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😷 | New Corona Confirmed infection of 14 people in Aomori Prefecture on the 6th Cluster outbreak at a university in Hachinohe City


New corona confirmed infection of 14 people in Aomori prefecture on the 6th Cluster outbreak at a university in Hachinohe city

If you write the contents roughly
Educational activities, club activities, and dinner are considered to be the causes of infection.

About the infection situation of the new corona in Aomori prefecture.A new cluster has emerged at a university in Hachinohe. XNUMX ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Education(Education,English: education) Is the wordIt is used in an ambiguous way[1], Can have the following meanings.

  • Teaching and nurturing[1].
  • knowledge,TechnologyTo teach[1].
  • To guide people to be good people[1].
  • A humanAction to develop and promote the qualities and abilities inherent in[1].
  • Activities that transform humans into desirable forms and realize value[1].

Studying educationPedagogySay Pedagogy studies education using methods such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, and history. It is subdivided for various purposes.Educational sociology・There are educational psychology and educational history, and practical ones include domain education methodologies, clinical education, and subject education. Those who want to become teachers (middle school or high school) study pedagogy as a compulsory subject. (However, many university professors do not study pedagogy.)


Definition from etymology and meaning

"Education" as a Chinese language is "Mencius』," Tokutenka genius, meta-education, Sanrakuya "(It is three pleasures to acquire the genius of the world and educate him).

To give an example of definition from the etymology and meaning,English: education"Or"French: education"Latin: ducereBecause it derives from the words (to bring out/to bring to the outside), "education means to bring out the abilities of a person."

Richard Peters Definition

(en: Richard Stanley Peters) Explores the implications of the concept of "educated" and (Liberal arts education), "education" was limitedly defined as an activity that met the following three criteria:[2].

  1. Educational content-communication of valuable things
  2. Educational effects-a wider perspective
  3. Teaching method-with learner's understanding


About educationHistoryTheEducation historyCall.family Education,Social educationWith that in mind, education can be considered to have existed since the history of mankind.[Note 1].

Regarding institutionalized education,WesternThen.Ancient greeceIt is common to go back to. Higher education institutions have existed around the world since ancient times, but the establishment of higher education institutions connected to modern universities was established in Europe.中 世At the end of the 11th centuryイタリア OfBolognaUniversity of BolognaWas established. The pedagogy of pedagogy leading to modern education was in the 17th centuryComeniusMade by In the 18th centuryJean-Jacques RousseauBut"EmileWas influenced by thisJohann Heinrich PestalozziEstablished the methodology for school education. Pestalozzi was also influenced by his primary contribution to primary education.Friedrich FroebelFor early childhood education,Johann Friedrich HerbartLeft a big mark on higher education. In the 19th centuryIndustrial revolutionLaterWorkerThe need for education has become more pronounced, and public education has been introduced in many countries, and countries that require mandatory primary education have begun to emerge. thisCompulsory educationAlthough the trend of industrialization spread mainly in industrialized countries, in many countriesPeopleAgainstGeneral education Public educationIt came to be enforced as20st centuryAfter I entered. And especially in Europe andSouth AmericaIn the Catholic countries, there was a strong opinion that the church should take primary education, not the state, and became one of the major political issues in the 19th century. By the beginning of the 20th century, this controversy was almost a victory for the nation, and in most countries primary education was basically the responsibility of the nation.After World War IIIndependentAsia,AfricaEducation was also emphasized in the new independent nations, and governments of each country actively constructed schools and conducted education. This makes the worldLiteracy rateContinued to rise throughout the 20th century, and more and more people were given public education.

The educational system first created in Japan that can be confirmed in the literature is701 OfGreat treasure lawIs. Since then貴族,samuraiThere is a place to educateEdo PeriodGeneral people learn when enteringTerakoyaHas been established.Primary EducationからHigher educationUp to modernSchool systemIs establishedMeijiIt is an era.After World War IIThe education ofThe Constitution of JapanBasic Education LawIs based on.

Right to education

International human rights agreementStates that humans have the right to education[Note 2].

In France, a system based on such an idea is thoroughly implemented, and at national and public educational facilities, tuition is completely free from early childhood education to university education. Therefore, according to the principles of the International Bill of Human Rights, those who want to receive education (regardless of their parents' financial status) can receive education.

Those who should defend the right to education and pay for education

Who pays for the education has a lot to do with the "right to education" mentioned above.

If the child pays for the education, the child who has no income cannot afford it. In addition, if the parents put out everything, it means that only children with wealthy parents will be educated, and children born to poor parents will not be educated. The idea that "human beings have the right to education", this right cannot be observed. Children cannot be born by choosing their parents. If the difference between being able to receive education and being unable to receive it depends on the condition of the parents, it means that human beings are fundamentally discriminated against by "born" that cannot be helped by their own qualities and efforts. It means that the situation is against humanity.

In other words, in order to protect the "right to receive education," in reality, educational expenses must be generated publicly. In other words, unless the state (central government) and local governments decide to issue it, in the end, if one pays attention to each and every child, the "right to receive education" will not be protected, resulting in an inhumane condition. It will end up.

Different countries have different ideas about who pays for education. France is a country in which the people have caused the French Revolution, defeated domineering royalty and aristocrats, and established a government for the people on their own, and the idea that "the nation is for the people" is thoroughly practiced. , The human rights of the people are firmly respected. In France, all tuition fees for education provided by public institutions (from national and public kindergartens to universities) are free[3][4].. In France, the idea that education should be provided to the nation free of charge is thoroughly practiced, and such a system is actually implemented, and it is being implemented firmly. As a result, parents are not overloaded, and as a result, parents in France are able to create large numbers of children with peace of mind. As a result, FranceBirth rateThe birth rate is the highest in European countries, exceeding 2.0, the population is steadily increasing, and the national power is increasing.[Note 3]..In fact, their right to education is protected and they are able to educate their children not only in financially wealthy parents but also in financially deprived parents.

