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California, USA Almost lifted regulations for the first time in 15 months

 
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On the other hand, hospitals and transportation facilities continue to be required to wear masks.
 

Regulations are almost lifted in California, USA.In California, from the 15th, the new coronavirus ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Transportation

Transportation(Kotsu) meansPeopleThings and things physically come and go[1]..It is an economic physical phenomenon that basically inevitably accompanies the realization of economic objectives and occurs continuously in various modes.[2].. "Transportation" is a spatial movement of ideas in a broad sense (communication) Is a concept that also includes[3].. However, in general, when it comes to "transportation," it is often used as a word that does not include communication.Traffic engineering,Transportation economics,Transportation geographyAcademic areas such as do not include communication.

"Transportation" is a term that refers to the spatial movement of people and things, and is also said to be the act of overcoming spatially separated geographical barriers.[1].. Transportation is a natural part of human life and an essential part of the development of human society.[1].. With the progress of technology, transportation has also evolved, and the range of movement has greatly expanded.[1].. The economic activity of transportation is the need to move thingsTransportation demandAnd move itTransportation laborIs said to be established on the supply of[3].

Traffic is divided into passenger traffic and freight traffic according to the movement target.[3].. The daily traffic demand for passenger transportation isCommuting-Commuting to school・From hospital visitsTourismThere are various things. Also, traffic is divided into land traffic, water traffic, and air traffic depending on the location of movement.[3].

Transportation

A system developed as a means of transportationTransportationorTransportation systemCall. Transportation has evolved to provide more sophisticated means as human societies evolve. Conversely in transportationInnovationThere is also an aspect that has greatly changed the appearance of human society.

Transportation elements

It is said that transportation has three elements: passages, vehicles, and power.[4].

path
Railway line,道路,Route,AirwayEtc. There are railroad tracks, paved roads, canals that require significant construction, and routes and airways that are almost untouched.[4]..A transportation route that is laid out like a mesh by one or more means of transportation is called a transportation network (transportation network).In addition, many of these passages, such as railroads and roads, require large-scale infrastructure development, and even in shipping and air transportation that do not require the construction of the passage itself, ports and ports can be used as access points to departure and arrival points and other means of transportation. Because airport maintenance is essential[5]In many cases, such transportation infrastructure is directly developed by public institutions, and even when it is constructed by the private sector, it is often guided and controlled by the national and local governments.[6].
Carrier
As a typical example of modern transportationvehicle,aircraft,Shipand so on.
power
The power of transportation includes natural power such as human power, livestock power, wind power and water power, and artificial power such as steam power, oil burning explosive power and electric power.[4].. Historically, the mechanization of transportation has progressed from horsepower to steam locomotives and trains, and from sailboats to steamboats and motorboats.

Once upon a timeHuman legs, Cow horse,camelHowever, the carrier and power were undifferentiated, but it is said that the separation of the carrier and the power source lessened the natural constraint and brought about a breakthrough in the development of traffic.[4].

Today's transportation isITS,TrainOperation plan of the roadsignalcontrol,Air traffic controlSuch as the operation control system,Fare, Revenue management,MarketingHas made remarkable progress in terms of sales system.

Transportation characteristics

Transportation has the following characteristics.

Public nature
In modern society with highly developed transportation networks, people and things have come to be premised on the smooth movement of transportation networks. Even if a part of transportation stops社会 問題This is because many people rely on transportation for their daily lives and tasks such as commuting to work and school. Transportation is an important issue related to the basis of human life, and the public nature of transportation is recognized here, and transportation policies and traffic administration such as protection, promotion, supervision, control of the transportation industry and maintenance of traffic order and safety are carried out.[3].
Investment scale
Generally, it takes a huge amount of money to develop transportation. Since the purpose of transportation is to move spatially, wide-area equipment is required. In addition, because of the intensive demand such as the rush hour for commuting, securing a large capacity is likely to lead to excessive investment. Furthermore, since these facilities and transportation equipment are difficult to divert to other uses,Sunk costWill grow.
service life
Generally, facilities used for transportation have a long service life.concrete,Embankment,steelFacilities made of such materials will be used for a long time to come. Future demand forecasting involves large uncertainties, making investment decisions difficult.

