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😷 | Muscle pain and fever ... What should I do after vaccination?23 suspected side reactions in Okinawa


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Muscle pain and fever ... How to deal with problems after vaccination?23 suspected side reactions in Okinawa

 
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If a medical institution is consulted due to continued side reactions, an application will be made to the national government through the municipality based on the national vaccination health damage relief system, and if approved by the examination, the self-pay portion will be paid.
 

Adverse reactions have been reported to vaccinations being carried out in the prefecture to prevent infection with the new coronavirus.Prefecture… → Continue reading

 Ryukyu Shimpo


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vaccination

vaccination(Vaccination,British: vaccination) IssickAgainstImmunologyTo attachantigenmaterial(vaccine) Administered (Vaccination) What to do.VaccinationBy pathogeninfectionbyIllness,Obstacle,DeathCan be prevented or tempered[1].. furtherEpidemicThe simplest and most effective way to preventCost performanceHighPreventive medicine.

JapanInVaccination methodDefines as "injecting or inoculating a human body with a vaccine that has been confirmed to be effective in preventing the disease in order to obtain an immune effect against the disease" (the vaccination method) Article 2 paragraph 1).

The substance administered by inoculation is a pathogen (live, but less virulent)Bacteria-ウ イ ル ス), a dead or inactivated pathogen, or a purified substance such as a protein.

WHOAccording to the current world, vaccination avoids the death of 200 to 300 million people.[1].. However, if the vaccination rate is further improved, the death of 150 million people can be avoided.[1].

History

Human beings willing to get another kind of infectionsickThe first example trying to mitigatesmallpox.B.C.Around 1000,IndiaでVaccination method(Variolation method) is practiced[2], Of smallpox patientspusTo a healthy person to cause mild onsetImmunologyWas being done. This smallpox method18st centuryIn the first halfThe United Kingdom, ThenAmericaWas also brought to.

1718 years,Mary Wortley MontagueWrote about the Turkish custom of vaccination with liquids from small-pox smallpox and gave similar vaccinations to their children.[3].The United KingdomThe doctorEdward JennerIt is,VacciniaAs to whether the vaccine can be used to generate immunity against human smallpox,1796Have tested at least 6 people in the last few years. The six are unidentified English (around 6), Mrs Zebel (German, around 1771), Mr. Jensen (German, around 1772), and Benjamin Jestie (English, 1770). Mrs. Rendall (English, c. 1774) and Peter Prett (German, 1782).[4][5].

The word vaccination was first used1796,Edward JennerBy. After thisLouis PasteurAdvanced the concept of vaccination with advanced research in microbiology. The vaccination (from the Latin vacca meaning Vaccination "cattle") derives its name from the first vaccine (vaccine) that infects cattle.Cowpox virusso,smallpoxIs less symptomatic, harder to cure and deadlysmallpoxBecause it gave a certain amount of immunity to[4][5].

For vaccination attempts, there are ethics, politics, safety, religion, etc.en: Vaccine controversy) Has been around since the early days. With early successMandatoryVaccination has been widely accepted by the government and a large-scale vaccination campaign has been carried out, which has significantly reduced the incidence of many diseases across many regions.

the purpose

To make antibodies against pathogens and boost immune function

Side effects

in Japan1948of"Vaccination methodSince then, compulsory vaccination and mass vaccination have expanded, but they have not been carried out in a safe manner.To give an example1964ToIbarakiInsufficient interviews, inoculation of multiple people without changing needles,MASKSInoculation, infusion of inaccurate amount, etc. were performed without[6]..In Japan, the act of inoculating multiple people without changing needles was widespread.Type B,Hepatitis CIs a frequent cause[7],It is believed that( Iatrogenic diseaseSee also).

Substances used

Inactivated vaccine

Lived with sufficiently reduced toxicityウ イ ル スInoculate.ウ イ ル スBreed, but their speed is slow. Boosting is not necessary so much because it propagates after inoculation and continues to exist as an antigen. This vaccine is produced by leaving a less virulent type of virus in tissue culture, inducing gene mutation, or removing a specific gene that exerts virulence. This major vaccine has a risk of recurrent toxicity, but removal of specific genes is relatively less risky.

Subunit vaccine

As an antigen shown to the immune systemウ イ ル スDo not inoculate sex substances.ウ イ ル スSpecific inproteinThere is a method such as separating and inoculating. The weakness of this method is that the separated proteins may be altered, in which case antibodies different from those corresponding to the virus will be produced.

Other subunit vaccines include recombinant vaccines. This is a method of injecting a protein gene of a target virus into another virus. This second virus expresses protein information but is not at risk of disease. This kind of vaccine is nowViral hepatitisIs used forEbola virus,HIVIt is being actively researched to make a vaccine against a virus that is difficult to vaccinate.[8].

Vaccination against humans

The vaccination situation in the world is as follows.