Even in Germany, tuition is free if it is a public school, from elementary schools to universities and graduate schools.[5].

Public/compulsory education

However, in countries such as Asian countries and underdeveloped countries, such an idea is not embodied as much as European countries. To guarantee the right of citizens to basic education,Public educationAsCompulsory educationIs only institutionalized. OftenPrimary EducationSecondary educationIs part of theright, And "obligationIt is also said. However, if the parents fall into poverty for some reason (which is often the case), the child is left unprotected for education and is unable to receive higher education (and sometimes even secondary education).

In Japan, the ratio of education costs paid out by the central government and local governments is the lowest (compared to other advanced countries in the world), and almost all of the education burden is wrinkled by parents. The state is left unattended. As a result, since it is difficult or impossible to provide physical and physical education, in Japan we have no choice but to give up on giving birth and educating, so we have no choice but to give up on creating a child to be educated in the first place. The birth rate has dropped to 2 or less, and the number of children to educate has declined.[4].. The cost of education for parents in Japan isOECDIt is the worst condition in the countries.In Japan, adults and married couples hesitate to have children because the Japanese government has left the burden on parents with children so much.As a result, JapanBirth rateIs declining, the population is declining, the national power is declining, and the super-aging society is in the process of crisis.

For more information on these points, see below.Education systemSee.

Educational Theory, Educational Philosophy

Educational purpose (Educational purposeOrEducational goals), there have been two positions.

  1. - Politics,社会,moral,ethicsWhat determines the educational purpose from those outside the education (eg. ア リ ス ト テ レ ス OfVirtue[6]
  2. Functionalism -What sets the educational purpose so that education itself can be successful (eg John Dewey Ofpragmatism[7]

For educational purposes in moralism, traditionally,Individual Ofdevelopment-幸福Or for社会There is a controversy over how to maintain and develop the. The former isLiberal arts education・From a standpoint, a person is rich and wide as one personCultureBy wearingA humanThe idea is to be able to live like a person. This way of thinkingSecondary education-Higher educationLiberal artIt is realized as education. On the other hand, grasping the purpose of education from the perspective of social needs,Practical scienceThere is also a position that emphasizes.Vocational school-Professional graduate schoolIs a manifestation of this.

The reason for providing education is sometimes called education.[Source required].. This is often discussed in two ways: the need for education and the potential for education.

On the question of why education should not be lacking,Immanuel Kant"People by educationA humanArgued that education is necessary to live humanly.[8].Learn OfWillingnessLostYouthIt is said that there are manymodernIn this situation, the question of why education is needed is being asked again.

But even if education is needed, it is still legitimate if it is not possible for humans. For example,PlatoIs "VirtueCan he teach?" and emphasized his natural background as a Tetsujin ruler.[9].. At present, the issue of educational potential is "how educational is possible."Education methodThe problem is often the problem of the limit of education such as "how much education is possible"[Source required].

Education classification

There are many ways to classify education. Generally, education depends on the placeschool education / Social education / family EducationIt is roughly divided into three[10], Said Reiji Kawamoto in a 1995 book.

There is also a method of classifying the place-based education into family education/school education/social education/world education (World Studies, called “international understanding education” in Japan).

There is also a method to divide into formal education/non-formal education/informal education.[Source required][When?][Where?]Some people say,

ageThere is also a classification by (or "Childcare])/Early childhood education / Child education / Adult educationThere is also a method of classifying into.

Home education, school education, social education

  • "family Education"家庭Education provided in. Home is家族It is a place where a social group called "living" lives, but since it is multifunctional, education can also be provided.[10].. After the school system was established, part of the educational function was separated into the school, but the family continues to have the educational function in cooperation with the school.[10].. Even if we say "home education," each and every one家族WithHuman relationsCan be said to have an important meaning[10].. BasicValues-VirtueTo show to childrenDisciplineIt is called[Note 4].
  • "school education"Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularEducation provided in. Participants will be systematically, systematically and continuously conducted by teachers and staff who specialize in teaching at designated schools, especially for children.[10].. The term "education" is often associated with this school education, and the school is at the core of the educational field. However, this school-centered view of education is problematic[10].
  • "Social education”Means other than home and school education[10],Wide社会It is the education provided in. It corresponds to various educational activities conducted in various places in society other than schools and homes. For example,Public hall(= Facility for lifelong education for the people under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology),library,博物馆,Cultural centerIt is a place such as.

In addition to the above three categories, companiesEmployee(Employee) Education and training to enhance the qualifications of professionals, and (of employees)Human natureTo raise en: citizenship(I社会-communityThe education that is being conducted to foster awareness of being a member of theIn-house education"It is called[10].

One child has both home and school education[10].

In the past, school education and social education were separate administrative systems, and because the people who received the education and the people who provided the education were different, each functioned as having its own policy. There was no particular problem even if I understood it in such a conceptual frame, but in recent years society has becomeLifelong learningThe situation is changing due to the shift of policy to society (that is, people who have graduated from school once have started to study in earnest).[10].. Due to the spread of lifelong learning, schools (egUniversity,graduate SchoolHowever, it is increasingly used as a place for lifelong learning for people over a certain age, and as a result, the school side has become a learner in the conventional education with only young people (up to 20s) in mind. I'm not able to meet the demand[10], Because it is changing.

