Portal field news

Portal field news

in

😷 | New Corona Confirmed XNUMX new infections School cluster totaled XNUMX people [Ehime]


写真 

New Corona Confirmed Infection of XNUMX New School Clusters Cumulatively Increased to XNUMX [Ehime]

 
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, the Iyotetsu Group has decided to start the workplace inoculation of the new corona vaccine, which is accelerating in the prefecture, from the 21st of the week.
 

Ehime Prefecture announced on the XNUMXth that two people infected with the new corona have been confirmed in the prefecture.Saibi High School's cluster is new ... → Continue reading

 TV Ehime

"TV Ehime" (Fuji TV affiliate) news account. We will send you the latest news in Ehime Prefecture.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

COVID-19 vaccine

COVID-19 vaccine(Covid 19 vaccine,British: COVID-19 vaccine) IsNew Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) OfCauseウ イ ル スIsSARS coronavirus 2For (SARS-CoV-2)Human capitalToAcquired immunityAimed to providevaccineIs. As of May 2021VaccinationVaccines from multiple methods and manufacturers exist, from started to under development (mRNA vaccine,DNA vaccine,Viral vector vaccine,Inactivated vaccine,RecombinantProteinvaccine,peptideVaccines, etc.)[1].

Globally, multiple COVID-2020 vaccines from multiple pharmaceutical companies have begun to be vaccinated at the end of 2021 and early 19.An overview of the vaccination status of each country shows that some countries have succeeded in concluding a vaccine procurement contract at an early stage and have already been vaccinated on a large scale, and some countries have been delayed in vaccination and have hardly been vaccinated yet. is there. "Vaccine security and inoculation status"reference.

Overview

Vaccines already by multiple pharmaceutical companiesClinical trialIt has already been done, and inoculation is being carried out all over the world.Efficacy is different for each vaccine ("Effectiveness"reference).

For inoculation status, see "" at the end of this article.#Vaccine security / inoculation statusGo straight to.

Some pharmaceutical companies that have yet to develop vaccines are still striving to develop a new type of COVID-19 vaccine.As of May 2021, 5, none of the Japanese pharmaceutical companies have succeeded in obtaining approval for their COVID-18 vaccine.

Background to the start of development and acceleration of development

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemicSevere acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)Middle East respiratory syndromeCauses diseases such as (MERS)CoronavirusIt was said that the development of various vaccine technologies could be accelerated in early 2020 because the knowledge about the structure and function of the vaccine was established.[2].. January 2020, 1, SARS-CoV-10Gene sequenceThe data isGISAIDShared through, by March 3, the same year, of the worldPharmaceuticalThe industry has announced its commitment to COVID-19 in a big way[3].

2020 eraAs COVID-19 spread rapidly on a global scale, research institutes and drug manufacturers in each country embarked on the development of new vaccines and the reassessment of existing vaccines developed for other viruses. It was.who(WHO)2020Published a list of 5 plans in progress worldwide by May.Eight of these plans were already at that pointWestern,People's Republic of ChinaWas in the clinical trial stage in (China)[4]..In addition, WHO is a framework for joint investment and purchase by each country in vaccine development.COVAX(Kobax)Was launched[5].

As of June 2020, it was said that "for the first vaccine to be developed, there is a possibility of developing a type of vaccine that prevents aggravation and death rather than infection prevention."[6]..Others have pointed out that the vaccine is not effective for the elderly.[7].

Some companies are looking for new manufacturing methods for the production of vaccines for COVID-19. This is the traditionalChicken eggsbyInfluenza vaccineThis is because there is a risk that the productivity will be low and it will take time if the production method of is applied, and the virus injected into the egg may be mutated to reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine.[8].. In particular,DNA vaccine,mRNA vaccineDevelopment will proceed[9].

As of May 2020, WHO,Coalition for Epidemic Infectious Diseases Innovation (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, CEPI) ,andGates Foundation(GF) Was investing funding and organizational resources in anticipation of the need for several vaccines to prevent the continuation of COVID-19 infection[10]..CEPI organizes a $ 20 billion global fund for rapid investment and development of vaccine candidates[11]Showed in September 2020 that clinical data to assist in licensing may be available by the end of the year. On May 9, 2020, a teleson hosted by WHO (Long time special program), $ 40 billion pledges from 81 countries[12]..At the same time, WHOII/Phase III clinical trialAlso announced the development of an international "solidarity trial" for the simultaneous evaluation of multiple vaccine candidates that have reached[13].

2020 year 11 month,バーレーンIs in ChinaShino FarmGiven the urgent marketing approval of the company vaccine,United Arab Emirates(UAE) followed. In December, with Bahrain英国Is ricePfizerApproved for emergency use of company vaccine[14][15], UAE andカナダApproved for general use[16][17][18].

Status of clinical trials

In Phase III clinical trials, some COVID-19 vaccines are as high as 19% for the prevention of symptomatological COVID-95 infectionsEffectivenessIs shown. As of February 2021, 4 vaccines are available in at least one countryRegulatory authorityFrom for the general publicApproveding. Two typesRNA vaccine(Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine,Moderna vaccine), 7 types of conventional typeInactivated vaccine(BBIBP-CorV,CoronaVac,Covaxin,(English edition,CoviVac,(English edition,(English edition), 5 typesViral vectorvaccine(Sputnik Light,Sputnik V,Oxford-AstraZeneca,Combidisia,Johnson & Johnson), 2 typesProtein subunit vaccine(EpiVac Corona,(English edition)[19]..In total, as of March 2021, 3 vaccine candidates have been developed at various stages, with 308 cases.Under clinical researchOf these, 24 are Phase I trials, 33 are Phase I / II trials, and 16 are Phase III trials.[20][19][21][22].

Production / distribution plan

In many countries, such as the elderlycomplicationsPlans are being implemented to give priority to those who are at the highest risk of infection and those who are at high risk of exposure to the virus, such as healthcare workers,[23]..In addition, provisional use of a single dose is being considered to extend the vaccine to as many people as possible until the availability of the vaccine improves.[24][25][26][27].. As of May 2021, 5, according to official reports from health organizations in each country, 19 billion COVID-13 vaccines were administered worldwide.[28]..AstraZeneca-Oxford is expected to produce 2021 billion times in 30, Pfizer-BioNTech 13 billion times, Sputnik V, China National Pharmaceutical, Sinovac and Johnson & Johnson each 10 billion times.Moderna aims to administer 2021 million doses in 6 and Combidisia targets 5 million doses[29][30].. By December 2020, more than 12 billion vaccines have been pre-ordered from each country[31], High-income countries, which make up 14% of the world's population, buy about half of them[32].

For middle- and low-income countries that do not have sufficient economic power to procure vaccines from Western companiesPeople's Republic of China,Russian Federation,IndiaExports a large amount of vaccine, and it has been pointed out that it intends to expand its diplomatic influence.[33].

Inoculation status

Vaccination has already started all over the world, so please check the vaccination status.Vaccine security and inoculation statusSee.

Efforts to accelerate vaccination by giving various incentives and benefits to those who have been vaccinated[34]Or a "vaccine" that proves that you have been inoculatedpassportThere is also a movement to issue[33]..According to new guidance, fully vaccinated individuals can now participate in all indoor and outdoor activities without masks and without physical distance.[35][36].

History

SARS and MERS

As of 2003, avian infectious bronchitis virus (infectious bronchitis virus),Canine coronavirusVaccines have been manufactured against several animal diseases caused by the coronavirus, such as feline coronavirus.[37]..Affect humansCoronavirusBranch Ofウ イ ル スPrevious projects for developing vaccines againstSevere acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) andMiddle East respiratory syndrome(MERS) was targeted. SARS[38]And MERS[39]Vaccines against non-humanWith animalsHas been tested.

According to studies published in 2005 and 2006, the identification and development of new vaccines and medicines to treat SARS was a priority for governments and health agencies around the world at the time.[40][41][42].. As of 2020, there are no cures or preventative vaccines that have been proven safe and effective against human SARS.[43][44].

There is no established vaccine for MERS[45].. When MERS became widespread, existing SARS studies were thought to have the potential to provide useful templates for developing vaccines and treatments for MERS-CoV infection.[43][46].. As of March 2020, completed Phase I clinical trials in humans (DNAOne MERS vaccine (based)[47], And three other vaccines are in progress, all of whichAdenovirusvectorTwo types (ChAdOx2-MERS, BVRS-GamVac) and one MVA vector type (MVA-MERS-S).[48].

2020 COVID-19 vaccine development

From the end of 19 to the beginning of 2019, when COVID-2020 began to spread worldwide, there were no vaccines to prevent human coronavirus infection.[10].. After the detection of COVID-2019 coronavirus in December 12[49], COVID-19Gene sequenceWas released on January 2020, 1, triggering an urgent international response to expedite the development of preventative vaccines in case of an outbreak.[50][51][52].

As of August 2020,who(WHO) is the causative virusSARS coronavirus 2He said he did not expect a vaccine against (SARS-CoV-2) to be available within 18 months.[53].. The global surge in COVID-2020 infection rates in early 19 stimulated international alliances and government efforts to urgently organize resources for the rapid production of multiple vaccines.[13]In March, four vaccine candidates were included in the human evaluation ("Clinical trials started in 2020Refer to the table)[50][54].

In April 2020, WHO will spend a total of 4 billion to develop three or more vaccines with different technologies and distributions.U.S. dollarEstimated[13][55].. By April 2020, "almost 4 companies and research institutes in 19 countries" will be in this virtualgold RushWas working on[56]..Also in April, CEPI selected six vaccine candidates for COVID-4 for development through Phase II-III trials by the International Union, with three final vaccines. Estimates that it must be streamlined through regulation and quality assurance to obtain a license[20][10][54]..Another analysis shows that 10 vaccine candidates require initial development at the same time, and 10 vaccine candidates require initial development at the same time before some of them are selected as the final path to licensing. I'm estimating.

July 2020, UK National Cyber ​​Security Center (National Cyber ​​Security Center), The United States and Britain of their respective governments and militaryIntelligence agencyAnd the security organization, Communications Security Establishment of Canada (Communications Security Establishment),United States Department of Homeland SecurityDirectorate General of National Protection and Programs (Cybersecurity Infrastructure Security Agency),US National Security Agency(NSA) is Russia's national supporthackerClaimed that it may have attempted to steal COVID-19 treatment and vaccine research from academic and pharmaceutical institutions in other countries.Russia denied it[57].

Developmental status

During 2020, the major changes in the overall COVID-19 vaccine development efforts from the beginning of the yearMultinational pharmaceutical industryIncreasing joint research with governments and many countries focusing on COVID-19 vaccineBiotechnologyCorporate diversity and growth[20].. According to CEPI, the general geographical distribution of COVID-19 vaccine development is:North AmericaOrganization accounts for about 19% of the world's COVID-40 vaccine researchAsiaAustralia30% in Europe, 26% in Europe,South AmericaAnd there are several projects in Africa[50].

When vaccine development startsDistributed computingOf the projectFolding @ homeDue to the growing interest in, the computing power will be about 2020 in late March 3. EFLOPS[58][59], Achieved about 2020 EFLOPS in mid-April 4[60][61]Became the world's first exaflop computing systemBESTSELLERSAll ofSuper computerAcquired the ability to exceed the total of.

International organization

Some organizations are forming international partnerships to accelerate vaccine development and prepare for distribution, some of which began raising US $ 2020 billion in early May 5, unprecedented in history. Promoting cooperation, accelerating research, and international communication on a scalewho(WHO) is also included[12].. WHO also has Covid-19 Vaccines Global Access to coordinate global vaccine development (COVAX)GAVIAnd in collaboration with CEPI Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator Is the pillar of the vaccine[20][62][63].. In July, WHO announced that 7 countries, which make up up to 60% of the world's population, have agreed on a WHO COVAX program for the fair and equitable distribution of the final licensed vaccine. COVAX aims to accelerate the development and production of the COVID-165 vaccine and ensure that "access to licensed vaccines is provided fairly to all countries."Specifically, by the end of 19, participating countries will protect front-line healthcare workers and high-risk people and vaccinate the most vulnerable 2021% of the population.[64]Guarantee that you will receive a guaranteed amount (provide up to 20 billion doses equally)[65][66].

CEPI, in collaboration with international health authorities and vaccine developers, has created an additional US $ 20 billion fund.A global partnership between public, private, philanthropic and civil society organizations that has funded research and clinical trials of eight vaccine candidates for the foreseeable future (8-2020). The goal is to support some candidates for full development[20][55]..United Kingdom, Canada,ベルギー,ノルウェー,スイス,Germany, NetherlandsHas already donated US $ 9 million[12][67], A private charity specializing in vaccine research and distributionBill & Melinda Gates Foundation(Gates Foundation) has donated US $ 2 million[68][69].

From London, England, June 2020, 6G7andG2035 of the countriesHead of StateAmong private and government representatives from 52 countries, includingVirtualThe summit was adjusted and US $ 88 billion was raised.Global Alliance for Vaccines and Vaccinations (GAVI)By2025Prepare for vaccines for 3 million children in developing countries by[70]..The main donation is US $ 16 billion from the Gates Foundation[71]And the UK government for five years, including £ 5m a year (about US $ 3 billion in June 3000).

As of December 2020, US $ 12 billion has been raised by ACT Accelerators, nine vaccine candidates have been funded by COVAX and CEPI, and 24 countries are working on final vaccine deployment plans.[72][73].

Coalition for Epidemic Control Innovation (CEPI)

Coalition for Epidemic Infectious Diseases InnovationIs the Norwegian government, the Indian government,Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, And charitable trust organizationsWelcome TrustFunded in 2017World Economic Forum(DavosPublic institutions, private institutions, which were established at the conference)CharityAnd a global collaboration between civil society[74].Japan OfMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareHas also been involved in the foundation and contributed since 2017[75].

On January 2020, 1, CEPI began work on vaccine development by the following three research teams, with at least one vaccine.Clinical trialAnnounced that it will start by June[75][76].. He also conducted clinical trials on humans in the summer, and said that approval of the vaccine would be as early as this year[77].

  1. US drug/vaccine developmentModerna, Inc.(English) (MRNA.O) andNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) cooperation
  2. Pharmaceutical companyInovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (INO.O)
  3. HoweQueensland UniversityTeam

In addition, the US company has joined the vaccine development plan,SARS,MERSIdentified from survivors ofMonoclonal antibodyWhether (mAbs) is effective against this virus[78].

Inovio has MERS' most advanced vaccine candidate INO-4700[79], The virus could be designed within 3 hours after the DNA sequence of the virus was published. Up to $ 900 million (about 9 million yen) from CEPISubsidyIn the early summer of 2020Middle East-AfricaLocalPhase II clinical trialGoing into[80][81]Wants to conduct large-scale clinical trials in China by the end of the year[82].

February 2, UKGlaxoSmithKline (GSK) isPandemicEstablished with a vaccineAdjuvantAnnounced to participate in the collaboration of CEPI to provide the basic technology of (antigenicity enhancer)[83].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,ModernaIs a safety study of administering the COVID-19 vaccine under development to humans (Phase I study) For US allergiesInstitute of Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Shipped to.Clinical trials in humans are expected to begin within two months, but may take a year and a half to become generally available.[84].

Japan

August 2020, 3,Mitsubishi Tanabe PharmaAnnounced that it will start developing vaccines using plant-derived particles manufactured by a Canadian subsidiary.[85].

August 2020, 3,Osaka UniversityDrug discovery companyAngesDeveloped a vaccine for this virus in collaboration with Osaka University,Takara BioAnnounced that it will manufacture[86][87][88].. The clinical trial will start on June 6, the same year, and will be conducted for 30 people by the end of July.[89][90].DNAPlasmidUtilizing technologyDNA vaccineIt is said that the manufacturing process can be completed in a shorter time than other methods of vaccines.

August 2020, 5,Shionogi PharmaceuticalIs a subsidiary of UMN PharmaNational Institute of Infectious DiseasesIn collaboration with, it announced that it is aiming to start clinical trials within the year. The clinical trial is scheduled to start in 2020 at the earliest. It is expected to be launched in the market in the fall of 2021, with the goal of producing 3,000 million people by the end of the same year.[91][92].

Daiichi Sankyo,Tokyo UniversityThe Institute of Medical Sciences aims to start clinical trials of vaccines from March 2021 at the earliest.[92].

August 2020, 6,Kyushu UniversityIs from Kyushu UniversityVenture company(Fukuoka City) announced that it has succeeded in developing a protein that is a candidate for a vaccine for the new coronavirus.[93][94].. Aiming to start clinical trials of vaccine from 2021[94].

While the development of the vaccine was urgent as of August 2020, experts (at that time) were concerned that "the effect of preventing the infection itself is difficult to prove."Also, of the Institute of Medical Science, University of TokyoKen IshiiThe professor complains, "The more you hurry (vaccine development), the more you neglect to guarantee safety."[92]..In response to this concern, Dr. Sotaro Mine, a postdoctoral fellow at the National Research Institute of the United States, who specializes in virology and immunology, said, "Animal experimentationBased on the results such as, "I think that it has (infection prevention effect)."[95]It has said.

Even in Japan, "fever, etc. at the clinical trial stage"Side effectsCan be seen in some cases[92]As of December 2020, 12, "Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine has been reported to anaphylaxis in 20 people (27 people per million people) when inoculated to 6 people."[96]According to a report on January 2020, 1, "Moderna's vaccine had anaphylaxis in 23 people (400 per million people) after 10 million people were vaccinated, and all patients recovered thereafter. Was reported[97].

In Japan, Pfizer applied for approval to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare on December 2020, 12, and domestic manufacturers and universities are mainly developing five vaccines with the aim of putting them into practical use, all of which are in 18. The goal is to start clinical trials in Japan, and it has not been put into practical use yet.[98], Was said.

On February 2021, 2, AstraZeneca filed an application for approval with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.[99].

February 2021, 2, Pfizer's corona vaccine "CommunityWas approved, and was officially approved on February 2021, 2.[100][101]..The legal name of the vaccine is "Coronavirus-modified uridine RNA vaccine (SARS-CoV-2)".[102].

March 2021, 3 About Moderna's vaccine, the contact company in JapanTakeda PharmaceuticalApplied to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare for approval[103].

On May 2021, 5, special approval was approved for AstraZeneca's corona vaccine "Bakiszebria" and Moderna's corona vaccine "COVID-20 Vaccine Moderna", and officially approved on May 19, 2021. Was[104][105]..The legal name for AstraZeneca's viral vector vaccine is "Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (recombinant saladenovirus vector)".[106]..However, although the Moderna vaccine was subject to public inoculation following Pfizer (in Tokyo and Osaka, which will be described later).SDF(Expected to be used in large-scale venues by AstraZeneca), AstraZeneca vaccine is seen as a side reaction in other countriesThrombosisAlthough it was approved by the regulatory affairs, it was excluded from public inoculation due to the outbreak of[107].

August 2021, 5,Johnson & JohnsonAbout the vaccine ofJanssen PharmaApplied to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare for approval[108].

Chugoku

On January 2020, 1, an official from the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said it had begun development of the vaccine.[109].. Aug. 1,GuangzhouRussiaConsulateChina announced that the new coronavirus genome was provided from China to Russia, and China and Russia started joint vaccine development[110].

The clinical trial of the developed vaccine was approved in China on March 3 (although it is unknown whether it is the same as above), with Chen Wei as the leader.Chinese PLA Military AcademyMilitary Medical Research InstituteResearchers start clinical trials[111].. On June 3China Central TelevisionAlso reported[112].

March 3, with the Institute of Biological Engineering, Academy of Military Medical Sciences(English editionIs a new type of coronavirus vaccine developed independently (Adenovirus(Media) started the first clinical trial to 108 people[113]..The project manager is Chen Wei Major GeneralSo, using the replication defective human type 5 adenovirus as a medium, S antigen of the new virus is made[113]..Seven Chen Wei teams have already been vaccinated to prevent infection[113]..Maj. Gen. Chen has a PhD in viral vaccine research and has previously received anti-SARS virus preparations andEbolaHas been announced to have succeeded in developing a vaccine for[112].

On May 2020, 5, CanSino Biologics reported that it was the first in the world to confirm the effect on humans in a phase 25 clinical trial of a viral vector vaccine that started in March of the same year.[114][115].. Aug. 6,Central Military CommissionIs a domestic vaccine "Ad5-nCoVUseChinese PLADecided to authorize only to[116].May 7Started emergency use of vaccine for medical professionals[117].