Type of vaccine

Live vaccine
A weakened virulence of a living pathogen. ,tuberculosis,Measles(Measles),Rubella,Mumps,Varieg(Mizubouso),yellow fever Such.Due to the inclusion of live pathogens, inoculated pathogens may cause mild symptoms (side reactions).
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 4 weeks (medium 27 days) or more.
Inactivated vaccine
Only the components of the pathogen that died and lost its toxicity.Hepatitis B,, pediatric,Pertussis,Polio,Japanese encephalitis,influenza,Hepatitis A,Rabiesetc.vaccineThe effect of is weak, so multiple doses are often required.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.
Toxoid
The toxin produced by the fungus is taken out and detoxified.diphtheria,tetanus(Hashoufu) etc. As with inactivated vaccines, the vaccines are less effective and often require multiple doses. There is also the idea that it is not strictly included in the vaccine because it does not make antibodies that attack the pathogen itself.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.

History

The practice of vaccination is believed to have its origins in ancient India, around 1000 BC.[9]Ayurvedic textbook Sact'eya Grantham was described about vaccination, according to French scholar Henri Marie Husson in Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales. It has been reported.[10] Around 200 BC, vaccinations were carried out even in ancient China[5].. Scholar Ole Lund writes: "The oldest documented example of vaccination is from 17th-century India and China, where powdered scabs of people with smallpox were used to prevent the disease. In the olden days, smallpox was a universal disease that killed 20% to 30% of infected people, smallpox accounting for 18% to 8% of deaths in several 20th-century European countries. Professor of Pathology, (en: Almroth Wright) Conducted an experiment led by a professional at Netley Hospital and shaped the form of vaccination for posterity. The results of his experiment led to the development of further vaccinations in Europe[11].

Mandatory

In order to avoid the spread of illness, at different times, states and institutions have created laws that mandate vaccination for all. For example, the 1853 law mandated smallpox vaccinations throughout England and Wales, and fined those who did not comply. Currently, the US state-wide vaccination law requires public vaccination before school. Most other countries have similar vaccinations.

Since the earliest vaccinations beginning in the 19th century, the legalization of vaccination has caused backlash from various groups. These groups are collectively known as anti-vaccinationists, who oppose vaccination from an ethical, political, hygienic, religious, and other perspectives. Common opinions are that “compulsory vaccination is excessive interference with individual problems” and “recommended vaccination is not sufficiently safe”.[12].. Modern vaccination laws provide exceptions to people with immunodeficiencies, people who are allergic to the vaccine, and those who strongly oppose it.[13].. In addition,Yogyakarta PrinciplesIn the 18th principle of "Protection against medical abuse" ofHIV infectionUnethical or unintentional vaccines forAntibacterial agentGuaranteeing protection from the administration of "(18th principle, item (d))".

Japanese vaccination

Routine vaccination

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. For the vaccination costs for the target age, public funds are provided by the local government, and regarding A-type diseases,Local governmentMost of them are free of charge (administrative measures vaccinations, and there are also local governments that pay a fee). In case of health damage due to vaccination approved in Japan, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

[] Name of vaccine

Type A disease --For the purpose of preventing the outbreak of the disease and the spread of the disease in the population, the vaccination target or its guardian is obliged to make efforts for vaccination.
diphtheria-Social Services Lizard-tetanus-Polio(Acute poliomyelitis)[Four kinds of mixed vaccine, DPT-IPV],measles(Measles)rubella(Three days measles)MR vaccine],Japanese encephalitis,tuberculosis(BCG),Varieg,Hib, PediatricPneumococcusInfection【Pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13】,Cervical cancer【HPV vaccine],Hepatitis B, Rotavirus[15]
Type B disease -Mainly focused on individual prevention. No effort required.
People over the age of 65, or between the ages of 60 and under 65, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory problems,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeIf you are suffering frominfluenza.. In the case of people aged 65 or over, under 60 years of age and under 65 years of age, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory disorders, or those with AIDS and weakened immunity, pneumococcal infection [23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV23】.

Temporary inoculation

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. When the prefectural governor finds that there is an urgent need to prevent the spread, the prefectural governor may instruct the mayor to do so. Municipalities will subsidize the vaccination costs for the target ages, and in principle, the A-type diseases will be free. If health damage occurs due to vaccination, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

Type A disease -The vaccination target person or their guardian is required to make vaccination efforts.
smallpoxIn addition, type A diseases are targeted.
Inoculation was started in 2021.New coronavirus OfvaccineIs carried out in the form of imposing an obligation to make efforts for inoculation[16].
Type B disease -No vaccination effort is imposed.
HXNUMXNXNUMX influenza(As a single vaccineNew influenza measures special measures law2011 years from 23 (5)[17].. A(H2011N12)pdm1 has been included in seasonal influenza vaccine since FY1/09[18]. )

Optional vaccination

Vaccination is voluntary by the vaccinated person (or their parental authority, etc.), which is not stipulated in the Vaccination Law.

All vaccination costs will be borne by the owner. If health damage occurs due to vaccination,Relief system for adverse drug reactionsIs applied.

Mumps(Mumps),Hepatitis A, For adultsPneumococcus,Rabies,Weil's disease Autumn darknessIn addition to the above, other vaccinations other than the age groups subject to regular vaccination are also optional vaccinations.

Precautions for vaccination

According to the Vaccination Regulations, those who have a clear fever, those who have a serious acute illness, and allergies or anaphylaxis due to the components of the vaccination solution for vaccination related to the disease are revealed by the test. Those who have become ineligible are considered unsuitable and cannot be vaccinated. Pregnant persons will not be vaccinated for acute poliomyelitis, measles and rubella.