Traffic classification

There are various classifications of transportation.First, it is classified into passenger traffic and freight traffic according to the object to be transported.Passenger traffic is also a private transport where individuals travel privately,Public transportationIt is divided into.Public transportation is further divided into chartered transportation and shared transportation, but public transportation usually refers to shared transportation, and chartered transportation is included in public transportation only in a broad sense.[7].

Passenger transport

Passenger transportation is roughly divided into short-distance transportation and long-distance transportation, and the aspects are different.Private cars account for the largest proportion of short-distance transport, with even higher proportions in rural areas where public transport is poor.On the other hand, especially in urban areas, the proportion of private cars will decrease and the proportion of public transportation such as railroads, subways, and buses will increase because mass transportation is essential.For long-distance transportation, the superiority of automobiles including buses gradually decreases with distance, while for intercity transportation of about 300km to 500km, railways, especially high-speed railways, will show superiority.[8].. For passenger transportation over 700km, the advantage of the fastest airplane among the major transportation systems has been established.[9]..Since ships are slow, they have no importance in passenger transportation except in special cases.However, small scale Remote islandIn many cases, there is no means of transportation other than ships.[10].

Freight transportation

In freight transportation, automobile (truck) transportation is very superior in short-distance transportation.Since trucks can be shipped directly from shipment to delivery, transshipment is minimal, and it is highly convenient because it can be operated flexibly depending on the situation.[11]..Although railroads have an advantage over automobiles in long-distance transportation of large quantities of goods[12], Cooperation with automobiles is almost indispensable for transportation at the end[13]..Ships account for the largest proportion of long-distance and large-volume freight transportation, and are widely used due to their extremely low operating costs.Airplanes are expensive to operate, so they are only used for cargo that requires expensive and rapid transportation.[14]..In addition, it is a so-called integrated transportation of multiple means of transportation without transshipment.Intermodal freightIs being promoted, and transportation has progressed.[15].

transportation

The most basic means of transportationWalkBut 1 a dayKilometersLimit of travel distance[1].. Technology has evolved over time, and horse-drawn carriages, sailboats, railroads, automobiles, and aircraft continue to be invented. The evolution of transportation has led to a dramatic increase in the range of activities that can be performed at the same time, which has led to cultural exchanges between people and the widespread distribution of goods.[1]..The main means of transportation in modern society are automobiles (roads), trains (railroads), ships, and airplanes, and each has its advantages and disadvantages, so a transportation system that combines these four types has been constructed.[16].

Distances that can be traveled in 1 hour are 3 to 6 kilometers on foot, 15 to 25 kilometers on bicycles, 40 to 100 kilometers on cars, 300 kilometers on high-speed rail, and 800 kilometers on airplanes.[1].

Ground transportation

As the means of transportation for land transportation, the power of humans and animals has been widely used for a long time, but today railways and automobiles are the main means of transportation.[17].

Human power/livestock power

Walking is still an important means of transportation for short-distance transportation, even when using public transport or other transportation equipment.walkingIs mandatory.Transportation powered by human power has existed for a long time,Kagoro,rickshaw,Pedestrian orbitEtc. were once used extensively[18]..It is still common today for people to carry their luggage and carry it directly.Daihachi car,Cart,Shopping cart, Baggage cart,Silver car such asTrolleyIs often used.BicycleIs capable of speeding several times faster than simple human power on a well-maintained road surface, so it accounts for a large proportion of urban traffic and allows more luggage to be loaded.Cargo bikeOr useTricycleIt may be used for freight transportation by pulling a dolly.[19]..As a moving tool for people with disabilities who have difficulty walkingwheelchairIs widely used.

The power used next to human power is家畜Is.When putting people or things directlyBeast, When using by pulling a dolly etc.BeastIs called.The most used livestock for transportationA horseIs.Let the horse pullCarriageWas widely used in the West and in the 19th centuryRiding carriageBecomes the cornerstone of urban transportation and runs on railsRailway carriageWas in operation until around 1920[20]..Besides thatcow,ロ バ,MuleEtc. are widely used as livestock in the world and are attracted to cattle.Ox cartAlso existed.For transportation in special areas, in arid areascamelWith the introduction of, it became possible to set a trade route beyond the arid area, and it was so important that it was called a "desert boat".[21]..In cold regionsreindeer,DogAs a livestockDog sleddinglikeSledWas pulling.However, such use of livestock power declined with the spread of automobiles, and from the latter half of the 20th century, it was almost no longer used except in special cases.

