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😷 | President of Brazil, fine 1 yen without mask, interact with supporters


Photo 12th, President Bolsonaro waving in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Reuters = joint)

Brazilian President, fine 1 yen without mask, interact with supporters

 
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On the 12th, Mr. Bolsonaro rode a motorcycle on the São Paulo highway for about 120 kilometers and ran with his supporters.
 

[Sao Paulo joint] Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro interacts with supporters in the largest city of São Paulo without wearing a mask ... → Continue reading

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highway

highway(Highway,JapanInEnglishThe notation isExpressway) Was the main purpose of achieving quick traffic movement道路Therefore, the structure is mainly such that an automobile can travel at high speed and safely.Country,RegionOften plays a key role in the road network.

Overview

What is a highway?交 差点It is a road that enables high-speed driving by implementing restrictions such as entrances and exits and merging points, and separating it into upper and lower parts. Names and standards differ depending on the country or region. As a highway, it plays a central role in national and regional road networks. Also run in parallelGeneral road OfTraffic jamThere is also a relaxing effect. As a concrete example of safety realizationGeneral roadThere is a way to prevent pedestrians and small vehicles that cannot move at high speed from entering by separating from and by the entrance.

Italy was the first country in the world to have a highway built, followed by the United States in 1924, followed by the United States, and then the world.[1].

Expressways have different names throughout the world. Germany/AustriaAutobahn, America/AustraliaFreeway", Canada"Trans canada highway, And FranceAuto route"Motorway, And ItalyAutostradahighwaySometimes called[1].

Japan

JapanThen.Highway national roadAnd in a broad senseMotorway(Urban highway(Including) and is positioned as a "highway"[2].

Regarding construction and operationMinister of Land, Infrastructure and TransportHas an obligation to give notice and make a notification after a Cabinet resolution.

Metropolitan areaExpressways that are intended to be moved withinUrban highwayCalled. On an urban highwayLandThere are many restrictions on acquisition, etc., and the alignment is poor compared to the road that connects citiesSpeed ​​regulationIs often tough. Unlike the roads that connect cities, the role of urban expressways isCommuting-Commuting to school,shoppingSuch as日常It is said that there are many common uses.

On the road surface, measures are taken such as making special grooves and uneven processing to make noise, and intentionally roughing the road surface to show a warning for drowsiness driving and traffic that deviates from the range where the traffic is permitted. Sometimes. (Rumble strips, High-intensity lane mark (trademark: Vibraline) etc.)

The United States of America

AmericaWas approved in 1956 (Showa 31)Federal Aid Highway ActByInterstate highway networkHas been maintained. Each interstate highway has its own line number, which is written as Interstate Highway XX (IH-XX; Interstate Highway XX) or simply Interstate Highway XX (I-XX; Interstate XX). It

The Federal Republic of Germany

GermanyToBicycleThere is a dedicated highway. On the roadtraffic lightsThere is no unevenness. Currently openDuisburg,Bochum,HamOf the roads (more than 10 km) planned to connect 4 cities in western Germany with 100 universities, most of the roads will be constructed along railway lines (currently unused). In addition to this, two bicycle highways are planned, and two bicycle highways are being investigated for feasibility.[3].

History

1908ToAmericaLong Island Motor Parkway, which is the world's firstLong Island Motor Parkway) Is open in New York.1920 eraWhen you enter,ParkwayCalled New York Master BuilderRobert MosesHas been expanded to a wide range. Moses is a tool for developing the Parkway into a car-oriented society in the United States.Long islandWe have positioned it as a means to disperse the population into the developing regions, and have taken aggressive measures to expand it.

Early highwaysMilitaryThe purpose was strong (Autobahn TheRunwayWas also considered), but graduallyEconomyThe purpose of development became stronger.

In Germany,1932The Bonn-Cologne line of the autobahn opened in1933ToAdolf HitlerWhen the government came to power, the construction plan for the autobahn was pushed forward against the backdrop of the success of automobiles in World War I.Second World WarPreviously completed the 3859 kilometers (km) highway network[4].. in America,1940ToPennsylvaniaThe Pennsylvania Turnpike was opened in the beginning of the highway era, and it was to show remarkable development[4].. In the UK, which is one of the world's most advanced road countries, but one step behind highways, the construction of full-scale highways began.1957It was after that[4].

On the other hand, Japan's road situation was far behind that of Western countries, butHigh economic growth periodHit1963(Showa38 years)May 7Will be the first in JapanHighway national roadAs,Meishin Expressway OfRitto IC - Amagasaki ICOpened[4].