In addition, those who are known to have basic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, liver diseases, blood diseases and developmental disorders, those who have fever within 2 days after the previous vaccination, or systemic rashes, etc. Of allergic allergies, having a history of convulsions in the past, having been previously diagnosed with immunodeficiency, or being allergic to the components of the inoculum to be vaccinated Some people are obliged to take vaccinations carefully based on the judgment of the doctor.

Vaccination health damage relief system

Occurrence of health damage due to side effects of vaccination is seen, although it is extremely rare. A system for prompt relief when a causal relationship between vaccination and health damage is recognized, regardless of whether or not there is negligence in the vaccination.[19].

  • Vaccination based on the Vaccination Law (=RegularInoculation,ExtraordinaryIf the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare finds that the health damage has been caused by the
    • Benefits are provided by the municipality.
    • Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the certification of, the causal relationship is examined by a disease/disability certification examination committee composed of a third party.
    • If you receive medical treatment at a medical institution, you will be required to pay the medical expenses and your expenses.
    • When disability remains, child disability pension or disability pension is paid.
    • In case of death, funeral fees and lump-sum death allowance of approximately 4,300 million yen (in case of influenza vaccine, lump-sum payment of surviving family of approximately 700 million yen, survivor pension of approximately 240 million yen (up to 10 years)) will be provided.
    • The cost of relief payment is 1/2 for the country, 1/4 for the prefecture, and 1/4 for the municipality.

Incidentally,anyAs for other health hazards due to vaccination, the drug side effect damage relief system is applied. It is based on the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, an incorporated administrative agency, rather than the Vaccinations Act.

  • Established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and decided after discussions at the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council, which is composed of external experts.
    • Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) Is provided.
    • If you receive medical treatment in hospital, you will be provided with medical expenses and medical allowance. Payment will be provided in case of disability and death.
    • Benefits are set for each type, and there is also a deadline for billing.
    • Contribution from the licensed drug manufacturing and marketing companies, etc. shall be paid for the relief payment. Half of PMDA's administrative expenses are subsidies from the national government.

Vaccinations and laws (valley problems)

There is a legal structure to remedy victims whose lives and bodies have been seriously damaged by vaccination.ConstitutionIt is a problem above.17 articleTheory,29 articleParagraph 3 Interpretation theory, Article 29 Paragraph 3 Of course, interpretation theory,25 articleTheory,13 articleTheories are claimed.

Recommended vaccination sequence

National Institute of Infectious DiseasesKnow VPD,NPOVaccination schedules have been announced by the Society for the Protection of Children, the Japan Association for Primary Care, and the Japan Society for Pediatrics.

Also, at the NPO Corporation Children's Association,iPhone-AndroidSmartphoneThe vaccination scheduler app for Android is provided free of charge.

Simultaneous inoculation

``Simultaneous vaccination'' in which two or more types of vaccinations are given to one and the same person at the same time in one visit is once recognized as ``not good'' in Japan, and MHLW is "What doctors can do if they find it necessary"[20][21]However, in 2011, the Japanese Academy of Pediatrics proposed that "simultaneous vaccination is considered a necessary medical practice to protect Japanese children from diseases that can be prevented by vaccines".[21], In recent years, the number of doctors giving simultaneous vaccination has increased[22].

There is no limit to the number of combinations and

  1. Regular vaccination and voluntary vaccination
  2. Inactivated and live vaccines
  3. Live vaccines and live vaccines
  4. Injection and drink type vaccine

Can be safely inoculated simultaneously with all combinations of[23].. Some local governments and doctors have different vaccination methodsBCGOnly in the case of single vaccination without simultaneous vaccination with other vaccines[24][25].

Since a mixed vaccine contains several types of vaccine in one injection solution from the beginning, it can be said that it is a simultaneous vaccination in a broad sense.[23].

Italy vaccination

In Italy2017Than,Compulsory educationBefore receiving (up to 6 years old)Polio,diphtheria,tetanus,Hepatitis B,influenza,,,measles,rubella,Mumps,XNUMX days,chicken poxVaccinations have become mandatory[26].

Vaccination of animals

AnimalからPeopleTo be contagiousInfectious disease of animal origin(Zoonosis:Zoonosis(Also included in) and transmitted from humans to animalsZoonosisThere is vaccination for the purpose of preventing. Useful for wildlife conservation and industry家畜,Pet OfEpidemicThere are also vaccinations to prevent the spread of the disease.

