Professor Moriuchi of Nagasaki University Hospital who was a lecturer at the photo online workshop
"If you are healthy, you don't need to hurry." Vaccination of children Nagasaki University Hospital, Professor Moriuchi
If you write the contents roughly
However, he pointed out that mass vaccination may be desirable when the person, parents, faculty and staff, and medical staff are in close contact with each other, such as in special schools.
Nagasaki Prefecture will hold an online workshop on the new coronavirus vaccination of children aged 22 to 12 on the 18nd ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Special school(Tokubetsu Engaku)handicappedEtc.Kindergarten,primary school,Junior high school,high schoolAccording toEducationReceiving" and "LearningOn orLifeTo overcome the above difficulties and achieve independence"Japan OfDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular.
2007 OfMinistry of educationIn "Promotion of Special Needs Education (Notice)", it was important to create a system that can deal with various types of disabilities while promoting the efforts in schools for the blind, deaf and nursing schools so far, and it was established in the same year... 2007May 3Previously, blind school, deaf school, school for the disabled (including these,Special education schoolsWas called) Is special education (currentSpecial support education) As an individual school typedecreeWas prescribed in2007May 4From the same school type. In addition, the end of the individual school nameSchool for the blind(Let's go)Deaf school(Rogakko)School for disabled children(Young school)[Annotation 1]Some are, but these tooSchool education lawInSpecial school.
Special support school system
Special support schoolsVisually impaired,Deaf person,Intellectually Handicapped Individual,Physically handicapped, ま た はSick(Physically weakIncluding)Kindergarten,primary school,Junior high schoolorhigh schoolAccording toEducationAndObstaclebyLearningOn orLifeupperDifficultTheget overToothIndependenceNecessary to planknowledgeskillThe purpose is to bestow (School education lawArticle 72).Educational activitiesSpecial support educationIt is carried out according to the philosophy of.
For special needs schools,Kindergarten,Elementary school,Middle school,High School, "High SchoolMajorThere isAdmissionEach qualificationKindergarten,primary school,Junior high school,high school, "High School Major"
classHas a single disabilityAn infantChildrenstudent"General" consisting of (hereinafter, students in this section)class", Composed of students with multiple disabilitiesMultiple disability classThere is[Annotation 2]. The maximum number of students per class is 1 (Chiba PrefectureNaraSome local governments have less than 15 people. ), MultipleTeacher Homeroom teacherI often do it.AlsohomeFor children with severe disabilities who have difficulty attending school fromTeacherGoes to the student's homeVisiting classThere are some places. Temporary transfer to another special needs school with such a function is not uncommon if medical assistance is required for a shorter period.
By the revision of the School Education Law, the system that was divided into "blind school", "deaf school" and "nursing school" until March 2007, 3,2007It has been integrated into a "special needs school" since April 4. This name change nominally eliminates the division based on the functional differences between schools. Therefore, at each special needs school, as stipulated by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology,Visually impaired,Deaf person,Intellectually Handicapped Individual,Physically handicapped, Education for sick people (including physically weak people) is to clarify what the school does (Article 73 of the School Education Act). It is said that these education will meet the special educational needs of each person regardless of the type of disability.Special support educationIt is said that it will be carried out based on the philosophy of. Education for two or more different types of persons with disabilities may be provided. However,Public school, The labor costs for faculty and staff must be calculated strictly in accordance with the law, so the education to be conducted is mainly determined... In addition, a school that handles multiple educational fields in one school"Colocated school"It is called (However, even if it is advocating that it is dealing with multiple educational areas, the fact is that if it is biased to one, it will not be treated as a "collocated school").
In addition, special support schools are defined not only to provide education to enrolled students, but also to provide advice and support regarding the education of students enrolled in local kindergartens, elementary, middle and high schools, so-called "center function". Are.. Conventional obstacle[Annotation 3]に 加 え て,Developmental disorders[Annotation 4]We will also provide comprehensive and overall consideration and support to children such as these in the community and school.[Annotation 5].. However, it has been pointed out that it is not clear in which educational area special support schools actually deal with children and students with developmental disabilities (because there is no intellectual delay, it is not a school with intellectual disabilities, Illness that remains because I am not free[Annotation 6]Although some experts say that the definition itself is not made, its categorization remains unclear. Currently, special support schools for people with intellectual disabilities are mainly providing support, and other school types are mainly providing support for people with multiple disabilities with developmental disabilities). With the growing interest in special needs education, each prefecture was expanded to include special needs schools, branch schools, and branch schools in high schools. Mainly the school buildings that were no longer used due to the consolidation of high schools were rebuilt and special support schools were newly established.
The age of students in elementary and junior high schools is often wider than in elementary and junior high schools. There are also cases in which older students are intentionally welcomed,AgeismThere are many parts that are out of the effect of. To the elementary schoolSchool ageThere are also cases in which excess people are enrolled.