America'sInterstate highway networkHas long been the longest highway in the world, but it is rapidly developing infrastructure.ChugokuThe total length of the highway2011Became the longest in the world[5].

Geometric structure

Expressways are designed with curvedcurvatureAnd the slope (up/down) was easedlinearI am trying. Also, in order to avoid collisions with vehicles in the opposite laneMedian stripMay be provided. To be able to stop if there is a breakdownShoulderIn many cases, the space is also wide.

Expressways are in principletraffic lights,交 差点It is independent of other roads such as not installing as much as possible.TrainAndMulti-level crossingHas been done. Inflow to the highway交 差点WithoutInterchange(IC) is used. Also, do not use traffic lights. Especially when crossing between highways,JunctionIt is called (JCT).

for that reasonElevated,EmbankmentThere are also cases in which a structure such as is constructed and is built on it. Like the mountainsterrainThen,tunnelIs also frequently used.

You can't park or stop on the highway, soParking area(PA) andservice areaBreak space such as (SA)gas stationEtc. are provided[6].service areaPark at, take a break,MealIn addition to being able to purchase local souvenirs, etc.[6].

Traffic operation

Expressway management varies depending on the expressway, and the business entity also differs. However, in the overall trend,政府Many are under the control of.

Developing countriesAs a financial source of construction costsWorld Bank,Official development assistancebyLoanReceivingPublic worksIt is often done as (also in JapanMeishin ExpresswayetcWorld Bank OfLoanMaintained by[7]).

Tolls may be levied on highways due to restricted access. Regarding prices, there are cases where prices that were paid like in Japan are reduced,GermanyThere are various cases, such as those that were free for many years and began to collect charges. In case of payITSAs part of the introduction of and to alleviate congestion at toll collection pointsWireless communicationAutomatic toll collection system (ETCEtc.) is being introduced.

Prices

It may be charged or free. In Germany etc.Autobahn,The United KingdomAtMotorwayThen it's basically free. Also in AmericaAustralia OfFreewayIs also basically free.

FranceAutoroute is also based on the principle that "roads are free", but under the Highway Act, permit companies (SEM etc.)constructionSince it was supposed to be possible, a pay system is effectively adopted. However, from the viewpoint of publicity, free roads and functionally important routes such as so-called urban expressways and port roads,国境Roads in the suburbs are free.

ポーランド OfAutostradaIs also free in principle. For it,イタリア OfAutostradaIs charged.

In Japan, it may be free on some local routes, but is generally charged. DemocraticFree highwayTheManifestIn 2010, we conducted a freeway social experiment on some routes.

Highway accident

HighwayGeneral roadCompared with, the condition such as linear is good,交 差点Because there are few cases, there is less risk of crossing, so it is easier to drive than ordinary roads and the accident rate itself is low[8].. However, there is a problem in that a serious accident such as a fatal accident is likely to occur due to an accident under high speed running.

One example of the cause of an accident is the hypnotic phenomenon, which is caused by a long straight section on an expressway. Due to the effect of the phenomenon, the driver is observed to have symptoms such as drowsiness or loss of reality.Traffic accidentCan be a factor leading to.

As an accident prevention measure, in Japan, even if the straight road is a terrain that can be constructed, measures such as intentionally creating a curved part may be taken.[9].. This aims to change the landscape by reducing the straight lines of the road and making continuous gentle curves, and to maintain the driver's concentration.[9].. It also has the purpose of suppressing traffic at excessive speeds. Many sections of Japan's highways are often made up of continuous gentle curves, and there are few pure straight sections. These design methods are advanced areas of highwaysGermany OfAutobahnTechnology has been introduced[9].

World highways

National highways

Asia

Americas

Europe

Oceania

Africa

Expressways that cross countries

Economic effects

In the late 2000sLehman shock,Global financial crisis originating in the United StatesSince the outbreak of, the record situation where the real interest rate is close to zero has continued for more than 5 years. This situation is not limited to the interest rates on major government bondsCorporate bondThe same applies to Nobel Prize economistRobert SchillerAs we will see, in a long-term low real interest rate, the government should borrow money to build new highways, which is a sound investment.[10].. Actually 2015 years in the US as of May 5Inflation-linked bondsHas an interest rate of 0.86%, which is similar in many other countries. From the perspective of economic growth, the United States had the highest economic growth rate since 1929 in the 1950s and 1960s, during which a large amount of government spending was needed to build a large expressway network. Made[10].

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