In addition, the education provided to those who are in remote places isDistance learning(Distance education)Distance learningSay. Recently, lectures from top professors at top universities in the world have been opened to the public via the Internet, making it possible to take classes across borders. ()

Formal education

(Formal education) is another name for so-called "school education", and refers to educational activities that are organized and systematized by preparing learning contents in a certain style in advance for a specific group. In general, formal education refers to a group of students (students)Teacher qualificationAn environment in which the person who holds theDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularFacility. Classroom, gymnasium, etc.). Many school systems focus on ideal values ​​and ideas for all educational options, such as curriculum, physical classroom design, teacher-student interaction, assessment methods, class size, educational activities, and much more. Predominantly set[11][12].. These faculty qualificationsFaculty of Education,Normal schoolAlthough it is given to those who have received specialized education to become a teacher at, etc., hiring those who do not have teacher qualification as teachers also causes a shortage of qualified people at the time of launching public education or when expanding rapidly. It may be done in some cases. These teachersSubstitute teacherIt was widely used in primary education in Japan before the war and in African countries immediately after independence. In addition,University facultyTo become a teacher, no teacher qualification is required.

In formal education, a summary of the purpose, contents, methods, etc. in practiceCurriculumOrCurriculumCall. The curriculum is usuallyPrimary Education-Secondary education-Higher educationDivided into 3 stages, before thisChildcare,Early childhood educationMay be positioned.

Vocational education

Vocational educationIs training-oriented education that is directly linked to specific commerce and industry. Vocational educationVocational High School,Vocational college,Vocational schoolIn addition to school education such asApprenticeship system,InternshipThere are fields such as carpenters, agriculture, engineers, doctors, architects and artists.

Special support education

Special support education(Special education) is education for persons who are not able to receive public education because of their disabilities.

Alternative education

Alternative education is "alternative" or "alternative" education, which refers to education other than formal education.Free school,Support school,Home schooling(Home-based education),Steiner education, Etc. are included in this.

Non-formal education

Social educationAnd means other than home and school education[10],Wide社会It is the education provided in. It corresponds to various educational activities conducted in various places in society other than schools and homes. For example,Public hall(= Facility for lifelong education for the people under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology),library,博物馆,Cultural centerIt is a place such as.

In-formal education

family EducationIs家庭Education provided in. Home is家族It is a place where a social group called "living" lives, but since it is multifunctional, education can also be provided.[10].. After the school system was established, part of the educational function was separated into the school, but the family continues to have the educational function in cooperation with the school.[10].. Even if we say "home education," each and every one家族WithHuman relationsCan be said to have an important meaning[10].. BasicValues-VirtueTo show to childrenDisciplineIt is called[Note 5][10].


The subject of education is not necessarily another person, but may be oneself, in which case (British: self-education, autodidacticism).

Open education

Education provided to people in remote placesDistance learning(Distance education)Distance learningSay. Recently, lectures from top professors at top universities in the world have been opened to the public via the Internet, making it possible to take classes across borders. (Trailer

Education system

About educationsystemTheEducation systemMainlyschool educationHowever, there are systems outside the school, such as social education. The education system isSchool system,Compulsory educationThe maturity of each country varies from country to country. In Japan, primary education (primary school) And lower secondary education (Junior high school) Is compulsory education, but this term varies from country to countryhigh schoolSome countries have compulsory education up to, and some have only primary education as compulsory education. However, in general, very few countries have no compulsory education provisions, and most countries have some form of compulsory education period.

Education administration/education policy

About educationAdministrationTheEducational administration, About educationpolicyTheEducation policyCall. Regarding Japanese education policy,Japanese Education Policy and Education SystemSee. The challenges of educational policy differ greatly from country to country,Developed countryIn generalSocial disparityCancellation ofinternationalTypicalEconomic competition-Knowledge societyTo deal withDeveloping countryIn many ofLiteracy rate-School attendanceThe improvement of is required.

Education lawEducation lawSay.OrdinanceIf you also includeEducational lawCall.

Educational institutions

Education takes placeFacilityTheEducational institutionsOrEducational institutionCall. Not only at school,library-博物馆-Museum,park,theater,Movie theaterlikeamusement facilitiesCan also be considered to include facilities that perform educational functions in a wide range of society. From the perspective of developing a basic lifestyle,家庭,CommunityIt also includes education at.

Among the educational facilities, the facilities established exclusively for educationDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularCall. Education at schoolschool educationWe call the school system such as the number of years of employment and the existence of obligationsSchool systemSay.

Education course/content/method

The materials used for education areteaching materialCalled. traditionaltextbook,blackboardOr from the pastIn addition to audio teaching materials that have been used in learning, etc., in recent years with the development of science and technology,Computer,マ ル チ メ デ ィ ア,インターネットThere is an increasing movement to actively utilize such information. Also,Electronic blackboardThe latest equipment such as and is beginning to be used.

Education content

There are fields of intellectual education, virtue education, and physical education. AccurateknowledgeWithout such a common base, we cannot achieve correct communication and even shared living, and how to utilize such knowledge.Thinking power-communicationability·creativitySuch skills are also essential. Furthermore, there are views that place importance on educating not only knowledge and skills but also the basic morals of conducting social life, and views that emphasize physical strength to survive in society. For details on the content of education, see "SubjectSee. Also, as a new educational content,Human rights education,Environmental education,International understanding education,Sex educationThere is.

Education method

There are two major conflicts regarding education methods.

one,LearningThat education should be systematic according to the systematic structure ofSystematic learningThe position of This is because the content of education approaches the system of scholarship, especially as the level of education rises.

On the other hand, especiallyAn infant-ChildrenCentered around education for childrenLearnShould be respectedProblem solving learning(Progressiveism-Child centricity-Empiricism)'S idea is also strong. In a Japanese elementary schoolLife courseAnd elementary and junior high schoolComprehensive learning timeAre said to have been influenced by this idea. In addition, in current school education, the ability to develop individuality is exerted because the grade is measured by measuring the student with a ruler such as the grade and whether or not the assignment is submitted.

Educational effect

EducatedIndividualThe change that occurs in is called "". In generalAcademic abilityThe improvement of may be imagined. In Japan today,school educationThe academic ability related totestMeasurementWhat you can doDeviation valueAlthough there is a strong criticism of this for many years,ExaminationThere are actual conditions that are indispensable in the field.

