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😷 | Corona Sorrow… This year too, “Mask Summer” Makeup that collapses due to heat and stuffiness.Summer make-up point [Ehime]


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Corona Sorrow ... This year's "Summer of Masks" Makeup that collapses due to heat and stuffiness.Summer make-up point [Ehime]

 
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According to Mr. Furuta, as the number of remote meetings increases due to corona damage, men's awareness of beauty is increasing especially to improve the impression through the screen, and there is also a stick type sunscreen for men that can be used easily. It is said to be popular.
 

This summer will also be greeted by Corona.Even if I make up in the morning due to the heat and stuffiness, it collapses with a mask ... → Continue reading

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Sunscreen agent

Sunscreen agent(SunscreenBritish: Sunscreen) Is皮膚HitUVBy defending againstSunburnAnd of the skinPhotoagingIt is a product to prevent. Under Japanese lawSunscreen cosmeticsCorresponding toSunscreen(Also written as sunscreen). As a formcream,lotion,Gel,sprayand so on[1].. In addition, the sunscreen to drink has also increased, but it does not replace the conventional external preparation as of 2018[1].

In Japan "due to sunburnStain-frecklesThe indication of efficacy of "Fussegu" is approved[2].Titanium oxide,Zinc oxideAlthough the safety of (ultraviolet scattering agent) has been confirmed, there is a movement to strengthen the safety confirmation in the United States in 2019, saying that other components (ultraviolet scattering agent) are mainly absorbed into the body.[3].. In Japanese notation as an index of ultraviolet protection, the maximum value is 50+ for SPF that prevents ultraviolet B waves, and 50+ if it is more than that, and “+” increases to 4 for PAs that prevent ultraviolet A waves. .. Reduce skin cancer risk and signs of aging with SPF 15 and above[1].. There are discussions about adverse effects and environmental pollution.

Sunscreen ingredients

UV protection agents, which are ingredients contained in sunscreens, can be broadly classified into two types.[4]: 37.

UV scattering agent
UV diffuserUVThe physical absorption of UV rays and the chemical absorption of UV rays prevent the UV rays from reaching the skin. There are many mineral-derived components that appear white when applied, and you may not like this.[5].
Titanium oxide,Zinc oxideHas been confirmed to be safe[3].
Concerns about low toxicity and permeation through the skin due to nanoparticulates are said to remain mostly in the stratum corneum and not absorbed[5].. The main concern is that titanium and zinc, in limited amounts, release free radicals upon exposure to UV light.[5].
Cerium oxideIs attracting attention as an alternative to titanium oxide[6][7].
UV absorber
Many UV absorbers are synthetic compounds. Due to the nature of the ultraviolet absorber, the molecular structure may be destroyed when absorbing the energy of ultraviolet rays, and the protective performance decreases with time. The product after destructionAllergic reaction,InflammationThere is a possibility of causing.
In JapanMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareOnly substances listed on the positive list of can be blended.
According to the study result that it is absorbed through the skin in the United States, if the absorption data into the body is not submitted by November 2019, it indicates that the license is canceled[3].. Traditionally considered not to be absorbed,[1], The research result that it will be absorbed from the latter half of the 1990s was announced[3].

Both scatterers and absorbers are used in many products for high-efficiency sunscreens such as SPF 30 and 50.

In particular, there are reports of light sensitization by synthetic UV absorbers, contact dermatitis, immunosuppression, estrogen action, and thyroid hormone disruption. Is collecting[8].(English editionAlthough it has already been replaced by another compound in the European Union, etc., there is a situation that it cannot be replaced in the United States as it is not approved in the United States as of 2019.[5].

Substitute ingredient

Organic cosmeticsToMedicinal herbThere are some that use only the ingredients of. UVPF5 was the highest in usnic acid tested in human subjects using five natural substances, and UVPF4.1 was the existing SPF5 comparison product.[9].. Plant-derived products also have SPF10[10].. It is not always safe.

Of vitamin ARetinol palmitateSunscreen has an effect of about SPF 20[11].Ferulic acidImproves the chemical stability of Vitamin C and Vitamin E, and multiple times the sun protection[12].. In a randomized controlled trial of 10 people, topical drugs containing vitamin C (15% concentration), ferulic acid (2%), and phloretin were applied in advance in preparation for skin damage caused by UV rays, which provided a protective effect.[13].. Topical drug consisting of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and ferulic acid was used in 12 Chinese women to protect the coated area from light compared to the uncoated area.[14].

