in Chuo Ward, a commercial district in the center, and a port facility. In addition, a factory was relocated to the prefecture to avoid air raids during this period, which became the basis of industry in the post-war satellite city.

After the war,High economic growthEntering the period,Hanshin Industrial AreaThe economy of Osaka prefecture, where the ratio of light industry was high, began to look like a blockage. Heavy industry, which was a flower industry at the time, was demilitarized after the war.Osaka Artillery ArsenalIt has been hit hard by the disappearance of many (small and medium-sized enterprises as a complementary function, although there are still rooted companies), attracting and increasing the size of shallow coastlines such as Osaka Prefecture. It was said that it was difficult (in evidence that there are many large ships such as between Hanshin and easy to enter, heavy industry exists), and that it was relocated to another land as a measure against pollution.

In addition, due to the postwar legislation, Osaka's unique servant system has declined, and the focus of commerce has shifted to Tokyo.As a result, donations from wealthy people who supported Osaka culture with soil texture (meaning doshobone, do guts) that do not rely on the government have decreased.Due to poor government leadership, economic and cultural power has declined.In addition to these1964(Showa39 years)Factories Restriction Law, Industrial Relocation Promotion Act in 1972, 1973Factory location methodSuch asFactory three methodsWas enacted one after another. In 1966Central Region Development and Maintenance ActWas established and the manufacturing industryKinki areaからChukyo areaIt became a trigger to leak to and was a blow to Osaka.

1970From March 3th to September 15th at the Senri Hills in Suita CityJapan World ExpositionWas held.AsiaThe 1970 Osaka Expo, which was held for the first time, attracted about 6421 million visitors and was the largest expo at that time.The site of the venue is nowExpo Memorial ParkHas been maintained as.

1994 years,QuanzhouOffshoreKIXOpening of port.It will be the world's first fully artificial island marine airport.After that, with the completion of the second island (second runway) in 2007, it became Japan's first complete 2-hour airport.

1995(Heisei7 years)Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeThen, the seismic intensity is about 4 in Osaka city[Annotation 2] Although there was little direct damage in the area, strong earthquakes hit areas such as Toyonaka City, killing 9 people and causing major damage to homes. Other,life lineIt was affected not a little by the disruption of transportation and paralysis of transportation.

The 1995th meeting held for the first time in Japan on November 11, 19APECSummit meeting held in Osaka City.

From around 1992 to 2008Summer olympicAlthough the idea of ​​attracting people was raised, in July 2001IOC General AssemblyLost in (Details).

In 2002FIFA World CupPart ofNagai StadiumIt was held in.The games will be played against England, against Japan, which decided the final tournament, and in the quarterfinals.

In 2007, at Nagai Stadium in Osaka City2007 World Athletics ChampionshipsWas held.AthleticsIt is the highest international competition for the country, and the number of participating countries has reached 200.

2018May 6ToNorthern Osaka EarthquakeOccurs.OsakaKitaChayamachi,Takatsuki,Ibaraki City,Hirakata,Minoh CityWe observed a seismic intensity of 6 lower.It was the first time that an earthquake observing a seismic intensity of 6 lower occurred in Osaka prefecture since we started collecting statistics.

November 2018, 11 (Japan time),France・ Held in ParisBRBy the general meeting2025 International ExpoIt was decided to invite Osaka.

The 2019th G6 Summit, which will be held for the first time in Japan on June 28th and 29th, 14 (G20 Osaka Summit) Is Osaka CitySuminoe WardIt was held in.JapanesePrime Minister AbeAs chairmanPresident Trump(Rice),Putin(Dew),Xi Jinping Jintao(During),Prime Minister May(UK),President Macron(Buddha),Merkel(Germany) and others come to Osaka.It was the largest international conference ever held in Japan.

population

Osaka PrefecturepopulationHas a nighttime population of about 884 million (3rd in Japan),Daytime populationIs about 924 million (second in the country).At noonCommuting-Commuting to schoolDue to such factors, there is an inflow of nearly 70 people (net inflow of more than 40 people) from neighboring prefectures.Vital statistics are from other prefecturesForeign countriesDue to the influx of population fromTransferThe number of deaths is high while it is in excessBornSince the number is much higher than the number, in recent yearsEstimated populationIs on a slight downward trend. The number of over-migrants in Japan in 2020 was +13,356 (5th in Japan), and the number of births in 2020 wasBulletinThe number was 63,277 (second in the country) on a value basis.