Ministry of AgricultureVeterinary drug laboratory・Veterinary drug database[27]If you search for “vaccine” in, 2014 cases were registered as of December 12. But,Domestic animal infectious disease prevention methodIs a "law that stipulates the prevention of outbreaks of infectious diseases (infectious diseases) in livestock and the prevention of spread of livestock."And killDisposaldisinfectionHowever, there is no regulation regarding vaccination. "The prefectural governor, when necessary to prevent the spread of livestock infectious diseases, can have livestock quarantine officers inspect, inject, bathe or administer livestock by the methods specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ( Based on the Livestock Infectious Diseases Prevention Law Article 31)", the measures such as vaccination are different for each prefecture.[28].

on the other hand,Rabies Prevention LawSince it is regulated byDogThe owner of the dogRabies vaccineMust be vaccinated once a year (Article 1 of the Rabies Prevention Law).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Immunization coverage (Report). WHO. (2007-03). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs378/en/. 
  2. ^ Smallpox prevention[1]
  3. ^ Behbehani AM (1983). “The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease”. Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 455-509. PMID 6319980. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6319980. 
  4. ^ a b Plett PC (2006). “[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner”] (German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219-32. PMID 17338405. http://lib.bioinfo.pl/meid:4459 2008/3/12Browse.. 
  5. ^ a b c Lombard M, Pastoret PP, Moulin AM (2007). “A brief history of vaccines and vaccination”. Rev Sci Tech. 26 (1): 29-48. PMID 17633292. 
  6. ^ Kenji Yoshihara "From Private Rage to Public Rage-Vaccine Evil as a Social Problem" p.112-114
  7. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun February 2000, 2 Article "Expanding hepatitis C, in areas where 9% are "positive""
  8. ^ Department of Veterinary Science & Microbiology at The University of Arizona Archived August 2003, 6, at the Wayback Machine. Vaccines by Janet M. Decker, PhD
  9. ^ Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten Strunge and Lundegaard, Claus (2005). Immunological Bioinformatics.MIT Press. ISBN 0262122804
  10. ^ Chaumeton, FP; FV Me`rat de Vaumartoise. Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales.Paris: CLF Panckoucke, 1812-1822, lvi (1821).
  11. ^ Curtin, Phillip (1998). "Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521598354
  12. ^ Wolfe R, Sharp L (2002). “Anti-vaccinationists past and present”. BMJ 325 (7361): 430-2. two:10.1136 / bmj.325.7361.430. PMID 12193361. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/325/7361/430. 
  13. ^ Salmon, Daniel A et al.(2006) Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. Lancet 367(9508):436-442.
  14. ^ a b Medical expenses public expenditure system for vaccination accidents(Tokyo Metropolitan Government Health and Welfare Bureau)
  15. ^ "From Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to Rota vaccine regular vaccination from October, 20”. Mix online (October 2019, 10). 2020/8/14Browse.
  16. ^ "What is the vaccination method? Corona vaccine "special case of temporary vaccination"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2021, 4). 2021/6/8Browse.
  17. ^ Tuberculosis Infectious Disease Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareOutline of Vaccination Law revision (establishment of new temporary vaccination, etc.)IASR, Vol. 32, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Information Center, November 2011, pp. 11-331.
  18. ^ Influenza vaccine strain -National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  19. ^ Vaccination health damage relief systemMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  20. ^ Periodic vaccination procedure -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  21. ^ a b Japanese Pediatrics Association's approach to simultaneous vaccination
  22. ^ Vaccination> Simultaneous vaccination -Ariake Children's Clinic
  23. ^ a b Necessity and safety of simultaneous vaccination -Know VPD!
  24. ^ Vaccination of children -Koto Ward
  25. ^ vaccination -Hara Pediatric Clinic
  26. ^ Italy vaccinated to attend school AFP (December 2017, 5) Read December 20, 2017
  27. ^ Veterinary drug database -Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Veterinary Drug Laboratory
  28. ^ About livestock vaccines -Miyagi Prefectural Livestock Association

Related literature

  • Mikio Watanabe, "A Historical Consideration on Japan's Vaccination System," National Hygiene, Vol. 73, No. 6, Japan Society for National Hygiene, June 2010, pp. 6-243, two:10.3861 / jshhe.73.243.

Related item

外部 リンク

市町村

市町村(Shichoson) isJapan OfBasic local public bodiesIsCity() ""town(Machi / Cho) ""village(Mura / Son) "is a general term.Municipalities are wide-area local public bodiesPrefecturesWith (Todofuken)Local government lawInOrdinary local governmentHas been defined.

The municipalities areSpecial local governmentIsTokyo Ward(special area) Together with JapanBasic municipalityIs. In general, including municipalities and special wardsMunicipality(Municipalities) orMunicipal DistrictIt ’s called (Shichosonku),TokyoInspecial area(23 wards of Tokyo) Is the central part,Municipalities(Kushichoson)[1].

2018(Heisei30 years)May 10Current(FukuokaNakagawa CityThe number of municipalities and special wards (enforcement of the city system) is as shown in the table below.Great Heisei mergerBefore1999(11)May 3Compared to the number at the time, it has decreased to more than half[2].

Basic municipality2018/10/1(December 1999, 3)
  City792(670)
town743(1,994)
village183[3](568)
Municipalities total1,718(3,232)
special area23(23)
Grand total1,741(3,255)

Local government lawIn the following, only the article name is described.

History

1889(Meiji 22), alongside the prefectural systemMeiji constitutionAs the local system below,Hokkaido-OkinawaOn the mainland exceptMunicipal system and municipal system(Law No. 21, April 4, 25) came into effect. They areLocal governmentAs a law targeting municipalities andAdministrationOffice workPolicemenLocal government system (Meiji 19Royal Decree No. 54) has been established separately.