Drinking sunscreen

Drinking sunscreen cannot protect the skin directly, but has the advantage of ease of use[15].. May be beneficial in protecting against visible light that normal sunscreens cannot prevent[5].. Not very effective in reducing erythema on the skin caused by UV light[15]. In 2018US Food and Drug Administration The FDA has sent a warning letter to dietary supplements that make unproven claims that there are currently no tablets or capsules that provide adequate UV protection to replace sunscreens.[1].. Warnings include Advanced Skin Brightening Formula (lycopene, etc.), Solaricare (PL extract), Sunsafe Rx (astaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, green tea, vitamins C and E).[1].

As an ingredient with a product namePL extract(Brand name Fernblock) and rosemary and grapefruit ingredients (brand name Neutrox Sun) are in circulation.

About the minimum erythema dose (MED) that causes erythema by ultraviolet rays

  • Vitamin CVitamin ECombinations-In separate studies, MED increased by 1% in 21 week (1000 IU of E and 2 g of C daily), MED increased by 7% in 77.6 weeks (E 3 g / C 3 g), in 12 weeks 41% increase (E 1000 IU / C 2 g[16]), another study increased 12% in 41 weeks (same)[15].. There is a study that the vitamin C and E alone did not change the MED.[15].. At 12 weeks, it was considered that blood vitamin C concentration increased at 4 weeks as compared with the test up to 1 week and saturated without further increase, and it was considered that saturation at 1 week was insufficient.[16].
  • Cocoa extract-12x more flavonoid chocolate, more than doubled MED[15].
  • Neutrox Sun-two studies show that MED increased by about 2% and 30% after two months[15]..The former received 100 mg or 250 mg, but there was no difference between the two, with an increase of 15.2% in half a month and 1% in a month.[17], The latter increased 12% after 56 weeks[18].
  • PL extract ――In 20 studies, 1000 mg of PL extract was taken daily, and MED increased by an average of 8% after 4.79 days, 15% after 14.57 days, and 29% after 20.37 days.[19].

For the 2018 review of non-basic human clinical trials,β-caroteneThere are several studies in humans that reduced erythema in the 1970s, and in the 1s it was found that 30-90 mg and 60-180 mg of children per day were effective as a treatment for photosensitivity.In terms of side effects, it may increase the risk for people at high risk of lung cancer.LycopeneAlthough there are several studies in humans showing that the amount of erythema was reduced by ingestion of 10 weeks, the dose was not constant, and additional studies on the required amount etc. are needed.Nicotinic acid amideWith (niacinamide), 1 mg daily for 500 months, non-melanoma skin cancer andActinic keratosesHowever, there is debate about increasing aggressiveness, and large-scale trials are needed.Vitamin D3Rapidly relieves UV-induced inflammation. The green tea component has a short blood half-life of 3 hours and requires processing to lengthen it.[15]

At Neutrox Sun,PhotoagingWith a total of 90 peopleRandomized controlled trialIn 5 people, a short-term test was also conducted, and within 30 minutes after exposure to UVB, 1 day later / 2 days later, redness was reduced compared to placebo, and in the long-term study there was a difference in 2 weeks, but after 2 months Increased amount of erythema was higher than placebo (actual drug about 35%/placebo about 30%)WrinkleThe elasticity was also improved, and there was no difference between the ingredients 100 mg and 250 mg.[17].

Sun light

From the sun, as ultraviolet rays (UVR, UV, 200-400 nm), UVA (315-400 nm), UVB (280-315 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm), which is completely attenuated by the rise of the atmosphere. There are visible light (VIS, 400-780 nm) and ultraviolet light (IR, 780 nm-1 mm).Infrared energy is much weaker than ultraviolet light, but it was said to contribute to photoaging in 1982, and visible light was said to have no effect on the skin, but in the 2010s it was associated with pigmentation and photoaging. Is supposed to contribute[20].

UV protection index

Sunscreens up to the 2010s protect against UVB and UVA, not effective protection from visible and infrared light[20].

UVB waveSPF value and SPF value as a defense index of (wavelength 290 --320 nm),UVA wavePA classification is defined as a defense index for (wavelength 320-380 nm)[4]: 38..Internationally, other indicators are also used (described later), and even if the same defense indicator is used, there may be subtle differences in the measurement method for each region.

Regarding the measurement method in Japan, both SPF and PA classification are 1 cm.2It is based on the measurement after applying 2 mg of the product to the skin, but in reality it is often not possible to apply so much, and the applied product deteriorates due to sweating, contact, and ultraviolet rays themselves. It will be gradually lost due to such factors.Therefore, it is important not to over-reliance on the indicators and to take measures such as diligently repainting them.