Power engine

Land transportation with a power engine is divided into those that run on orbit and those that run on road.

The two most important things to go on trackrailRun onTrain列車Is.Railroad is a transportation system suitable for mass transportation, and has strengths in commuting / school transportation and intercity transportation.[22]..As for urban transportation, it runs undergroundsubwayAnd run on the streetTram,Light RailEtc. are also important.Technological improvements are also progressing,ShinkansenIncludingHigh speed trainIs being built all over the world. Trains running on only one orbitmonorailIs called.Maglev railways that operate by surfacing from orbitMagnetic levitation railwayとHovertrainThere are two types.Cable carOr the ropewayChair lift such ascablewayIn a broad sense, it is a type of railway.other than this,エ レ ベ ー タ ー,escalatorIs also a means of transportation that moves on a certain orbit.belt conveyor TheIron ore,limestoneTransportation of heavy goods such as[23], Used for factory transportation, baggage transportation, etc.Moving walkwayAlso used for the movement of people[24].

The most important thing to run on the roadAutomobileIs.The carPrivate car,Lorry,busIt is divided into several types depending on the application, and its strength is that it is highly convenient and can be operated on a small scale and flexibly.Motorcycles with motorsオ ー ト バ イIt is widely used as a handy vehicle that can be used even closer than a car.[25]..Other motorized vehicles used in special situations and places include golf carts.Segway,Electric wheelchair,Senior car,Snowmobileand so on.

Water transportation

The most primitive water transportation is to use water currents or manually operate boats.Dragon boat,Canoe,Galley such aspaddle,paddleIn addition to paddlingBarbarianThere is something to row in.With your feetpedalStep onRowing boatAlso belongs to this genealogy.Since sailing is difficult on canals, etc., it is adjacentTowpathIs always provided, and people and animals pull the boat from the landHikifuneWas being done.ThenWindThesailTo receive and proceedsailboatWas invented and was the main player in maritime transportation until modern times.Although the progress of steamships has made pure sailing ships almost non-commercial[26], For sportsヨ ッ トIt is still used in such places.

Most modern water transportationInternal combustion engineIs installed.Large commercialShipDepends on its usePassenger ship,Freighter,FreighterDivided into[27], The freighter that carries passengers with the carferryと 呼 ば れ る[28]..The ones that are faster than ordinary shipsHigh-speed boatIs collectively referred to asHydrofoil,HovercraftEtc. are used.In addition, on short-distance routes where there is not enough traffic to build a bridge, small vessels are used.FerryIs running[29].

Air transportation

For air freightairplaneIs mainly used.Airplanes depart and arriveRunwayAlthough it is easily affected by the weather and has a high cost, its high speed makes it the mainstay of long-distance passenger transportation.other than this,RotorUsehelicopterHowever, it is used for the transportation of small passengers and cargo because it does not require a runway and requires takeoff and landing in a small area.

影響

Economy

The development of transportation and its smooth operation are essential to the economy.Roads, railroads, ports, airports, etc.infrastructureIt is one of the foundations of the economy.The passenger and freight transportation industry is an important part of the economy, and the manufacture of transportation equipment such as automobiles, rolling stock, ships, and airplanes for use in transportation accounts for a large proportion of the economy as a large-scale industry.In addition, the development of transportation infrastructure through public works has become an important economic activity in itself.[30].

The lowest cost of mass freight is shipping, and moreHigh seasToOcean freedomBecause of the existence of, countries with access to the high seas can establish stable trade routes that are inexpensive and independent of the political situation of neighboring countries.For this reason, in generalLandlocked countryIs forced to have low economic growth for nations with oceans.スイスIf the economies of neighboring countries are well developed and the transportation infrastructure is in place, it is possible to grow the economy, but especiallyAfricaLandlocked countries that have to rely on it often become poorer because the maritime nations have no transportation infrastructure or markets at all.[31].