Discussion about educational effectsEducation methodWhile indispensable for improvingEducational purposeTheMeasurementIt is important to note that we tend to replace only possible ones.

Educational sociology

Educational sociologyDiscusses what effects education has on society, such as those on the economy, politics, and society.

For what happens as a result of education,IndividualImpact on社会There are both sides of the influence on.Emile DurkheimIt is,ModernView the function of education in Japan as "methodological socialization",Political societyAnd both individuals need能力-attitudeThe formation of[13]..If education does not have the appropriate effect / function, "Education"Dysfunctional, When education has a rather negative effect / function, it is sometimes called "educational".

Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThe軍隊-hospital-prisonSimilar toModerncharacteristicpowerapparatusAndMichelle Foucault [14], School education dominates modern societyCountry OfideologyArgued that it was a deviceLouis Altussaire[15], EducationCultural-classTarget社会Typicalinequality,DisparityTheReproductionOr has the function of fixingPierre Bourdieu,Basil Bernstein,Samuel BallsHerbert gintus, EducationPatriarchyIs being reproducedfeminismDiscussion and education from the majority of societycultureIs pressingMulticulturalismIt is famous for the discussions from.

Also, in terms of politics,Development StudiesInLiteracy rateRise ofDemocratizationIt is often thought that the correlation between literacy rate and democratization is not as high as is generally thought, but rather counterexamples can be found, so the idea is "the error of Western civil society. There is a view that points out "possibility"[16].. In addition, in terms of society, the spread of educationmen and women,class OfequalityClaims that they contribute toInfant mortalityThere is also a claim that it contributes to the improvement of hygiene.

In addition, in terms of politics, the longer the years of education in each country, the moreIndividualismTargetinnovationIt is clear that the number of people with intellectual values ​​will increase[17].. This tendency is basically the same in Japan,Educational HistoryThe higher theVoter turnoutOn the other hand, the degree of satisfaction with politics declines andLDPLess support,Constitutional Democratic PartyIt is known that the number of people without support or political parties will increase[18].

In recent decades, it has been said that the ability (EQ) to understand the feelings of other people is more influential than the IQ (intelligence quotient) to be able to be happy or not to be happy. Is becoming clear in the research of[19]..On the contrary, a follow-up survey of life after graduation shows that people with high IQ (intelligence) are less fortunate in terms of occupation and family in their subsequent lives than those with high EQ, and they are also happy. The rate of feeling was low.To put it simply, even if you receive an education that aims to improve your intelligence, education will not help happiness, but rather make people unhappy.[19].

Education economics

In economic terms,Education continuance rateThe rising quality of workerseconomic growthIt has been pointed out that it has the effect of pushing up the economy (economic effect of education)[Note 6].

Some have questioned the positive functions of education.For exampleDeveloping country, The economic effects such as the increase in income and productivity expected from the implementation of basic education and the transition to a market economy, the effects of democratization in politics, and the restraint of the population in society are not necessarily remarkable. It has been pointed out that it has not appeared in[20].

Education fee

Education and income

The income effect has attracted a relatively large number of people. In each country,Educational HistoryThe higher the wage, the higher the lifetime wage[21].

However, in Japan, there is also the view that the difference in lifetime wages depending on educational background is relatively small when looking at actual data.[Note 7]..Aside from the apparent salary for a single year, the number of years of working and earning income by attending school decreases, so the lifetime wage does not increase much.In particulargraduate SchoolAccording to some data, when you go to graduate school (on a full-time basis), statistically speaking, your lifetime wages are often lower than those of college graduates.Generally speaking, Japanese companies do not welcome graduate students very much.In Japan, there is little tendency to consider education as an investment.In addition, some commentators have pointed out that in Japanese society as of 2005, the mechanism of "if you enter a good university to study, you can enter a good company" has already collapsed.[22].. For example, in the Kanto area, even if you graduated from the University of Tokyo or other six universities,Part-time workerThere is a possibility that it will become.

Educational issues

We will discuss issues related to education, especially those related to education.Educational issuesSay. When emphasizing its seriousness, it may also be called or. For more informationEducational sociologySee also item.

Since more than one person is involved in educational activities, a society is inevitably born there. School orclassAre examples. There may be some problems there,Bullying-School refusal-Class collapse,TeacherChildren-student-StudentWithpowerRelationships etc are included here.

Politics, economy, local communities, and culture have a great influence on educational activities, but these effects can cause problems. For example,policy,MediabyNews reportEtc.school educationOf coursefamily Education,Social educationIt also has a big influence on.

Educational activities, including school education, have a great impact on society in general. In a narrow sense, educational problems may refer to problems that arise in this phase.Educational History-Management education-Deviation value-delinquency-Juvenile crime-Lower academic abilityな どLearner,In particularChildrenIn addition to the impact on society as a result ofteacherThe wayDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular-UniversityThe wayScholarshipEducational problems are a wide area of ​​social pathology.


EducationResearchSubject toLearningThePedagogySay Education is哲学-Psychology-Sociology-HistoryStudy research on education and various related matters and ideas using research methods such as.Educational philosophy-Educational sociology-Educational psychology・In addition to basic fields such asEducational methodology-Clinical pedagogy-Subject EducationThere are practical fields such as.The ideal way of pedagogy in each country isTeacher trainingIn many cases, it is closely related to the way it should be.

Education in animals

Higher animalsThen, there are cases where behaviors close to education or discipline can be seen.CatSuch asCarnivoreA typical example is applying a weakened prey to a child to practice hunting.