May 2020, 12, ChineseShino FarmThe company is a domestic vaccine "BBIBP-CorVThe efficacy of the vaccine was set at 79.34%, and the vaccine was approved before China on December 12, the same year.Mohammed bin Rashid Earl McTumAnnounced lower than the 86% announced by the United Arab Emirates[118]..The following day, the 31st, China's National Pharmaceutical Products Administration approved China National's "BBIBP-CorV".[119].

In February 2021, China's National Drug AdministrationSinovac BiotechCompanyCoronaVacApproved two domestic vaccines from CanSino Biologics[120][121].

In May 2021, the World Health Organization approved the emergency use of China National Pharmaceutical's BBIBP-CorV for the first non-Western vaccine.[122], Estimated efficacy of 79%[123].

ロシア

In mid-August 2020, the Russian government approved the domestically manufactured vaccine and announced that it plans to start vaccination for medical professionals from October.[124].. Then on August 8thVladimir PutinThe presidentGamareya Memorial National Center for Epidemiology and MicrobiologyDomestic vaccine "Gam-COVID-VacAnnounced that it was the first in the world to approve (Sputnik V).[125].

On November 2020, 11, Sputnik V was 11% more effective in preventing the onset.Final third stage clinical trialRussia announces its first interim results[126].

The United States of America

United States Federal GovernmentWill invest more than $ 2020 billion in 100 to subsidize vaccine research and manufacturing and pre-purchase contracts.Operation Warp Speed(Ultra-high-speed operation) started[127].

January 2020, 1, U.S. infectious disease drug manufacturer,(English edition(Novavax Inc.) said it has begun developing a vaccine to prevent infection with the virus.[128][129].

January 2020, 1, major US pharmaceutical and daily necessitiesJohnson & Johnson (J & J) announced that it has begun development of the COVID-19 vaccine.EbolaApply the technology used to develop the vaccine. This vaccine is currentlyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euRwandaHas been administered in[130].. "We have already put a lot of researchers into vaccine development and are confident that we will be able to achieve some results within a month. We already have a mass production system for the global market, so once the vaccine is complete, We can ship 1 million units within a year. "[131].

August 2020, 3,National Institutes of HealthIt is,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesAnd the mRNA vaccine developed by the biopharmacy company ModernaClinical trialAnnounced that it reached. The clinical trial isState of WashingtonSeattleBeginning in the city[132], From multiple clinical trial participants by May 5, the same yearantibodyI was able to confirm[133]..We plan to supply 1 to 5 billion doses to the world in one year.[92].

PfizerVaccine will be available in 2020. Aim to inoculate hundreds of millions of people by 2021. If the vaccine is completed in Japan, it will be supplied to Japan for 2021 thousand doses by June 6.Japanese GovernmentIs basically agreed with[92]..Later, data from early clinical trials were released on November 2020, 11, with preventive efficacy exceeding 9%.[134]..In response to this, we will apply for approval to the US Food and Drug Administration by the end of November 2020.[134].

The Novabax vaccine is targeted for production of 1 million doses a year.Production is in the United StatesFujifilmIn cooperation with a subsidiary, in JapanTakeda PharmaceuticalWill manufacture and sell from the drug substance[92].

The United Kingdom

AstraZeneca Oxford Universityと共同でワクチンを開発し、2020年4月より臨床試験を開始した。同年9月以降、翌21年にかけて10億回分の生産が可能と目され、5月の時点で既に4億回分(アメリカ3億回分、イギリス1億回分)の供給を9月から開始することが予定されていた[135]..After that, the supply plan was increased to 20 billion times, and it was basically agreed with the Government of Japan that Japan would be supplied with 1 million times, of which 2,000 million times would be supplied by March 3,000.[92].. Regarding the clinical trial, it was confirmed that some participants were suspected of having a serious adverse reaction.May 9Was interrupted from[136]Revealed that it resumed on September 9th[137].

However, concerns have since been raised in each country regarding the AstraZeneca vaccine. On January 2021, 1 in FranceEmmanuel MacronThe president said that the company's vaccine is almost ineffective for the elderly aged 60-65 and over.[138], The country's health authorities recommended not to inoculate elderly people aged 2 and over on February 2, and German, Italian and Swedish health authorities also recommended not to inoculate elderly people.[139]. However,European Medicines Agency(EMA) recommended vaccination for adults of all ages[138].

In March 2021, cases of side reactions such as thrombus after inoculation with AstraZeneca vaccine were reported, so Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Denmark.[140], Iceland, Norway[141],Netherlands[142],Thailand[143]There were many countries that suspended inoculation. On March 3, WHO announced a comment to continue vaccination, as no causal relationship was found between the company's vaccine and the occurrence of blood clots.[144]..In response to this, inoculation was resumed in France and Germany.[145].

AstraZeneca clinical trials confirmed 79% efficacy, announced March 2021, 3[145].. HoweverNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesPointed out that it may have contained old, incomplete clinical trial data and requested that it provide up-to-date and accurate information.AstraZeneca also announced that it will provide the latest data within 48 hours[146]..As a result, the effectiveness was corrected to 76%.[147].

France

February 2020, 2 in FranceSanofiThe United StatesMinistry of Health and Welfare Announced that it aims to rapidly develop a recombinant vaccine for COVID-19 in collaboration with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Agency (BARDA) of (HHS).[148].

India

IndiaInoculation of two domestic vaccines started on January 2, 2021, and export preparations are in progress."Kobaksin" developed by Indian companies and government agencies, and Indian companies developing AstraZenecaLicense productionAlthough it is a "Kobi Shield", the former did not show data to prove its effectiveness at the approval stage.[149]..Efficacy of 81% was evaluated in subsequent clinical trials[150].

Southeast Asian countries

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euNanogen Pharmaceutical BiotechnologyVietnam Army Medical UniversityIn collaboration with the vaccine "Nanocovacs", in February 2021Second stage clinical trialStarted.IndonesiaThen.Airlangga University7 research institutes are under development,Kingdom of ThailandThen with the Thai Pharmaceutical Corporation (GPO)Mahidol UniversityTropical medicineDepartment is promoting joint development[151].

Type of vaccine

As of January 2021, nine different technology platforms (many candidate technologies remain undefined) are under research and development to create an effective vaccine against COVID-1.[20]..Most of the vaccine candidate platforms in clinical trials are the major COVID-19 infectionsantigenCoronavirus asSpike proteinAnd its variants[20].. The platform developed in 2020Nucleic acidTechnology (Nucleoside modified messenger RNAandDNA),Non-replicating viral vector,peptide,Recombinant protein,Attenuated virus,and so on[2][10][50].

Many vaccine technologies being developed for COVID-19 use a "next generation" strategy to improve the accuracy of the COVID-19 infection mechanism, unlike vaccines already used to prevent influenza. doing[2][20]..Some synthetic vaccines utilize 2P mutationsSpike proteinImmobilizes the prefusion structure and stimulates the immune response before the virus attaches to human cells[153]..Vaccine platform under development increases the flexibility of antigen manipulation for healthcare professionals, the elderly, children, pregnant women, It can be expected to have an effect of targeting the infection mechanism of people who are susceptible to COVID-19 infection, such as those who have decreased infection.[20][50].

RNA vaccine

RNA vaccineToRNAIs included and when introduced into the organizationMessenger RNAActs as (mRNA), causing cells to make foreign proteins,Adaptive immune responseTeach the body how to identify and destroy the corresponding pathogens and cancer cells. RNA vaccineNucleoside modified messenger RNAIs often used, but not always. Delivery of mRNA protects RNA strands and aids absorption into cellsLipid nanoparticlesAchieved by co-formulating the molecule[154][155][156][157].

RNA vaccine is the first COVID-19 vaccine approved in the United States and the European Union[158][159].. As of January 2021, this type of licensed vaccine isPfizer-BioNTech Vaccine[160][161][162]Moderna vaccine[163][164]Is. As of February 2021, in the EU, CureVac(English edition RNA vaccine awaits approval[165].

Severe allergic reactions are rare. In December 2020, the first 12 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine resulted in 1,893,360 severe allergic reactions, 175 of which.AnaphylaxisMet[166].. Only 2020 reports of anaphylaxis were reported in 12 doses of the modelna COVID-2021 vaccine in December 1 and January 19.[166].Lipid nanoparticlesIs most likely involved in an allergic reaction[166].

Adenovirus vector vaccine

These vaccines contain DNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 proteinAdenovirus-Non-replication using a shellViral vectorIs an example of[167].. Vaccines using viral vectors against COVID-19 have the non-replicating nature of producing only antigens that elicit a systemic immune response rather than producing new viral particles.[167]

As of 2021 month,This type of vaccineApproved asOxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine[168][169][170], RussianSputnik V[171],ChineseCombidisiaAndJohnson & Johnson VaccineIs[172][173].

Both the Combidisia and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are one-shot vaccines that can be stored for several months in normal refrigerated storage without the complexity of logistics.[174][175].

Sputnik V uses the same Ad26 as the Johnson & Johnson vaccine for the first time and the same Ad1 as Combidisia for the second time, with the same efficacy as a single dose, 5 A complete study has been conducted to see if a single dose has the same effect.

Inactivated virus vaccine

Inactivated vaccineIscultureHeat the virus particlesFormaldehydeIt is a vaccine that loses the ability to cause illness and causes an immune reaction by killing it by such methods.[176].

As of January 2021, in ChinaCoronaVac[177][178][179],BBIBP-CorV[180], IBP-CorV, IndiaCovaxin, Russian CoviVac[181]Is licensed.Vaccines in clinical trialsValneva vaccineThere is[182][183].

Subunit vaccine

Subunit vaccineIt is,PathogenPresents one or more antigens without introducing the entire particle of.Antigens are oftenProtein subunitHowever, any molecule can be used as long as it is a fragment of a pathogen.[184].

As of January 2021, only this type of vaccine has been approved.Peptide vaccine OfEpiVac Corona[185](English edition[186]There are two.For vaccines that are pending approval,Novavax COVID-19 vaccine[187]When,(Conjugate vaccine),(English editionThere is.(English editionWas previously in clinical trials but was discontinued because subsequent HIV tests revealed that it could cause false results.[188][189].

Other types

Other vaccines currently in clinical trials include(English edition,pluralDNA plasmid vaccine[190][191][192][193][194][195], At least two(English editionvaccine[196][197],Conjugate vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was expressed(English editionand so on[198].

Oral vaccines and nasal vaccines are also being developed and researched[199].

Scientists investigated whether existing vaccines for unrelated diseases could activate the immune system and reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection.[200]..For tuberculosisBCG vaccineThere is experimental evidence that has a non-specific effect on the immune system, but there is no evidence that this vaccine is effective against COVID-19.[201].

Effectiveness

Vaccine efficacy(Vaccine efficacy) is a control study comparing the risk of illness in vaccinated subjects to the risk of illness in unvaccinated subjects.[203]..0% efficacy means that the vaccine does not work (same as placebo).A 50% efficacy means that vaccinated people are half as infected as unvaptized people.

It is not easy to compare the efficacy of different vaccines because clinical trials were conducted with different populations, regions and different virus variants.[204].. Vaccine for COVID-19(English edition67% may be enough to delay the pandemic, but this is necessary for the vaccine to prevent infectionSterilization immunityIt is premised on giving (the action of the immune system to eliminate the virus before infection).Vaccine efficacy reflects disease prophylaxis and may be highly infectious in asymptomatic individuals, making it an inadequate indicator of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.[205].US Food and Drug Administration(FDA) andEuropean Medicines Agency(EMA) has set a cutoff value of 19% for the efficacy required for approval of the COVID-50 vaccine.[206][207]..A realistic mass vaccination rate of 75% is targeted and actualBasic reproduction numberThe efficacy required for the COVID-19 vaccine is expected to be 70% or more to prevent the epidemic and 80% or more to extinguish the epidemic without taking measures such as social distance. ing[208].

In the calculation of efficacy, symptomatological COVID-19 is generally positive for PCR and(English editionAlthough defined as having at least one or two symptoms in the defined list of, the exact specifications will vary from study to study.By countrySARS-CoV-2 mutant strainBecause of the different prevalence of, the study site also affects the reported efficacy.The following range is 95% unless otherwise statedConfidence intervalAnd all values ​​are for all subjects regardless of age.Efficacy against severe COVID-19 is paramount, hospitalization and death are public health burdens, and prevention is prioritized[209]..The vaccines that have been approved and approved have shown the following efficacy.

vaccineEffectiveness of COVID-19 by severityClinical trial locationReference
Mild or moderate[Note 1]Serious symptoms without hospitalization or death[Note 2]Serious symptoms with hospitalization and death[Note 3]
Moderna vaccine~ 94% (89–97%)[Note 4]~ 100%[Note 5]~ 100%United States[210]
Pfizer BioNTech Vaccine~ 95% (90–98%)[Note 6]Not reportedNot reportedMultinational[211]
Sputnik Light~ 79%Not reportedNot reportedRussia[212]
Sputnik V vaccine~ 92% (86–95%)~ 100% (94–100%)~ 100%Russia[213]
Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine~ 81% (60–91%)[Note 7]~ 100% (72–100%)~ 100%Multinational[214]
~ 76% (68–82%)[Note 8]~ 100%~ 100%United States[215]
BBIBP-CorV~ 79%~ 100%~ 100%Multinational[216]
CoronaVac~ 78%~ 100%~ 100%Brazil[217][218][219]
Nova Bucks Vaccine~ 89% (75–95%)~ 100%[Note 9]~ 100%[Note 9]United Kingdom[220][221]
~ 60% (20–80%)~ 100%[Note 9]~ 100%[Note 9]South Africa
Johnson & Johnson Vaccine~ 66% (55–75%)[Note 10][Note 11]~ 85% (54–97%)[Note 12]~ 100%[Note 13]Multinational[222]
~ 72% (58–82%)~ 86% (-9–100%)~ 100%United States
~ 68% (49–81%)~ 88% (8–100%)~ 100%Brazil
~ 64% (41–79%)~ 82% (46–95%)~ 100%South Africa
Covaxin~ 78% (61-88%)~ 100%~ 100%India[224][225]
Convidicea~ 66%~ 91%Not reportedMultinational[226][Unreliable medical source?]
  1. ^ Mild symptoms: fever, dry cough, tiredness, myalgia, joint pain, sore throat, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, olfaction, tastelessness, stuffy nose, epistaxis, conjunctivitis, rash, cold, dizziness Such.Moderate symptoms: mild pneumonia.
  2. ^ Serious symptoms that do not lead to hospitalization or death of an individual are any of the following serious respiratory symptoms measured at rest at any time during the observation period (pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, dyspnea): , Hypoxia, persistent chest pain, loss of appetite, confusion, or fever above 38 ° C, but not persistent or severe enough to lead to hospitalization or death).Respiratory rate of 30 beats / minute or higher, heart rate of 125 beats / minute or higher, oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 93% or lower (indoor air above sea level), or oxygen partial pressure / inspiratory oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 / FiO2) Is less than 300mmHg.
  3. ^ Serious symptoms that cause hospitalization or death include those requiring hospital treatment or death: dyspnea, hypoxia, persistent chest pain, loss of appetite, confusion, 38 ° C or higher Fever, dyspnea, renal failure, multiple organ failure, sepsis, shock.
  4. ^ Mild / Moderate COVID-19 symptoms observed in the Moderna vaccine trials, were only counted as such for vaccinated individuals if they began more than 14 days after their second dose, and required presence of a positive RT-PCR test result along with at least two systemic symptoms (fever above 38ºC, chills, myalgia, headache, sore throat, new olfactory and taste disorder) or just one respiratory symptom (cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, or clinical or radiographical evidence of pneumonia) ).[210]
  5. ^ Severe COVID-19 symptoms observed in the Moderna vaccine trials, were defined as symptoms having met the criteria for mild / moderate symptoms plus any of the following observations: Clinical signs indicating of severe systemic illness, respiratory rate ≥ 30 per minute, heart rate ≥ 125 beats per minute, SpO2 ≤ 93% on room air at sea level or PaO2 / FIO2 <300 mm Hg; or respiratory failure or ARDS, (defined as needing high-flow oxygen, non-invasive or mechanical ventilation, or ECMO), evidence of shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, diastolic BP <60 mmHg or requiring vasopressors); or significant acute renal, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction; or admission to an intensive care unit or death. in the trials, compared with 30 severe cases reported in the placebo group (incidence rate 9.1 per 1000 person-years).[210]
  6. ^ Mild / Moderate COVID-19 symptoms observed in the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine trials, were only counted as such for vaccinated individuals if they began more than 7 days after their second dose, and required presence of a positive RT-PCR test result along with at least one of the following symptoms: fever; new or increased cough; new or increased shortness of breath; chills; new or increased muscle pain; new loss of taste or smell; sore throat; diarrhea; or vomiting.[211]
  7. ^ When the dosing interval is 12 weeks or more. At intervals of less than 6 weeks, efficacy was approximately 55% (33-70%).
  8. ^ The dosing interval is 4 weeks.Efficacy is said to be "prevention of symptomatological COVID-19".
  9. ^ a b c d No cases were detected in the study.
  10. ^ For medium.
  11. ^ Efficacy reported 28 days post-vaccination for the Johnson & Johnson single shot vaccine. A lower efficacy was found for the vaccinated individuals 14 days post-vaccination.[222]
  12. ^ The source does actually say negative 9.
  13. ^ No hospitalizations or deaths were detected 28 days post-vaccination for 19,630 vaccinated individuals in the trials, compared with 16 hospitalizations reported in the placebo group of 19,691 individuals (incidence rate 5.2 per 1000 person-years)[222] and 7 COVID-19 related deaths for the same placebo group.[223]

Vaccine effectiveness

Vaccine effectivenessIn a real-world study of (vaccine effectiveness), certain vaccines have shown COVID-19 infection, symptoms, hospitalization, and death in large populations of vaccinated individuals under non-ideal routine conditions. Measure how much you could prevent[227].

  • イ ス ラ エ ルでは、2020年12月20日から2021年1月28日までの期間にモデルナまたはファイザー-バイオンテックのワクチンを接種した715,425人のうち、2回目の接種から7日後からの期間に、317人(0.04%)のみが軽度/中等度のCovid-19症状で発病し、16人(0.002%)のみが入院したことが確認された[228].
  • Centers for Disease Control and PreventionPfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Covid-19 vaccines provide highly effective protection, according to the report.[229]..In the actual environment, the effectiveness of the complete immunity (more than 2 days after the second administration) mRNA vaccine is 2% and partial immunity (14) against SARS-CoV-90 infection regardless of the symptom status. The vaccine efficacy was 1% at least 14 days after the second dose and before the second dose.
  • 104 healthcare workers working in 15,121 UK hospitals were all COVID-19 before the surveyantibodyWas negative, but from December 2020, 12 to February 7, 2021Lineage B.1.1.7Twice a week during the period when was circulating as the dominant mutant strainReverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testで追跡調査を行った。この研究では、ワクチンを接種した90.7%のコホート(母集団)と、ワクチンを接種しなかった9.3%のコホートの陽性結果を比較し、ファイザー-バイオンテック社のワクチンは、すべての感染症(無症候性を含む)を、1回目の接種から3週間後には72%(58-86%)減少させ、2回目の接種から1週間後には86%(76-97%)減少させたことがわかった[230].
  • 2021年1月17日から3月6日まで、系統B.1.1.7が優勢変異株として循環していた時期に、イスラエルの一般住民を対象に行われた研究では、ファイザー社ワクチンにより、無症候性COVID-19感染症が94%、症候性COVID-19感染症が97%減少したことが明らかになった[231].
  • A study of preoperative patients at the Mayo Clinic in the United States showed that the mRNA vaccine was 80% protective against asymptomatic infections.[232].
  • Gao Fu, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, admitted at a meeting on April 2021, 4, that Chinese vaccines were "not very protective."Private companyShinobuCompany developedCoronaVacVaccineBrazilA clinical trial in Japan found that the efficacy rate was only 50.4%.トルコAnother study conducted in Japan showed 83.5% effectiveness.State-ownedShino FarmAccording to the company, the efficacy rates of the two vaccines are 2% and 79.4%.[233].
vaccineEffectiveness of COVID-19 by severitySurvey countryRefs
AsymptomaticSymptomatologicalDeath
Pfizer-BioNTech~ 86% (76-97%)Not reportedUnited Kingdom[230]
~ 90% (68-97%)~ 100%[I]United States[229]
~ 94%~ 97%Israel[231]
Moderna~ 90% (68-97%)~ 100%[I]United States[229]
CoronaVacNot reported~ 67% (65-69%)~ 80% (73-86%)Chile[234][235][236][237]
Sputnik VNot reported~ 98%Not reportedRussia[238][239]
  1. ^ a b No cases were detected in the study.