Degree of disability that can enter a special needs school
|Classification||Degree of disability|
|Visually impaired||BinocularvisionIs generally less than XNUMX[Annotation 7]Of those with severe visual impairment other than those with visual acuity or magnifying glass, etc.[Annotation 8]Ordinary characters, figures, etc.[Annotation 9]To the extent that it is impossible or extremely difficult to visually recognize|
|Deaf person||Both earsHearingThe level is about XNUMXDecibelOf the abovehearing aidIt is impossible or extremely difficult to understand the normal voice even by using such as|
|Intellectually Handicapped Individual||There is one delay[Annotation 10], Communication with others[Annotation 11]Difficult[Annotation 12]Often need help to carry out daily activities in[Annotation 13]Things of degree|
(Ii) Among those whose intellectual development delays do not reach the levels listed in the previous item, it is extremely difficult to adapt to social life.[Annotation 14]What
|Physically handicapped||A state of physical disabilityProsthesis[Annotation 15]The basic actions in daily life such as walking and writing by using[Annotation 16]That is impossible or difficult|
Bilateral medical observation instruction, even if the physical disability does not reach the level listed in the previous issue[Annotation 17]Things that require
|Sick||一 Chronic OfRespiratory disease,Kidney diseaseas well as the Neurological disease,Malignant neoplasmOther illnesses that continue to require medical or living restrictions|
two Weak bodyThose whose condition continues to require living regulations
autismAs for, with intellectual disabilities, depending on the state of having a disability of the degree of the intellectually disabled person in the table, it may be educated at a special needs school (intellectual disability). Many children with intellectual disabilities with autism are enrolled in special needs schools. In addition, if you are sick or physically weak, you need to consider receiving education at a special needs school (sick) depending on your condition.
However, autism may be considered as having intellectual disability if there is no delay in intellectual development if there is no appropriate medical treatment before entering school. Accidentally warns against autism being targeted for special needs schools.
Autism without intellectual disability,Emotional disorder,Language disorder,Learning disability(LD),Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) does not correspond to the degree of disability that can be enrolled in a special needs school.
Revision of the system for determining school attendance
Prior to 14 (2002), all persons with certain disabilities were supposed to attend special needs schools. However, in the case of special circumstances such as the establishment of a certified enrollment system and the provision of facilities for elementary and junior high schools due to the revision in 14 (2002), exceptionally, it is not certified as a special needs support school. It became possible to enter elementary and junior high schools as academics, and the number of persons with disabilities enrolled in elementary and junior high schools continued to increase.
In addition, with the revision in 25, the basic concept of the School Education Law Enforcement Ordinance, which means that children with certain disabilities are generally enrolled in special needs schools, has been revised. The committee has been revised to a mechanism to judge and decide either elementary and junior high school or special support school after thoroughly examining individual children and students based on the state of disability etc.After that, enrollment of students with disabilities in public elementary schools increased significantly.
In this way, the enrollment destination is ultimately decided by the municipal education support committee, so even if there is some disability, enrollment in a special needs school is not necessarily designated. Of the persons with disabilities surveyed and deliberated, less than 2% are judged to have the degree of disability who can enter a special needs school. Only about 7% of the persons with disabilities who are subject to deliberation are actually enrolled in special needs schools, as only about 13% are designated to attend special needs schools..
In addition, due to the revision of the School Education Law Enforcement Ordinance, the school education law enforcement ordinance No. The table of the degree of disability in the preceding paragraph specified in Article XNUMX-XNUMX no longer has the function as "school attendance standard", but it still has the function as "degree of disability that can be admitted to a special school"..
From the elementary school to the high school, the same contents from the elementary school of the regular school to the high schoolNational language,Math(Arithmetic),science,社会,English,Technology/home,情报,physical education,Music,Art such asSubjectHowever, they are devised to develop their ability to overcome obstacles and develop them. Selected from elementary school to high schooltextbookWe use learning materials that have been devised so that we can learn according to each disability.
In special needs schools,IndependenceActivities are performed according to the characteristics of the disability. Self-reliant activities include learning the means and measures to improve one's own safety. There are also teachers who specialize in independent activities without taking charge of the class.
The "High School" and "High School Major" include "General Education"general course"Departments specializing in specialized educationEither or both can be placed. Most of the departments that are placed in the “specialty in the high school” are those that specialize in specialized education.
1875(Meiji 8),KyotoBelow the XNUMXth Elementary SchoolNijo Johoku Elementary SchoolSoon after the opening of the rhyme school,Blind childrenAlso began to educate. Teacher'sTaishiro FurukawaBut,Home signI made it myself, includingsign languageUsingDeaf childToTeachingWas.1878(11th year of Meiji)May 5, Kyoto Blindness Center was opened and Taishiro Furukawa was the first director. HoweverDonationSchool management became unstable because it was based on financial resources from1879(Meiji 12) In April, the installer was transferred to Kyoto Prefecture.Kyoto Prefectural SchoolIt became.