1911(Meiji 44)Municipal system(Act No. 44 of April 4, 7)Municipal system(Law No. 44 of April 4, 7) and has undergone major revisions since then.

1947(Showa 22)Local government lawIt was abolished due to the enactment, but it is said that there is still a "disposal that the town (village) becomes a city""Municipal system enforcementIs the remnant of this.

Requirements

Requirements to be a city

The towns and villagesCityIn order to be, the following requirements must be met (8 article(Item 1).

  • Population over 5. However1965After (40),Law on special cases of merger of municipalities(Heisei 16Under the new law of Law No. 59, if the provisions of Article 7) are applied, it will be over 3.
  • There are more than 6% of all units in the central city area.
  • 6% or more of the total population are those engaged in commerce and industry and other urban business categories and those who belong to the same household.
  • ConcernedPrefectures OfOrdinanceIt has urban facilities and other urban requirements specified in.

Requirements to be a town

VillagetownIn order to become, the prefectures to which the village belongs must meet each requirement (population, number of consecutive units or consecutive rates, required public offices, etc., employment population ratio by industry, etc.) (Article 8) 2). The population requirement is most in 5000 prefectures, followed by 8000 prefectures.

There are no special rules regarding village requirements.If it does not meet the conditions for becoming a town, it is automatically a village.

Population requirements for becoming a town

Lower limitPrefectures(* The presence or absence of a village is as of 2010/22)
There is a villageNo village
1 million 5,000 peopleTochigi prefecture flag Tochigi
1 million 0,000 peopleIwate prefecture flag Iwate Gunma prefecture flag Gunma Tokyo flag Tokyo Niigata Prefecture Flag NiigataFukui prefecture flag Fukui Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa
8,000Aomori prefecture flag Aomori Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata Fukushima flag Fukushima Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka
Nara prefecture flag Nara Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Kochi prefecture flag Kochi Oita Prefecture Flag Oita Okinawa prefecture flag Okinawa
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka
7,000Saga Prefecture Flag Saga
5,000Hokkaido flag Hokkaido Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi Akita prefecture flag Akita Ibaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki Saitama prefecture flag Saitama
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu Aichi prefecture flag Aichi
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama Tokushima prefecture flag Tokushima Fukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag Miyazaki Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima
Mie prefecture flag Mie Shiga prefecture flag Shiga Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi Ehime prefecture flag Ehime
4,000Tottori prefecture flag TottoriHiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki
3,000Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaHyogo prefecture flag Hyogo

In principle, this is the case of a single town system, and some prefectures have established special cases to promote mergers.

Transition to city/town

In order for a town/village to become a city or a village to become a town, based on the application of the relevant municipalityPrefectural governor Prefectural assemblyImmediately after the decisionMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsReport to Article 8 (3).

Transition is not obligatory. For exampleIbarakiMiuraとTokai villageBoth meet the requirements to be a town (Ibaraki Prefecture has a population requirement of 5000), but they are not towns.

"Transition" due to abandonment

When a town or village is abandoned and at the same time a new city or town is created, the town or village appears to have "migrated" to it. However, in this case, the old towns/villages and the new cities/towns are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legality is not continuous.

actuallyAbandonmentAlthough such cases occur due to (merging/transferring, so-called municipal mergers), it is not obligatory to select a new municipality even if it meets the requirements of the city or town.Great Heisei mergerBecame the first new "village" inKumamotoMinamiaso villageHas a population more than double the population requirement (3 people) to become a town due to the merger of the three former villages,Mount AsoNango ValleyWe chose to be a village with an emphasis on the natural environment and the image of rural areas.

"Relegation" to a town/village

"Demotion" due to migration

If a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a city becomes a town or village, or if a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a town becomes a village, follow the same procedure as above for moving to a city or town. Take (Article 8 paragraph 3). When a city becomes a town or village, or a town becomes a village, some tasks can be transferred to the prefectural jurisdiction. This can be expected to reduce the burden, but on the other handLocal allocation taxThere is a demerit that the amount of delivery will be reduced, and the amount of office work such as changing the notation of staff business cards and printed materials will occur.

According to the Local Autonomy Law, there is no difference in the “case” or hierarchical relationships between municipalities. Therefore, there is no concept of "demotion" or "promotion", but the consciousness that the city feels higher than the town/village and the town feels higher than the village exists among the residents.[4].. For these reasons, in order to avoid negative impacts on motivation of residents and staff, attachment to the local area, image, etc., it is unlikely that migration to towns and villages will be considered in the first place, 2019 (Reiwa 4) There is no example that has been done so far. For example, at the peak, it had a population of about 6000.HokkaidoUtashinai CityIs less than the population requirement (5000 people) to become a town due to depopulation, but it is not a village yet.[5].. Fall into serious financial difficulties2006Hokkaido where the transition to the town was examined in earnest (18)YubariBut I was not selected[5].

"Demotion" due to decommissioning

When a city or town is abandoned and a new town or village is created at the same time, it appears that the city or town has been “relegated” to a town or village. However, in this case, the old city/town and the new town/village are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legal personality is not continuous. In fact otherAbandonmentThere is such a case when the or boundary change is involved. For example, the following examples are given.