UVB defense index

SPF classification

SPF isSun protection factorIs an acronym forUVAmong them, an index showing the degree of the effect of blocking UVB waves[4]: 38..Although there are subtle differences in the measurement method, it is adopted in many countries, which can be said to be almost a global standard.Erythema, ま た はsunburnIt's called tinglingInflammationCalculated based on whether or not[4]: 38..The basis of the SPF value is how many times the subject can withstand UV rays at the time of application compared to the minimum amount of UV rays that causes erythema.[4]: 38..For example, if a person who takes about 20 minutes to develop erythema applies SPF10 sunscreen, it means that erythema is finally observed after being exposed to 10 times the amount of UV rays for 20 minutes.What is important is that it does not mean that it can withstand UV rays for 10 times longer (200 minutes in this case).This is because, as mentioned above, the applied sunscreen is lost over time.

Human皮膚Due to the nature of the method of visually confirming the change in color of the product, the error increases with the value. In particular, is there an actual difference in performance between products with high SPF values ​​(for example, the difference between SPF55 and SPF60)? There is an idea that it is doubtful. Therefore, in Japan, when the ability to exceed SPF50 is significantly recognized, it is written as SPF50+.

As an objective index of sunscreen effect, an index using pseudo-sunlight as a light source was reported in the 1960s, the FDA announced a measurement method in 1978, and in Japan in 1980, the suncare index was expressed in that expression. The sunscreen with is released from Shiseido[2].. It was pointed out that there are many problems as measured by each manufacturer independently,Japan Cosmetic Industry FederationExpert committee prepared guidelines in 1992[2].. Manufacturers aim for a high SPF, the highest SPF 1991 in 20 was the highest in 1998, but now it exceeds 100, and even people who are sensitive to ultraviolet rays tan even if exposed to sunlight all day in a normal environment SPF1 is sufficient to avoid this, and SPF50+ with higher effect was considered for those who go to areas with strong infrared rays such as directly below the equator.[2].. International standardization of comparison and measurement costs of manufacturers is desired, and in 2003, a common SPF measurement method was established in Europe, Japan, and South Africa, and became an ISO international standard in 2010.[2].. The SPF50 maximum notation is not adopted in the United States.

UVA defense index

PA classification

Protection grade of UVAIt is an abbreviation of, and is an index showing the defense power of UVA adopted in Japan. An index also called PFA.It is calculated based on a phenomenon called immediate blackening, which turns black immediately after sunburn.initiallyPPD (Persistent Pigment Darkening) Based on the numerical value called (described later), the PPD value is 2 or more and less than 4.PA +(Effective), 4 or more and less than 8PA ++(Very effective), above 8 and below 12PA +++(Very effective), over 12PA ++++It is classified into 4 stages (5 stages including unmarked). It is a classification system that originated in Japan.

TPP

It is a measure of UVA protection that is mainly measured by UVA-induced skin darkening, which is called continuous immediate blackening, and is the basis for the PA classification. This PPD measurement method itself was developed in Japan, but in Japan it is limited to displaying the PA classification using it, while it is being actively adopted in Europe.

Similar to SPF, the idea is that the PPD value is based on how many times the amount of ultraviolet light can be tolerated when applied, compared to the minimum amount of ultraviolet light that causes skin darkening. It means that if you apply a specified amount of sunscreen of PPD10, it will finally turn black by being exposed to 10 times the amount of ultraviolet rays.

It is considered to be a very important indicator in Europe, and it is said that the PPD value is not a good sunscreen unless it is 1/3 of the SPF value. Originally led by European industry associations, this idea of ​​sun protection was endorsed by the European Union in 2006.[21], Products that meet these conditions are marked with the right logo.

Effect

In Japanese sunscreen, "due to sunburnStain-frecklesThe indication of efficacy of "Fussegu" is approved[2].

Exposure to UV rays is said to increase the risk of skin cancer[1]. In 2018US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says it has been scientifically proven to reduce skin cancer risk and signs of aging at SPF 15 and above.[1].. An 8-year follow-up study reduces the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma by 35% but does not change basal cell carcinoma[22].

The human body is exposed to sunlightVitamin DThere are 2Randomized controlled trialIn a 69 review, including 2019 observational studies, and the use of sunscreens in realistic environments rather than laboratory conditions did not reduce vitamin D, but included up to SPF 16. No studies with high SPF products in trials[23].

Side effects

In the case of strong SPF and PA,RashMay occur.BenzophenoneOf the American Dermatitis Society of 2014(English edition(This year's allergenic substance)[5].. In a survey, 7% of people with sunscreen allergies tested positive for this substance[5].