GlobalizationWith the progress of, the traffic volume of both passengers and freight is steadily increasing.TourismThe total number of travelers abroad, mainly for overseas travel and business travelers, increased from less than 1960 million in 1 to 2015 billion in 11.Of these, 9,000% are travelers to neighboring countries in the country of departure, which is overwhelmingly large, but the proportion of travelers to remote countries is increasing.[32].. On the other hand,ACCIDENT,戦 争,DiseaseIt is not uncommon for traffic to be disrupted by disasters or disasters, which has a major impact on the economy. In 2020COVID-19 pandemicIs happening and countries around the world are restricted from entering and exitingCity blockadeAs a result of the enforcement of behavior restrictions, the traffic volume has decreased significantly, and by the end of March 2020, the number of flights worldwide dropped sharply to 3% compared to the same period of the previous year, and the traffic volume in all major cities around the world reached about 37%. Dramatically reduced to[33], Had a big blow to the economy.

plan

Environment

Carbon dioxide emissions in the transportation sector are significant.Most of the energy consumption in the transportation sectoroilIn 2016, more than 90% of the sector's total energy consumption was covered by oil.[34]..This is because petroleum occupies most of the fuel for automobiles, airplanes, and ships.ElectricityethanolAlthough the development of alternative fuels is underway, it is difficult to replace petroleum, and it is thought that this situation will not change much in the 2040 forecast.[35]..In addition to carbon dioxide, automobile exhaust gas contains various pollutants.Air pollutionIs one of the main causes of[36]..There is also a big problem of noise and vibration around the road[37]..As solutions to these problems, it has been advocated to reduce automobile traffic and promote the use of various public transportation systems, and to shift to transportation methods with less environmental pollution such as walking and biking at short distances.[38].

Transportation history

Origin of traffic

文明Before was born, peoplehuntingTo get food by themselves消费There was almost no need to travel a long distance or carry a large amount of luggage, because it was only done. But,Agriculture,LivestockWhen starts, the situation changes completely. With the ability to systematically produce and store food and streamline production,communityNow you can produce more than you consume. For the first time, the exchange of necessary goods between the communities beganTransportationWas born. In addition, livestock had to move in search of food for livestock and could not settle in one place, so it was necessary to carry a large amount of luggage.

Since it is inconvenient to barter individually, a market has been established to carry out transactions in geographically distant places in one place, and goods are brought to the market.logisticsWas born.The market eventually developed into a city, and some of them were based in the city and engaged in commerce that specialized only in trading and logistics without producing themselves.Thus, changes in transportation are inseparable from economic development.And the transportation system was required to evolve according to the demands of economic activities and the situation of infrastructure.

Early traffic

The most basic means of transportation isA humanItselfwalkingIt is to be.However, the distance traveled by humans is limited, and the amount of luggage that one person can carry is not very large.

On the other hand, transportation using animals has been carried out for a long time.mainly(I.e.,camel,牛Or their neighborsDomesticationBy using animals, it has become possible to obtain speed and freight transportation volume several times faster than when humans act alone.Especially camels that can act without drinking water for a long period of timeDesertIt is also called the "boat ofArabIt was an important means of transportation until the spread of automobiles in the world.

Also, as a primitive means of transportation,boatThe existence of.It is already known that in Mesopotamia, sailboats were used in river traffic in prehistoric times.[39]..Furthermore, around 2500 BCLagashThe city's inscription states that maritime trade was taking place across the Persian Gulf.[40]..Long-distance ocean voyages by sailing ships(I.e.It is being carried out all over the world while using the, especially the sailing ship voyage was actively carried out.South PacificIn, colonization of islands floating in the pelagic was promoted, and around the 6th centuryPolynesiaEastern endEaster islandColonized to[41].sailboatIs a very efficient means of transportation,Steam engineRemained superior for some time in the 19th century when it was put into practical use, and in the 1860sClipper(Rapid sailing ship) has reached the peak of sailing ship development[42].