Around 1875 (Meiji 8), a group of volunteers called Rakuzenkai started a campaign to establish a blind school for the education of the blind, and in March 1876 (Meiji 9), the governor's name was granted. In July 3, construction of a school building started in Tsukiji. In February 1878 (Meiji 11), the school name was set as "Rakuzenkai Kokuinin," and classes started. In June of the same year, deaf children were also added. In 7 (Meiji 1880), the school name was changed to "Rakuzenkai Kokuinin", but management became difficult due to business development, and in 13 (Meiji 2) it became a school under the direct control of the Ministry of Education "Tokyo Blind School" Renamed. laterTokyo University of EducationBecame an affiliated school ofUniversity of Tsukuba Special Visual Support School-University of Tsukuba Special Auditory School for HearingIt has become.
The Ministry of Education established the revised Elementary School Ordinance in October 1890 (Meiji 23) and established the provisions regarding the establishment and abolition of blind school. The number of schools for the deaf has also increased gradually, with four schools in 10 (Meiji 1897) and 30 schools in 4 (Meiji 1907).
It was pointed out that the same school was taught the completely different disabilities, blindness and deafness, and the Ministry of Education in April 1909 (Meiji 42) partially revised the school system under direct control and established a new Tokyo school for the blind. In March of the following year, the conventional Tokyo Blind School was abolished and the Tokyo Deaf School was established. This was the pioneer of separation of the blind and the deaf. In August 4 (Taisho 3), the edict of the "Ordinance for the Blind School and the Deaf School" was enacted, and the Ordinance of the Ministry of Education "Public Private Blind School and Deaf School Regulation" was promulgated. For the first time, these measures separated the blind school into two schools, the blind school and the deaf school.
In March 1947 (Showa 22), the School for the Deaf became a deaf school under the School Education Law, which was promulgated at the same time as the Basic Education Law, and became a school for compulsory education for deaf children. At this time, a system of "school for the disabled" was created for people with intellectual disabilities, physically handicapped people, and sick people (including physically weak people). In this way, three schools, "blind school," "deaf school," and "school for the disabled" were legalized as schools for special education (current special education).
1979Since the former school for the disabled is not a compulsory educational institution, it targets only people with mild disabilities, and those with severe or multiple disabilitiesEnrollment delay or exemptionAs a result, I was waiting at my home or a facility for the disabled. Since the transition to compulsory education in 1979, people with severe and multiple disabilities have been enrolled in school for the disabled, but exclusion of children with disabilities was also seen in local ordinary schools. Criticism that it is still separate education is still seen.. On the other hand, there are also cases where a school for children with disabilities is set up in regular schools such as elementary schools and junior high schools to accept specialized teachers, and children with disabilities are accepted in regular classes.
On the other hand, due to compulsory education at school for disabled children, the enrollment ratio of people with severe and multiple disabilities is increasing. There was also a situation where students with mild disabilities could not be fully educated. For this reason, some prefectures haveVocational education-Professional educationPositioned as a placeHigh school(Currently,High SchoolOrHigh school..A special support school for high schools only) was newly established from the existing high school for the disabled.At that time, as a general rule, only persons with disabilities can enter, edit, or transfer to a high school (high school).Most of the prefectures in this school require students who can go to school by themselves as a condition for admission.
In Japan's education, many kinds of treatment due to disabilities have been used in the past.2007On April 4, all school types that educate people with disabilities were unified into "special support schools."As a result, many schools have changed their school name to "(special) support school."However, since it is not a mandatory regulation, there are many places where the old school name remains the same.
publicThere are mainly prefectural and municipal, union-owned special support schools, and public elementary and junior high school teachers are specially assisted schools (often You can transfer to a special needs school that provides education for people with intellectual disabilities, but there are some areas where you need to pass a test before you can move to a prefectural special needs school. In addition, the number of special needs schools that provide education for the visually impaired, the deaf, the physically handicapped, and the sick is limited. Transfer destination is limited. As a result, some teachers may have longer years of service at a particular school. In particular, there are often only one special support school for the visually impaired and the hearing impaired in the prefecture.
Of special needs schoolTeacherIs, in principle,Special Needs School TeacherLicense and license corresponding to each part (kindergarten teacher,Elementary school teacher,Junior high school teacher,High school teacherOne ofTeacher license) Must have bothEducation staff license lawStipulated in. However, because the provisions of Supplementary Provision 16 of the same law have been watered out under the condition of "for the time being", they do not necessarily hold a license for a special needs school teacher.