[How to use footnotes]


  1. ^ It is the parents' responsibility to teach children in the Bible (Deuteronomy (colloquial translation) #6:4-7
  2. ^ International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsArticle 1 XNUMX The Contracting Parties to this Covenant recognize the rights of all to education. Parties agree that education should be oriented towards the completion of personality and the full development of awareness of the dignity of personality and strengthening respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
  3. ^ Two or more children are born from a couple.
  4. ^ The basics of human education in human societyvalueViewattitude-VirtueEspecially for childrenDisciplineCalled.
  5. ^ The basics of human education in human societyvalueViewattitude-VirtueEspecially for childrenDisciplineCalled.
  6. ^ For example, in Japan's manufacturing industry in the 50s, the rise in educational standards contributed to the increase in economic growth by about 1 percentage point. reference,Ministry of Labor "Analysis of Labor Economy in 59 ()" Part II 1(1)1)
  7. ^ For example, the lifetime wage of a male standard worker (2004) is 2 million yen for junior high school graduates, 2 million yen for high school graduates, and 2 million yen for college and graduate school graduates. (Independent administrative agencyLabor Policy Research and Training Organization "Youthful Labor Statistics-Labor Statistics Processing Data Collection-2007 Edition" 2007 ISBN 978-4-538-49031-1 p. 254)


  1. ^ a b c d e f Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Analytical philosophyIt was influenced by. Peters, RS Ethics and Education London, Allen and Unwin, 1966.
  3. ^ Official French Government Page
  4. ^ a b Saori Nakajima “Why France has more children: French women's lifestyle” Kodansha 2010[Page number required]
  5. ^ Is German Education Free?
  6. ^ ア リ ス ト テ レ ス "Nikomachos ethics"politics"
  7. ^ J. Dewey ""Such
  8. ^ I. Kant 『』
  9. ^ Plato "Country"
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Yoji Kawamoto "Principle of Education", Japan Cultural Science Company, 1995.
  11. ^ "Enhancing Education". 2016/2/1Browse.
  12. ^ "Perspectives Competence Centre, Lifeling Learning Program”. As of May 2014, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2016/1/1Browse.
  13. ^ E. Durkheim 『』 Sasaki KyoukenTranslation Seishin Shobo 1922=1976 (new edition 1982 ISBN 978-4-414-51703-3
  14. ^ M. Foucault "Birth of a prison-surveillance and punishment』Tamura Tadashi 1975=1977
  15. ^ L. Althusser "State and Ideology"
  16. ^ "Consideration and verification of democratization indicators-through correlation analysis with literacy rate", "International Relations" (Ritsumeikan University) Issue 4 (2003) April 2004 pp.4-67.
  17. ^ Wiekliem, DL'The effects of education on political opinions: An international study' International Journal of Public Opinion Research Vol.14 2002 pp.141-157.
  18. ^ FoundationBright election promotion association"The actual situation of the 19th House of Councilors ordinary election" (issued in March 2002), "The actual situation of the 3th House of Councilors ordinary election" (issued March 20) http://www.akaruisenkyo.or.jp/ seach/index.html
  19. ^ a b Daniel Gorman "EQ Intelligence Index" Kodansha 1996
  20. ^ Center for International Cooperation Studies “Effective Approach to Development Issues” May 2002 p.5.
  21. ^ OECD 2014, p. 103.
  22. ^ For example,Masahiro Yamada "Disparity in hope" Chikuma Shobo 2004 ISBN 978-4-480-42308-5,Masano Nakano 『』 Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd. 2005 ISBN 978-4-334-93370-8


Related item

外部 リンク

Club activities

Club activities(Club Katsudoo, club activity), orExtracurricular activities(Bukkado, extracurricular activity),Circle activityAt (Circle Katsudo), friends with common hobbies and interests gathered together.GroupActivities in Japan.In schoolIn addition, there are many activities within the company and as a citizen's circle.existTo do.


There are various types of club activities, club activities, and club activities, and the types of activities are different for each school/group. Depending on the activity content, it is often roughly divided into "exercise (physical education)" and "cultural". The sports department is called the sports department (or the physical education department), and the culture department is called the culture department.

In school education activitiesJapanIn some cases, there is a strict definition such as "club activity" (described later). “Club activity” is also a term used in the curriculum guidelines, but it disappeared in 2002 when middle schools and in high schools revised in 2003.

Usually in Japanprimary school,Valais, SwitzerlandorUniversity,University-Junior collegeIn many cases, the same club activities are carried out until graduation (in some cases, if the school allows participation in multiple club activities, one person may participate in multiple club activities). But,AmericaThen often belong to different club activities depending on the season[1].. I rarely belong to the same club all year round, so I can enjoy various sports and cultural experiences.

WesternCountries andAustralia-New ZealandIn such cases, it is not a systematic club activity on a school-by-school basis.Region OfClub teamOften belong to.Olympic,サ ッ カ ーThe reason why we produce first-class players is because there are local club teams, and there are also professional players among them, so we can practice at a high level.JapanBut,サ ッ カ ーIn some competitions, not club activitiesYouth teamYou can see examples that belong to.

Socialist countryIn order to raise the national prestige, however, there were many cases in which athletes were trained by the national government.

Japanese school education club activities


There is a definition in "club activity" of Japanese school education,Course of Study"In club activities, as a part of school education activities, students with similar interest who are interested in sports, culture, and scholarship, etc.Voluntary and voluntary activities'[2]As for the contents of the curriculum, it is said that "they are familiar with sports, culture and science, etc., and contribute to the improvement of motivation for learning, a sense of responsibility, and the development of a sense of solidarity. Be careful so that they are related."[3]Is instructed.

Club activitiesprimary school-Junior high school-high school-University-Junior college-College of technology-Vocational schoolIs a commonly used name inClub activitiesAbbreviated as (Bukatsu).

At schoolunit,Club,Love partyIt is related to a system that divides groups into groups, such as, and in a narrow sense, it refers to the activities of a group called a club. In this case, at the time of new establishment, some schools may act as a lovers' club or club, and the system may be promoted to a club after a certain amount of activity record is evaluated. In this case, by being promoted to the club, for example, the operating expenses of the club will be recognized as a budget by the student council.

On the other hand, in a broad sense, it refers to the activities of all organizations that carry out activities such as clubs, and it is customary that the scope is defined by each school.