Shibuya Town, Kanagawa Prefecture →Shibuya Village(CurrentYamato)
Part of the town area was transferred to another city, the remaining town area was abolished, and at the same time a new village was established.
Miyata Town, Nagano Prefecture →Komagane→Miyata
After becoming a city by merging with other local governments, it was separated and reestablished as a new village.

As a case where "demotion" is avoided,Kami TownThere is.Great Heisei mergerAt the time of MiyagiKami-gunThen.Nakashinta Town,Onoda Town,Miyazaki Town,Sima TownThere was a plan to create Kami city by merging four towns. However, because Sekima-cho left the merger talks on the way, the total population fell below 4 and the conditions of the municipal system were not met, and the density of buildings in the center did not meet the requirements of the town prescribed by the prefectural ordinance. However, it was said that the merger would "regrade" to the village. There is no difference in “rank” between cities, towns, or villages, but the terms “demotion” and “promotion” are used in the news of Nishinihon Shimbun, for example, and the voices of the citizens who say “sorry” or “poor story” are covered. It was being done. As a result of amending the prefectural ordinance, it was finally decided to merge as Kami-cho.[4].

Features

The municipalities areSelf-governmentAndOrdinance,RuleHas the autonomy legislative power to enact etc.

Differences between cities, towns and villages

Regarding the handling under the Local Autonomy Law, there is no big difference between the names of cities, towns and villages. Rather, there are large differences in population size and administrative capacity between cities that share the same name,Government-designated city,Core cityas well as the Special city(The system was abolished in 2015 and integrated into the core city system. However, there are transitional measures) and the special provisions regarding the distribution of office work and the administrative district system (only for ordinance-designated cities) are established (252-19,Article 252-20), is very different from other cities and towns.

Municipalities do not have parliamentary ordinances, but instead are general meetings of voters.Municipal general meetingCan be provided (Articles 94 and 95 of the same law), but there are only a few examples. A case of Ashinoyu Village (now part of Hakone Town) in Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa Prefecture under the enforcement of the town and village system, and Utsuki Village (current part of Hachijo Town. (See section)) has been reported.2006(Heisei18 years) with multiple debtFiscal rebuilding organizationKiso County, Nagano PrefectureOtaki VillageHave been considered as a bill (rejection in the parliamentary resolution).

6 villages in the Northern Territories

ロシア Effective dominationdoingNorthern TerritoriesHas 6 villages in Japan[6].. However, it has lost its function as a basic municipality in Japan, and can only perform business related to family register.NemuroIs acting on your behalf.

Main infrastructure

As a voting body for municipalitiesMunicipal assemblyBut as an executive agencyMayor, VariousAdministrative committeeAnd so on. Municipalities have no councilsVoting rightIt is also possible to set up a general meeting of all persons.Chief(Mayor,Mayor, The village chief,special areaWard mayor)WhenLocal assemblyDepends on the residentselectionElected by.

"City" "Village" in the municipalities

Most of the "-towns" and "-muras" in the municipality area, even if they are official, do not have a legal personality and are only geographical areas, like the characters (bruise). HistoricallyEdo PeriodIt originates from the towns and villages, but it is not in a simple correspondence relationship at present because of a series of decommissioning for a long time. Most of the towns and villages of the Edo periodLarge printLeave a trace on the parcel.

However, the names of "-town" and "-village"Local autonomous district,Special merger wardThere is also. Local autonomous regions are subordinate organizations of municipalities. The merger special ward has a legal personality,special areaSame asSpecial local governmentAnd in most cases it was an independent municipality until very recently.

Prefectures where no village exists

1962(Showa 37)Hyogo,1970(Showa 45)KagawaAt the end of the year, the village disappeared due to the town system being enforced. For a long time, these two prefectures had no villages, but due to the great merger of Heisei2004(16)HiroshimaStarting with the disappearance of the village in, 11 prefectures have lost the village due to the great merger of the Heisei era.

Note that “city” and “town” exist in all prefectures.

List of prefectures without villages

RegionPrefecture nameExtinction dateRemarks
Kanto regionTochigi prefecture flag Tochigi2006(18)May 3Kuriyama VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Nikko, Tochigi.svg NikkoBe part of.
Chubu regionIshikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa2005(17)May 3Yanagita VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Noto Ishikawa.JPG Noto TownBe part of.
Fukui prefecture flag Fukui2006May 3Nadasho VillageDue to the new mergerOi Fukui chapter.JPG Oi TownBe part of.
Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka2005May 7Yongsan VillageBut,Flag of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka.svg Hamamatsu cityMerged into.
KinkiMie prefecture flag Mie2006May 1UdonomuraDue to the new mergerFlag of Kiho Mie.JPG New systemKihochoBe part of.
Miyagawa VillageIs a new system due to a new mergerFlag of Odai Mie.png OdaimachiBe part of.
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga2005May 1Kuchiki VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Takashima Shiga.JPG TakashimaBe part of.
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo1962(37)May 4Due to the enforcement of the town system in AyamuraFlag of Harima, Hyogo.svg Harima TownBecomes
ChugokuHiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima2004(16)May 11Toyomatsu VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Jinsekigogen Hiroshima.JPG Kamiishi Kogen TownBe part of.
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi 2006May 3Hongo VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Iwakuni, Yamaguchi.svg IwakuniBe part of.
Shikoku regionKagawa prefecture flag Kagawa1970(45)May 2(Old) due to the enforcement of the town system in Saita VillageZaita TownBecomes
→2006(18)May 1, New systemFlag of Mitoyo, Kagawa.svg MitoyoBecomes
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime2005May 1Asakura VillageとSekizen VillageIs a new system due to a new mergerFlag of Imabari Ehime.svg ImabariBe part of.
Kyushu regionSaga Prefecture Flag Saga2006May 3Sifuri VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Kanzaki Saga.JPG KanzakiBe part of.
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki2005May 10Oshima villageDue to the new mergerFlag of Hirado, Nagasaki.svg Hirado CityBe part of.