Faculty of EducationIn the teacher training course, it is difficult to obtain a teacher's license from a special needs school unless you are aspiring to special needs education since you entered the university. In recent years, to receive a license from a special needs school teacherLicense Law Certification Course(PrefectureBoard of educationLed),University correspondenceThe number of teachers who hold a license for a special needs school teacher is also increasing. However, in the area of "education regarding visual impairment",2012Currently, there is no university that is approved for the course, so acquisition through distance learning (including "addition of new education area") is not possible. By the way, in the area of "education about hearing impairment"2012There is only one school in the correspondence course at the time (Because there is no exemption for prior and subsequent guidance unless you have more than 1 years of work experience in a special needs school, it will be held at the end of the yearschoolingIs required. In addition, regardless of the number of years, there is a course certification relationship for employees working at any of the schools for the visually impaired or for special support classes at general schools, and they are not exempt from exemption, including schooling.). Therefore, acquiring a license from a special needs school teacher through distance learning is, in effect, ``education related to intellectual disability,'' ``education related to physical disabilities,'' and ``sickness (including physical weakness), which is equivalent to the former school for disabled children. Three areas of "education about" are targeted.
|Number of teachers in special needs schools||53,242||55,414||58,591|
The total of 2001, 2004 is for blind school, deaf school, and special school.
After obtaining a license for elementary school, junior high school, and high school in the teacher training course,MajorAlternatively, you can obtain a license from a special needs school teacher by completing graduate school. Moreover, in recent years, it is possible to obtain a license for a teacher of special needs school by completing the graduate school of teaching profession by those who are already teachers or general bachelors.
For special needs schoolsDormitoryMay be installed side by side. In particular, there are few special support schools for the hearing impaired and the visually impaired, with only one or two locations in each prefecture, and many students have difficulty in attending school because their homes are in remote areas. Without trainingElectric train,busBecause it is difficult to transfer to school[Annotation 18].. However, because the requirements for setting up dormitories are "areas where it is difficult to go to school at home," the tendency tends to be lower in metropolitan areas where transportation is more advanced. Also, the number of dormitories themselves is declining nationwide, and there are voices of concern about the future of dormitory education in inverse proportion to the importance of special support education.[Annotation 19].
Most of the dormitories are located on the same grounds as the school building, and the dormitories go to the school from there. In addition, take charge of life guidance in the dormitoryDormitory instructorAim for independence through life guidance (support for independence of daily activities such as changing clothes, meals, excretion, bathing) and self-government activities (activities in children's associations and out-of-school experience activities in ridges and groups) Education is provided by dormitory instructors.
If you are a dormitory instructor, register at schoolTeacherAs wellEducation civil servantIn the status of Although it varies depending on the prefecture, there are cases where the presence or absence of a teacher's license is not a requirement for hiring. However, due to loose qualification requirementsTeacherAnd educational administration,Board of educationThere is no relocation to In that caseCivil servantIt will be placed after taking the test.
More recently, Saturdays and Sundays when classes and events are not held.Public holidays,Summer Vacation-Winter vacation-spring vacationAt some schools, the long-term vacation period is used for home treatment and the dormitory is closed on the day. Mondays and FridaysOpening ceremony,Closing ceremonyThe roads around the school are congested because the parents are crowded with cars to pick them up. However, for a remote family with boarding students, the round trip by car on the day is long,Traffic accidentIn order to increase the risk of causing illness, some local governments are focusing on building schools in the blank areas to avoid dormitories as much as possible.
Special support school costs
Compared to regular schools, special support schools require about 1 times the cost required for each child.
|School type||Number of students||School education||Per student||Number of teachers||Per student|
|Public elementary school||7,084,675||6 million yen||901,573 Yen||409,665||0.06|
|Public blindness, deafness, school for the disabled||96,729||8339 million yen||8,621,840 Yen||60,453||0.62|
Main reason why the cost required for running a school is high
- The number of faculty members per student is considerably higher than in regular schools[Annotation 20].
- Special teaching materials and equipment according to individual disability characteristics are required.
- The school district is vast and there are many students who are unable to attend school on their own, so multiple shuttle buses are required.
- School buildings should be accessible to children with disabilities, and consideration should be given to prevent dangerous accidents such as falls.[Annotation 21].
- Many students need medical care, so some schools have nurses resident.
Local governmentDue to the financial difficulties in the above, there are cases where special support schools are reorganized (consolidated) due to the decrease in enrolled children and students. However, the number of children enrolled in special needs schools is increasing overall. Therefore, many local governments are increasing the number of special needs schools.
|Number of enrolled students||86,293||87,445||90,104||94,171||98,796||104,592|
In addition, the disability of students entering the school tends to be severe, and it started in 2007.Special support educationThe role of special needs schools will growHandicapped childOf parents are worried[By whom?].
Change school name
The blind school, the deaf school, and the school for the deaf who changed their names to "Special Needs School" in April 2007, when the revised School Education Law was enforced in Japan, established 4 out of 916 existing schools and newly established in FY182. Stayed at 2007 out of 11 schools.