Of 2007TochigiThe enrollment rate in junior high school and high school is 90.8%, the sports club is 73.6%, and the culture club is 17.2%. According to statistics, the admission rate of the Ministry of Culture has been increasing year by year, and the choice of male students has expanded compared to the past, which has led to an increase.[4].

As of 2013,NaganoThen, the participation rate of the sports club itself is 7.7% lower than the national average. On the other hand, the fact that most schools practice mornings throughout the year is said to be higher than in other prefectures.[5].. An exercise (so-called “morning training”) is conducted from early morning to secure time for club practice, and some students devote themselves to regular activity classes, such as naps, to practice club activities, compete, and perform.[6].

Originally, entering club activities was not "compulsory",Voluntary and voluntary participationHowever, most junior and senior high schools do not follow the guidelines of the Ministry of Education and Culture, and forcibly belong to some club activities (without parental consent). Students who are not forced to belong to club activities by school rules and leave the school as soon as the regular lesson on the day endsReturn home departmentThere is a custom that is called.

In addition, I often refer to members who are "enrolled but not participating in the club",Ghost memberCall. Behind the appearance of ghost members, for example, there are no desired departments due to compulsory entrance (in accordance with school rules), but in terms of appearance, the results of "filling in a survey (internal report)/resume" In fact, for the purpose of securing theReturn home departmentIt is a style called.

Depending on the club activity, for reasons such as preventing excellent students from being pulled out,Transfer(Transfer) There may be cases where activities are prohibited or restricted (such as participation in competitions) for a certain period of time (for example, if there is a reason that attendance at the original school cannot be continued, or if you join the department at the original school). If you have not, you may be allowed to participate in special cases). As wellPast studentHowever, due to physique and other reasons, the period of activity may be limited to a period shorter than the minimum training period of the school.

In addition, there are many advisors and students who feel burdened with club activities.A survey conducted by Morinaga & Co., Ltd. for teachers of club advisorsAccording to the report, more than 7% of teachers answered that they "feel burdened with club activities".[7]..The burden of club activities is not only on teachers but also on students."FY29 "Survey on sports club activities, etc."When asked about "worries about club activities and school life" among students attending public junior high schools belonging to the athletic club, "the hours and days of club activities are long" (19.9%) was the most common.Next, the answers such as "compatibility with schoolwork" (16.3%) and "dullness" (16.0%) collected votes.[8].

Athletic and cultural

Club activities, club activities, and club activities are divided into athletic and cultural activities. In Japan, it is said that athletic club activities were first created.

Motor system
It is generally important for the athletic system to win a competitive match and achieve higher results. There are many places in Japan that engage in spiritual activities in the hope that human formation will take place through sports. Recently, some departments emphasize the spirituality while incorporating scientific methods into the practice menu to reduce the activity time and improve the effect.
Sports club activities under school management areAs a part of school education activities, students of similar interest who are interested in sports voluntarily and voluntarily play sports under the guidance of teachers, and challenge higher-level skills and records. Which has the significance of enjoying the enjoyment and joy of sports and enhancing school life(MEXT)[9].
Cultural system
Cultural systemthe purposeWhat is important depends on how you set it up.It may be the result of a competition, etc., or it may be the performance of service activities in a school or community, mutual aid in academics, arts, technology, etc., or the provision of research results.For performances such as brass band, chorus, and drama,All Japan Band Competition-NHK National School Music CompetitionIn order to get excellent results in competitions such as, there are times when we practice hard without holidays.Is an athletic systemMarching contestIf a cultural brass band participates in the school, it may be physically trained in the same way as an athletic band (depending on the school, the cultural brass band may not perform marching, cheerleading, cheering, etc. There is a marching band as a motor system.)
There are many school-specific elements in the content of activities, and some departments may not have a corresponding department in a cultural federation such as the National High School Cultural Federation. Many of those departments aim to make presentations in the school or in the community.
General Affairs Department
Among the cultural systems, the broadcasting club and brass band clubs that carry out activities related to the events of the entire school may be classified as the "general affairs department" or may be regarded as committee activities. In addition, there is a similar tendency in cheering groups and the like, which are often classified as athletic.
Outer office
HokkaidoA lot ofhigh schoolIn, activities related to "brass band," "broadcasting," and "books" are set up as external stations of the Student Organization, not as club activities.Schools that introduce an external station system use names such as "brass band station," "broadcasting station," and "book station."

Activities by stage

primary school,Junior high school,high school,UniversityPublic educationThe situation of club activities, club activities, and club activities changes little by little as the stage progresses. In many elementary schools, club activities are the main focus, and in junior high and high schools, club activities are the main focus. When it comes to college,StudentOften the shackles are loose. BigPublic interest-It is divided into two groups, one is a field-oriented group and the other is a person-oriented group, but there are some groups that do not clarify what they value.

Primary Education,Secondary educationAccompanied by stage club activitiesCompetitionRegarding the clarification of the organizer,victoryNational basic standards such as elimination of supremacy and respect for willingness to participate have been established.[10], Based on this eachEducation Agency,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,GroupEtc. are also detailedStandard,SafeCreate measures,responsibilityClarification ofChildren-student OfHealth,SchoolworkActivities are supposed to be carried out within the range that does not hinder the operation.

Primary Education

primary schoolClub activities are compulsory in primary education such as.this is,Course of StudyThere is a provision inSpecial activityThis is because it is considered as one area. Clubs are established in their own way, with each school or multiple schools collaborating. Although the organizational rate is low, optional club activities and club activities are also organized,chorusTeambrass bandIs organized as a beginning. In addition, in order to distinguish the required club activities from the selected club activities, they may be referred to as "required clubs" and "selected clubs", respectively.