UV absorberEthylhexyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3),(English edition In a clinical trial in which a 4% mixture of (10-MBC) sunscreen was applied systemically, serum testosterone levels decreased by 4% within 1 hours for both men and women.[24].

In rats, exposure to OMC showed reproductive toxicity, including decreased prostate and testis weight and decreased sperm count[25].. Especially for children, it is necessary to pay attention to the amount used.

Environmental impacts and regulations

Included in sunscreenButyl paraben,Cinnamic acidester,Benzophenone,camphorIngredients such as derivatives triggerCoral OfWhiteningHas been confirmed to induceZooxanthellaeIt is caused by the induction of the growth of viruses that are harmful to[26].. However, according to coral expert Robert van Woesik, the study does not reflect the actual environment and does not expose corals to bleaching concentrations because they are rapidly diluted in the actual environment. Is going to[27].

July 2018, United StatesHawaii OfDavid IgeGovernor and OxybenzoneEthylhexyl methoxycinnamateSigned state law banning the sale of sunscreen containing two types of (octinoxate) from 2[28].. In SeptemberパラオHowever, for the purpose of protecting coral reefs, it is the first national unit in the world to ban the sale of sunscreen containing harmful chemical substances from 2020[29].

(English editionAccording to the report, spilled sunscreen components can affect corals and algae as well as sea urchins, fish and dolphins by entering the waterways, benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2 (BP). -2), Benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone), benzophenone-8, OD-PABA, 4-methylbenzylene camphor, 3-benzylene camphor, nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are said to be harmful to marine life.[30].

ingredient

20-30 types of UV absorbers are used.

Related products

Sun oilSuntan oil (also called suntan product) is the same as sunscreen in that it blocks the UVB waves of the ultraviolet light. However, unlike sunscreen, sun oil does not prevent UVA waves. Sun oil is intended to prevent sunburn, and to prevent sunburn, so that you can get a beautiful sunburn. Sun oil isJapanglishSo, correctly, it is Suntan lotion etc.