In Osaka Prefecture, "support school" and "special" are not included in the name.
The opinion of “opposite school name change” can be seen in special needs schools that are aimed only at the hearing impaired. Formerly Deaf School,Differential communityThe graduates usually have a strong attachment to their alma mater. On the other hand, in recent years, some deaf schools in Japan have changed the school name from “deaf school”, “deaf school” to “special school for the deaf”, etc. It has developed into a discussion with.
As the sentiment of those who object to the name change, the word "deaf" or "deaf" is regarded as a part of their own identity, and they are proud of being a deaf person and the word "special support" is used.Healthy personSometimes it is regarded as a negative word that is supported by, and there are cases where the name was changed without understanding the sentiment of these Deaf people..
On the other hand, the name of the school for the disabled (the intellectually disabled, the sick, and the physically handicapped) is being changed to a special needs school.
Special support school for the visually impaired
Special support schools for the visually impaired are mainlySchool for the blindIt is often based on the system of.Visually impairedEven after the special support school system was inaugurated, there are many special support schools targeted only at the name of "blind school". In some cases,"Visual Special Support School""Visual support schoolThere is also a special support school under the name "," the name of "visual special support school" is sometimes used as a general noun of the law.
Targeting the first visually impairedSpecial schoolIt is,1784ToAyuiIt is a school for the blind in Paris, France. This school for the blindFrench RevolutionRight after1791Became a royal school for the blind in Paris, became the national school for the blind in Paris after the abolition of the royal administration.
Device of education (visually impaired)
In special needs schools for the visually impaired,BrailleEducation is carried out by using.
scienceThen, in the class, there are experiments and observations such as chemical experiments, and some students go on to science university. Even in physical education, various measures have been taken according to the characteristics of disabilities. For example, a healthy personValleyFor the visually impairedFloor volleyballIt is called, and instead of hitting the ball like a normal person, he plays under the net. In the game, three rear guards with low vision and three front guards who are totally blind (or those who wear eye masks) play the game, and the rear guards play while instructing the front guard with voice. There is. There are many secondary and high schools that have sports club activities, and national competitions are also held.
In special needs schools for the visually impaired, depending on the characteristics and degree of disability of students during independence activities, Braille instruction, training with white cane walking, compensation for obstacles such as extended reading devices for the visually impaired He teaches equipment and provides life training for self-reliance after graduation.
Professional education (visually impaired)
Regarding the departments that specialize in specialized education that educates visually impaired students in the “High School” and “High School Major”, see “Family Department”, “Music Department”, “Physical Science”, “Science” It is recognized that it has an appropriate scale and content as a department related to therapy” and other departments that provide specialized education.
Of these, regarding the “Department of Physical Therapy” and “Department of Physical Therapy”acupuncture,Massage,Anma Massage ShiatsuIncluding the field of. In Japan, for hundreds of years, as a profession for the blind,acupunctureとMassageHas been inherited. Acupuncture and massage are artisans rather than academics, so before the Second World War, the apprenticeship system trained the surgeon.
However, after World War II,Law on Anma Matsuzushi Shiatsu, Hari, and Kiyuushi"(Ahaki method) is enforced, and it is two years to work as acupuncturist, masseur[Annotation 22]Now that specialized education and national examinations are being imposed, the correspondingDepartment of physical therapyWas installed.
The physical therapy department is 3 years after high school,Acupuncturist-Anma Massage ShiatsuThere are two major departments, the physical therapy department, which qualifies for the national examination, and the health and medical department, which qualifies for the exam only for Anma massage shiatsu.
A special needs school for some visually impaired people is a traditional occupation for the blind (blind).KotoThere are places where there is a music department that trains musicians, and a physical therapy department that trains physiotherapists.
Special support school for the deaf
In Japan, there are 106 national, public, and private hearing aid schools for the hearing impaired.
Special support schools for the hearing impaired are often based on the former deaf school system. These days are the deaf people's mother tongueJapanese sign languageThere is also a school with a teacher training course that teaches Japanese sign language to protect the right to education in (Japan College of Social Work).
- Problems surrounding education for the deaf
- Education for the Deaf in the United States
- Transition of oral and sign language in Japan
Among special needs schools for the hearing impaired only, there are some schools that maintain the names of "Deaf school" and "Deaf school" even after the system for special needs schools is established. To do. Other names are as follows.
- "Hearing aid school'
- The name "special hearing school for hearing aid" may be used as a legal school type name.
- "Hearing aid school'
- "Hearing impaired special support school'
Device of education (hearing impaired)
The education content of special needs schools for the deaf and hearing impaired is basically in accordance with the usual learning guidelines. It is stipulated. Previously, mainly spokencommunicationThe actual situation was that it was a place for training, but in recent years, due to the increase in children with multiple disabilities, the educational content required of special schools for the hearing impaired has diversified.For children diagnosed with hearing impairmentPreschool education(Early education) is also an important role of special needs schools for the hearing impaired.