Mutant strain

Induced by current COVID-19 vaccineantibodyVaccine changes may be required if SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge that are moderately or completely resistant to the response[240]..Studies have shown that many vaccines developed for early strains are less effective against some mutants of symptomatological COVID-19.[241].. As of February 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration believes that all FDA-approved vaccines maintain a protective effect on circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2.[242].

Alpha strain (Strain B.1.1.7)

In December 2020, a new mutant strain, strain B.12, was identified in the United Kingdom.[243]..Initial results showPfizer-BioNTech VaccineModerna vaccineBoth suggest protection against UK mutants[244][245].

In one studyOxford-AstraZeneca VaccineShowed 1.1.7-42% efficacy against B.89 and 1.1.7-71% efficacy against mutant strains other than B.91.[246]..According to preliminary data from clinical trialsNovavax vaccineHas a symptom-improving effect of ~ 96% against the original mutant, ~ 1.1.7% against B.86, and ~ 1.351% against B.501 (2.V60 mutant) in South Africa. It is shown[247].

Beta strain (Strain B.1.351 / 501.V2 mutant)

ModernaSouth AfricaTrial of a new vaccine to tackle strain B.1.351 (501.V2 mutant)[248].. On February 2021, 2, Pfizer announced that the neutralizing activity of B.17 was reduced to two-thirds, but said that the vaccine's disease-preventing effect on this mutant could not yet be claimed.[249].. Decreased serum neutralizing activity from patients vaccinated with Moderna and Pfizer against B.1.351 has since been confirmed in several studies.[250][251].. On April 4, Pfizer-BioNTech's latest information on a vaccine trial in South Africa showed that the vaccine was so far 1% effective (that is, no cases occurred in vaccinated subjects).Placebo control groupStates that 9 of the 6 infections were B.1.351.[252].

January 2021 in South AfricaAd26.COV2.S vaccineJohnson & Johnson, who conducted a clinical trial in South Africa, reported that the level of protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 infection was 72% in the United States and 57% in South Africa.[253].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Financial TimesPaper is from South Africa(English edition Oxford UniversityInterim study data from a study conducted in collaboration with AZD1222 reported that the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (AZD1.351) showed reduced efficacy against B.XNUMX.[254]..The study found that in a sample size of 2,000 people, the AZD1222 vaccine provided "minimal protection" in all cases except the most severe cases of COVID-19.[255].. On February 2, the South African Health Minister canceled about a million vaccine deployment plans while reviewing the data and waiting for advice on how to proceed.[256][257].

Gamma strain (lineage P.1)

Strain P.1 (20J / 501Y.V3), the first mutant identified in Brazil, may have partially escaped the effects of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination.[258].

Strain B.1.617 (Delta strain / Kappa strain)

In October 2020, a new double mutant was discovered in India and named strain B.10. It was barely detected until January 1.617 and spread to at least 2021 countries on all continents except Antarctica and South America in April.[259][260][261]..Among the approximately 15 defined mutations, this is the spike mutation D111D (synonymous), G142D.[262], P681R, E484Q[263], L452R[264]And the latter two are easyantibodyMay cause to avoid[265](* There is no mutation in G1.617.2D and E142Q in strain B.484 described later, but instead there is a mutation in T478K).

As a sub-strain (Kappa stock),Lineage B.1.617.2(Delta stock), There are three, system B.3 by WHO etc.Variant of concern Specified as (VOC).

Clinical trials and approval status

In the Phase I study, safety and preliminary doses were tested mainly in dozens of healthy subjects, and in the Phase II study, immunogenicity and dosage were tested following the success of the Phase I study. level(BiomarkerEfficacy based on), and side effects of candidate vaccines are evaluated, usually in hundreds of people.Phase I–II trials consist of preliminary safety and immunogenicity trials, usually randomized, placebo-controlled trials to determine more accurate and effective doses.Phase III trials typically involve more subjects at multiple institutions,Control groupAt the optimal dose, includingAdverse effectsTest the effectiveness of vaccines to prevent disease while monitoring (“intervention trials” or “pivotal trials”)[266][267]..Vaccine safety, efficacy, and in Phase III trials(English editionDefinitions may vary depending on the company's trials, such as the degree of side effects, the definition of infection or dose, and whether the vaccine prevents moderate or severe COVID-19 infection.[268][269][270].

Plans for ongoing clinical trials, if accumulating data in the trial provides positive or negative early insight into the effectiveness of the treatment.(English editionMay be changed as[271][272]..Indications for ongoing Phase II-III clinical trials for candidate vaccines can shorten study duration, reduce subject numbers, expedite early termination or success decisions, avoid duplication of research efforts, and Strengthen coordination on plan changes for solidarity trials between international hubs[271][273].

List of approved or approved vaccines

Each countryRegulatory authorityOf 11 vaccinesEmergency use permissionIs giving.Six of these vaccines are at least oneWHO accredited strict regulatorApproved for emergency or general use by.

Vaccines approved by emergency license or general license
Vaccine candidate drug, developer, investorDeveloping countryVaccine type (technology)Inoculation intervalStorage temperatureCurrent phase (number of subjects)Number of approvalsNumber of emergency use permits
Oxford AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (Vaxzevria, Kobi Shield) [A][275][276][277]
OxfordDe University,AstraZeneca, CEPI
英国Adenovirus vector (ChAdOx1)2 times

4-12 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (30,000)2143
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (Cominati, Tojinameran)[16][278][279]
Biontech,Pfizer
USA, GermanyRNA (modRNATheLipid nanoparticlesDisperse to)2 times

3-4 weeks

-70 ± 10 ° C[B](Ultra low temperature freezer)Phase III (43,448)593
Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine (Gam-COVID-Vac)

Gamareya Memorial National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology

ロシアAdenovirus vector (, Ad5 and Ad26 types)2 times

3 weeks

-18 ℃ (freezer)Phase III (40,000)26
Moderna COVID-19 vaccine [282][283]
Moderna,NIAID,BARDA, CEPI
米 国RNA (modRNATheLipid nanoparticlesDisperse to)2 times

4 weeks

-20 ± 5 ℃ (freezer)Phase III (30,000)250
BBIBP-CorV[284]
Shino Farm: Beijing Biological Products Institute
ChugokuInactivated COVID-2 (Vero cell)2 times

3-4 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (48,000)450
Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine [285][286][287]
Janssen Pharma,Johnson & Johnson,BIDMC
United States, NetherlandsAdenovirus vector (, Ad26)1 times2-8 ℃Phase III (40,000)046
CoronaVac[288][289][290]
Shinobu
ChugokuInactivated COVID-2 (Vero cell)2 times

2 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (33,620)132
BBV152 (Kobaksin)
(English edition,(English edition
IndiaInactivated COVID-2 (Vero cell)2 times

4 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (25,800)014
Ad5-nCoV (Combidisia)
(English edition, (English edition[291][c]
ChugokuAdenovirus vector (, Ad5)1 times2-8 ℃Phase III (40,000)15
EpiVac Corona[293]
Vector Institute
ロシアSubunit (peptide)[293]2 times

3 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (40,000)12
(English edition(RBD-Dimer)[294]

Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

ChugokuSubunit vaccine()3 times

30 days

Phase III (29,000)02
(English edition

Shino Farm: Wuhan Biological Products Research Institute

ChugokuInactivated COVID-2 (Vero cell)1 times[Source required]Phase III (51,600)02
CoviVac[295]

The Chumakov Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences

ロシアInactivated COVID-22 times

2 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (3,000)01
(English edition (QazVac)[296]

Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euInactivated COVID-22 times

3 weeks

2-8 ℃Phase III (3,000)01
Sputnik Light[297]

Gamareya Memorial National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology

ロシアAdenovirus vector (, Ad26 type)[298]1 times2-8 ℃Phase III (7,000)03
  1. ^ Oxford name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Manufacturing in Brazil to be carried out by.[274]
  2. ^ Long-term storage temperature. The Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine can be kept between -25 and -15 ° C (-13 and 5 ° F) for up to two weeks before use, and between 2 and 8 ° C (36) and 46 ° F) for up to five days before use.[280][281]
  3. ^ Manufacturing partnership with the and Canadian Center for Vaccinology,, Nova Scotia[292]

Vaccine candidates in human clinical trials

Formulation

As of 2020, 11 of the vaccine candidates under clinical development are using adjuvants to increase immunogenicity.[20].Immune adjuvantIs a substance that is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response to antigens such as COVID-19 virus and influenza virus.[299]..Specifically, adjuvants can be used to formulate COVID-19 vaccine candidates to increase their immunogenicity and efficacy to reduce or prevent COVID-19 infection in vaccinated individuals.[299][300].. The adjuvants used in the formulation of COVID-19 vaccines may be particularly effective in techniques using inactivated COVID-19 virus and recombinant protein-based or vector-based vaccines.[300]..Known as alumAluminum saltIs the first adjuvant used in an approved vaccine and is the adjuvant of choice in about 80% of adjuvanted vaccines.[300]..Alum adjuvant initiates diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms to enhance immunogenicity, including the release of inflammatory cytokines[299][300].

cost

According to one expert, an effective vaccine against COVID-19 can save trillions of dollars in global economic impact, so the cost of billions of dollars looks small compared to that.[301]..In the early stages of a pandemic, it is not known if a safe, reliable, and affordable vaccine against the virus can be produced, and exactly how much it will cost to develop the vaccine. Was[10][51][68]..Billions of dollars could be invested without success[67].

Once an effective vaccine is developed, billions of vaccines need to be produced and distributed worldwide. In April 2020, the Gates Foundation estimates that manufacturing and distribution will cost as much as US $ 4 billion.[302]..84-90% of vaccine candidates in Phase I clinical trials[50][303]Did not reach final approval during development, and 25.7% did not reach approval in Phase III clinical trials[303]..Manufacturers' investments in vaccine candidates exceed US $ 10 billion, and millions of doses can be wasted if advanced manufacturing contracts are signed.[10][67][68].

As of November 2020, companies subsidized under the US Operation Warp Speed ​​program have set an initial price of $ 11 to $ 1 per flu vaccine. doing[304].. In December 2020, a Belgian politician briefly published a confidential price agreed between vaccine producers and the EU.[305] :

ManufacturervaccinePrice per dose in the EU[306]
AstraZenecaOxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine€ 1.78
Johnson & JohnsonJohnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccinefor US$8.50
Sanofi / GSK€ 7.56
Pfizer / BiontechPfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine€ 12.00
CureVac(English edition€ 10.00
R-PharmSputnik V COVID-19 vaccinefor US$10.00
ModernaModerna COVID-19 vaccinefor US$18.00

Supply chain

To deploy COVID-2021 vaccination after 19, 100-190 billion bottles (Vial) Global transportation and tracking may be required, and this effort is easily the largest everSupply chainBecomes an issue[10][307][308].. As of September 2020, Supply Chain and Logistics (logistics) Experts have expressed concern that the international and domestic networks for the distribution of licensed vaccines are not ready to respond in both quantity and urgency.The reason is mainly in 2020PandemicDue to resource deterioration during downsizing that reduces the lockdown and supply capacity of[307][309][310].. The COVAX (The COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access) partnership, global pharmaceutical companies, contract vaccine manufacturers, cross-border transportation, storage facilities, national health agencies, and many other organizations are facing global coordination. About issuesGAVI OfChief executive officer(CEO)(English editionStates as follows. "Efficient delivery of billions of vaccines worldwide involves highly complex logistical and programmatic obstacles along the supply chain."[311].

As an example of emphasizing the size of the taskInternational Air Transport AssociationTransports only a single dose to people in more than 19 countries experiencing the COVID-200 pandemic, with 1 aircraft747A type freighter (introduced a precision vaccine cold storage device) is required.[312].. "In a fast-moving pandemic, if everyone isn't safe, no one is safe," GAVI said.[63].

In contrast to multi-billion dollar investments in vaccine technology and early-stage clinical research, the vaccine's post-licensing supply chain has not received similar planning, coordination, security, or investment.[307][309][313]..The main concern isLow and middle income countriesVaccine distribution resources, especially for vaccination of children, are scarce or absent.[63][314].. In September, the COVAX partnership included 9 countries coordinating plans to optimize their COVID-172 vaccine supply chain.[315],UNICEF(UNICEF) will work with COVAX to prepare funding and supply chains for vaccination of children in 92 developing countries.[316][317].

logistics

Logistics services for vaccination ensure the necessary equipment, staff and supply of licensed vaccines across international borders.[318]..The core of logistics includes vaccine handling and monitoring, cold chain management, and distribution safety within the vaccination network.[319].. The purpose of the COVAX facility is to integrate manufacturing, transportation and overall supply chain infrastructure, centralize and equally manage logistics resources among participating countries.[63][313]..Includes logistics tools for vaccine forecasting and needs estimation, domestic vaccine management, potential waste, and inventory management[319].

Other logistics factors implemented internationally during the transportation of the COVID-19 vaccine include:[307][320][321] :

  • Individual vaccineVialThebarcodeVisibility and traceability
  • Sharing of supplier audits
  • Vaccine vial transport from manufacture to recipientEvidence preservationSharing
  • Use of vaccine temperature monitoring tools
  • Temperature stability test and guarantee
  • New packaging and delivery technology
  • Stockpiling
  • Adjustment of supplies in each country (Personal Protective Equipment (PPE),(English edition, Syringe, needle, rubber stopper, refrigerated fuel and power supply, waste disposal, etc.
  • Communication technology
  • Environmental impact of each country

According to one vaccine developer, a lack of logistics at any stage could derail the entire supply chain.[322]..If the vaccine supply chain fails, the economic and human costs of a pandemic can be prolonged over the years.[310].

Manufacturing capacity

As of August 2020, months after the establishment of safety and efficacy, many governments have more than US $ 8 billion, despite some vaccine candidates entering Phase III trials. Pre-ordered more than 50 billion vaccines at a cost[308][322][323]..2021 vaccine pre-orders from the UK Government were 1 per person[308].. In September, CEPI provided financial support for basic and clinical research on nine vaccine candidates under a funding commitment to produce two billion doses of three vaccines approved by the end of 9. ing[315].2022A total of 70-100 billion COVID-19 vaccines could be produced worldwide by now, but large pre-orders (called "vaccine nationalism") by rich countries are vaccines in poorer countries. It threatens the use[10][308][322].

Indian Serum Research InstitutePlans to produce at least one billion doses of vaccine, half of which will be used in India[308].

After joining COVAX in October, China announced that it would produce 10 million vaccines by the end of 2020 and another 6 billion vaccines in 2021, but 10 billion people are home to it. It was unclear how many vaccines would be produced for the population of[324].Shino FarmThe company states that it may have a production capacity of over 2021 billion doses in 10[325].. Sinovac will complete its second production facility by the end of 2020CoronaVacIt says it aims to increase its production capacity from the previous 3 million doses to 6 million doses.[326].

AstraZeneca(English editionThe CEO said: "The challenge is not the production of the vaccine itself,VialIs in filling.There are not enough vials in the world "[327]In preparation for the high demand for vial manufacturing, an American glass maker invested $ 7 million for a vial factory in July.Although there are concerns about the availability of glass for vial production and the management of contaminants[328]Shows rising manufacturing costs and diminished potential developer interests amid demand for affordable vaccines[63][308][310].

Vaccines must be handled and transported according to international regulations, maintained under different temperature controls by vaccine technology, and used for vaccination before they deteriorate during storage.[308][322].. The size of the COVID-19 vaccine supply chain is expected to be enormous to ensure global delivery to vulnerable populations.[10][309]..Priorities for preparing facilities for such distribution include optimization of temperature-controlled facilities and equipment, infrastructure, training of vaccination staff, and rigorous monitoring.[309][311][316].RFIDThe technology is being implemented to track and certify vaccine dosages along the entire supply chain from manufacturer to vaccination.[329].

2020 year 9 month,(English editionCompanyJohnson & JohnsonWith the companytechnology transfer(English editionAgreed to support the production of vaccine candidates, including production[330].. In October 2020, a partner scheduled to manufacture the first dose in December 10Lonza GroupBut in Switzerland(English editionAnnounced to manufacture vaccine candidate moderna[331]..The newly constructed 2,000-square-meter facility will begin production at 3 million doses annually.The products manufactured here will be shipped frozen at -70 ° C to Laboratorios Farmacéuticos Rovi SA in Spain for the final stages of production.[331]..Lonza's base in Portsmouth, New Hampshire aims to begin producing US-specific vaccine ingredients as early as November.[331].

Cold chain

Vaccines (and adjuvants) are inherently unstable to temperature changes and are throughout the supply chain.Cold chainRequires control and is usually kept at a temperature of 2-8 ° C (36-46 ° F)[321][332].. The technology of the COVID-19 vaccine is diverse among several new technologies, so cold chain management presents new challenges, and some vaccines that are stable during freezing but are sensitive to heat should be frozen. Some vaccines are not, and some are stable above temperature.[332]..Freezing damage and lack of personnel training in the on-site inoculation process are major concerns.[333]..If multiple COVID-19 vaccines are approved, the cold chain of vaccines may have to address all of these temperature sensitivities between different countries, where climatic conditions and local resources for temperature maintenance change. Have sex[332].Shino FarmAnd Sinovac's vaccine is an example of an inactivated vaccine in Phase III trials that can be transported using existing cold chain systems, but CoronaVac itself does not need to be frozen.[334][335].

The modRNA vaccine technology under development is difficult to control for mass production and degradation and may require storage and transportation at very low temperatures.[310]..As an example, Moderna's RNA vaccine candidate requires cold chain management at sub-freezing temperatures, although it has a limited shelf life, and BioNTech-Pfizer's RNA candidate is in transit storage from vaccine production to inoculation. Requires storage below 70 ° C[336][337].

vaccineVialContains several doses of vaccine, but is only viable for 6 hours after being punctured for the first dose and must then be discarded for cold storage and management of the inoculation process in the field. Need to pay attention[10][338].. COVID-19 vaccines are likely to be in short supply in many places during initial deployment, so vaccination staff should avoid spoilage and disposal, which typically accounts for 30% of supply.[307][338]..Cold chains are also bikesDroneVaccine transport methods in local communities such as, the need for booster administration, the use of diluents, access to vulnerable groups such as healthcare workers, children and the elderly are also challenges.[10][316][339].

Air and land transportation

International air cargo coordination is an integral part of the time- and temperature-sensitive distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine, but as of September 2020, the air cargo network is not ready for multinational deployment.[309][312][340].. "Safe delivery of the COVID-19 vaccine will be the mission of this century for the global air cargo industry, but it will not happen without careful prior planning, and the time has come for that. I. We urge governments to take the lead in facilitating cooperation across the logistics chain, preparing facilities, security arrangements, and border procedures for challenging and complex tasks. I will be the secretary general and CEO of IATA.(English editionSaid in September 2020[340].

In 2020, airlines cut headcount due to severe decline in passenger air traffic (Layoff), Shrinked the network and kept the aircraft in long-term storage[309][340].. As the leaders in the procurement and supply of COVID-19 vaccines within the WHO COVAX facility, GAVI and UNICEF are preparing for the largest and fastest vaccine deployment to date and will cooperate with international air freight transport. , Customs and border control, and may require as many as 1 freighters to deliver a single dose of vaccine to multiple countries[316][340].

Security and corruption

Widespread demand for COVID-2,000 vaccines across the supply chain, as pharmaceuticals are the world's largest fraud market and are worth about $ 19 billion annually.Counterfeit goods,theft,Bad business law,Cyber ​​attackVulnerable to[313][341]..The lack of a harmonious regulatory framework between countries, such as poor technical capacity to identify and track counterfeit and genuine vaccines, restricted access, and ineffective capacity, is vaccinated. May threaten the lives of others and perpetuate the COVID-19 pandemic[341][342]..Tracking system technology used in packaging materials is used by manufacturers to track vaccine vials throughout the supply chain.[313], Also digital and to ensure the security of the vaccination teamBiometricsUsing the tool[329][343].. April 2020,InterpolIt is,Organized crimeInfiltrate the vaccine supply chain, steal products by physical means,Information theftWarned that it may even provide counterfeit vaccines[344].