How to read "town" and "village"

"town"Is"Butterfly"Or"Town","village"Is"So"Or"MuraHowever, the reading is clearly defined for each town and village.

Basically, the reading of “town” and “village” tends to be fixed in each prefecture, but there may be a small number of exceptions due to phonological relations and customs.

There are variations in how to read "town", but all the towns in the Kanto region are "towns", and the towns in the Kinki and Shikoku regions are "cho".Excluding HokkaidoEast JapanThere are many "towns", but especiallyIwateとMiyagiThen, both are mixed in a ratio that cannot be said to be large. vice versa,West JapanTends to have a lot of "butterflies",KyusyuHowever, there is no clear law because there are variations in each prefecture.

The reading of “village” is fixed for each prefecture except Kagoshima prefecture. Everything from eastern Japan to the Kinki region is "mura", but in some parts of western Japan it is "son", and Okinawa Prefecture, which has 19 villages, is all "son".

Reading of "town"

* Of the mixed examples, when the same reading accounts for about 8% or more of the total number of towns in each prefecture, the reading on the majority side is shown, and the rest is noted as an exception. In addition, when listing individually, the multiple side is on the upper side.

RegionName of prefecturesreadingRemarks
Hokkaido regionHokkaido flag HokkaidoButterfly**129 towns out of all 128 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"
Tohoku regionAomori prefecture flag AomoriTown※*22 towns out of all 19 towns.Oirase Town-Nanbu Town-Hashikami3 towns are "chou"
Iwate prefecture flag IwateMixedButterflyShizukuishi Town-Shiwa Town-Yahaba Town-Kanegasaki Town-Hiraizumi Town-Sumita Town-Otsuchi Town-Iwaizumi Town-Hirono Town(9 towns)
TownKuzumaki-Iwate-Nishiwaga Town-Yamada Town-Karumai Town-Ichinohe(6 towns)
Miyagi prefecture flag MiyagiTownMisato Town-Kami Town-Matsushima Town-Shichigahama Town-Kawasaki Town-Murata-Okawara Town-Shibata Town-Marumori Town-Zao Town-Shichikashuku Town(11 towns)
ButterflyRifu Town-Yamato Town-Osato Town-Watari Town-Yamamoto Town-Onagawa-Sima Town-Wakuya Town-Minamisanriku Town(9 towns)
Akita prefecture flag AkitaTownGojome Town-Hachirogata Town-Igawa Town-Fujisato-Ugo Town-Kosaka Town(6 towns)
ButterflyMisato Town-Santan Town-Happo Town(3 towns)[7]
Yamagata prefecture flag YamagataTown※*19 towns out of all 18 towns.KawakitaOnly one town is "chou"
Fukushima flag FukushimaTown(All 31 towns)
Kanto regionIbaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki(All 10 towns)
Tochigi prefecture flag Tochigi(All 11 towns)
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma(All 15 towns)
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama(All 22 towns)
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba(All 16 towns)
Tokyo flag Tokyo(All 5 towns)
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa(All 13 towns)
Chubu regionNiigata Prefecture Flag Niigata(All 6 towns)
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama(All 4 towns)
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag IshikawaMixedTownKawakita Town-Tsubata Town-Uchinada Town-Shiga Town-Nakanoto Town-Anamizu Town(6 towns)
ButterflyHodatsu Shimizu Town-Noto Town(2 towns)[7]
Fukui prefecture flag FukuiButterfly(All 8 towns)
Yamanashi prefecture flag YamanashiButterfly**8 towns out of all 7 towns.Fujikawaguchiko TownOnly one town is "town"
Nagano Prefecture Flag NaganoTown※*23 towns out of all 22 towns.AnanOnly one town is "chou"
Gifu Prefecture Flag GifuButterfly(All 19 towns)
Shizuoka prefecture flag ShizuokaButterfly**12 towns out of all 11 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"
Aichi prefecture flag AichiButterfly(All 14 towns)
KinkiMie prefecture flag Mie(All 15 towns)
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga(All 6 towns)
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto(All 10 towns)
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka(All 9 towns)
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo(All 12 towns)
Nara prefecture flag Nara(All 15 towns)
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama(All 20 towns)
ChugokuTottori prefecture flag Tottori(All 14 towns)
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Butterfly**10 towns out of all 9 towns.KawamotoOnly one town is "town"
Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaButterfly(All 10 towns)
Hiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima(All 9 towns)
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi (All 6 towns)
Shikoku regionTokushima prefecture flag Tokushima(All 15 towns)
Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa(All 9 towns)
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime(All 9 towns)
Kochi prefecture flag Kochi(All 17 towns)
Kyushu regionFukuoka prefecture flag FukuokaTown※*30 towns out of all 29 towns.Onga TownOnly one town is "chou"
Saga Prefecture Flag SagaButterfly**10 towns out of all 9 towns.Kohoku TownOnly one town is "town"
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag NagasakiButterfly(All 8 towns)
Kumamoto prefecture flag KumamotoTown※*23 towns out of all 20 towns.Asagiri Town-Yamato-cho-Hikawa Town3 towns are "chou"[7]
Oita Prefecture Flag OitaTown(All 3 towns)
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag MiyazakiButterfly(All 14 towns)
Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima(All 20 towns)
Okinawa regionOkinawa prefecture flag Okinawa(All 11 towns)