Professional education (hearing impaired)
For the departments that specialize in specialized education that educates deaf students in the “High School” and “High School Major”, see “Agriculture”, “Industry”, “Commerce”, and “Home”. It is recognized that there is an appropriate scale and content as a subject related to specialized education, a subject related to art, a subject related to art, a subject related to barber/beauty, and a subject related to dental technician.
Special support school to educate people with intellectual disabilities
Special support schools for people with intellectual disabilities often use the former school for disabled children as the main body. Among special support schools for people with intellectual disabilities, even after the system of special support schools is established, it is often called the "school for the disabled". "Intellectual special needs schoolThe name "" is sometimes used as a general noun in statutory texts. TypicallyChildren with intellectual disabilities,Emotionally disabled children(Until 2007. After 2008, "autism"When"SilenceEtc.” and divide the part other than autism intoEmotional disorderIt is considered that it is a school for such as. Depending on the school, due to the relationship with designated schools,Developmental disordersThere are also schools that are targeting children and students of.
When entering the high school of special needs schools for people with intellectual disabilities,High school examthe same asEntrance examinationIt is often done, but it is simple. It may be held mainly at higher special needs schools (higher school for the disabled). However, depending on the school, the application qualifications are "Persons enrolled in a special support class of a junior high school", "Persons enrolled in a junior high school of a special needs school", "Nursing notebookIt may be limited to "owners", and it may be difficult for people who have been educated in ordinary classes of ordinary schools to enter.[Annotation 23].
In addition, in the name of school for the disabledFinding employment,marriageSince there are many disadvantages in doing so, some local governments are taking into consideration that the school name is commonly known as "High School for High Schools" so that they cannot be recognized as a school for the first time. Miyagi Prefectural School for the Disabled Iwanuma High School →Miyagi Prefectural Support School Iwanuma High SchoolSuch).
Device of education (people with intellectual disabilities)
Regarding the curriculum (contents of lessons) for people with intellectual disabilities, for students with intellectual disabilities, special programs can be implemented according to the situation of the individual.School Education Law Enforcement RegulationsAnd based on this enforcement regulationEducation-Course of StudyIs recognized by.
In the case of non-overlapping classes, there are up to 1 students per class for non-overlapping classes, and up to 6 students per class for overlapping classes. , 1 people and 3 people, 5 people are treated as one group. In the case of overlapping classes, the class will be marked as "Overlapped ● Group" in the attendance bookCompound classIn some cases
In the curriculum for people with intellectual disabilities in the higher education,primary school-Junior high schoolalike,unitComplete, no concept ofSchool yearTherefore, in modern timesPrimary detentionIs unlikely to be done unless the person requests it (Regular examinationThere are some places that do not do).
Professional education (people with intellectual disabilities)
Regarding the departments mainly for specialized education, which provides education to students who are intellectually disabled, physically handicapped or sick (including physically weak) in the “High School” and “High School Major” It is recognized that the "Agricultural Department", "Industrial Department", "Commercial Department", "Family Department", "Industrial General Department", and other specialized education courses have appropriate scale and content.2013From the high school enrollment/advance students, in accordance with the special education school high school study guidelines,welfareFor intellectual disabilitiesSubjectSince it is added to, it is possible to set up "Department of Welfare".
Actually, vocational training such as cleaning, building maintenance, housework, care welfare, and warehouse logistics are conducted. These are employment after graduation,working placeI am deeply involved in entering the facility.
Special support school to provide education for the physically disabled
Special support schools for the physically handicapped are often based on the system of former school for the disabled. Among special needs schools for the physically handicapped only, even after the system for special needs schools was established, the school name is often "school for the disabled". "Special support school for limbsThe name "" is sometimes used as a general noun in statutory texts. It is generally regarded as a school for the physically handicapped.
Child Welfare ActMedical facility for children with disabilities prescribed bySeverely disabled childFor those adjacent to or adjacent to (target)Severely disabled childRatio is high. As a number,Child Welfare ActMedical-type/entrance-type nursing home for the physically prescribed (usually,Medical lawBased onhospitalThere are many schools that do not have both of the former two, but there are a few schools (by the way, according to the laws of the current Child Welfare Act, We do not distinguish between physically handicapped children and children with severe physical and intellectual disabilities, and we have an institution-type "medical-type handicapped child facility", but the categories actually covered by the facility are when there are two categories and when both are handled. There is).