Invention of wheels

WheelFrom Eastern Europe, around 3500 BCSumerInvented somewhere, then rapidlyEurasiaSpread all over the country[43]..In Mesopotamia of this ageロ バ OfDomesticationIs also being done, and the donkey pulled itcartLand transportation using[44].. On the other hand,Maya civilizationな どNew worldAlthough the existence of wheels was known in the civilization of, there is no trace of practical use.[45].

秦Emperor ShikiHe unified. What is a car gaugeCarriageIt is the width of the two wheels attached to. At that time, there was a rutrailIt is believed that the car was running in this rut.Since it is difficult for carriages with different tracks to follow the same road, we unified this to facilitate distribution.

Road maintenance

Roman EmpireIn the times,RomeGo from each placeStone pavement Of道路Has been maintained. They areRoman roadCalled. It had a military purpose of being able to dispatch troops to various places throughout the empire, but from this, the word "all roads lead to Rome" was born. One of Germany's tourist roadsRomantic roadIs the origin of the Roman road. Also, in ItalyAppia Road"Also originated from the Roman road, and the stone pavement etc. are left in almost the same shape as at that time.[46]..In addition to the Roman roads, hegemony was held in each region at that time.CountryThere are several roads constructed by. in JapanEdo PeriodToGokaidoWas established and a transportation network centered around Edo was established. The highways that are maintained throughout the countryCentralizationIt was indispensable to the existence of the nation.

On the other hand, with the establishment of the highway, cities were born along the road. For example, at a point where a road crosses a river (Watatsu), traffic is likely to stay and a city is easily established. In addition, old highways are often selected as the routes for major transportation routes that will be newly established in later times.High speed train,highwayMany of them are often built along old highways. Therefore, most cities along the highways continue to be important points of transportation even now, and there are many cases where they are growing into big cities. On the other hand, since the distance between cities is determined by the speed at which they can move, the speeding up of transportation infrastructure may cause competition between cities and cause old cities to decline.

Railroad and steamship

Transportation in modern timesmachineI cannot speak without the development of the means of transportation. The pioneer was thatSteam engineIs the invention of.The invention of the steam engine was the two transportation machines on land and sea, namely the steam locomotive.Steam shipAppeared and changed the traffic after that.

Like todayPrime moverThe emergence of railways powered by1804 OfTrevithickbysteam locomotiveMust wait for his invention. However, at this point, it was not practical enough. Practical applicationStephenson parent and childMade by1830, The world's first passenger train by steam locomotiveLiverpool-ManchesterOpened to[47]..Its usefulness was immediately recognized, and since then, railway construction has been promoted all over the world.Mid-19th century in Europe and America[48], An unprecedented railroad construction rush occurred in other regions, including Japan, from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century.[49]Most of the major lines still in service were completed in a very short period of time during this period.

In water transportation, in 1807Robert FultonIs steamPaddle steamerSucceeded in commercial operation[50]..Initially, steamships were vulnerable to waves and were mainly used for inland water transportation such as rivers, but in the 1840s they were faster and more stable.Screw propellerBecomes mainstream[51]With the advent of high-performance marine steam engines in the 1860s[52], Steamboats became the main means of marine transportation, destroying sailing ships that were in their heyday.

In addition,Industrial revolutionAt the same time, the city became large-scale, and it became essential to improve urban transportation. In European cities in the first half of the 19th centuryRiding carriageThe operation ofRailway carriageAfter about 1890TramHas come to be laid in each city.At this timesubwayConstruction began, and around 1900, bus services by car began, making it familiar to citizens.TransportationBecame[53].

Until the arrival of the railwayTravelWas a dangerous act. It was necessary to travel on a bad road for a long time on foot or in a carriage, and the cost was enormous. With the exception of a very limited layer, it is now commonレ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ンAs a trip I couldn't think of it. However, the development of the railway network has made it very easy and inexpensive to travel long distances.Industrial revolutionThe constantLeisure timehaveMiddle classWith the growth of, travel to enjoy leisureHobbiesCame to be recognized as the first time.

Invention of automobiles and airplanes

Gasoline cars were invented at the end of the 19th century, although they were initially expensive1908In AmericaFord Model TWhen it was released, it became popular with the general public.Meanwhile, in 1903Wright brothersAfter the invention of the airplane, the airplane developed rapidly, and after World War I, regular operation of passenger planes began, and in 1927Charles Lindbergh Transatlantic solo non-landing flightSucceeded[54].