Elementary school club activities are often divided into classrooms at 6 o'clock every week. In addition, recently, many schools basically do not carry out club activities during times other than the name "club activities". However, regarding mandatory club activities,Course of StudyDue to the revision ofYutori educationAs part of2002From degreeSaturdayIs allHolidayAs a result, the number of schools in which weekly club activities have been reduced to about one hour per month has increased. It can be said that this is a measure to secure class time. In practice, the practice time is irregular due to the actual conditions of each club, and there are also places where the students practice for presentations after school.ChildOur requests and localvolunteer(Often the originalGuardian) May come to teach, but the actual management depends on individual teachers.

However,Elementary, middle and high school consistent educationElementary school club activities are often divided into classrooms at 6 o'clock every week, and the number of schools where the weekly club activity time is increased to about 2 hours per month has increased. Club activities run from the 5th week of April to the 1nd week of March.

KyotoKyoto CityNow, club activities have also started in recent years,cultureThere are also club activities.After classDifferent toschool year,classThe children ofcommunicationIt is highly desirable in terms of development. However, securing instructors is very difficult,TeacherThere are more and more cases in which it is not possible to deal with it by itself. In the current decline of local educational ability, it is essential for teachers to actively engage in protecting the reality of parents and children.EnglishIn some fields, such as clubs, where teachers are not good at teaching, some clubs are run only by parents. In primary education,head teacherTeachers should form the basis of club activities under the guidance of, but it often does not reach the goal. On the other hand, considering the burden on children and teachers, abolishing club activities that were once carried out,Local clubs and circles and sports clubsThe number of elementary schools outsourced to such organizations is increasing.

Incidentally,<span>Grade 1-2</span>Intended forSports boysIs active in elementary school units, for example, a club teamサ ッ カ ーSection",Youth baseballThe club teambaseballThe sports boys' group may be implicitly recognized as synonymous with the club activities of the elementary school, such as being called a "club," and the boundaries between "school clubs" and "regional clubs" may be blurred.

Training campIs generally not done.

Secondary education

Junior high school,high schoolSuch asSecondary educationIn club activities and club activitiesExtracurricular activities.

1958According to the curriculum guidelines of, as one of the extracurricular activities, it is an activity that is carried out by the voluntary participation of students, but in junior high school1972, In high school1973From the revised course of study, club activitiesSpecial activityIt was made compulsory as an area.In junior high school1993, In high school1992The revised course of study stipulates that "participation in club activities can be replaced with some or all of the club activities."But in junior high school2002, In high school2003The required club activities in the revised course of studyComprehensive learning timeAbolished in the form of being absorbed and integrated intoNow[When?]According to the course of study, "Club activities are part of school education activities.Sports,culture.LearningStudents with similar interests and interests, under the guidance of faculty and staff, act voluntarily and voluntarily, mainly after school. "[2]It is said that.the current[When?]Then, depending on the actual situation of each school, students will participate voluntarily and voluntarily.[11]Club activities are being conducted as a part of extracurricular activities.

In many schools, club activities arestudent councilOperate under the umbrella of, or in a collaborative or cooperative relationship.

Approximately 5% of teachers who teach athletic club activities in junior high school and high school have experience in competition.[12].

Higher education

University-Junior college-College of technologySuch asHigher educationIn the field, all these activitiesExtracurricular activitiesIs. For this reason, the categories of activity groups differ from school to school, but it is generally said that they can be broadly divided into groups that emphasize public interests and fields and groups that emphasize human interaction, depending on the student's intention. In addition, we are active across multiple schoolsInter College(Generally,IncareThere is also a form called "circle".

There are often self-governing bodies such as sports clubs and cultural associations that are in charge of club activities and club activities. With athletic meet and cultural associationStudent associationRelationships vary from school to school. In addition, there are cases where club activities are conducted without belonging to an organization for each of these activity fields.

In particular, there are many certified clubs in schools that are classified as universities that started from a pioneering position in the field in Japan, and especially in outpatient athletics, it is important from the initial stage of the event in Japan. There is an example that plays a role, and as a result, unlike other school education sites, there is no method of operation such as a general physical education competition that controls all disciplines. (In some areas, such a form can be seen, but it cannot be said to be general.) Rather, individual associations or associations for each discipline have been established from early on, and most have developed in a form in which the number of member schools has increased. (Reference: Partial introduction to related items below)


Athletic organization/meeting

Cultural organizations and competitions

Issues/problems and countermeasures

It has been pointed out that club activities play an important role in students' self-actualization and growth in Japanese schools, while some activities, including teachers, place an excessive burden on the mind and body. Such a so-called "Black club"The Society for Club Activities, Japan" was launched in December 2017 to study club activities academically and make recommendations, including countermeasures for problems.[13] [14].

As one of the reasons why these problems came to be recognized in August 2016NHKThe program "Close-up modern +』, the issue of club activities that perform unreasonable harassment behavior during practice was addressed. With such content as "abusive language that denies the student's personality, and long-term restraint enough to get sick,"Black clubThe voice of a brass band instructor cursing a student or kicking a chair was played, and the actual situation was broadcast.[15].

Even if you don't go to "black club", club activities that require long and hard practice for the purpose of recording and winning will be an excessive burden for students who are not good at exercise or want to keep up with other club activities. There is a side. For this reason, some schools have "light sports clubs" that are easy to participate,Sports AgencyHas established guidelines for sports club activities[16].

Injuries and outdoor activities in club activitiesDistressMay occur.Nasu avalanche accident(March 2017) Later, Fuyuyama as a club activityClimbingThe high school which does is halved[17].. Of other teachers who instruct club activitiesService overtime(overtime work) Becomes too long,Death from overworkThere are also examples that have reached[18].

Gifu Commercial High SchoolOf the baseball clubBlacksmith"Leaders with few withdrawals want to fit students into the mold. If you respect individuality and give it away, you won't be able to handle it," he said.

Many teachers are appointed as advisors to club activities who have no experience in competition.