Where it changedAkita Prefectural Akita Kirari Support Schoollike,Child Welfare ActMedical facility for children with disabilities prescribed by[Annotation 24](A hospital function is also installed) ・Medical child development support center[Annotation 25]・Child Development Support Center[Annotation 26]Facility that also has (Akita Medical Rehabilitation Center) Is connected by a corridor and on the main body of the Kirari Support SchoolVisual support school-Hearing aid schoolIn some cases, some of the facilities such as the entrance and the general gymnasium are shared by the three special schools.It is said that the concept was to ultimately realize a "center-like function" in which the three schools cooperate to care for children with multiple hearing and visual disabilities.
Device of education (people with physical disabilities)
In the independence activities of special needs schools for the physically handicapped, physical function training and communication skills are mainly developed.
Professional education (persons with physical disabilities)
Regarding the departments mainly for specialized education, which provides education to students who are intellectually disabled, physically handicapped or sick (including physically weak) in the “High School” and “High School Major” It is recognized that the "Agricultural Department", "Industrial Department", "Commercial Department", "Family Department", "Industrial General Department", and other specialized education courses have appropriate scale and content.
Special support school that provides education for sick people including physically weak people
SickIn many cases, special needs schools that target people (including physically weak people) are mainly based on the old school for disabled children. Among special needs schools that target only sick people (including physically weak people), even after the special needs school system is inaugurated, the school name is often "school for the disabled". "Illness special support schoolThe name "" is sometimes used as a general noun in statutory texts.
"Sick" is chronicRespiratory disease,kidneyDiseases and neurological diseases,Malignant neoplasmPeople who need continuous medical life regulation due to such diseases, and "physically weak" means those who do not have a clear diagnosis of the disease and the name of the disease, but need to continue to respond to the sick Refers to a person.Special schools for the sick (including those with physical weakness) are usually located next to or adjacent to local public hospitals and are centered around children admitted there.
If a special needs school for sick children is not nearby or not installed,Hospital classOr visiting class,PediatricsThere is a class for sick children in the ward, but the nearest elementary and junior high schoolSpecial support classInstalled as a special support schoolBranch school・Some classrooms are set up (this school is not limited to sick schools, but may be intellectually disabled or physically disabled schools).
Device of education (sick people including physically weak people)
Teachers in charge of self-reliance activities, in special support schools for sick people (including physically weak people), may also be in charge of classes that have the same curriculum as regular schools.
Professional education (sick people including physically weak people)
For the departments that mainly focus on specialized education, which provides education to students who are sick or vulnerable, including those with intellectual disabilities, those with physical disabilities, and those with "higher education" and "specialties in higher education" It is recognized that it has an appropriate scale and content as a department that provides specialized education, such as "department", "industry related", "commerce related", "home related", "industrial related", and other specialized education.
Special support schools whose main educational areas are multiple types of persons with disabilities are called "collocated schools." Having multiple disabilitiesMultiple obstaclesIt means that one school handles two or more independent education areas related to disabilities (in the case of multiple disabilities, accommodation of each special needs school that handles a single disability type). Often respond by setting up duplicate classes according to ability).
A literary work about a special needs school
- [Strains for the visually impaired] Rainbow Ring (by Tohama Noma),Literary company, December 2006,ISBN 4286018431）
- [Sickness line] Holy youth (Yoshio OsakiAuthor,Kodansha, December 2002,ISBN-4 06-273424-9）
- ^ OrphanageIs different from.
- ^ Kyoto CityExcept.
- ^ Visual impairment, hearing impairment, intellectual disability, physical disability, sickness, emotional disorder
- ^ Ministry of educationThen.Learning disability(LD),Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD),High-functioning autismEtc. are collectively defined as "developmental disability".Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology website-Use of the term "developmental disorder"
- ^ However, it has been pointed out that they are demanding regional center functions with insufficient staffing.
- ^ However,Developmental disorderscaused byMental illnessIf you are suffering from illness, you can treat it as sickness including physical weakness.
- ^ A visual acuity of 0.3 can be used as an index to judge whether learning will be hindered in elementary and junior high schools, but even if there is no visual dysfunction other than visual acuity of 0.3 or more, it may be difficult to recognize nearby characters for some reason. There is a possibility that it may cause problems, so we set a certain range so that people with "visual acuity of 0.3 or more" would not be excluded from being enrolled in special needs schools for the visually impaired. By defining "generally", it is possible to assume a visual acuity of up to about 0.5 and to use the visual recognition function necessary for learning as a criterion for judgment. Similarly, with regard to visual dysfunction other than visual acuity, whether or not learning is impaired in elementary and junior high schools is used as an index for judgment.
- ^ A magnifying glass means a low-vision lens used when the cognitive power of an object is low even after the correction of visual acuity, and is different from spectacles which only corrects a refractive error and does not have a function of expanding. Here, "etc." refers to monoculars, light-shielding glasses, and the like, and does not include a device such as a magnifying reader.
- ^ "Normal characters" means characters in the size normally used in elementary and junior high school certified textbooks. Braille is not included in normal characters. “Graphics” means graphics, photographs, graphs, etc. of a size that can be used in certified textbooks, etc., as well as ordinary teaching materials including images and shapes of things in everyday life. There is.