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Scott Gottlieb (May 2018, 5). “Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, on new FDA actions to keep consumers safe from the harmful effects of sun exposure, and ensure the long-term safety and benefits of sunscreens”. US Food and Drug Administration. 2019/6/24Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Masako Naganuma "Historical changes in effectiveness of cosmetics"Journal of the Japan Cosmetic Science Society," Vol. 39, No. 4, 2015, pp. 275-285, two:10.11469 / koshohin.39.275.
  3. ^ a b c d Megan Molteni, Chihiro Oka (Translation) (May 2019, 5). “Sunscreen chemicals were absorbed by the body and flowed into the blood: evidence from US clinical trials”. WIRED. 2019/6/21Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d e "UV Environmental Health Manual 2020 (PDF)”. Ministry of the Environment. 2021/7/23Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Yeager DG, Lim HW (2019-4). “What's New in Photoprotection: A Review of New Concepts and Controversies”. Dermatologic clinics 37 (2): 149–157. two:10.1016 / j.det.2018.11.003. PMID 30850037. 
  6. ^ Ortiz, E .; Martínez-Gómez, L .; Valdés-Galicia, JF; et al (2019). “Skin protection against UV radiation using thin films of cerium oxide”. Radiation protection 54 (1): 67–70. two:10.1051 / radiopro / 2019002. https://doi.org/10.1051/radiopro/2019002. 
  7. ^ Parwaiz, Shaikh; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Pradhan, Debabrata (2019). “CeO2-based nanocomposites: An advanced alternative to TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens”. Materials Express 9 (3): 185–202. two:10.1166 / mex.2019.1495. 
  8. ^ Radice M, Manfredini S, Ziosi P et al (2016-10). “Herbal extracts, lichens and biomolecules as natural photo-protection alternatives to synthetic UV filters. A systematic review”. Phytotherapy 114: 144–162. two:10.1016 / j.fitote.2016.09.003. PMID 27642040. 
  9. ^ Rancan F, Rosan S, Boehm K et al (2002-11). “Protection against UVB irradiation by natural filters extracted from lichens”. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 68 (2-3): 133–139. two:10.1016 / S1011-1344 (02) 00362-7. PMID 12468208. 
  10. ^ "Domestic organic cosmetics "Amritara", the first directly managed store in Omotesando”. Shibuya Keizai Shimbun (July 2011, 7). 2019/7/2Browse.
  11. ^ Antille C, Tran C, Sorg O, Carraux P, Didierjean L, Saurat JH (November 2003). “Vitamin A exerts a photoprotective action in skin by absorbing ultraviolet B radiation”. J. Invest. Dermatol. (5): 1163–7. two:10.1046 / j.1523-1747.2003.12519.x. PMID 14708621. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12519.x. 
  12. ^ Lin FH, Lin JY, Gupta RD, et al. (October 2005). “Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin”. J. Invest. Dermatol. (4): 826–32. two:10.1111 / j.0022-202X.2005.23768.x. PMID 16185284. 
  13. ^ Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD, et al. (December 2008). “Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin”. J Cosmet Dermatol (4): 290–7. two:10.1111 / j.1473-2165.2008.00408.x. PMID 19146606. 
  14. ^ Wu Y, Zheng X, Xu XG, et al (April 2013). “Protective effects of a topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid against ultraviolet irradiation-induced photodamage in Chinese women”. J Drugs Dermatol 12 (4): 464–8. PMID 23652896. http://jddonline.com/articles/dermatology/S1545961613P0464X. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Parrado C, Philips N, Gilaberte Y et al (2018). “Oral Photoprotection: Effective Agents and Potential Candidates”. Frontiers in medicine 5: 188. two:10.3389/fmed.2018.00188. PMC 6028556. PMID 29998107. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00188. 
  16. ^ a b Placzek M, Gaube S, Kerkmann U (2005-2). “Ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage in human epidermis is modified by the antioxidants ascorbic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol”. The Journal of investigative dermatology 124 (2): 304–307. two:10.1111 / j.0022-202X.2004.23560.x. PMID 15675947. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.23560.x. 
  17. ^ a b Nobile V1, Michelotti A2, Cestone E et al (2016). “Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols”. Food & nutrition research 60: 31871. two:10.3402 / fnr.v60.31871. PMC 4931025. PMID 27374032. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v60.31871. 
  18. ^ Pérez-Sánchez A, Barrajón-Catalán E, Caturla N (2014-7). “Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers”. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 136: 12–18. two:10.1016 / j.jphotobiol.2014.04.007. PMID 24815058. 
  19. ^ Sergio Schalka, Maria Alejandra Vitale-Villarejo, Christiane Monteiro Agelune, Patricia Camarano Pinto Bombarda (2014). “The benefits of using a compound containing Polypodium leucotomos extract for reducing erythema and pigmentation resulting from ultraviolet radiation” (PDF). Surg Cosmet Dermatol 6 (4): 344-8. http://www.surgicalcosmetic.org.br/exportar-pdf/6/6_n4_359_en/Beneficios-do-uso-de-um-composto-contendo-extrato-de-polypodium-loucotomos-na-reducao-da-pigmentacao-e-do-eritema-decorrentes-da-radiacao-ultravioleta. 
  20. ^ a b Parrado C1, Mascaraque M2, Gilaberte Y et al (2016-6). “Fernblock (Polypodium leucotomos Extract): Molecular Mechanisms and Pleiotropic Effects in Light-Related Skin Conditions, Photoaging and Skin Cancers, a Review”. International journal of molecular sciences 17 (7). two:10.3390 / ijms17071026. PMID 27367679. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071026. 
  21. ^ COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 22 September 2006 on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating These (2006/647 / EC),Official Journal of the European Union.
  22. ^ Burnett ME, Wang SQ (2011-4). “Current sunscreen controversies: a critical review”. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed (2): 58–67. two:10.1111 / j.1600-0781.2011.00557.x. PMID 21392107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0781.2011.00557.x. 
  23. ^ Neale, RE; Khan, SR; Lucas, RM; et al (2019). “The effect of sunscreen on vitamin D: a review”. British Journal of Dermatology. two:10.1111 / bjd.17980. PMID 30945275. 
  24. ^ Axelstad M, Boberg J, Hougaard KS et al (2011-2). “Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring”. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 250 (3): 278–290. two:10.1016 / j.taap.2010.10.031. PMID 21059369. 
  25. ^ Axelstad M, Boberg J, Hougaard KS et al (2011-2). “Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring”. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 250 (3): 278–290. two:10.1016 / j.taap.2010.10.031. PMID 21059369. 
  26. ^ Danovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C (2008-4). “Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections”. Environmental health perspectives 116 (4): 441–447. two:10.1289 / ehp.10966. PMC 2291018. PMID 18414624. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10966. 
  27. ^ Swimmers' Sunscreen Killing Off Coral National Geographic, January 2008
  28. ^ "Hawaii bans sunscreen from 2021 to protect coral reefs"Sankei ShimbunNews (July 2018, 7) Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  29. ^ "Palau, sunscreen ban = World's first from 20 years". French news agency (September 2018, 11). 2018/12/22Browse.
  30. ^ "Skincare Chemicals and Marine Life”. National Ocean Service (May 2019, 5). 2019/7/25Browse.

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