After World War II, roads were improved in various countries around the world, and automobile prices became available to the middle class.motorizationProgressed, the decline of railways and the citySuburbanizationIt also caused a change to society.Airplanes have been improved, and in the 1960sJet engineThe full-scale introduction of the airplane has made the airplane larger and faster.[55]..Also all over the worldGlobal warmingAs the problem surfaced,Fossil fuelIsgasolineUsingcarbon dioxideSuch asGreenhouse gasThe usage of automobiles that emit carbon dioxide is becoming more and more demanding.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Kunio Minegishi's book "Tocoton Easy Road Book"Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun<Today's Things Knowing Series>, October 2018, 10, pp. 24-10.ISBN 978-4-526-07891-0.
  2. ^ Yasuo Ikuta "Meaning of private transportation"Ryutsu Keizai University Ronshu" Vol. 14, No. 1, Ryutsu Keizai University, July 1979, pp. 7-48, ISSN 03850854, NOT 110007188049,2021/3/18Browse.<
  3. ^ a b c d e Juro Aono and Mutsumi Hoyanagi, "Encyclopedia of Humanities," p.212 1951 Kokin Shoin
  4. ^ a b c d Juro Aono and Mutsumi Hoyanagi, "Encyclopedia of Humanities," p.213 1951 Kokin Shoin
  5. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p5 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  6. ^ "Regional Transportation Planning Policy and Engineering" p22-23 Denshi Takeuchi, Yoji Kawakami, Tomohiko Isobe, Yoshiaki Shimada, Yasuhiro Mimura, Kajima Institute Publishing, October 2011, 10
  7. ^ "Regional Transportation Planning Policy and Engineering" p20 Denshi Takeuchi, Yoji Kawakami, Tomohiko Isobe, Yoshiaki Shimada, Yasuhiro Mimura, Kajima Institute Publishing, October 2011, 10
  8. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  9. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  10. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p144 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  11. ^ "Economics of Transportation Market and Social Capital" p108-109 Takehiko Sugiyama Supervision Kenzo Takeuchi, Toshinori Nemoto, Hirotaka Yamauchi ed.
  12. ^ "Economics of Transportation Market and Social Capital" p68 Supervised by Takehiko Sugiyama Kenzo Takeuchi, Toshinori Nemoto, Hirotaka Yamauchi ed.
  13. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10-11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  14. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10-11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  15. ^ "Economics of Transportation Market and Social Capital" p257-258 Takehiko Sugiyama Supervision Kenzo Takeuchi, Toshinori Nemoto, Hirotaka Yamauchi ed.
  16. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10-11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  17. ^ Juro Aono and Mutsumi Hoyanagi, "Encyclopedia of Humanities," p.266 1951 Kokin Shoin
  18. ^ "Sightseeing Travel and Fun Vehicles" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 5) p107-111 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore First Edition December 22, 12
  19. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p27-30 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  20. ^ "World History of Urban Transportation: Emerging Metropolis and Expansion of Bus / Railway Network" p8-13 Shigeru Koike / Yasuo Wakuda ed.
  21. ^ "Illustrated Human History Separate Volume 70 Great Inventions that Created the World of Ancient Science and Technology" p151 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First Edition 30st Edition
  22. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  23. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p181-182 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  24. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p233-234 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  25. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p28-29 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  26. ^ "The Story of the Rapid Sailing Ship Clipper in the Age of Sail" p194 Akinori Sugiura Chuko Shinsho Published June 54, 6