2015CensusLooking at the population increase and decrease from the previous survey, there is uneven distribution in Osaka city depending on the ward.9 central wards of OsakaWhile the population is increasing, the northern and southernmost wards are declining.Looking at the entire prefecture,OsakaHokusetsuWhile the population is increasing in the areaHanoiWith the areaQuanzhouIn the area, the population is declining.

The highest rate of increase in 72 cities, wards, towns and villages that divided Osaka and Sakai into wards is

  • 1st = Chuo-ku, Osaka, 2nd = Naniwa-ku, Osaka, 3rd = Kita-ku, 4th = Nishi-ku, Osaka, 5th = Tennoji-ku, Osaka, 6th = Fukushima-ku, Osaka

On the other hand,

  • 1st place = Nose Town, 2nd place = Chihayaakasaka Village, 3rd place = Toyono Town, 4th place = Misaki Town, 5th place = Nishinari Ward, Osaka City, 6th place = Taisho Ward, Osaka City.[12].
Demography27000.svg
Population distribution by age in Osaka and Japan (2005)Osaka Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Osaka
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Osaka Prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Politics

Prefectural government

Osaka Prefectural Government

Since fiscal 2014, Osaka Prefecture has implemented a business to provide health information such as medicines, infectious diseases, specific medical examinations, and incurable disease subsidy programs to 185 pharmacies in the prefecture to support the health promotion of residents. Satisfaction of visitors is also "Generally well received"[13].

Administrative and financial reform

2006SettlementExpected to be 4 million yendebtThe amount is about 17 trillion yen in Tokyo,HokkaidoIt was the second largest scale after about 5 trillion yen.The real debt service ratio in 2,000 was 18%, the 15.6th in Japan.[14].. Therefore, if the current level of progress is maintained in 2007,Fiscal rebuilding organization(In a private company, "bankruptcyThe outlook specified in) was shown.It seemed that the fall of the financial reconstruction group in 2007 was avoided by the progress of the administrative and financial reforms, but the repayment of government bonds (debt) was partially postponed, and a total of about 3 billion yen was raised in three years. It was nothing more than a drastic solution to the problem.In addition, due to the large amount of debt caused by huge projects such as the second phase of construction at Kansai International Airport, the possibility of a financial reconstruction group falling was still present.Moreover, in January 2600, the problem of "hidden deficit" was discovered.

Since 2004, Osaka Prefecture has been pretending to have a smaller deficit than it actually is by postponing the repayment of debt.However, due to the repayment deadline, the number of government bonds increased sharply."I had no intention of hiding it," said a senior official of the prefecture. "I had to take this approach to avoid falling into a reconstruction organization."Regarding the repayment method of local bonds, the former Ministry of Home Affairs notified that 10% of the principal will be repaid in the 42th year and the rest will be refinanced.[Annotation 3] It is supposed to be[15].Extraordinary financial measures bond[Annotation 4] Increased from 1 billion yen to 7167 billion yen.The balance of government bonds decreased from 2 billion yen to 2853 billion yen[16].. January 2008, 1, at that timeFusae OtaThe governor of Osaka Prefecture officially acknowledged the fact, saying, "Measures to prevent becoming a reconstruction organization. It may be inappropriate, but it was unavoidable."[17].

2008 year 2 month,Tohashi HashishitaBecame the governor of Osaka Prefecture. "Osaka Metropolitan conceptDouble administrationAnnounced that it aims to "develop Osaka" with the spring of efficiency improvement by eliminating the problem.Osaka Prefecture and Osaka City estimate the "annual effect amount created by the city plan" to be up to 916 billion yen.[18]..In his second year in office, he achieved a financial surplus in Osaka Prefecture.[19].. Under the bridgeOsaka mayor electionAccompanied by a race2011 Osaka Governor ElectionThen, Hashishita will be the representativeOsaka Restoration SocietySecretary-General Ichiro Matsui was elected (Hashishita was elected mayor of Osaka).