National infrastructure development

Although WHO has an "effective vaccine management" system in place[345], This includes building priorities for preparing national and quasi-national personnel and facilities for vaccine distribution, including:

  • Training staff to handle time- and temperature-sensitive vaccines
  • Robust monitoring capabilities to optimize vaccine storage and transport
  • Temperature controlled equipment / equipment
  • Traceability
  • Security

Border processes for efficient handling and customs clearance within individual countries include:[318][345] :

  • Facilitate takeoff and landing clearance
  • Of flight attendantsquarantineExemption from requirements
  • Promotion of flexible operation for efficient domestic expansion
  • Grant landing priority to maintain vaccine temperature requirements

Liability

There was a future risk to the manufacturer as no physical long-term safety could be confirmed.On the other hand, on February 2020, 2,Alex OtherThe U.S. Secretary of Health and Welfare has stated that the "Public Preparation and Emergency Preparedness Act" for medical measures against COVID-19 (Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act) ”Was published.The subject was "any vaccine used to treat, diagnose, cure, prevent or alleviate infection with COVID-19, or SARS-CoV-2 or its mutant virus," and the declaration was "manufacturer in vaccine production." Claims for the negligence of the medical provider who prescribes the wrong dose or the negligence of the medical provider are excluded unless there is intentional tort. "[346]..This declaration is valid in the United States until October 2024, 10.

In Japan, as with other vaccines, if there is a health hazard due to a side reaction,Vaccination methodbased onNational relief systemWas targeted by[347].

Incorrect information

Social MediaSo, it is said that the COVID-19 vaccine is already available when it was not available.Conspiracy theoryWas also seen.The patents cited in various SNS posts includeSARS coronavirusExisting patents on gene sequences and vaccines of other strains such as COVID-19 are referenced, but not on COVID-XNUMX.[348][349].

The United States, which was selling a vaccine called "nCoV2020 spike protein vaccine" on May 5, 21.SeattleTo North Coast Biologics, based inUS Food and Drug Administration(FDA) announces that it has sent a notice of cancellation[350].

Australian Institute for Strategic Policy(ASPI) claims that China and Russia are disseminating fake news or propaganda related to vaccines developed in the West.[351][352].

Vaccine passport

In February 2021, Israel, which is the most inoculated with the COVID-2 vaccine in the world, and in March of the following year, China issued a "vaccine passport" certifying the inoculation of the COVID-19 vaccine.[353], Each country is said to follow this.

European as of April 4stアイス ランド-エストニア-Cyprus-ジ ョ ー ジ ジ-ポーランド-ルーマニア, In Latin AmericaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-ベリーズ-エクアドル, In the Pacific IslandsSeychellesCountries such as Japan have begun to lift the ban on travel entry for vaccine passport holders.However, depending on the country, the vaccinated vaccinePharmaceutical manufacturerThere is a difference between valid and invalid depending on[354].

Also travel to get a vaccine passportVaccine tourismHas begun[355].

Vaccine security and inoculation status

World overview

The status of COVID-2021 vaccine in the world as of April 4, 10 is as follows.[356].

Number of vaccinations per 100 people / Cumulative number of vaccinations

As of the end of March 2021, the number of vaccinations per 3 people in Japan was 100.OECDIs the lowest among the 37 countries of[357][358].

Israeli situation

As of March and April 2021, the COVID-3 vaccine per capita rate is the highest in the world.イ ス ラ エ ル.JewDiasporaFace political instability by receiving prioritized high-volume vaccines from Pfizer throughNetanyahuMedia analyzed that it was the prime minister's recovery strategy[359][360].

Lan Baricelle, Israeli Corona Vaccine Countermeasures Expert Team Representative and Chief Innovation Officer of Israel's largest health organization, Clarit, spoke at a remote lecture hosted by the Japan National Press Club on March 2021, 3. According to Israel[361]、「昨年(2020年)の12月19日から高齢者優先で始まったワクチン接種は、16歳以上の全住民に対象が拡大され、イスラエル国民約920万人の60%がすでに接種済みで、50%が2回接種済み。特に50歳以上は80%が2回目の接種を受けており、高齢者はワクチンで守られている[361]The reason why Israel was able to procure the vaccine earliest in the world was "I had a pre-purchase contract with a vaccine maker before December of last year. If the infection increases further, Pfizer and others I had a contract with the manufacturer to give priority to the vaccine. "[361].."Instead, the condition was that data on infections would be shared worldwide, which means that Israel could become a'testbed'for vaccination and procure important vaccines faster."[361].

Regarding the method of vaccination in Israel, "In Israel, vaccine clinics have been opened in various places for vaccination.[361]He said that he had hundreds of clinics all over Israel in a week.Clinics were set up by setting up tents in large hospitals and plazas, and the management of inoculated people was digitized 20 years ago.Electronic medical recordIn Israel, he said that the information on who received the vaccination and the date and time of the second vaccination was decided at the time of the first vaccination.digitalizationRevealed that the progress made was very helpful for efficient vaccination.[361].

"It was important to ensure transparency. We told the public what we knew and what we didn't understand as a clear message.[361].. ".

Regarding the method of promoting vaccination, he explained, "People who have been vaccinated are given a'green badge'." "If you receive a mark certifying that you have been vaccinated on your smartphone, you can eat inside the restaurant and participate in concerts and cultural events. On the other hand, those who have not been vaccinated can go to the restaurant. By applying different rules to those who have been vaccinated and those who have not, such as saying that they can only eat outside the restaurant, economic activities can be resumed with peace of mind and the number of vaccinations will be increased.IncentiveIt also became "[361].

Japan situation

概況

in Japan,Vaccination methodAccording to the provisions of Article 7, Paragraph 2 of the Supplementary Provisions, Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the same ActTemporary inoculationIs done in the form of[362].

From February 2021, 2, the first regulatoryly approved Pfizer vaccine will be inoculated.Medical facilityIt was started for medical professionals in Japan (implemented by prefectures).

Next, the municipalities took the lead in implementing the vaccinations, and from April onward, reservations for vaccinations were started for the elderly aged 4 and over.

From May 5th, a large-scale inoculation center was opened by the country (Self-Defense Forces) established in Tokyo (Otemachi) and Osaka City, and after the target area was expanded nationwide, the target age from June 24th. Has been expanded to over 6 years old.

Since June 6, occupational inoculation at companies and universities has started.

July 7thImperial Household AgencyIs the emperorTokujinAnnounced that it had been vaccinated on the afternoon of the XNUMXth.[363].

problem

The following problems became apparent when vaccination was carried out.

  • Implementation method and reservation method are different for each municipality
    • There are group vaccinations at schools and public facilities, individual vaccinations at local hospitals and clinics, and both, and the reservation method may differ depending on the local government (reservation on a special site, special site for medical institutions or own hospital site). , Direct reservation by phone (mixed local governments that can and cannot),Call centerCall to, local government will notify you by specifying location and date (egNiigataJoetsu City[364]), Other)
    • Reservation system (Internet, telephone) due to mass accessPunk[365]Confusion such as
      • In particular, there are many situations where reservations cannot be made, especially among elderly people who cannot use the Internet.[366][367]
    • Concerns about waste of vaccines due to double reservations with large-scale venues of countries (Self-Defense Forces) established in Tokyo and Osaka[368]
  • InoculateDoctor,nurseLack of
  • Occurrence of disparity in inoculation rate of residents in each municipality (prefecture, municipality)[375]
    • In some less populated municipalities, vaccination of applicants over the age of 16 was almost completed in May (eg).FukushimaHinoemata Village[376]). on the other hand,NemuroIn some cases, the completion of inoculation for people aged 65 and over is "early September".[377].
    • In particular, to local governments that started inoculation for people aged 6 and over, which was expanded in June,Vaccine evasionProtest phone call seen by the faction (Electric convex) Occurrence[378][379].
    • The target age of the large-scale venues of the Self-Defense Forces in Tokyo and Osaka has been expanded from June 6 to 17 years or older, which is the target age of the Moderna vaccine.[380], Inoculation requires an inoculation ticket sent by the local government, and you cannot receive the inoculation unless the local government ships it.[381].
  • Frequent internal management mistakes
    • Frequent disposal of vaccines that can no longer be used due to mishandling[382][383][384][385]
    • Second inoculation to the same person within 3 weeks (same day, next day, etc.)[386]
    • Misinoculation of low-concentration vaccine due to mistake in dilution[387][388]
  • Deceive local governments (health centers, municipal offices), etc. and ask for money and personal information related to vaccinationSuspicious phoneAnd individual visits[389][390]

Securing vaccines in Japan

October 2020, 6- Katsunobu KatoThe Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare (at that time) announced that he would establish a mass production system for corona vaccines by the first half of 2021, and with the second supplementary budget of 2020 billion yen in 2, he would accelerate the development of the production system for vaccine development companies. Showed a policy to subsidize the cost to proceed[391].

October 2020, 6- Shinzo AbePrime Minister(At that time)Nico Nico Live Broadcast"We are negotiating with Moderna in the US and AstraZeneca in the UK so that we can get the vaccine at the end of the year at the earliest."[392].

2020 year 7 month,United States Federal GovernmentA senior official in charge of the vaccine strategy "Operation Warp Speed" said on June 2020, 6, "The top priority is to protect the American people. It will not prevent other countries from getting the surplus."[393].

On September 2020, 9, the Japanese government announced a policy to make all citizens free of charge for coronavirus vaccination without asking for their own expenses.[394].

August 2021, 1,Yoshii KanThe Prime MinisterTaro KonoMinister for Regulatory ReformThe minister in charge of vaccination "Minister in charge of new coronavirus vaccinationAppointed to[395]..On January 1th, after approving the vaccine in mid-February, vaccination was started from the medical staff who participated in the safety survey from the end of February, and since then, the medical staff, the elderly aged 19 and over, and the elderly After giving priority to vaccinations for people working in facilities and facilities for persons with disabilities and those with a disease, it is assumed that vaccinations will be given to the general public in May and will be given to all citizens aged 2 and over by July. Schedule announced by the government[396].

As of January 2021, 1, the Government of Japan has signed contracts with three companies, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Pfizer, on the premise of successful vaccine development.[98].

According to a report on January 1, a pharmaceutical manufacturer headquartered in Ashiya City, Hyogo Prefecture,JCR PharmaAnnounced that it plans to manufacture 9,000 million doses (4,500 million people) of AstraZeneca's vaccine for Japan in Japan.[397].

Prior to vaccination in each municipality in Japan, January 2021, 1, Kanagawa PrefectureKawasaki City OfKawasaki City College of Nursing Ofgymnasiumso,Kawasaki City(Administrative organization)Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareVaccination training was conducted by[398].

Also, on October 2021, 1,TokyoNerima-kuHowever, on a small scale for vaccination starting in the spring of 2021ClinicMainly vaccination in Japan, combined with large-scale vaccination in public facilitiesNerima Ward modelThe Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare provided information to local governments nationwide as a precedent case.[399].KyotoKyoto City,TochigiSano CityLocal governments all over the country have decided to introduce this "Nerima Ward model".[400][401]..After that, from May 2021, when inoculation began in earnest in each local government nationwide, many local governments, mainly in urban areas, mainly used individual inoculation, and some combined inoculation. It has been adopted.

On February 2021, 2, the United States for JapanPfizerThe first flight of the vaccine made is at the Pfizer manufacturing plantベルギーFrom Chiba prefectureNarita International AirportIn addition, freight flights by passenger planes (Boeing 787-9) Arrived.Transportation has been in regular service since before the COVID-19 epidemic.ANAWas in charge of[402]..The second flight arrived on February 2, the third flight arrived on March 2, and the fourth flight arrived on March 21.[403][404][405][406].. Four airlifts (February 2th to March 12th) secured a maximum of about 3 million times and about 8 million people.[406].. On the 4th flight arriving on April 5, the aircraft will be even larger due to the increase in transportation volume (Boeing 777-300ER)[407].

At a press conference on April 4, Prime Minister Suga said, "The government will work together to ensure that each local government can complete two vaccinations (for the elderly) with the end of July in mind."[408]..Minister Kono did not show the basis for this policy at the House of Representatives Cabinet Committee on the 28th.[409]..In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is also grasping the state of the body on the 26th. "[410].

In the week of April 4, 26 doses of vaccine will be distributed to all municipalities.[411].

On April 4, the first group of moderna vaccines for Japan will be launched from Belgium.KIXToJALArrived by plane[412].

July 5, USAJohnson & Johnson(Janssen Pharma) Announced that it has applied to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare for manufacturing and marketing approval of its single-dose vaccine[413]..However, at the time of application, there is no supply contract with the Japanese government such as Pfizer Moderna AstraZeneca.[108].

On June 6, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare had previously targeted Pfizer's new coronavirus vaccine for people aged 1 and over at public expense, but from this day it expanded the scope of vaccination to 16 years and over.[414].

In a party leaders' debate on June 6, Prime Minister Suga said that he would like to "realize all the necessary people from October to November" regarding vaccination.[415].

Vaccination status

As of the end of January, the delay in the start of vaccination in Japan was conspicuous while vaccination was already in full swing in developed countries.Of the major developed countries, Japan was the only country that had not been approved for the vaccine.[416].

The Pfizer vaccine, which was officially approved in Japan on February 2021, 2, was finally inoculated in Japan on February 14, and the first inoculation was given.TokyoMeguro OfNational Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center Of院長Was done against.Priority was started from vaccination to medical staff[418].. "In the future, vaccinations for medical professionals will be promoted at hospitals in each prefecture," he explained.

As of the end of March 2021, the number of vaccinations per 3 people in Japan was 100.OECDWas the lowest among 37 countries[419][420].. As of April 4, more than 27% of the population was vaccinated more than once, which is lower than 1% of the whole Asia.[421].

In Japan, for 12 years old and over (18 years old and over for Moderna products)[422], The order of vaccination was as follows[423].

  1. Medical staff, etc. (hospital,ClinicStaff,pharmacist,Emergency servicesMember,Health centerStaff etc.)[424]
  2. Persons born before April 32, 1957 (elderly people aged 4 and over)
  3. Underlying diseases other than the elderly (Heart disease,Diabetes mellitus,BMI30 or more)Facilities for the elderlyWorkers such as[424]
  4. Persons other than 1. --3 above

上述のように、3月に、まずは医療従事者などへのワクチンの優先接種が本格的に始まったわけだが、 2021年4月17日時点の情報で、優先接種の対象になっている医療従事者などのうち、2回の接種を終えたのはおよそ68万人と、わずか14%にとどまっていると判明。(その数の内訳を解説すると)接種対象となる医療従事者はおよそ480万人と見込まれているのだが、厚生労働省によると4月15日までに1回目の接種を受けたのは全体の24%にあたるおよそ117万人で、2回目の接種も終えた人は14%のおよそ68万人にとどまっていたのである。さらに、優先接種対象には新型コロナウイルスの感染者に接する機会が多いQuarantine stationAnd staff such as health centers are also included[424], NHK interviewed 13 quarantine stations nationwide and found that no staff were inoculated at any of the quarantine stations.[425]As of April 4, about one-third of medical professionals completed the first vaccination.[421].

第2順位の65歳以上の高齢者に対しては4月12日に一部の自治体で接種が開始され、4月26日以降本格的に接種が開始されているが、第1順位の接種を受ける医療従事者の数が当初の想定より100万人多い470万人に増えたことや接種対象となる高齢者が約3600万人に上ること、日本で広く使われる注射器では1瓶から6回分を採取できないこと、ファイザーのワクチン増産が5月以降となることなどから、スケジュールの遅延が予想されている[403][426][404](As mentioned above, since vaccination of medical staff has not progressed, some local governments may divert the distributed vaccine for the elderly to local medical staff.[427][428]).

In addition, there have been a series of cases in which the mayors and staff of local governments inoculate the vaccine effectively against the surplus of vaccine due to cancellation, etc., and it is difficult to make reservations for vaccination especially for the elderly, which is confusing. While it is occurring, there are some opinions that are problematic from the perspective of fairness.[429]However, Taro Kono, the minister in charge of administrative reform, who is in charge of promoting vaccination, said, "It is extremely unforgivable that valuable vaccines are being discarded. I want you to use it effectively at the discretion of the local government so that it will not be discarded. If there is criticism, I will take responsibility. "[430].

(Regarding the problem of the number of inoculations per bottle caused by syringes) Uji Tokushukai Hospital in Kyoto Prefecture, if the conditions are metInsulinPfizer vaccine can be inoculated 1 times from 7 bottle with a syringe[431]. Also,TerumoDeveloped a syringe that can inoculate 1 times from 7 bottle and started production from the end of March[432].

April 2021, 4, the governmentTokyoOsakaOn the 1th, Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga announced the establishment of an inoculation site for 1 people a day.SDFInstructed to set up an inoculation site in Tokyo.The policy is from May 5th to 24 months.The place is TokyoOtemachi Joint Government Building, Osaka prefectureOsaka Prefectural International Conference Center(OsakaNakanoshima), Which was opened from May 5th in both Tokyo and Osaka.[433]..It was reported that the vaccine will be made by Moderna (assuming approval), which is under review for approval, instead of Pfizer, which has already been distributed to local governments, to prevent confusion in management.[434][435][436]..Also, TokyoMachida-shiThen.Soccer J League-FC Machida ZelviaIs the home stadium ofMachida City Athletics StadiumUse (facility naming rights name, Machida GION Stadium) as a mass inoculation venue[437]Each local government is implementing or considering the establishment of an inoculation site using large-scale facilities such as the Kokugikan, stadium, and racetrack.[438][439][440].

On May 2021, 5, Moderna and AstraZeneca vaccines were specially approved by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare.As a result, three new coronavirus vaccines were approved in Japan, but of these, the viral vector vaccine made by AstraZeneca is rare.ThrombosisSince cases of side reactions that develop the disease have been reported overseas, it was decided to forgo public inoculation in Japan for the time being.[441]..On the 23rd of the same month, the SDF members and private nurses were vaccinated with the Moderna vaccine at the Osaka Prefectural International Convention Center, which is a large-scale inoculation venue operated by the SDF.From the following 24th, we started vaccination with Moderna vaccine for elderly people aged 65 and over at large-scale inoculation venues in Tokyo and Osaka.[442].

The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare conducted a survey of local governments nationwide to see if the inoculation of the elderly could be completed by the end of July.As a result, in a survey released on May 7, 5% of local governments answered that they would complete at the end of July.[443]..In some municipalities, the chief of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications called the chief and asked him to finish by the end of July.[443].

On June 2021, 6, the government aimed to reduce the burden on the region and accelerate inoculation.Company,UniversityAnnounced that it will start inoculation in the workplace from the 21st of the same month.Plans to use the same Moderna vaccine as the large-scale venue by the Self-Defense Forces in Tokyo and Osaka[444]..Actually from the 13th of the same monthAll Nippon Airways(ANA Holdings), From 14thJapan Airlines,Yomiuri ShimbunSome companies such as started inoculation in the workplace ahead of schedule[445]..After that, as the application for occupational vaccination was made at a faster pace than expected, there was a possibility that the supply of the Moderna vaccine to be used became insufficient, so the application should be suspended at 6:25 on June 17th. Has been announced by the government[446]..This is because the daily deliverable amount of the Moderna vaccine used for occupational inoculation has reached the upper limit, and there is a possibility that the vaccine will be in short supply. On the 1th of the same month, Prime Minister Suga announced at a ministerial meeting on the progress of vaccination, etc. that he would effectively cancel the new application for occupational vaccination.Regarding large-scale inoculations carried out by local governments, we are considering using not only Moderna products but also Pfizer products, but the prospect of vaccine supply is uncertain, and some local governments have begun to stop accepting reservations.[447].