Reading of "village" (Son / Mura)

Prefectures that do not have any villages are omitted from the table.

RegionName of prefecturesreadingRemarks
Hokkaido regionHokkaido flag HokkaidoMura(15 villages in total)
Tohoku regionAomori prefecture flag Aomori(8 villages in total)
Iwate prefecture flag Iwate(5 villages in total)
Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi■Ohira VillageOnly one village
Akita prefecture flag Akita(3 villages in total)
Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata(3 villages in total)
Fukushima flag Fukushima(15 villages in total)
Kanto regionIbaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki(2 villages in total)
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma(8 villages in total)
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama■HigashichichibuOnly one village
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba■Chosei VillageOnly one village
Tokyo flag Tokyo(8 villages)
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa■Kiyokawa VillageOnly one village
Chubu regionNiigata Prefecture Flag Niigata(4 villages in total)
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama■Funabashi VillageOnly one village
Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi(6 villages in total)
Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano(35 villages in total)
Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu(2 villages in total)
Aichi prefecture flag Aichi(2 villages in total)
KinkiKyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto■Minamiyamashiro VillageOnly one village
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka■Chihaya Akasaka VillageOnly one village
Nara prefecture flag Nara(12 villages in total)
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama■Kitayama VillageOnly one village
ChugokuTottori prefecture flag TottoriSo■Hiyoshitsu VillageOnly one village
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Mura■Tomio VillageOnly one village
Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaSo(2 villages in total)
Shikoku regionTokushima prefecture flag Tokushima■Sanagawauchi VillageOnly one village
Kochi prefecture flag KochiMura(6 villages in total)
Kyushu regionFukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka(2 villages in total)
Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto(8 villages in total)
Oita Prefecture Flag Oita■Himejima villageOnly one village
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag MiyazakiSo(3 villages in total)
Kagoshima prefecture flag KagoshimaMixedMuraMishima village-Toshima Village(2 villages)
SoYamato Village-Uken Village(2 villages)
Okinawa regionOkinawa prefecture flag OkinawaSo(19 villages in total)

Statistics and listings

Number of municipalities by prefecture

Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThe number of municipalities based on the summary of is shown below. The latest merger of municipalities was April 2014, 4, and the latest municipal organization came into effect on October 5, 2018.[8].

PrefecturesBasic municipality(BasicLocal government) Number
Number of municipalitiesCitytownvillagespecial areaTotal number of basic municipalities
Hokkaido flag Hokkaido1793512915[3]0179
Aomori prefecture flag Aomori4010228040
Iwate prefecture flag Iwate3314154033
Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi3514201035
Akita prefecture flag Akita251393025
Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata3513193035
Fukushima flag Fukushima59133115059
Ibaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki4432102044
Tochigi prefecture flag Tochigi2514110025
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma3512158035
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama6340221063
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba5437161054
Tokyo flag Tokyo3926582362
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa3319131033
Niigata Prefecture Flag Niigata302064030
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama151041015
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa191180019
Fukui prefecture flag Fukui17980017
Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi271386027
Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano77192335077
Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu4221192042
Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka3523120035
Aichi prefecture flag Aichi5438142054
Mie prefecture flag Mie2914150029
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga191360019
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto2615101026
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka433391043
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo4129120041
Nara prefecture flag Nara39121512039
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama309201030
Tottori prefecture flag Tottori194141019
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane 198101019
Okayama prefecture flag Okayama2715102027
Hiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima231490023
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi 191360019
Tokushima prefecture flag Tokushima248151024
Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa17890017
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime201190020
Kochi prefecture flag Kochi3411176034
Fukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka6029292060
Saga Prefecture Flag Saga2010100020
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki211380021
Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto4514238045
Oita Prefecture Flag Oita181431018
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag Miyazaki269143026
Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima4319204043
Okinawa prefecture flag Okinawa41111119041
Grand total1718792743183[3]231741

List

Link to list by prefecture

History of merger of municipalities

1950Items after (25) are listed on each of the following pages in list format.

Before that,Category: Japanese countiesEach of the followingcountyItems (not belonging to the countyTokyo islandsRefer to items such as each municipality.

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