In 2012, the repayment of more than 5500 billion yen of prefecture debt (prefecture bonds) was achieved, and the savings of the prefecture, which was 10 billion yen, increased to 800 billion yen.[20].

Successive elected governors

TenureNameNumber of wins
1947/4/12 - 1959/4/22Bunzo Akama(Akaman Bunzou3 times
1959/4/25 - 1971/4/22Yoshitoshi Sato(Ginsen Sato3 times
1971/4/23 - 1979/4/22Ryoichi Kuroda(Kuroda Ryoichi2 times
1979/4/23 - 1991/4/22Kishi Masaru(Kishikae3 times
1991/4/23 - 1995/4/22Kazuo Nakagawa(Nakazu Kazuo1 times
1995/4/23 - 1999/12/27Yamada Isamu(Isamu Yamada(Knock Yokoyama)2 times
2000/2/6 - 2008/2/5Fusae Saito(Saito(Fusae Ota)2 times
2008/2/6 - 2011/10/31Tohashi Hashishita(Toru Hashimoto1 times
2011/11/28[21] - 2019/3/24Ichiro Matsui(Ichirou2 times
2019/4/8 -Yoshimura Hirofumi(Yoshimura Hirofumi1 times

Osaka Prefectural Assembly

finance

30
19
  • Fiscal strength index 0.79
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 17nd out of 2 municipalities
18
  • Fiscal strength index 0.75
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 16nd out of 3 municipalities
  • Standard financial scale ¥1 billion
  • General account revenue 3 billion yen
  • General account expenditure 3 billion yen
  • Real balance of general account △135 million yen (deficit) It is rare that the real balance of the prefecture is in the red.
  • Current account ratio 96.6% (prefectural average 92.6)
  • Real debt service ratio: 16.7% (prefecture average: 14.7%) *Note: The figures are not accurate because the figures were used during the period of governor Ota.
  • Municipal bond per capita current outstanding amount 49 yen (prefectural average 6296 yen)
  • Personnel expenses per person, property expenses, etc. settlement amount 10 yen (prefectural average 6621 yen)
  • Number of employees per population 100,000: 977.61 (prefecture average: 1,173.11)
  • Laspeyres index 97.0 (Prefecture average 99.6)

Balance of local bonds, etc.

  • Local account balance of local account 4 million yen
  • Local government bond (corporate bond) balance of special account such as public enterprises 5312 million yen
  • Debt balance of the third sector (including foundations) 3 million yen
    • Major breakdown: Osaka Prefecture Housing Supply Corporation 1390 million yen Osaka Prefecture Highway Corporation 6000 million yen Osaka Prefecture Land Development Corporation 1218 million yen

Total of local bonds, etc. 5 million yen (consolidated accounting)

  • Balance of local bonds, etc. per Osaka citizen 58 yen (consolidated accounting)
    • In terms of the amount of local bond outstanding per citizen of the prefecture, for example, there are prefectures with more severe financial conditions than Osaka prefecture, such as Shimane prefecture 140 yen and Tottori prefecture 3407 100 yen.
17
  • Fiscal strength index 0.71
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 10nd out of 3 municipalities
16
  • Fiscal strength index 0.69
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 8nd out of 3 municipalities

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 19.House of CouncilorsThen, 1 ward is constructed in all prefectures.

Economic and industrial

Cities such as Chuo Ward and Kita Ward in Osaka CityCentraldistrict(Downtown) AsOsaka metropolitan areaOrKeihanshin metropolitan areaFormed.These are some of the biggest in the worldEconomic zoneIs.Osaka prefectureDefinitionAbove, the whole area belongs to the Osaka metropolitan area.