In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is adjusting the AstraZeneca vaccine, which has been postponed for use in public vaccination due to the risk of adverse reactions to the development of thrombosis, in the direction of allowing publicly funded vaccination for people aged 60 and over.[448].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ About the new corona vaccine> About the development status Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (read January 2021, 5)
  2. ^ a b c Diamond, Michael S; Pierson, Theodore C (13 May 2020). "The challenges of vaccine development against a new virus during a pandemic". Cell Host and Microbe. 27 ( two:10.1016 / j.chom.2020.04.021. PMC 7219397. PMID 32407708.
  3. ^ Padilla, Teodoro (February 2021, 2). “No one is safe unless everyone is safe”. BusinessWorld. https://www.bworldonline.com/no-one-is-safe-unless-everyone-is-safe/ 2021/2/24Browse. 
  4. ^ "Vaccine under development of new corona, confirmed efficacy". Fukui newspaper. 19 May 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 5.
  5. ^ "More than 150 countries engaged in COVID-19 vaccine global access facility". WHO. 15 July 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  6. ^ "New Corona, the first vaccine may not have infection control-focus on prevention of aggravation". Bloomberg(July 2020, 6). https://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/articles/2020-06-15/QBYMEPT0AFBK01 
  7. ^ "The new corona vaccine may not work well for the elderly"NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC(2020 7 年 月 日 21)
  8. ^ "Chickens used to produce influenza vaccine, raised on a secret US farm Corona has little hope". CNN. 18 April 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 4.
  9. ^ "Summary of development trends of new coronavirus therapeutic agents and vaccines [COVID-19"News answers. 17 April 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 4.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gates, Bill (30 April 2020). "The vaccine race explained: What you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine". The Gates Notes. As of May 2020, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  11. ^ "CEPI welcomes UK Government's funding and highlights need for $ 2 billion to develop a vaccine against COVID-19". Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Oslo, Norway. 6 March 2020. As of March 2020, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 3.
  12. ^ a b c Wake, Damon (4 May 2020). "EU spearheads $ 8 billion virus fundraiser"Yahoo Finance. As of June 2020, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  13. ^ a b c "Update on WHO Solidarity Trial – Accelerating a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine". World Health Organization. 27 April 2020. As of April 2020, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.It is vital that we evaluate as many vaccines as possible as we cannot predict how many will turn out to be viable. To increase the chances of success (given the high level of attrition during vaccine development), we must test all candidate vaccines until they fail. [The] WHO is working to ensure that all of them have the chance of being tested at the initial stage of development. The results for the efficacy of each vaccine are expected within three to six months and this evidence, combined with data on safety, will inform decisions about whether it can be used on a wider scale.
  14. ^ "UK medicines regulator gives approval for first UK COVID-19 vaccine". Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, Government of the UK. 2 December 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  15. ^ “Bahrain second in the world to approve the Pfizer / BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine”. Bahrain News Agency. (December 2020, 12). https://www.bna.bh/en/news?cms=q8FmFJgiscL2fwIzON1%2BDteRtB2wfPWh%2FOmYUjt6ApY%3D 2020/12/9Browse. 
  16. ^ a b "Regulatory Decision Summary --Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine". Health Canada, Government of Canada. 9 December 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  17. ^ "Drug and vaccine authorizations for COVID-19: List of applications received". Health Canada, Government of Canada. 9 December 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  18. ^ Zimmer, Carl; Corum, Jonathan; Wee, Sui-Lee (June 2020, 6). “Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker” (English). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html 2020/12/10Browse. 
  19. ^ a b "COVID-19 vaccine development pipeline (Refresh URL to update)". Vaccine Center, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. 30 November 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Le, Tung Thanh; Cramer, Jakob P .; Chen, Robert; Mayhew, Stephen (4 September 2020). "Evolution of the COVID-19 vaccine development landscape". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 19 ( two:10.1038 / d41573-020-00151-8. ISSN 1474-1776 . PMID 32887942.
  21. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine tracker (Choose vaccines tab, apply filters to view select data)". Milken Institute. 16 November 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 11.Summary for amateurs.
  22. ^ "Draft landscape of COVID 19 candidate vaccines". World Health Organization. 12 November 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  23. ^ Beaumont, Peter (November 2020, 11). “Covid-19 vaccine: who are countries prioritising for first doses?” (English). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 . https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/nov/18/covid-19-vaccine-who-are-countries-prioritising-for-first-doses 2020/12/26Browse. 
  24. ^ Plotkin SA, Halsey N (January 2021). "Accelerate COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout by Delaying the Second Dose of mRNA Vaccines". Clinical Infectious Diseases. two:10.1093 / cid / ciab068. PMC 7929065. PMID 33502467.
  25. ^ Epperly, David (January 2021). "Evidence For COVID-19 Vaccine Deferred Dose 2 Boost Timing".  3760833.
  26. ^ Wang X (February 2021). "Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine". N Engl J Med (letter). 384 ( two:10.1056 / NEJMc2036242. PMID 33596350.
  27. ^ "More Evidence: Evidence For COVID-19 Vaccine Deferred Dose 2 Boost Timing". ReallyCorrect.com.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  28. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations --Statistics and Research". Our World in Data.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  29. ^ "Which companies will likely produce the most COVID-19 vaccine in 2021?". Pharmaceutical Processing World... 5 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  30. ^ "China can hit 500-mln-dose annual capacity of CanSinoBIO COVID-19 vaccine this year".Yahoo! Sport.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  31. ^ Mullard, Asher (30 November 2020). "How COVID vaccines are being divvied up around the world Canada leads the pack in terms of doses secured per capita". Nature. two:10.1038 / d41586-020-03370-6. PMID 33257891.  227246811.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  32. ^ So AD, Woo J (December 2020). "Reserving coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines for global access: cross sectional analysis". BMJ: m4750. two:10.1136 / bmj.m4750. ISSN 1756-1833 .
  33. ^ a b [Chart talks] Vaccine exports sweeping China / Approved in 70 countries / regions / contracts Diplomacy / economic offensive"Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition November 2021, 4 4st page (viewed November 1, 2021)
  34. ^ "Vaccine benefits in the US 1 million yen by lottery, unlimited rides for a week"Asahi Shimbun digital(Delivery on December 2021, 5) Retrieved on November 13, 2021
  35. ^ "COVID-19 vaccines" (English). Harvard Health (September 2021, 1). 2021/6/4Browse.
  36. ^ "Coronavirus Resource Center" (English). Harvard Health (September 2020, 2). 2021/6/4Browse.
  37. ^ "Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus". Avian Pathology. 32 (6): 567–82. December 2003. two:10.1080/03079450310001621198. PMC 7154303. PMID 14676007.
  38. ^ "Effects of a SARS-associated coronavirus vaccine in monkeys". Lancet. 362 (9399): 1895–96. December 2003. two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (03) 14962-8. PMC 7112457. PMID 14667748.
  39. ^ "Immunogenicity of an adenoviral-based Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus vaccine in BALB / c mice". Vaccine. 32 (45): 5975–82. October 2014. two:10.1016 / j.vaccine.2014.08.058. PMC 7115510. PMID 25192975.
  40. ^ "Development and characterization of a severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that provides effective immunoprophylaxis in mice". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 191 (4): 507–14. February 2005. two:10.1086/427242. PMC 7110081. PMID 15655773.
  41. ^ "Monoclonal antibodies to SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV): identification of neutralizing and antibodies reactive to S, N, M and E viral proteins". Journal of Virological Methods. 128 (1–2): 21–28. September 2005. two:10.1016 / j.jviromet.2005.03.021. PMC 7112802. PMID 15885812.
  42. ^ "Therapy with a severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibody reduces disease severity and viral burden in golden Syrian hamsters". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 193 (5): 685–92. March 2006. two:10.1086/500143. PMC 7109703. PMID 16453264.
  43. ^ a b "Development of SARS vaccines and therapeutics is still needed". Future Virology. 8 (1): 1–2. January 2013. two:10.2217 / fvl.12.126. PMC 7079997. PMID 32201503.
  44. ^ "SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)". National Health Service. 5 March 2020. As of November 2020, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 1.
  45. ^ Shehata, Mahmoud M .; Gomaa, Mokhtar R .; Ali, Mohamed A .; Kayali, Ghazi (20 January 2016). "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review". Frontiers of Medicine. 10 ( two:10.1007 / s11684-016-0430-6. PMC 7089261. PMID 26791756.
  46. ^ "SARS veterans tackle coronavirus". Nature. 490 (7418): 20. October 2012. bibcode:2012Natur.490 ... 20B. two:10.1038 / 490020a. PMID 23038444.
  47. ^ "Safety and immunogenicity of an anti-Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus DNA vaccine: a phase 1, open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation trial". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 19 (9): 1013–22. September 2019. two:10.1016 / S1473-3099 (19) 30266-X. PMC 7185789. PMID 31351922.
  48. ^ "Recent Advances in the Vaccine Development Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 1781. 2019. two:10.3389 / fmicb.2019.01781. PMC 6688523. PMID 31428074.
  49. ^ "World Health Organization timeline – COVID-19". World Health Organization. 27 April 2020. As of April 2020, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Thanh Le, Tung; Andreadakis, Zacharias; Kumar, Arun; Gómez Román, Raúl; Tollefsen, Stig; Saville, Melanie; Mayhew, Stephen (9 April 2020). "The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 19 ( two:10.1038 / d41573-020-00073-5. ISSN 1474-1776 . PMID 32273591.
  51. ^ a b "Responding to Covid-19: A once-in-a-century pandemic?". The New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (18): 1677–79. February 2020. two:10.1056 / nejmp2003762. PMID 32109012.
  52. ^ "Covid-19: Navigating the uncharted". The New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (13): 1268–69. March 2020. two:10.1056 / nejme2002387. PMC 7121221. PMID 32109011.
  53. ^ Grenfell, Rob (14 February 2020). "Here's why the WHO says a coronavirus vaccine is 18 months away". Business Insider.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  54. ^ a b "Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines". Lancet. 395 (10234): 1405–06. May 2020. two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (20) 30763-7. PMC 7271264. PMID 32243778.
  55. ^ a b "Landmark global collaboration launched to defeat COVID-19 pandemic". CEPI. 24 April 2020. As of May 2020, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.The global nature of a pandemic means that any vaccine or medicine that is successfully developed will be needed immediately all over the world. That means that the challenge we face is not only one of R & D but one of manufacturing at scale, and equitable access.
  56. ^ Schmidt, Charles (June 2020, 6). “Genetic Engineering Could Make a COVID-19 Vaccine in Months Rather Than Years”. Scientific American. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20201011084737/https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/genetic-engineering-could-make-a-covid-19-vaccine-in-months-rather-than-years1// 2020/8/26Browse. 
  57. ^ Fox, Chris; Kelion, Leo (July 2020, 7). “Russian spies'target coronavirus vaccine'”. BBC News Online. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20201011084740/https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-53429506/ 2020/8/1Browse. 
  58. ^ Takehiro Sato (March 2020, 3). “Distributed processing project "Folding @ home" exceeds 1 EFLOPS in new corona analysis”. PC Watch. 2020/4/4Browse.
  59. ^ Pande lab. “Client Statistics by OS”. Archive.is. 2020/4/12Browse.
  60. ^ Shinji Nakamura (April 2020, 4). “Folding @ home reaches 500 EFLOPS, which exceeds all TOP2.4 supercomputers”. PC Watch. 2020/4/14Browse.
  61. ^ Folding @ home. “https://twitter.com/foldingathome/status/1249778379634675712" (English). Twitter. 2021/4/10Browse.
  62. ^ "The Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator". World Health Organization. 2020. As of September 2020, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  63. ^ a b c d e "COVAX: Ensuring global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines". GAVI. 2020. As of September 2020, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  64. ^ "More than 150 countries engaged in COVID-19 vaccine global access facility". World Health Organization. 15 July 2020. As of July 2020, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.COVAX is the only truly global solution to the COVID-19 pandemic. For the vast majority of countries, whether they can afford to pay for their own doses or require assistance, it means receiving a guaranteed share of doses and avoiding being pushed to the back Even for those countries that are able to secure their own agreements with vaccine manufacturers, this mechanism represents, through its world-leading portfolio of vaccine candidates, a means of reducing the risks associated with individual candidates failing to show efficacy or gain licensure.
  65. ^ "COVAX: CEPI's response to COVID-19". Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  66. ^ "New vaccines for a safer world". CEPI. 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  67. ^ a b c Steenhuysen, Julie; Eisler, Peter; Martell, Allison; Nebehay, Stephanie (April 2020, 4). “Special Report: Countries, companies risk billions in race for coronavirus vaccine”. Reuters. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200515031817/https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-vaccine-idUSL2N2CF0JG 2020/5/2Browse. 
  68. ^ a b c Sanger, David E .; Kirkpatrick, David D .; Zimmer, Carl; Thomas, Katie; Wee, Sui-Lee (May 2020, 5). “With Pressure Growing, Global Race for a Vaccine Intensifies”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200511003506/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/02/us/politics/vaccines-coronavirus-research.html 2020/5/2Browse. 
  69. ^ Hamilton, Isobel Asher (May 2020, 5). “Bill Gates thinks there are 8 to 10 promising coronavirus vaccine candidates and one could be ready in as little as 9 months”. Business Insider. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200516101559/https://www.businessinsider.com/bill-gates-10-promising-coronavirus-vaccine-candidates-2020-5 2020/5/2Browse. 
  70. ^ "Global Vaccine Summit 2020: World leaders make historic commitments to provide equal access to vaccines for all". Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation. 4 June 2020. As of June 2020, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 6.
  71. ^ “Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation pledges for US$1.6 billion to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to protect the next generation with lifesaving vaccines ” (Press Release), The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, (June 2020, 6), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 6., https://web.archive.org/web/20200604165907/https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/bill--melinda-gates-foundation-pledges-1-6-billion-to-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance-to-protect-the-next-generation-with-lifesaving-vaccines-301070878.html 2020/6/4Browse. 
  72. ^ "Our portfolio: partnerships to develop vaccines against COVID-19". CEPI. 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  73. ^ "Global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines estimated to generate economic benefits of at least US $ 153 billion in 2020–21, and US $ 466 billion by 2025, in 10 major economies, according to new report by the Eurasia Group". World Health Organization. 4 December 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  74. ^ "CEPI Nipah Virus Vaccine Project". Tokyo University Institute of Medical Science Laboratory Animal Research Facility. 25 March 2019.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  75. ^ a b "Proceed with vaccine development against new coronavirus"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 24 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  76. ^ "Three research teams including the United States have started work on the development of a vaccine for new pneumonia". Reuters... 24 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  77. ^ "Support for development of new pneumonia vaccine Clinical trials in June-international organization". Newsletter... 24 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  78. ^ "Coronavirus: Vir Biotechnology and Novavax announce vaccine plans-GB"... 23 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  79. ^ "CEPI selects Inovio for vaccine development of new coronavirus". PR Newswire. 24 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  80. ^ "Rapid increase in stock prices of manufacturers of infectious disease drugs and protective clothing-with the spread of new virus infection". Bloomberg... 28 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  81. ^ "Inovio Provides up-to-date information on clinical program planning for 2020". Kyodo News... 7 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  82. ^ "New coronaviruses, researchers around the world are rushing to develop vaccines In view of clinical trials this summer". BBC News(July 2020, 1). https://www.bbc.com/japanese/features-and-analysis-51306661 2020/2/5Browse. 
  83. ^ "GSK provides basic technology for adjuvant"QLife, Inc. 14 February 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  84. ^ "Moderna strain soars, new virus vaccine shipped for US phase 1 trial"Bloomberg. 26 February 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  85. ^ "Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Starts Vaccine Development for New Corona". Nihon Keizai Shimbun... 12 March 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 4.
  86. ^ "[IR] AnGes, Osaka University Starts Joint Development of DNA Vaccine for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)" (. Anges... 5 March 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 3.
  87. ^ “AnGes to develop new corona vaccine”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2020, 3). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO56411830V00C20A3X12000/ 
  88. ^ "Osaka University and others have started development, what is the effect of the new corona vaccine?"Nikkei Business. 16 March 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 4.
  89. ^ Mayor of Osaka(2020 6 年 月 日 16)
  90. ^ "Corona vaccine, the first clinical trial in Japan to start 7 people by the end of July"Asahi Shimbun digital(2020 6 年 月 日 30)
  91. ^ "Shionogi launches new corona vaccine on the market in the fall of 21". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 7 May 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 5.
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h "North Japan Newspaper" dated August 2020, 8, page 22 "Corona vaccine under development Government support and securing hurry"
  93. ^ "Candidate for corona vaccine from silkworm" Eat and inoculate "?Development such as Kyushu University ". West Japan Newspaper(July 2020, 6). https://www.nishinippon.co.jp/item/n/620746/ 2020/9/29Browse. 
  94. ^ a b "Vaccine candidate for new corona produced in silkworm body, Kyushu University to clinical trial next year". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2020, 6). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20200630/k00/00m/040/077000c 2020/9/29Browse. 
  95. ^ "The new corona vaccine," no infection prevention effect "is wrong.We asked an expert about the effects of vaccines and side reactions (BuzzFeed Japan) ". Yahoo! News.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  96. ^ Hisashi (Shimane UniversityAcademic Research Institute Medicine / Nursing), Iizasa. "Japanese RNA Society-MRNA Vaccine: Is It a Trump Card to Control Coronavirus Infection?". www.rnaj.org.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  97. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. "400 out of 10 million moderna vaccinated people have severe allergic reactions". NHK News.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  98. ^ a b "About the development status of the new corona vaccine". www.mhlw.go.jp. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  99. ^ "About the efficacy and safety of the new corona vaccine". www.mhlw.go.jp. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  100. ^ "Pfizer vaccine officially approved as a special case on the 14th, Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare Tamura". NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation).Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  101. ^ "Corona Vaccine Official Approval Made by Pfizer," Special Exception "Applied-Inoculation Starts on XNUMXth, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Jiji Press.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  102. ^ "Official gazetteExtra Special No. 13 February 3, 2rd year of Reiwa
  103. ^ "Takeda, Moderna vaccine application distribution network to be improved". Nihon Keizai ShimbunNikkei Inc. 5 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  104. ^ "Approved two vaccines approved by Moderna US and Astra UK". Kyodo News.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  105. ^ "Yaksik Trial Moderna AstraZeneca's New Corona Vaccine Deliberated on May 20".Mix Online.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  106. ^ "Kanpo" Extra Special No. 43, page 2, May 3, 5rd year of Reiwa
  107. ^ "Special approval for the new corona vaccine of Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Moderna and AstraZeneca Only made by Moderna is subject to public inoculation". Mix OnlineMix Co., Ltd. 21 May 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  108. ^ a b "US J & J, single-dose corona vaccine approval application". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. Nikkei Inc. 24 May 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  109. ^ "China CDC developing novel coronavirus vaccine". Xinhua. 26 January 2020. As of January 2020, 1オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 1.
  110. ^ “Russia and China start joint development of new coronavirus vaccine” (Japanese). Reuters(July 2020, 1). https://jp.reuters.com/article/china-health-russia-vaccine-idJPL4N29Y1XB 2020/2/3Browse. 
  111. ^ "China to start clinical trial of new corona vaccine". Reuters... 17 March 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 3.