As far as the hair of high school ball children is concerned, the stereotypes around them are strong. When the team in Kyushu stood in Koshien, the manager liberalized the hair of the players, and OBs and fans complained that it was not like a ball child. Forced curl is defined as explicit corporal punishment (violence)[19].. Tsuyoshi KawadaStanford University(USA) American football coach said, "Japanese people think it's great to keep going through injuries."[20].

Around the 2020s, the coverage of black club activities has increased, and recreation-oriented events that you can easily participate in have become popular. Therefore, there is a movement to widen the frontage without relying on the gold medal of the Olympic Games in the field.[21],

Consultation counter/related organizations
UV protection

In many cases, outdoor exercise activities under school control do not have protection measures against UV exposure (or teachers prohibit personal protection, etc.).


Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularUnder control, outdoor exercise activities are often carried out for the summer tournament, and there are frequent cases of heat stroke outbreaks and fatal accidents under the scorching sun.

Western school education club activities

America,The United KingdomSo club activities are not positioned as pure school activities like Japan, but generallyDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularIt is an activity that is jointly carried out in the region[22]. Also,Germany,イタリア,NordicSuch asCountryThere are local sports clubs, but there is no equivalent to club activities as school activities.[22].


America's educational and sports policies are different in each state[1].

CaliforniaIn the case of, junior high school and high school have club activities after school, but there are many cases where it is necessary to pass the tryout as a condition for joining the club.[1].. It has become a difficult system to join the club if you have no experience in popular games such as baseball, basketball, and American football.[1].. There are also many students who belong to different disciplines depending on the season[1].

The United Kingdom

British club activities (school sports)History The19st centuryOriginating from a public school in[1].. Sports club activities are in both primary and secondary schools and are often taught by physical education teachers.[1]..Club activity participation rate is about 50%, and many children and students are active once or twice a week.[1].

EnglandThe number of sports events offered at schools in Japan is about 50, with an average of 18.2 events at each school.[1].

In England's national curriculum, for primary and secondary schoolsphysical educationThe policy goal is a total of 2 hours a week, with 3 hours a week for club activities or 5 hours a week for sports activities in the community.[1].


FranceIn addition to physical education, an activity called sports scolaire is provided to children and students.[1].. Education and sports are conducted in a joint partnership between the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Sports[1].

In France, school sports non-profit associations (AS) have been established to promote educational sports.[1].

  • Although there is no obligation to create an AS in primary education, there are 13,200 member schools in the Association of Primary Education and Sports (USEP), the governing body of AS in primary education.[1].
  • In secondary education, there is an obligation to create an AS, and junior high and high school students who wish to join can belong to AS and participate in competitions.[1].

According to a 2006 survey, about 20% of students participate in AS and participate in sports, and about 52% of students participate in sports club and participate in sports. About 68% of the students (duplicate surveys with multiple answers)[1].


There is no equivalent to athletic club activities in Germany, but out-of-class sports activities are active.[1].. In Hesse, full-time programs and conferences are held as out-of-class sports activities.[1].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. “Overseas survey in a research study on accident prevention during physical education activities (report)” Ministry of education
  2. ^ a b Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, High School Learning Guideline Commentary on Special Activities, 46. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/micro_detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/01/05/1234912_014.pdf
  3. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, middle school learning guideline commentary, 84. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/education/micro_detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/01/05/1234912_001.pdf
  4. ^ Tokyo Shimbun-Increase in admission rate for both middle and high school students Club activities
  5. ^ Controversy of club activities "Asaren"-Nagano's decision to "abolish" Concerns over burnout syndrome of junior high school students (page 2-2) -MSN Sankei News, 2013.11.14
  6. ^ Masaki Maezono (former professional soccer player) is a member of Kagoshima Jitsugyo High School soccer club. Shijiri-sensei Don't be like me 3 hours SP TV Asahi 2015 Guest appearance
  7. ^ "#What you can do for club activities”. Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd. 2020/7/7Browse.
  8. ^ "29 fact-finding report about sports club activities”. Japan Sports Agency. 2020/7/7Browse.
  9. ^ Educational measures in Japan Ministry of education]
  10. ^ "Standards for athletic competitions for children and students" (about the handling of athletic competitions for new children and students following the abolition of "about athletic competitions for children and students")Heisei 13 years 12th company No. 6,Ministry of educationSports-teensBureau planningphysical education(Notice from section manager "About athletic competition for children and students" attached).
  11. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Current Guidelines for Learning Chapter 1 General Rules 4 Matters that should be considered when preparing teaching plans, etc. (XNUMX)
  12. ^ Survey Report on Actual Conditions of School Athletic Club Activity LeadersJapan Physical Education Association Leader Development Special Committee July 26 (PDF)
  13. ^ Japanese club activity society(Retrieved September 2017, 12)
  14. ^ "Japan Club Activity Society" is launched Memorial meeting in NagoyaMainichi Newspaper News Site (December 2017, 12)
  15. ^ ""Die! Stupid!" Is this a guidance? ~ Spread "Black club"~"- NHK Close-up Hyundai+, 2016.8.1
  16. ^ A few times a month, enjoyable exercise / club activities have begun``Tokyo Shimbun'' evening edition March 2018, 3
  17. ^ High school winter mountain climbing halved in half High school activities after the accident Safety measures AnguishNihon Keizai Shimbun evening edition March 2018, 3 (researchKyodo Newsby)
  18. ^ Overtime death certified by club activities Overtime work, XNUMX hours a month Teacher in Toyama Mainichi Newspaper March 2018, 7
  19. ^ June 2018, 6 Chunichi Shimbun 7 pages
  20. ^ June 2018, 6 Chunichi Shimbun 9 pages
  21. ^ "Olympic medals are also ineffective Challenges left for organizations and supporting companies: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2021/8/12Browse.
  22. ^ a b Regulatory Reform Promotion Council Public Discussion Materials Cabinet Office, viewed January 2021, 1.

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外部 リンク

Motor system

Cultural system



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