Incidentally,Takatsuki,HirakataAlthough the cities in northeastern Osaka are in the Osaka metropolitan areaKyoto CityMany commute to work or school.SimilarlyKyoto,ShigaEach city ofDefinitionAboveKyoto metropolitan areaAlthough it is included in, many people commute to work or school in Osaka.HyogoEven on the sideKobe metropolitan areaA similar case has occurred with Keihanshin, which is rare in the world.Metroplex(Complex metropolitan area) ”(independent metropolitan areas are connected / one metropolitan area → all are applicable).As a similar caseAmerica OfDallas/Fort Worth Complex Metropolitan AreaIs mentioned.

Osaka prefectureCommercial(Primary industry) AndIndustrial(Primary industry) Is highly developedPrimary industryThe ratio is low.In recent yearsInternational tourismThe industry is also thriving, and foreigners in 2019touristThe visit rate was the highest in Japan.In addition, the city of the future prefecturepolicyAs,life scienceIndustry金融The company plans to focus on industry.

Osaka Prefecture's gross domestic product exceeds 40 trillion yen,Denmark and Malaysia OfGDPHas an economic scale that exceeds[22]..In the Keihanshin metropolitan areaGross productExceeds 80 trillion yen,Saudi Arabia,トルコ OfGDPComparable to.

The United Kingdom Ofthink tank2021 "World" announced byFinancial centerOsaka is ranked as the 32nd largest financial center in the world in the Index (GFCI)[23].

Economy

Gross domestic product
年度nominalSubstanceCertainty
Heisei 1538 billion yen40 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 1638 billion yen40 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 1739 billion yen41 billion yenEarly estimation
Heisei 2135 billion yen38 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 2638 billion yen37 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 2838 billion yen37 billion yenConfirmation
Heisei 2940 trillion070000 million yen38 billion yenConfirmation
Source: Osaka Prefectural Accounts[24]

industry

Main industrial parks in Osaka

Main companies with head office and head office in Osaka Prefecture

Following the Tokyo metropolitan area, there are the second largest companies with their head office and head office in Osaka Prefecture.

Electric machinery
Content industry, entertainment, sports
Food/Beverage
Fiber products
Chemistry/Pharmaceuticals
Construction/civil engineering
Housing/real estate industry
Distribution/Service
Cars and related
Land/Sea/Air/Warehouse
Other industries
Foundations, corporations, etc.

Life and transportation

Policemen

Fire

Transportation

Train

Tokyo·Kanagawa-Nara-OkinawaLike all railroad lines in the prefectureElectrificationHas been done. However,West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan) from OsakaBantan LineLimited Express viaHamakazeFrom OsakaTakayama Main LineLimited Express via(Wide view) Hida"When,京都Departs and stops at Shin-Osaka Station, Osaka Station,Sanyo Main Line-Chizu Express-Cause lineLimited express viaSupermarketIsTokaido Main LineTo pass through the prefecture, but to pass the non-electrified section outside OsakaRailcarIs used. All JR lines are the same as in Kanagawa, Kagawa and Shiga prefectures.Main lineso,Local transportation lineDoes not exist. In addition, mainly in the suburbs of Osaka on the JR WestUrban networkIC in the areaBoarding cardof"ICOCAHas been introduced (except for some routes/sections).

The railway network in Osaka prefecture has a large proportion of private railways,Private Railway Kingdom/KansaiIs called. In addition, the electric railway companies in Osaka areDepartment store,HotelWe carry out diversified management such as. Furthermore, in October 2006Business integration between Hankyu and HanshinThen,Hankyu Hanshin Toho GroupWas born. Private railway companies andOsaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit In (Osaka Metro) etc., the Kansai common card system "Surutto KANSAI""PiTaPa"(All except some routes/sections) are available. Also,Automatic ticket gateHas a high maintenance rate,Kitasenri StationIs the first station installed in Japan. The only railroad track in JapanTransportation IC card nationwide mutual use servicePrefectures that can use IC cards compatible with.