  112. ^ a b "Background of the" new corona vaccine "developed by the PLA for the first time in the world"Kodansha. (March 2020, 3). https://gendai.ismedia.jp/articles/-/71300 
  113. ^ a b c Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of ChinaScience and technology daily report published by. Huaxi City News,"China begins human clinical trials of new coronavirus vaccine"AFPBB(Delivery at 2020:3 on March 23, 14)
  114. ^ "Chinese Kansino, Corona Vaccine" Confirmation of Effect on Humans "". Bloomberg. 25 May 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  115. ^ "Canada and" Sea Turtles "Leap with PLA-China Cancino for Vaccine Development"Bloomberg. 3 July 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  116. ^ "New corona vaccine under development in China, approved for military use only". CNN. 1 July 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  117. ^ "China starts emergency vaccination = medical professionals rush to put it into practical use-new corona"NewsletterNews (February 2020, 8)
  118. ^ Nectar Gan. "China's Sinopharm says its coronavirus vaccine is 79% effective". CNN.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  119. ^ "China, domestic vaccine approval AstraZeneca produced 30 billion times". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 31 December 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  120. ^ "China, Sinovac's new corona vaccine approval second case for the general public". Reuters... 8 February 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 7.
  121. ^ "China, 4 types of domestic corona vaccine approved, such as Kansino". Nihon Keizai Shimbun... 27 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  122. ^ "WHO Approves Emergency Use of China National Pharmaceutical Vaccine First Outside Europe and America". with the BBC. 7 May 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  123. ^ "WHO, Chinese Vaccine Approval Effectiveness XNUMX%, Second Case Under Review-New Corona". Newsletter. 8 May 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  124. ^ "Russia approves domestic corona vaccine in mid-August ... Safety concerns". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. 3 August 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  125. ^ "President Putin approved for use in Russian vaccines Western countries are skeptical"Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 12 August 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  126. ^ "Northern Japan Newspaper』November 2020, 11, page 12" Vaccine efficacy 8% clinical trial interim results "
  127. ^ "US and UK, inoculation going forward" "Yomiuri Shimbun』Morning edition January 2021, 5 23 pages
  128. ^ "Novavax developing nanoparticle vaccine for Wuhan coronavirus". BioWorld. 21 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  129. ^ "A series of companies entering the world to develop new coronaviruses and various vaccines". Nikkei BP... 29 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  130. ^ "Roche has difficulty supplying new virus detection kits due to Chinese city closure". Reuters... 31 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 2.
  131. ^ “Confidence in J&J new corona vaccine development Gilead also embarks on development”. Mix(July 2020, 2). https://www.mixonline.jp/tabid55.html?artid=68730 2020/2/6Browse. 
  132. ^ "US NIH Starts Vaccine Trial for New Corona"Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 17 March 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 4.
  133. ^ "Moderna confirms corona vaccine antibody large-scale clinical trial in July". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 18 May 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 5.
  134. ^ a b New York = Osamu Nakayama "US Pfizer, vaccine effect over 9%"Nihon Keizai Shimbun," August 2020, 11.2020/11/10Browse.
  135. ^ "British pharmaceutical giant" Corona vaccine scheduled to be supplied in September "clinical trial results are not yet available". NHK. 22 May 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 5.
  136. ^ “AstraZeneca vaccine trial suspended, suspected serious adverse reaction”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2020, 9). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN993JL6N99UHBI00N.html?iref=comtop_8_07 
  137. ^ “Astra Zeneca Corona Vaccine Resumes Clinical Trials in UK”. NHK. (October 2020, 9). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20200912/k10012615481000.html 
  138. ^ a b "AstraZeneca vaccine has no effect on people over 65, claimed by the French president". AFPBB News. French news agency(July 2021, 1). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3329244 2021/3/18Browse. 
  139. ^ “AstraZeneca vaccine recommended by France under 65 years old Similar movement in Europe”. AFPBB NewsAgence France-Presse. (May 2021, 2). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3329824 2021/3/18Browse. 
  140. ^ “AstraZeneca vaccine discontinued in Denmark, thrombosis in some patients”. TBS News. (April 2021, 3). https://news.tbs.co.jp/newseye/tbs_newseye4219991.html 2021/3/18Browse. 
  141. ^ "AstraZeneca vaccine, European countries discontinue use one after another Survey on relationship with thrombus". CNN.co.jp. CNN(July 2021, 3). https://www.cnn.co.jp/world/35167714.html 2021/3/18Browse. 
  142. ^ “AstraZeneca vaccine stopped in the Netherlands”. BBC News. with the BBC(July 2021, 3). https://www.bbc.com/japanese/56399467 2021/3/18Browse. 
  143. ^ “Thailand, UK AstraZeneca vaccine postponement of use thrombus report received”. BBC News. BBC. (December 2021, 3). https://www.bbc.com/japanese/56369666 2021/3/18Browse. 
  144. ^ "AstraZeneca vaccine, WHO calls for continued vaccination Blood clots and causality" no evidence "". BBC News. BBC. (December 2021, 3). https://www.bbc.com/japanese/56398360 2021/3/18Browse. 
  145. ^ a b “AstraZeneca vaccine“ 79% efficacy ”clinical trials in rice, etc.”. NHK NEWS WEB. NHK(July 2021, 3). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210323/k10012930031000.html 2021/3/24Browse. 
  146. ^ "British Astra vaccine, US clinical trial data may be incomplete = US Institute of Infectious Diseases". Reuters(July 2021, 3). https://jp.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-astrazeneca-u-s-idJPKBN2BF0IM 2021/3/24Browse. 
  147. ^ “AstraZeneca corrects new corona vaccine efficacy to 76%”. AFPBB News. French news agency(July 2021, 3). https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3338677 2021/3/25Browse. 
  148. ^ "Sanofi collaborates with US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop new coronavirus vaccine" (Sanofi. 18 February 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 3.
  149. ^ "India, domestic vaccination started 2 types approved Safety concerns" "Yomiuri Shimbun』Morning edition March 2021, 1 (international side)
  150. ^ "Indian domestic vaccine" Kovacsin ", efficacy 81%". CNN.co.jp. CNN(July 2021, 3). https://www.cnn.co.jp/business/35167314.html 2021/3/18Browse. 
  151. ^ "Southeast Asia competes for its own vaccine / Vietnam exports but Thailand takes the initiative of the government / Aims to foster the medical industry""Nikkei" morning edition May 2021, 5 (International / Asia Biz) Viewed on the same day
  152. ^ Flanagan, Katie L .; Best, Emma; Crawford, Nigel W .; Giles, Michelle; Koirala, Archana; Macartney, Kristine; Russell, Fiona; Teh, Benjamin W .; Wen, Sophie CH (2020). "Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines". Frontiers in Immunology. 11: 579250. two:10.3389 / fimmu.2020.579250. ISSN 1664-3224 . PMC 7566192. PMID 33123165.
  153. ^ Cross, Ryan (29 September 2020). "The tiny tweak behind COVID-19 vaccines". Chemical & Engineering News. 98 (38).
  154. ^ Krammer F (October 2020). "SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development". Nature. 586 ( bibcode:2020Natur.586..516K. two:10.1038 / s41586-020-2798-3. PMID 32967006.  221887746.
  155. ^ Park KS, Sun X, Aikins ME, Moon JJ (December 2020). "Non-viral COVID-19 vaccine delivery systems". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 169: 137-51. two:10.1016 / j.addr.2020.12.008. PMC 7744276. PMID 33340620.
  156. ^ Kowalski PS, Rudra A, Miao L, Anderson DG (April 2019). "Delivering the Messenger: Advances in Technologies for Therapeutic mRNA Delivery". Mol Ther. 27 ( two:10.1016 / j.ymthe.2019.02.012. PMC 6453548. PMID 30846391.
  157. ^ Verbeke R, Lentacker I, De Smedt SC, Dewitte H (October 2019). "Three decades of messenger RNA vaccine development". Nano Today. 28: 100766. two:10.1016 / j.nantod.2019.100766.
  158. ^ "COVID-19 ACIP Vaccine Recommendations". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  159. ^ "Safe COVID-19 vaccines for Europeans". European Commission – European Commission.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  160. ^ "Regulatory Decision Summary – Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine". Health Canada, Government of Canada. 9 December 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  161. ^ "Study to Describe the Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of RNA Vaccine Candidates Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". . United States National Library of Medicine. 30 April 2020. NCT04368728. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  162. ^ "A Multi-site Phase I / II, 2-Part, Dose-Escalation Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of four Prophylactic SARS-CoV-2 RNA Vaccines Against COVID-19 Using Different Dosing Regimens in Healthy Adults". EU Clinical Trials Register. European Union. 14 April 2020. 2020-001038-36. From the original as of April 2020, 4Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 4.
  163. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Adults Aged 18 Years and Older to Prevent COVID-19". . United States National Library of Medicine. 14 July 2020. NCT04470427. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  164. ^ Palca, Joe (July 2020, 7). “COVID-19 vaccine candidate heads to widespread testing in US”. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/07/27/895672859/us-vaccine-candidate-heads-to-widespread-testing-in-people 2020/7/27Browse. 
  165. ^ “EMA starts rolling review of CureVac's COVID-19 vaccine (CVnCoV)” (Press Release), (May 2020, 12), https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/news/ema-starts-rolling-review-curevacs-covid-19-vaccine-cvncov 2021/2/12Browse. 
  166. ^ a b c Moghimi SM (2021). "Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis to LNP-Based COVID-19 Vaccines". . 29 ( two:10.1016 / j.ymthe.2021.01.030. PMC 7862013. PMID 33571463.
  167. ^ a b "What are viral vector-based vaccines and how could they be used against COVID-19?". GAVI. 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  168. ^ "Investigating a Vaccine Against COVID-19". . United States National Library of Medicine. 26 May 2020. NCT04400838. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  169. ^ "A Phase 2/3 study to determine the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the candidate Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19". EU Clinical Trials Register. European Union. 21 April 2020. 2020-001228-32. From the original as of April 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  170. ^ O'Reilly P (26 May 2020). "A Phase III study to investigate a vaccine against COVID-19". ISRCTN. two:10.1186 / ISRCTN89951424.ISRCTN89951424.
  171. ^ Corum, Jonathan; Zimmer, Carl (January 2021, 1). “How Gamaleya's Vaccine Works”. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/gamaleya-covid-19-vaccine.html 2021/1/27Browse. 
  172. ^ "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S in Adults". . 4 August 2020. From the original as of August 2020, 9.Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  173. ^ "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19 in Adult Participants". . US National Library of Medicine. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2021, 3.
  174. ^ Johnson, Carolyn; McGinley, Laura. “Johnson & Johnson seeks emergency FDA authorization for single-shot coronavirus vaccine”. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2021/02/04/jj-vaccine-fda/ 
  175. ^ "It's not just Johnson & Johnson: China has a single-dose COVID-19 vaccine that's 65% effective". Fortune.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  176. ^ Petrovsky N, Aguilar JC (28 September 2004). "Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends". Immunology and Cell Biology. 82 ( two:10.1111 / j.0818-9641.2004.01272.x. ISSN 0818-9641 . PMID 15479434.  154670.
  177. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Inactivated Vaccine for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) (Renqiu)". . United States National Library of Medicine. 12 May 2020. NCT04383574. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  178. ^ "Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Sinovac's Adsorbed COVID-19 (Inactivated) Vaccine in Healthcare Professionals (PROFIS COV)". . United States National Library of Medicine. 2 July 2020. NCT04456595. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  179. ^ PT. Bio Farma (10 August 2020). "A Phase III, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SARS-COV-2 inactivated vaccine in healthy adults aged 18–59 years in Indonesia". Registri Penyakit Indonesia.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  180. ^ Chen W, Al Kaabi N (18 July 2020). "A Phase III clinical trial for inactivated novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) vaccine (Vero cells)". Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  181. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-russia-vaccine-idUSKBN2AK07H
  182. ^ "VLA2001 COVID-19 Vaccine". Precision vaccinations. 31 December 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  183. ^ "Dose Finding Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of an Inactiviated Adjuvanted Sars-Cov-2 Virus Vaccine Candidate Against Covid-19 in Healthy Adults". clinicaltrials.gov. US National Library of Medicine. 30 December 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  184. ^ "Module 2 – Subunit vaccines". WHO Vaccine Safety Basics.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  185. ^ "Study of the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of" EpiVacCorona "Vaccine for the Prevention of COVID-19 (EpiVacCorona)". . United States National Library of Medicine. 22 September 2020. NCT04368988.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  186. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine development pipeline (Refresh URL to update)". Vaccine Center, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. 1 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  187. ^ "Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 rS (COVID-19) Nanoparticle Vaccine With / Without Matrix-M Adjuvant". . United States National Library of Medicine. 30 April 2020. NCT04368988. From the original as of October 2020, 7Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  188. ^ "A Study on the Safety, Tolerability and Immune Response of SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp (COVID-19) Vaccine in Healthy Adults". . United States National Library of Medicine. 3 August 2020. NCT04495933. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  189. ^ "UQ-CSL V451 Vaccine". precisionvaccinations.com.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  190. ^ "A prospective, randomized, adaptive, phase I / II clinical study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Novel Corona Virus −2019-n Cov vaccine candidate of M / s Cadila Healthcare Limited by intradermal route in healthy subjects". ctri.nic.in.. 15 December 2020. CTRI / 2020/07/026352 2020. From the original as of November 11, 22Archive.. Retrieved August 2021, 7.
  191. ^ "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of INO-4800 for COVID-19 in Healthy Volunteers". . United States National Library of Medicine. 7 April 2020. NCT04336410. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  192. ^ "IVI, INOVIO, and KNIH to partner with CEPI in a Phase I / II clinical trial of INOVIO's COVID-19 DNA vaccine in South Korea". International Vaccine Institute. 16 April 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 4.
  193. ^ "Study of COVID-19 DNA Vaccine (AG0301-COVID19)". . United States National Library of Medicine. 9 July 2020. NCT04463472. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  194. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GX-19, a COVID-19 Preventive DNA Vaccine in Healthy Adults". . United States National Library of Medicine. 24 June 2020. NCT04445389. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  195. ^ “S. Korea's Genexine begins human trial of coronavirus vaccine”. Reuters. (May 2020, 6). https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-genexine-vaccine-idUSL4N2DW1T3 2020/6/25Browse. 
  196. ^ "Safety and Immunity of Covid-19 aAPC Vaccine". . United States National Library of Medicine. 9 March 2020. NCT04299724. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  197. ^ "Immunity and Safety of Covid-19 Synthetic Minigene Vaccine". . United States National Library of Medicine. 19 February 2020. NCT04276896. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  198. ^ "A Phase I / II Randomized, Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity and Potential Efficacy of an rVSV-SARS-CoV-2-S Vaccine (IIBR-100) in Adults". . United States National Library of Medicine. 1 November 2020. NCT04608305.Retrieved January 2021, 7.
  199. ^ https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/04/06/984486776/scientists-race-to-develop-next-generation-of-covid-vaccines
  200. ^ Johnson, Carolyn Y .; Mufson, Steven. “Can old vaccines from science's medicine cabinet ward off coronavirus?”. The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 . https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/06/11/can-old-vaccines-sciences-medicine-cabinet-ward-off-coronavirus/ 2020/12/31Browse. 
  201. ^ "Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and COVID-19". World Health Organization (WHO). 12 April 2020. From the original as of April 2020, 4Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  202. ^ "FDA Briefing Document: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine" (. US Food and Drug Administration. 10 December 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  203. ^ (September 2020, 11). “2 Companies Say Their Vaccines Are 95% Effective. What Does That Mean? You might assume that 95 out of every 100 people vaccinated will be protected from Covid-19. But that's not how the math works.”. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/20/health/covid-vaccine-95-effective.html 2020/11/21Browse. 
  204. ^ Branswell, Helen (2 February 2021). "Comparing three Covid-19 vaccines: Pfizer, Moderna, J & J". .Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  205. ^ Randolph HE, Barreiro LB (May 2020). "Herd Immunity: Understanding COVID-19". Immunity. 52 ( two:10.1016 / j.immuni.2020.04.012. PMC 7236739. PMID 32433946.
  206. ^ "The FDA's cutoff for Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness is 50 percent. What does that mean?". NBC News.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  207. ^ "EMA sets 50% efficacy goal – with flexibility – for COVID vaccines". www.raps.org.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  208. ^ Bartsch SM, O'Shea KJ, Ferguson MC, Bottazzi ME, Wedlock PT, Strych U, et al. (October 2020). "Vaccine Efficacy Needed for a COVID-19 Coronavirus Vaccine to Prevent or Stop an Epidemic as the Sole Intervention". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 59 ( two:10.1016 / j.amepre.2020.06.011. PMC 7361120. PMID 32778354.
  209. ^ Dean, Natalie; Madewell, Zachary (5 March 2021). "Understanding the spectrum of vaccine efficacy measures". Opinion.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  210. ^ a b c "Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine – cx-024414 injection, suspension". DailyMed. US National Institutes of Health.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  211. ^ a b "Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine – rna ingredient bnt-162b2 injection, suspension". DailyMed. US National Institutes of Health.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  212. ^ “Russia okays single-dose Sputnik Light Covid-19 vaccine, has 79.4% efficacy”. India Today. (May 2021, 5). https://www.indiatoday.in/coronavirus-outbreak/vaccine-updates/story/russia-okays-single-dose-sputnik-light-covid-vaccine-has-79-4-efficacy-1799610-2021-05-06 
  213. ^ Logunov DY, Dolzhikova IV, Shcheblyakov DV, Tukhvatulin AI, Zubkova OV, Dzharullaeva AS, et al. (February 2021). "Safety and efficacy of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine: an interim analysis of a randomized controlled phase 3 trial in Russia". The Lancet. 397 ( two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (21) 00234-8. ISSN 0140-6736 . PMC 7852454. PMID 33545094.
  214. ^ “Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomized trials”. Lancet 397 (10277): 881–91. (March 2021). two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (21) 00432-3. PMC: 7894131. PMID 33617777. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894131/. 
  215. ^ "AZD1222 US Phase III primary analysis confirms safety and efficacy".Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  216. ^ Wee, Sui-Lee; Qin, Amy (December 2020, 12). “A Chinese Covid-19 Vaccine Has Proved Effective, Its Maker Says”. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/30/business/china-vaccine.html 2020/12/30Browse. 
  217. ^ “Sinovac says COVID-19 vaccine effective in preventing hospitalization, death”. Reuters(July 2021, 2). https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-sinovac-biotech/sinovac-says-covid-19-vaccine-effective-in-preventing-hospitalization-death-idINKBN2A52Q6 2021/3/10Browse. 
  218. ^ “Sinovac's Covid Shot Proves 78% Effective in Brazil Trial”. Bloomberg. (March 2021, 1). https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-01-07/sinovac-covid-shot-78-effective-in-brazil-trial-folha-reports 2021/1/7Browse. 
  219. ^ “Chile Approves Chinese Coronavirus Vaccine”. . France Media Agency(July 2021, 1). https://www.barrons.com/news/chile-approves-chinese-coronavirus-vaccine-01611167703 2021/3/10Browse. 
  220. ^ Wadman M, Cohen J (28 January 2021). "Novavax vaccine delivers 89% efficacy against COVID-19 in UK – but is less potent in South Africa". Science. two:10.1126 / science.abg8101.
  221. ^ "Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates 89.3% Efficacy in UK Phase 3 Trial | Novavax Inc. --IR Site". ir.novavax.com.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  222. ^ a b c "Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine --ad26.cov2.s injection, suspension". DailyMed. US National Institutes of Health.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  223. ^ "FDA Briefing Document: Janssen Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine for the Prevention of COVID-19". US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). 26 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  224. ^ “Bharat Biotech's Covaxin found 81% effective in interim phase 3 trials”. mint(July 2021, 3). https://www.livemint.com/news/india/bharat-biotech-s-covaxin-found-81-effective-in-interim-phase-3-trials-11614771222428.html 
  225. ^ “Bharat Biotech Announces Phase 3 Results of COVAXIN: India's First COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates Interim Clinical Efficacy of 81%” (Press Release),:, (March 2021, 3), https://www.bharatbiotech.com/images/press/covaxin-phase3-efficacy-results.pdf 2021/3/10Browse. 
  226. ^ “CanSinoBIO's COVID-19 vaccine 65.7% effective in global trials, Pakistan official says”. Reuters (Islamabad). (February 2021, 2). https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-vaccine-pakistan/cansinobios-covid-19-vaccine-657-effective-in-global-trials-pakistan-official-says-idUSKBN2A81N0 2021/3/5Browse"its single-dose regimen and normal refrigerator storage requirement could make it a favourable option for many countries" 