  27. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p138 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  28. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p135 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  29. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p138-140 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  30. ^ "Regional Transportation Planning Policy and Engineering" p2-4 Denshi Takeuchi, Yoji Kawakami, Tomohiko Isobe, Yoshiaki Shimada, Yasuhiro Mimura, Kajima Institute Publishing, October 2011, 10
  31. ^ "What should we really do for the bottom 10 billion people in the poorest countries?" P92-96 Translated by Paul Collier Kazuo Nakatani Nikkei BP June 2008, 6 First Edition, First Print Issued
  32. ^ "Tourism in the Global Era" p93-95 Masaaki Kureha ("Globalization Shrinking World", edited by Noritaka Yagasaki, Kiyomi Yamashita, Masahiro Kagami, Asakura Shoten, March 2018, 3, 5st edition)
  33. ^ https://www.bbc.com/japanese/features-and-analysis-52217073 "[See chart] Blockade of the world Action restrictions in various places to counter new viruses" BBC April 2020, 4 Retrieved March 9, 2021
  34. ^ "Future of Energy: Toward Elimination of Carbon Energy" p33 Shunsuke Managi ed. Chuokeizai-sha March 2019, 3 10st edition 1st print published
  35. ^ "Future of Energy: Toward Elimination of Carbon Energy" p8 Shunsuke Managi ed. Chuokeizai-sha March 2019, 3 10st edition 1st print published
  36. ^ "Regional Transportation Planning Policy and Engineering" p14-15 Denshi Takeuchi, Yoji Kawakami, Tomohiko Isobe, Yoshiaki Shimada, Yasuhiro Mimura, Kajima Institute Publishing, October 2011, 10
  37. ^ "Regional Transportation Planning Policy and Engineering" p15-16 Denshi Takeuchi, Yoji Kawakami, Tomohiko Isobe, Yoshiaki Shimada, Yasuhiro Mimura, Kajima Institute Publishing, October 2011, 10
  38. ^ "Regional Transportation Planning Policy and Engineering" p39-40 Denshi Takeuchi, Yoji Kawakami, Tomohiko Isobe, Yoshiaki Shimada, Yasuhiro Mimura, Kajima Institute Publishing, October 2011, 10
  39. ^ "Origin of the city Excavating the ancient advanced region of West Asia" p47 Ryuto Koizumi Kodansha March 2016, 3 First print issued
  40. ^ "Birth of Civilization" p93 Toshiko Kobayashi Chuko Shinsho Published June 2015, 6
  41. ^ "Chapter 58 to Know the South Pacific, Melanesia Polynesia" p52-54 Masanori Yoshioka and Daichi Ishimori ed. Akashi Shoten September 2010, 9 First Edition First Edition
  42. ^ "The Story of the Rapid Sailing Ship Clipper in the Age of Sail" p4 Akinori Sugiura Chuko Shinsho Published June 54, 6
  43. ^ "Illustrated Human History Separate Volume 70 Great Inventions that Created the World of Ancient Science and Technology" p135 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First Edition 30st Edition
  44. ^ "Origin of the city Excavating the ancient advanced region of West Asia" p158 Ryuto Koizumi Kodansha March 2016, 3 First print issued
  45. ^ "Illustrated Human History Separate Volume 70 Great Inventions that Created the World of Ancient Science and Technology" p137 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First Edition 30st Edition
  46. ^ "Illustrated Human History Separate Volume 70 Great Inventions that Created the World of Ancient Science and Technology" p144-145 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First Edition 30st Edition
  47. ^ "History of Japanese Railways, Bakumatsu, Meiji Edition" p2 Yoshinobu Oikawa Chuko Shinsho Published May 2014, 5
  48. ^ "History of Japanese Railways, Bakumatsu, Meiji Edition" p2 Yoshinobu Oikawa Chuko Shinsho Published May 2014, 5
  49. ^ "Imperialism as seen from the rise and fall of 17 miles of railroads" p3 Clarence B. Davis, Kenneth E. Wilburn Jr. Printing
  50. ^ "The Birth of Around the World: The Origin of Globalism" p46 Hidehiro Sonoda Bunshu Shinsho July 15, 7 First print issued
  51. ^ "The British Empire of the Sea of ​​Asia" p39 Katsuhiko Yokoi Kodansha March 2004, 3 First print issued
  52. ^ "The British Empire of the Sea of ​​Asia" p42 Katsuhiko Yokoi Kodansha March 2004, 3 First print issued
  53. ^ "World History of Urban Transportation: Emerging Metropolis and Expansion of Bus / Railway Network" p9-14 Shigeru Koike / Yasuo Wakuda ed.
  54. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p16 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  55. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p71 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published

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