ShinkansenShin-Osaka Station is the only station in the prefecture. However, in the northeastern areas such as Takatsuki and Hirakata,Tokaido ShinkansenThe main way to transfer to is to use Kyoto Station in Kyoto Prefecture. Run in Osaka cityOsaka Metro Midosuji LineAnd JROsaka Loop LineThere are severalTerminal stationIs formed, and not only is it a wide area for access within the prefecture, but it is also a base for access to neighboring prefectures. For example,Railway station in Umeda area(Osaka station, Umeda station, etc.) is the largest terminal station in western Japan,Kobe City・To each downtown area of ​​Kyoto,Sannomiya20 minutes at the shortest (using JR),Shijo KawaramachiYou can go to (use Hankyu) in about 40 minutes.

Terminal station
Contact within Osaka Prefecture
Contact to neighboring prefectures
Contact to major cities in Japan

bus

In addition to this, the local government operates by consigning it to a private company.Community busThere is also.

道路

During the winter, roads in the plains of Osaka Prefecture are rarely covered with snow, so car tires are available all year round.Radial tireYou can drive in.

toll road
General national road
Main local roads/general prefectural roads

空港

KeihanshinMetropolitan areaIs the main airport ofKansai three airportsOf these, 2 airports exist in Osaka Prefecture. The other one isKobe AirportIn KobePort IslandIt exists offshore.

  • Osaka International Airport(Osaka Airport/Itami Airport)-"Osaka Second Airfield" opened in 1939. An airport that spans Toyonaka, Ikeda, and Itami, Hyogo prefectures. Following the opening of Kansai International Airport,international"Airport" is the official name, with a few exceptions[Annotation 11] There are no international flights except for, and it is used as a main airport exclusively for domestic flights.
  • KIX(Kansai Airport/Kanku)-In 1994QuanzhouOpened offshore. Only one of the three Kansai Airports has regular international flights, and millions of passengers serve as the gateway to Japan's air in Kansai every year.[Annotation 12] OfForeignerTourismCustomers visit. Although it has fewer flights than Osaka International Airport, it has a well-developed domestic network.
  • Yao Airport -In 1933 the current Hanshin Flight SchoolTraining facilityInstalled as. No regular flights at small and medium-sized airports[Annotation 13] But,General aviationIt is a base ofwealthy classIs also used.SDF-Osaka Prefectural PoliceIncluding,公共 機関Also use.

Port

SortPort
International strategic port
International base port
Important port
Local port
  • Two-color port
  • Izumisano Port
  • Quanzhou Port
  • Ozaki Port
  • Awawa Port
  • Shenzhen Port
Fishing port
  • Sakai (Dejima) fishing port
  • Ishizu fishing port
  • Takaishi fishing port
  • Kishiwada fishing port
  • Sano Fishing Port (Sano Food Complex)
  • Tajiri fishing port
  • Okada fishing port
  • Nishi Tottori fishing port
  • Shimoso fishing port
  • Awawa Fishing Port
  • Fukaichi Fishing Port
  • Kojima fishing port

Medical and welfare

  • Osaka Restoration SocietyWith the cooperation of Osaka Cancer Circulation Prevention Center, based on the analysis result of the receipt data, reviewed the management of the hospital in order to generate the budget necessary for improving medical services.[25]
  • In 2019, the first system in Japan to cover "treatment costs for childhood cancer patients" at public expense was established.Osaka Heavy Ion Therapy CenterNow, let's concentrate the radiation on the cancer cellsHeavy ion radiotherapyHowever, public medical insurance is not currently applied to "treatment costs for childhood cancer patients".[26]. 

Disaster base hospital

Nursery

Education

  • In Osaka Prefecture, private high schools are basically free.Osaka Restoration SocietyAchieved a free of charge by "reducing the number of members of the Osaka Prefectural Assembly" and "disposing of problematic staff."[27].
  • As an organization for the purpose of exchange between universities in Osaka prefecture, exchange with the Osaka business community, exchange with high schools in Osaka prefecture, dissemination of internships, etc.University Consortium OsakaThere is. Also, as a similar organization by universities and junior colleges in the South Osaka area,South Osaka Area University ConsortiumThere is.

University

National University Corporation