  227. ^ "What is the difference between efficacy and effectiveness?". www.gavi.org (English).Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  228. ^ CNN, By Zahid Mahmood, Hannah Strange, Julia Hollingsworth and Adam Renton (29 January 2021). "Israel's health data suggests Pfizer and Moderna vaccines may be more effective than we thought". CNN (English).Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  229. ^ a b c Thompson, Mark G. (2021). "Interim Estimates of Vaccine Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccines in Preventing SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Health Care Personnel, First Responders, and Other Essential and Frontline Workers — Eight US Locations, December 2020–March 2021". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (English). 70. two:10.15585 / mmwr.mm7013e3. ISSN 0149-2195 .
  230. ^ a b Victoria Jane Hall, Sarah Foulkes, Ayoub Saei, Nick Andrews, Blanche Oguti, Andre Charlett, et al. (February 2021). "Effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Against Infection and COVID-19 Vaccine Coverage in Healthcare Workers in England, Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study (the SIREN Study) ".  3790399.
  231. ^ a b Pfizer (11 March 2021). "Real-World Evidence Confirms High Effectiveness of Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and Profound Public Health Impact of Vaccination One Year After Pandemic Declared".Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  232. ^ Aaron J Tande; Benjamin D Pollock; Nilay D Shah; Gianrico Farrugia; Abinash Virk; Melanie Swift; Laura Breeher; Matthew Binnicker; Elie F Berbari (10 March 2021). "Impact of the COVID-19 Vaccine on Asymptomatic Infection Among Patients Undergoing Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Molecular Screening". Clinical Infectious Diseases. two:10.1093 / cid / ciab229. PMC 7989519. PMID 33704435.
  233. ^ CNN, Nectar Gan. "Chinese Covid-19 vaccine efficacy is'not high', top health official admits". CNN.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  234. ^ “La vacuna CoronaVac demostró ser efectiva en un 89% para evitar hospitalizaciones UCI” (Spanish) (Press Release), Santiago: Ministry of Health (Chile), (March 2021, 4), https://www.minsal.cl/la-vacuna-coronavac-demostro-ser-efectiva-en-un-89-para-evitar-hospitalizaciones-uci/ 2021/4/18Browse. 
  235. ^ Araos, Rafael (2021-04-16) (Spanish). Efectividad de la vacuna CoronaVac con virus inactivo contra SARS-CoV-2 en Chile (Report). Ministry of Health (Chile). p. 12-13. https://www.minsal.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/20210416_ESTUDIO-EFECTIVIDAD-CORONAVAC.pdf 2021/4/18Browse.. 
  236. ^ Estudio "Efectividad de la vacuna CoronaVac con virus inactivado contra SARS-CoV-2 en Chile" tran [Study "Effectiveness of the CoronaVac vaccine with inactivated virus against SARS-CoV-2 in Chile"] (Online video) (Spanish). Ministry of Health (Chile). 16 April 2021. Applicable time: 10: 12-13: 42, 16: 59-17: 45.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  237. ^ “China's Coronavac 80% effective at preventing Covid deaths: Chile results”. Agence France-Presse. Santiago: France 24. (April 2021, 4). https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20210416-china-s-coronavac-80-effective-at-preventing-covid-deaths-chile-results 2021/4/18Browse. 
  238. ^ “Russia's Sputnik V vaccine 97.6% effective in real-world study”. Reuters (Moscow). (April 2021, 4). https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-russia-vaccine-idINL1N2MC1BG 2021/4/21Browse. 
  239. ^ “Sputnik V demonstrates 97.6% efficacy according to analysis of data from 3.8 million vaccinated persons in Russia making it the most efficient COVID-19 vaccine in the world” (Press Release), Moscow: Russian Direct Investment Fund, (March 2021, 4), https://rdif.ru/Eng_fullNews/6722/ 2021/4/21Browse. 
  240. ^ Commissioner, Office of the (23 February 2021). "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Issues Policies to Guide Medical Product Developers Addressing Virus Variants". FDA (English).Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  241. ^ Mahase, Elisabeth (2 March 2021). "Covid-19: Where are we on vaccines and variants?". BMJ (English). 372: n597. two:10.1136 / bmj.n597. ISSN 1756-1833 . PMID 33653708.  232093175.
  242. ^ Commissioner, Office of the (23 February 2021). "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Issues Policies to Guide Medical Product Developers Addressing Virus Variants". FDA (English).Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  243. ^ “Inside the B.1.1.7 Coronavirus Variant”(July 2021, 1). https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/coronavirus-mutations-B117-variant.html 2021/1/29Browse. 
  244. ^ "Moderna vaccine appears to work against variants". Rnz... 26 January 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  245. ^ Muik, Alexander; Wallisch, Ann-Kathrin; Sänger, Bianca; Swanson, Kena A .; Mühl, Julia; Chen, Wei; Cai, Hui; Maurus, Daniel; Sarkar, Ritu; Türeci, Özlem; Dormitzer, Philip R. ( 29 January 2021). "Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 pseudovirus by BNT162b2 vaccine–elicited human sera". Science: eabg6105. two:10.1126 / science.abg6105. ISSN 0036-8075 . PMID 33514629.
  246. ^ Emary, Katherine RW; Golubchik, Tanya; Aley, Parvinder K .; Ariani, Cristina V .; Angus, Brian John; Bibi, Sagida; Blane, Beth; Bonsall, David; Cicconi, Paola; Charlton, Sue; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth ( 2021). "Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 VOC 202012/01 (B.1.1.7)". SSRN Electronic Journal (English). two:10.2139 / ssrn.3779160. ISSN 1556-5068 .
  247. ^ Mahase, Elisabeth (1 February 2021). "Covid-19: Novavax vaccine efficacy is 86% against UK variant and 60% against South African variant". BMJ (English): n296. two:10.1136 / bmj.n296. ISSN 1756-1833 .
  248. ^ Kuchler, Hannah (25 January 2021). "Moderna develops new vaccine to tackle mutant Covid strain". Financial Times.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  249. ^ Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Xia, Hongjie; Zhang, Xianwen; Fontes-Garfias, Camila R .; Swanson, Kena A .; Cai, Hui; Sarkar, Ritu; Chen, Wei; Cutler, Mark; Cooper, David; Weaver, Scott C .; Muik, Alexander; Sahin, Ugur; Jansen, Kathrin U .; Xie, Xuping; Dormitzer, Philip R .; Shi, Pei-Yong (17 February 2021). "Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum — Preliminary Report". New England Journal of Medicine. two:10.1056 / nejmc2102017. PMID 33596352.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  250. ^ Wang P, Nair MS, Liu L, Iketani S, Luo Y, Guo Y, et al. (March 2021). "Antibody Resistance of SARS-CoV-2 Variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7". Nature. two:10.1038 / s41586-021-03398-2. PMID 33684923.
  251. ^ Hoffmann M, Arora P, Gross R, Seidel A, Hoernich BF, Hahn AS, et al. (March 2021). "1 SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.351 and P.1 escape from neutralizing antibodies". Cell. two:10.1016 / j.cell.2021.03.036. PMID 33794143.
  252. ^ "Pfizer and BioNTech Confirm High Efficacy and No Serious Safety Concerns Through Up to Six Months Following Second Dose in Updated Topline Analysis of Landmark COVID-19 Vaccine Study". Pfizer. 1 April 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  253. ^ “Johnson & Johnson Announces Single-Shot Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Met Primary Endpoints in Interim Analysis of its Phase 3 ENSEMBLE Trial” (Press Release), Johnson & Johnson, (January 2021, 1), https://www.jnj.com/johnson-johnson-announces-single-shot-janssen-covid-19-vaccine-candidate-met-primary-endpoints-in-interim-analysis-of-its-phase-3-ensemble-trial 2021/1/29Browse. 
  254. ^ Francis, Derek; Andy, Bruce (February 2021, 2). “Oxford / AstraZeneca COVID shot less effective against South African variant: study”. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-astrazeneca-varian/oxford-astrazeneca-covid-shot-less-effective-against-south-african-variant-study-idUSKBN2A60SH 2021/2/8Browse. 
  255. ^ “South Africa halts AstraZeneca jab over new strain”. BBC News (London). (April 2021, 2). https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-55975052 2021/2/8Browse. 
  256. ^ Booth, William; Johnson, Carolyn Y. (February 2021, 2). “South Africa suspends Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine rollout after researchers report'minimal' protection against coronavirus variant”. The Washington Post (London). https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/astrazeneca-oxford-vaccine-south-african-variant/2021/02/07/e82127f8-6948-11eb-a66e-e27046e9e898_story.html 2021/2/8Browse. "South Africa will suspend use of the coronavirus vaccine being developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca after researchers found it provided "minimal protection" against mild to moderate coronavirus infections caused by the new variant first detected in that country." 
  257. ^ “Covid: South Africa halts AstraZeneca vaccine rollout over new variant”. BBC News(July 2021, 2). https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-55975052 2021/2/12Browse. 
  258. ^ Hoffmann M, Arora P, Gross R, Seidel A, Hoernich BF, Hahn AS, et al. (March 2021). "1 SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.351 and P.1 escape from neutralizing antibodies". Cell. two:10.1016 / j.cell.2021.03.036. PMID 33794143.
  259. ^ "PANGO lineages". cov-lineages.org.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  260. ^ “Coronavirus | Indian'double mutant' strain named B.1.617” (English). The Hindu(July 2021, 4). https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indian-double-mutant-strain-named-b1617/article34274663.ece/amp/ 
  261. ^ “India's variant-fuelled second wave coincided with spike in infected flights landing in Canada”. Toronto Sun(July 2021, 4). https://torontosun.com/news/local-news/indias-variant-fuelled-second-wave-coincided-with-spike-in-infected-flights-landing-in-canada 2021/4/10Browse. 
  262. ^ Cherian, Sarah; Potdar, Varsha; Jadhav, Santosh; Yadav, Pragya; Gupta, Nivedita; Das, Mousmi; Rakshit, Partha; Singh, Sujeet et al. (24 April 2021). "Convergent evolution of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations, L452R, E484Q and P681R, in the second wave of COVID-19 in Maharashtra, India". two:10.1101/2021.04.22.440932. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.22.440932v1 2021/4/25Browse.. 
  263. ^ Shrutirupa (17 April 2021). "IS THIS COVID-20? | Double Mutant Strain Explained". Self Immune (English).Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  264. ^ “'Double mutant': What are the risks of India's new Covid-19 variant”(July 2021, 3). https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-56517495 2021/4/11Browse. 
  265. ^ Haseltine WA. An Indian SARS-CoV-2 Variant Lands In California. More Danger Ahead? Forbes.com, Apr 12, 2021, accessed 14 April 2021
  266. ^ "Vaccine Safety – Vaccines". vaccines.gov. US Department of Health and Human Services. As of April 2020, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 4.
  267. ^ "The drug development process". US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 4 January 2018. As of February 2020, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 4.
  268. ^ Cohen, Jon (19 June 2020). "Pandemic vaccines are about to face the real test". Science. 368 ( bibcode:2020Sci ... 368.1295C. two:10.1126 / science.368.6497.1295. PMID 32554572.
  269. ^ "How flu vaccine effectiveness and efficacy are measured". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, US Department of Health and Human Services. 29 January 2016. As of May 2020, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  270. ^ "Principles of epidemiology, Section 8: Concepts of disease occurrence". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, US Department of Health and Human Services. 18 May 2012. As of April 2020, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  271. ^ a b Pallmann P, Bedding AW, Choodari-Oskooei B, Dimairo M, Flight L, Hampson LV, et al. (February 2018). "Adaptive designs in clinical trials: why use them, and how to run and report them". BMC Medicine. 16 (1): 29. two:10.1186 / s12916-018-1017-7. PMC 5830330. PMID 29490655.
  272. ^ "Adaptive designs for clinical trials of drugs and biologics: Guidance for industry" (. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 November 2019. From the original as of December 2019, 12Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 4.
  273. ^ "An international randomized trial of candidate vaccines against COVID-19: Outline of Solidarity vaccine trial" (. World Health Organization (WHO). 9 April 2020. From the original as of April 2020, 5Archive (.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  274. ^ Walsh, Nick; Shelley, Jo; Duwe, Eduardo; Bonnett, William (July 2020, 7). “The world's hopes for a coronavirus vaccine may run in these health care workers' veins”. CNN (). https://edition.cnn.com/2020/07/27/americas/brazil-covid-19-sinovac-vaccine-intl/index.html 2020/8/3Browse. 
  275. ^ "Investigating a Vaccine Against COVID-19". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 26 May 2020. NCT04400838. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  276. ^ "A Phase 2/3 study to determine the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the candidate Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19". EU Clinical Trials Register (Registry). European Union. 21 April 2020. 2020-001228-32. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  277. ^ O'Reilly P (26 May 2020). "A Phase III study to investigate a vaccine against COVID-19". ISRCTN (Registry). two:10.1186 / ISRCTN89951424.ISRCTN89951424.
  278. ^ "Study to Describe the Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of RNA Vaccine Candidates Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 30 April 2020. NCT04368728. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  279. ^ "A Multi-site Phase I / II, 2-Part, Dose-Escalation Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of four Prophylactic SARS-CoV-2 RNA Vaccines Against COVID-19 Using Different Dosing Regimens in Healthy Adults". EU Clinical Trials Register (Registry). European Union. 14 April 2020. 2020-001038-36. From the original as of October 2020, 4Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 4.
  280. ^ “Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Allows More Flexible Storage, Transportation Conditions for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine” (Press release), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), (November 2021, 2), https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-allows-more-flexible-storage-transportation-conditions-pfizer 2021/3/5Browse. 
  281. ^ "Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers" (. Pfizer. 25 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  282. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Adults Aged 18 Years and Older to Prevent COVID-19". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 14 July 2020. NCT04470427. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  283. ^ Palca, Joe (July 2020, 7). “COVID-19 vaccine candidate heads to widespread testing in US”. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/07/27/895672859/us-vaccine-candidate-heads-to-widespread-testing-in-people 2020/7/27Browse. 
  284. ^ Chen W, Al Kaabi N (18 July 2020). "A Phase III clinical trial for inactivated novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) vaccine (Vero cells)". Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  285. ^ "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S in Adults".ClinicalTrials.gov, US National Library of Medicine. 4 August 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  286. ^ Sadoff, Jerry; Le Gars, Mathieu; Shukarev, Georgi; Heerwegh, Dirk; Truyers, Carla; de Groot, Anna Marit; Stoop, Jeroen; Tete, Sarah et al. (2020-09-25). Safety and immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine candidate: interim results of a phase 1 / 2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (it is not). https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.23.20199604v1. 
  287. ^ "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19 in Adult Participants". ClinicalTrials.gov. US National Library of Medicine. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 12.
  288. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Inactivated Vaccine for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) (Renqiu)". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 12 May 2020. NCT04383574. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 7.
  289. ^ "Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Sinovac's Adsorbed COVID-19 (Inactivated) Vaccine in Healthcare Professionals (PROFIS COV)". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 2 July 2020. NCT04456595. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 8.
  290. ^ PT. Bio Farma (10 August 2020). "A Phase III, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SARS-COV-2 inactivated vaccine in healthy adults aged 18–59 years in Indonesia". Registri Penyakit Indonesia.Retrieved January 2020, 8.
  291. ^ "Clinical Trial of Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Vaccine (Adenovirus Type 5 Vector) Against COVID-19". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 13 November 2020. NCT04540419.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  292. ^ "The National Research Council of Canada and CanSino Biologics Inc. announce collaboration to advance vaccine against COVID-19". National Research Council, Government of Canada. 12 May 2020. From the original as of May 2020, 5Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  293. ^ a b "Study of the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of" EpiVacCorona "Vaccine for the Prevention of COVID-19 (EpiVacCorona)". (Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 22 September 2020. NCT04368988.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  294. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine development pipeline (Refresh URL to update)". Vaccine Center, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. 1 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  295. ^ "Briefing with Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova, Health Minister Mikhail Murashko and Head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova".Government of Russia. 18 January 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  296. ^ "COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign". government.ru (English).Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  297. ^ “Russia Approves Single-Dose Sputnik Light Covid Vaccine For Use”. NDTV Coronavirus. (May 2021, 5). https://www.ndtv.com/world-news/russia-approves-single-dose-sputnik-light-covid-19-vaccine-for-use-2436470 
  298. ^ Study to Evaluate Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of the Sputnik-Light (SPUTNIK-LIGHT)
  299. ^ a b c Tregoning JS, Russell RF, Kinnear E (25 January 2018). "Adjuvanted influenza vaccines". Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics. 14 ( two:10.1080/21645515.2017.1415684. ISSN 2164-5515 . PMC 5861793. PMID 29232151.
  300. ^ a b c d Wang J, Peng Y, Xu H, Cui Z, Williams RO (5 August 2020). "The COVID-19 vaccine race: Challenges and opportunities in vaccine formulation". AAPS PharmSciTech. 21 (6): 225. two:10.1208 / s12249-020-01744-7. ISSN 1530-9932 . PMC 7405756. PMID 32761294.
  301. ^ Gates B (23 April 2020). "The first modern pandemic: The scientific advances we need to stop COVID-19". The Gates Notes. From the original as of May 2020, 5Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  302. ^ Blanchfield, Mike (April 2020, 4). “Global philanthropists, experts call for COVID-19 vaccine distribution plan”. Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2020/04/30/global-philanthropists-experts-call-for-covid-19-vaccine-distribution-plan.html 2020/5/6Browse. 
  303. ^ a b "Clinical Development Success Rates 2006–2015" (. BIO Industry Analysis. June 2016. From the original as of September 2019, 9Archive (.. Retrieved August 2020, 3.
  304. ^ Jennings, Katie (17 November 2020). "How Much Will A Covid-19 Vaccine Cost?". Forbes.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  305. ^ "European vaccine prices revealed in Belgian Twitter blunder". . 18 December 2020.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  306. ^ Bossaert, Jeroen (17 December 2020). "Zoveel gaan we betalen voor de coronavaccins: staatssecretaris zet confidentiële prijzen per ongeluk online". .Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  307. ^ a b c d e "How the massive plan to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine could make history – and leverage blockchain like never before". World Economic Forum. 17 July 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  308. ^ a b c d e f g Callaway, Ewen (27 August 2020). "The unequal scramble for coronavirus vaccines – by the numbers". Nature. 584 ( bibcode:2020 Natur.584..506C. two:10.1038 / d41586-020-02450-x. PMID 32839593.  221285160.
  309. ^ a b c d e f Brendan Murray and Riley Griffin (July 2020, 7). “The world's supply chain isn't ready for a Covid-19 vaccine”. Bloomberg World. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-25/the-supply-chain-to-save-the-world-is-unprepared-for-a-vaccine 2020/9/13Browse. 
  310. ^ a b c d Kominers, Scott Duke; Tabarrok, Alex (August 2020, 8). “Vaccines use bizarre stuff. We need a supply chain now”. Bloomberg Business. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-08-18/a-resilient-covid-19-vaccine-supply-chain-starts-now 2020/9/13Browse. 
  311. ^ a b "The time to prepare for COVID-19 vaccine transport is now". UNICEF. 10 September 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  312. ^ a b Desai, Devika (September 2020, 9). “Transporting one single dose of COVID-19 vaccine could take up to 8,000 jumbo planes, says aviation body”. National Post. https://nationalpost.com/news/transporting-one-single-dose-of-covid-19-vaccine-could-take-up-to-8000-jumbo-planes-says-aviation-body 2020/9/13Browse"The IATA estimated that 8,000 747 cargo planes, at minimum, would be needed to transport a single dose of the vaccine worldwide, but more equipment could be required as the vaccine might mean several doses. Vaccines would also have to be stored at a temperature range between two and eight degrees Celsius, which could rule out the use of some types of planes. " 
  313. ^ a b c d Quelch, Rich (14 August 2020). "COVID-19 vaccine delivery – overcoming the supply chain challenges". PharmiWeb.com.Retrieved January 2020, 9.Delivering a new vaccine for COVID-19 worldwide will be one of the greatest challenges faced by modern pharma. The difficulties are intensified by pre-existing shortcomings in the supply chain.
  314. ^ Seidman, Gabriel; Atun, Rifat (2017). "Do changes to supply chains and procurement processes yield cost savings and improve availability of pharmaceuticals, vaccines or health products? A systematic review of evidence from low-income and middle-income countries". BMJ Global Health. 2 (2): e000243. two:10.1136 / bmjgh-2016-000243. ISSN 2059-7908 . PMC 5435270. PMID 28589028.
  315. ^ a b "172 countries and multiple candidate vaccines engaged in COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility". GAVI. 4 September 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  316. ^ a b c d "UNICEF to lead procurement and supply of COVID-19 vaccines in world's largest and fastest ever operation of its kind". UNICEF. 4 September 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  317. ^ Cook E (4 September 2020). "UNICEF to lead supply chain for COVID-19 vaccine".Manufacturing. From the original as of November 2020, 11Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  318. ^ a b Hessel, Luc (2009). "Pandemic influenza vaccines: meeting the supply, distribution and deployment challenges". Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 3 ( two:10.1111 / j.1750-2659.2009.00085.x. ISSN 1750-2640 . PMC 4634681. PMID 19627373.
  319. ^ a b "Vaccine management and logistics support". World Health Organization. 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  320. ^ Jarrett, Stephen; Yang, Lingjiang; Pagliusi, Sonia (9 June 2020). "Roadmap for strengthening the vaccine supply chain in emerging countries: Manufacturers' perspectives". Vaccine X. 5: 100068. two:10.1016 / j.jvacx.2020.100068. ISSN 2590-1362 . PMC 7394771. PMID 32775997.
  321. ^ a b Lloyd, John; Cheyne, James (2017). "The origins of the vaccine cold chain and a glimpse of the future". Vaccine. 35 ( two:10.1016 / j.vaccine.2016.11.097. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 28364918.
  322. ^ a b c d "How can we make enough vaccine for 2 billion people?". World Economic Forum. 25 August 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  323. ^ “Coronavirus vaccine pre-orders worldwide top 5 billion”. The Japan Times(July 2020, 8). https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/08/12/world/science-health-world/pre-orders-coronavirus-vaccines/ 2020/9/13Browse. 
  324. ^ C, Hannah (10 October 2020). "China Commits to Producing 600 Million Vaccine Doses by the End of 2020". Science times.From the original as of January 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 10.
  325. ^ Staff, Reuters (October 2020, 10). “Sinopharm says may be able to make over 1 billion coronavirus vaccine doses in 2021” (English). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-china-vaccine-int-idUSKBN2750WM 2020/12/7Browse. 
  326. ^ Staff, Reuters (October 2020, 12). “Sinovac secures $ 515 million to boost COVID-19 vaccine production” (English). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/china-sinovac-vaccine-funding-idINKBN28G0YF 2020/12/7Browse. 
  327. ^ Molteni M (26 June 2020). "Vaccine makers turn to microchip tech to beat glass shortages". Wired. From the original as of August 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  328. ^ Burger, Ludwig; Blamont, Matthias (June 2020, 6). “Bottlenecks? Glass vial makers prepare for COVID-19 vaccine”. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-schott-exclusive-idUSKBN23J0SN 2020/9/17Browse. 
  329. ^ a b Kaplan DA (7 July 2020). "3 applications for RFID in the fight against COVID-19". Supply Chain Dive. From the original as of October 2020, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  330. ^ Kristin Brooks (3 November 2020). "Ramping Up COVID-19 Vaccine Fill and Finish Capacity".Contract Pharma.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  331. ^ a b c "Swiss factory rushes to prepare for Moderna Covid-19 vaccine". SwissInfo. 7 October 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  332. ^ a b c Kartoglu, Umit; Milstien, Julie (28 May 2014). "Tools and approaches to ensure quality of vaccines throughout the cold chain". Expert Review of Vaccines. 13 ( two:10.1586/14760584.2014.923761. ISSN 1476-0584 . PMC 4743593. PMID 24865112.
  333. ^ Hanson, Celina M .; George, Anupa M .; Sawadogo, Adama; Schreiber, Benjamin (19 April 2017). "Is freezing in the vaccine cold chain an ongoing issue? A literature review". Vaccine. 35 ( two:10.1016 / j.vaccine.2016.09.070. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 28364920.
  334. ^ "There are clear frontrunners in the COVID-19 vaccine race — but getting it to a clinic is a challenge in itself". Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 24 October 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  335. ^ "CoronaVac: Doses will come from China on nine flights and can ..." AlKhaleej Today (Arabic). 1 November 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  336. ^ Blankenship K (28 August 2020). "Pfizer, Moderna's coronavirus shot rollouts could freeze up, experts say, citing cold-storage needs". FiercePharma, Questex LLC.Retrieved January 2020, 11.
  337. ^ O'Donnell, Carl (November 2020, 11). “Why Pfizer's ultra-cold COVID-19 vaccine will not be at the local pharmacy any time soon”. Reuters. https://de.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-vaccines-distribut/why-pfizers-ultra-cold-covid-19-vaccine-will-not-be-at-the-local-pharmacy-any-time-soon-idUSKBN27P2VI 2020/11/11Browse. 
  338. ^ a b Weise, Elizabeth (September 2020, 9). “'Mind-bogglingly complex': Here's what we know about how COVID-19 vaccine will be distributed when it's approved”. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/health/2020/09/06/covid-vaccine-complex-distribution-supply-chain-follow-approval/5712053002/ 2020/9/13Browse. 
  339. ^ Durbha M (29 June 2020). "The extra mile: preparing a supply chain for a COVID-19 vaccine". European Pharmaceutical Review. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  340. ^ a b c d "The time to prepare for COVID-19 vaccine transport is now". International Air Transport Association. 9 September 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  341. ^ a b "COVID-19-related trafficking of medical products as a threat to public health" (. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2020. From the original as of September 2020, 9Archive (.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  342. ^ Kohler, Jillian Clare; Dimancesco, Deirdre (3 February 2020). "The risk of corruption in public pharmaceutical procurement: how anti-corruption, transparency and accountability measures may reduce this risk". Global Health Action. 13 (sup1): 1694745. two:10.1080/16549716.2019.1694745. ISSN 1654-9716 . PMC 7170361. PMID 32194011.
  343. ^ Subramanian, Samanth (August 2020, 8). “Biometric tracking can ensure billions have immunity against Covid-19”. Bloomberg Businessweek. https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2020-covid-vaccine-tracking-biometric/ 2020/9/16Browse. 
  344. ^ "INTERPOL warns of organized crime threat to COVID-19 vaccines". Interpol (Orange Notice). Retrieved December 10 2020.
  345. ^ a b "Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) Initiative: Vaccine Management Handbook". World Health Organization. 9 September 2020. From the original as of October 2018, 10Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 9.
  346. ^ Azar A (4 February 2020). "Notice of Declaration under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act for medical disasters against COVID-19".From the original as of January 2020, 4Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 4.
  347. ^ "What is the compensation in the event of a health hazard due to a side reaction?". Q & A about the new corona vaccine. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  348. ^ Kertscher T (23 January 2020). "No, there is no vaccine for the Wuhan coronavirus". PolitiFact.. From the original as of February 2020, 2Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 2.
  349. ^ McDonald J (24 January 2020). "Social Media Posts Spread Bogus Coronavirus Conspiracy Theory". .. From the original as of February 2020, 2Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 2.
  350. ^ "Warning Letter – North Coast Biologics – MARCS-CMS 607532". US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 21 May 2020. From the original as of May 2020, 5Archive.. Retrieved August 2020, 5.
  351. ^ "China says that Pfizer's vaccine is dangerous because of the stingy stomach of its own vaccine". Newsweek Japanese version... 1 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  352. ^ "Chinese and Russian influence campaigns risk undermining Covid-19 vaccination programs". The strategist (English). 22 January 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  353. ^ "China introduces world's first'virus passport' programme". France 24... 10 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 3.
  354. ^ "The destinations open to travelers vaccinated against Covid-19". KAKE. 1 April 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  355. ^ "'Shot Trips' To Dubai, Florida, Tel Aviv, Havana: Covid-19 Vaccine Tourism Takes Off ". Forbes... 14 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  356. ^ Nikkei, World Inoculation Status
  357. ^ "<XNUMX> The country will do its utmost to secure vaccines ... New Corona [Yomiuri Shimbun Recommendation]: Medical / Health". Yomiuri Shimbun Online... 21 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  358. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. "Prime Minister Suga's Climate Change Issue" Cooperation with the United States Working on China "House of Councilors Settlement Committee". NHK News.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  359. ^ "Mr. Netanyahu spends political life on "vaccine performance" Israel general election”(Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers (September 2021, 2). 2021/6/16Browse.
  360. ^ "Netanyahu betting on vaccine strategy, fourth Israeli general election in two years". WEDGE Infinity (September 2021, 3). 2021/6/16Browse.
  361. ^ a b c d e f g h "Why is Israel's corona vaccination rate so high?". WEDGE Infinity (September 2021, 3). 2021/6/16Browse.
  362. ^ "Temporary vaccination procedure for new coronavirus infection”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2021/6/22Browse.
  363. ^ "His Majesty the Emperor Vaccinated: Asahi Shimbun Digital"(July 2021, 7). https://www.asahi.com/articles/DA3S14964746.html 
  364. ^ "Joetsu City, "designation method" for those under XNUMX years old". Niigata Nippo MoreNiigata Nippo Co., Ltd. (May 2021, 5). 2021/6/3Browse.
  365. ^ “Vaccine reservation, online and telephone are crowded at the puncture window”Asahi Shimbun. (April 2021, 4). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASP4Q6G6QP4PPTIL03K.html 2021/5/21Browse. 
  366. ^ Shun Iwatani, Ariha Noma (June 2021, 6). “"I can't make a vaccine reservation" by phone, online, or in line Kitakyushu". West Japan NewspaperNishinippon Shimbun. 2021/6/3Browse.
  367. ^ Yuko Sugito (May 2021, 5). “Large-scale vaccination with "Yokohama Hammerhead" Reservation phone call not connected". Tokyo Newspaper.Chunichi Shimbun. 2021/6/3Browse.
  368. ^ "[Original] XNUMX in XNUMX large-scale inoculations "Double reservation" ... XNUMX Setagaya ward residents, no local cancellation". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 5). 2021/6/3Browse.
  369. ^ "Notice regarding new coronavirus infection”. Tokyo Nurse Plaza (April 2021, 4). 2021/5/21Browse.
  370. ^ "Vaccination started". Town news. Town News Co., Ltd..Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  371. ^ "Group inoculation Resident dispatch begins Nara Prefecture”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2021, 6). 2021/6/2Browse.
  372. ^ "Examination of utilization of medical students and pharmacists Due to lack of vaccines-government”. Jiji Press (June 2021, 5). 2021/5/21Browse.
  373. ^ "Inoculation by paramedics and clinical laboratory technicians, possible with consent ... Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare judged to have "technical foundation"”. Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2021, 5). 2021/6/2Browse.
  374. ^ "Editorial: Inoculation in the workplace Needs support to secure a move". Kyoto Shimbun. Kyoto Shimbun (June 2021, 6). 2021/6/22Browse.
  375. ^ Chifumi Nishioka (June 2021, 6). “The first vaccination rate is an unexpected answer from Mie, the lowest in Wakayama". AERA dot.Asahi Shimbun Publishing. 2021/6/3Browse.
  376. ^ "Hinoemata Village, Villagers 16+ Almost Completed New Corona Vaccination". Fukushima Minyu NewsFukushima Minyu Shimbun (April 2021, 6). 2021/6/3Browse.
  377. ^ "Vaccination over XNUMX years old, reservations accepted from XNUMXst Mayor Kushiro announced". Hokkaido ShimbunThe Hokkaido Shimbun Press (April 2021, 5). 2021/6/3Browse.
  378. ^ "Vaccine opposition local government "attack" XNUMX calls to Aichi and Togo Town". Chunichi Shimbun. Chunichi Shimbun (October 2021, 6). 2021/6/10Browse.
  379. ^ "Vaccination movement to expand to "XNUMX years old and over" ... "Danger" "Elderly people are not living" Protest to local government". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 6). 2021/6/10Browse.
  380. ^ Tsukiya Usuda (November 2021, 6). “Large-scale inoculation center expanded to 6-17 years old after June 18th". Impress WatchImpress. 2021/6/22Browse.
  381. ^ "Inoculation tickets, even in the 23 wards of Tokyo, there is a difference in shipping time There are also voices saying "Betrayed by the country"". Mainichi NewspapersMainichi Newspapers (February 2021, 6). 2021/6/22Browse.
  382. ^ Hiromi Saito (May 2021, 5). “Kawasaki City rises refrigerator temperature to dispose of vaccine for 150 people". Asahi Shimbun digitalAsahi Shimbun. 2021/6/3Browse.
  383. ^ "Refrigerator turned off, XNUMX vaccines were discarded ... Did you accidentally drop the breaker?". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 6). 2021/6/3Browse.
  384. ^ Masaru Oshido (May 2021, 5). “Vaccine storage mistakes occur one after another, and XNUMX doses are discarded in about half a month ... City officials apologize". Yomiuri Shimbun OnlineYomiuri Shimbun. 2021/6/4Browse.
  385. ^ "Mistake in vaccine dilution in Hachioji, Tokyo 258 times discarded". Nihon Keizai ShimbunNihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2021, 5). 2021/6/4Browse.
  386. ^ Fumitaka Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Kataoka (June 2021, 6). “Vaccination twice on the same day Miss in Tagawa City Kagoshima City injects for 2 consecutive days". Nishinippon Shimbun meNishinippon Shimbun. 2021/6/4Browse.
  387. ^ "Inoculate XNUMX "thin vaccines" and re-inject saline into used bottles". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 5). 2021/6/4Browse.
  388. ^ "Vaccine with low concentration, misused in mass inoculation ... XNUMX elderly people could not be identified". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 5). 2021/6/4Browse.
  389. ^ "Beware of malicious business methods such as the new corona vaccine fraud!". Consumer Affairs Agency. 2021/6/4Browse.
  390. ^ "Beware of new scams taking advantage of the new coronavirus vaccination". Higashi Osaka City (September 2021, 5). 2021/6/4Browse.
  391. ^ "Northern Japan Newspaper2020rd page dated June 6, 6 "Mass production system for vaccine development First half of 3 years The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare has a policy"
  392. ^ "Prime Minister Abe negotiates to secure vaccine at the end of the year, new corona"Jiji Press. (July 2020, 6). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2020061400276&g=pol 
  393. ^ "North Japan Newspaper" July 2020, 7, page 12 "Vaccine Enclosure Overheating"
  394. ^ "Free corona vaccine vaccination for all citizens, national expense over 6700 billion yen-government policy"Jiji Press. (July 2020, 9). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2020093000948&g=pol 
  395. ^ “Prime Minister Kono, Prime Minister of Regulatory Reform, instructed vaccination to coordinate vaccination”Nihon Keizai Shimbun. (June 2021, 1). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXZQODE189B10Y1A110C2000000 
  396. ^ From "Kita Nihon Shimbun", January 2021, 1, page 20, "Corona Vaccine General Inoculation May Assumed Government Target Adjusted for 1 years and Over".
  397. ^ XNUMX million doses produced in Japan Corona vaccine from AstraZeneca, UK --JIJI.COM Jiji Press, January 2021, 1, viewed January 28, 2021)
  398. ^ First training for vaccine mass inoculation conducted in Kawasaki City --Sankei Shimbun, January 2021, 1, February 27, 2021
  399. ^ "Nerima model for vaccination" Safe, near, short-term concentration "Asahi Shimbun. (April 2021, 1). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASP1Z677ZP1ZUTIL00P.html 
  400. ^ "To adopt" Nerima Ward model "Kyoto City" Vaccination Department "first meeting New Corona"Mainichi Shimbun. (August 2021, 2). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20210202/k00/00m/040/232000c 
  401. ^ "Sano City Vaccine System Policy Aiming to Shorten Questionnaire and Short-term Completion by Family Doctor"Shimotsuke Shinbun. (November 2021, 2). https://www.shimotsuke.co.jp/articles/-/413894 
  402. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun (12 February 2021). "Pfizer's vaccine arrives in Japan". Nihon Keizai Shimbun.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  403. ^ a b "New Corona Vaccine No. 2 arrives at Narita Airport and can be inoculated more than 45 times". NHK NewsNHK. 21 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  404. ^ a b "Vaccination of the elderly ... From April XNUMXth ... Delays in urban areas". Yomiuri Shimbun Online(July 2021, 2). https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20210224-OYT1T50233/ 2021/2/25Browse. 
  405. ^ The third flight of the new corona vaccine arrives at Narita Airport for up to about 3 times(NHK, March 2021, 3), Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  406. ^ a b The 4th flight of the new corona vaccine arrives at Narita, the maximum number of 99 doses so far(NHK, March 2021, 3), Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  407. ^ "New corona vaccine arrives at Narita with ANA's 777-300ER. Larger equipment". Aviation Wire. (November 2021, 4). https://www.aviationwire.jp/archives/224131 2021/4/29Browse. 
  408. ^ "Focus: Accelerating the new corona vaccine, the prime minister's rise in approval rating" the trump card "". Mainichi Newspapers.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  409. ^ "Minister in charge of Kono," end of July "without showing evidence Elderly vaccination: Jiji.com". Current affairs dot com.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  410. ^ "The basis for the elderly vaccination" end of July "is a detailed report of the opposition hearing.". Mainichi Newspapers.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  411. ^ “Distribution of 1000 doses of corona vaccine for the elderly to all municipalities”. NHK Greater Tokyo Area NEWS WEB. (April 2021, 4). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/shutoken-news/20210426/1000063590.html 2021/4/29Browse. 
  412. ^ Takuya Nishie (30 April 2021). "Moderna vaccine first flight arrives at Kansai International Airport from Belgium". Asahi Shimbun digital. Asahi Shimbun.Retrieved January 2021, 5.
  413. ^ J & J Corona Vaccine Approval Apply to Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare --NHK NEWS WEB November 2021, 5
  414. ^ Free vaccination for XNUMX to XNUMX years old Pfizer's new corona vaccine, from June-Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare --Current affairs dot com, viewed June 2021, 6.
  415. ^ "Prime Minister Suga, vaccination" all finished from October to November "shown in the first party leader debate"Sankei Shimbun. (July 2021, 6). https://www.sankei.com/article/20210609-VU7747KRUZMCXC32PMDVOQ3TGY/ 2021/6/10Browse. 
  416. ^ Nippon.com "Why is Corona Vaccination in Japan Slow?"
  417. ^ "Prime Minister Suga, Corona Vaccination ... Before the US-Japan Summit Visit to the United States"Yomiuri Shimbun. (August 2021, 3). https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20210315-OYT1T50136/ 2021/6/5Browse. 
  418. ^ Mainichi Shimbun (17 February 2021). "Advance vaccination for medical staff begins in Tokyo, etc.". Mainichi Newspapers.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  419. ^ "<XNUMX> The country will do its utmost to secure vaccines ... New Corona [Yomiuri Shimbun Recommendation]: Medical / Health". Yomiuri Shimbun Online... 21 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  420. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. "Prime Minister Suga's Climate Change Issue" Cooperation with the United States Working on China "House of Councilors Settlement Committee". NHK News.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  421. ^ a b "Japan, inoculation 1%". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 27 April 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  422. ^ "Can my child be vaccinated?". Q & A about the new corona vaccine. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Retrieved January 2021, 6.
  423. ^ "Notice about inoculation". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  424. ^ a b c "Concept of inoculation order" (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 18 March 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  425. ^ "2% of medical workers who are vaccinated twice do not proceed with vaccination at quarantine stations and health centers.". NHK. 21 April 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  426. ^ "Vaccine supply for the elderly, initially very limited = Minister Kono". Reuters. 21 February 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  427. ^ "New Corona Vaccine for Elderly People Converted to Healthcare Workers". NHK. 22 April 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  428. ^ "Sakai City Vaccine for the Elderly Temporary Diversion Medical Workers Vaccine Urgently". NHK. 22 April 2021.Retrieved January 2021, 4.
  429. ^ Is "chief priority" allowed?Vaccination, expert opinion-new corona -Jiji Dotcom October 2021, 5
  430. ^ Vaccine canceled Effective utilization without discarding Kono Regulatory Reform Minister --NHK NEWS WEB November 2021, 5
  431. ^ "One bottle of corona vaccine is inoculated" 1 times ", new method is developed. Insulin injection is released at a hospital in Kyoto.". Kyoto Shimbun(July 2021, 3). https://www.kyoto-np.co.jp/articles/-/525078 2021/3/10Browse. 
  432. ^ “Terumo develops 7 dose syringes for corona vaccine, 2 more doses”Jiji Press. (October 2021, 3). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021030901096&g=eco 2021/3/10Browse. 
  433. ^ “Aiming to open a large-scale vaccination center in Tokyo / Osaka on the 24th”. NHK. (October 2021, 5). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210504/k10013011541000.html 2021/5/4Browse. 
  434. ^ "Large-scale inoculation venue with vaccine Tokyo / Osaka XNUMX people a day-government"Jiji Press. (October 2021, 4). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021042600483 2021/4/28Browse. 
  435. ^ “Vaccination venue in Tokyo, 5 months from May 24, utilizing the Self-Defense Forces-Prime Minister Suga”Jiji Press. (October 2021, 4). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021042700330 2021/4/28Browse. 
  436. ^ “Large-scale inoculation is assumed to be made by Moderna.Asahi Shimbun. (March 2021, 4). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASP4W6Q74P4WULFA01B.html 2021/4/29Browse. 
  437. ^ “Tokyo Machida begins mass vaccination at soccer stadium”. NHK. (October 2021, 5). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210520/k10013041531000.html 2021/5/20Browse. 
  438. ^ About the start of mass inoculation of new coronavirus vaccine at Oi Racecourse facility --TOKYO CITY KEIBA May 2021, 5
  439. ^ New Corona: Vaccination, Mizuho Stadium about 7 times from July to September Nagoya City -Nihon Keizai Shimbun August 2021, 5
  440. ^ Vaccine to be inoculated with wrestlers and masters at PR Kokugikan Sumida-ku, Tokyo --NHK NEWS WEB November 2021, 3
  441. ^ Moderna and AstraZeneca vaccines officially approved by MHLW --NHK NEWS WEB May 2021, 5
  442. ^ Moderna vaccination for SDF personnel Large-scale inoculation venue -Sankei News February 2021, 5
  443. ^ a b "Mackerel reading?Pressure on the chief?Insider of the elderly vaccine "9% completed in July"”(Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers. 2021/5/31Browse.
  444. ^ "Inoculation at work / university, acceleration of vaccine from XNUMXst, utilization of moderna-government"Jiji Press. (October 2021, 6). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2021060100900 2021/6/4Browse. 
  445. ^ "ANA and JAL begin inoculation at work ... International pilot" Opportunity to use with confidence ""Yomi