- ^ This means that there is a clear delay in the development of intellectual functions related to cognition and language. In other words, the mental aspect of mental function, which is distinct from the emotional aspect, is significantly delayed from the average level compared to children of the same age.
- ^ The regulation shows that it is "difficult to communicate with others" as a standard, assuming that there is a delay in the development of intellectual functions.
- ^ Without special consideration, he/she does not have the communication skills normally required for his/her age, so that he/she can understand what is spoken in a general conversation and convey his/her will. It is extremely difficult and indicates a condition in which communication with other people is impaired. The difficulty of communication in intellectual disability means that information transmitted from the other party cannot be understood due to the delay in the development of intellectual functions and an appropriate response cannot be made, so that communication with people cannot be sufficiently achieved.
- ^ It refers to the degree to which the meaning, purpose, and necessity of a certain action act cannot be understood, and the action in daily life that is normally required for that age stage requires assistance in most cases or always. For example, even if children of the same age can use chopsticks alone, they do not understand using chopsticks, so they always need help when eating with chopsticks, or the elimination of excretion. I don't understand what it means to do it, and when I use toilet paper in most cases or when I always need help.
- ^ For example, in the lower grades, playing with others, working on others, making friendships, acting according to simple rules, detecting and avoiding familiar dangers, behaviors in everyday life (personal relations) It can be considered that processing is difficult. As the age grows, it may be difficult to act in accordance with social rules, to live and work while properly engaging with others, to know the role of oneself, and to take responsibility and tackle it. .. In addition, it may be particularly difficult to fully exercise the latent learning ability due to the loss of self-confidence.
- ^ A tool necessary to make up for a physical defect or damage to physical function and facilitate daily life or school life.As a concrete example,Artificial limb(Artificial limb. Prosthetic foot),Brace(Upper limbOrthosis,TrunkOrthosis,Lower limbsOrthosis),seatHolding device,wheelchair(Electric wheelchair, wheelchair),Walker, Head protection cap, walking assistance, etc. are conceivable.
- ^ What is "basic movement in daily life"?walking.Meal， Putting on and taking off clothes ，ExcretionIt refers to the basic movements for learning activities such as personal processing movements such as drawing and drawing.However, walking does not include movement by wheelchair.
- ^ “Always” refers to a continuous or constant state within a specific period, and “requires constant medical observation and guidance” specifically refers to support for the admission of children with disabilities at the discretion of a doctor. It is necessary to be admitted to (medical type handicapped children's institution, etc.) and observe from a medical point of view from getting up to going to bed, and to receive instruction and training on each exercise/movement in daily life. State. That is, in addition to correction of scoliosis, treatment of Perthes disease (femoral head necrosis of the thigh), surgery for bone/joint disease, etc., rehabilitation, etc., and attendance at a special needs school is required. This is not so severe as for physical disability, but it also includes physical disability that requires surgery and then rehabilitation because it may worsen if the disease is left untreated.
- ^ Excludes Yokohama City School for the Blind and Kobe City School for the Blind.
- ^ 2008 year 12 month 22 dayNHK News Watch 9The current situation of the dormitory was introduced.
- ^ The number of students per class is small, and in addition to multiple teachers serving as homeroom teachers, there are many duties that ordinary schools do not have, such as assistance staff and shuttle bus drivers. Also, compared to regular schools, which have the same number of enrolled students, there are more administrative staff. The ratio of students to staff is about 1 to 2:1.5 for special needs schools for people with intellectual disabilities, and about 1:1 for special needs schools for people with hearing impairments. For regular schools, 1 or more: 10 unless it is a very small school.
- ^ The related laws and regulations have been amended, and it has become possible to set up classrooms on the third floor and above, but many schools have two or less floors.
- ^ Now 3 years
- ^ high schoolAlthough there are rare cases where I can not follow the lesson and want to transfer to the high school of a special needs school for people with intellectual disabilities, it may be difficult to accept this, so in the end, general high school, EspeciallyPart-time,Communication systemI will go to school. In this case, almost no special support education is available.
- ^ Children with physical disabilities-Severely disabled childCompatible with both.
- ^ For children with physical disabilities.
- ^ Intellectual disabilitySuitable for children.
- ^ "About promotion of special support education (notice)". Ministry of education. 2020/6/4Browse.
- ^ Section XNUMX Special Education(4 years history of school system, XNUMX (1992),Ministry of Education）
- ^ Law on Class Organization of Public Compulsory Education Schools and Standards for the Number of Teachers and Staff(Law No. 33 of 106),Act on Appropriate Placement of Public High Schools and Standards for the Number of Teachers and Staff(Law No. 36, 188) etc.
- ^ School education lawArticle 74
- ^ "Educational support materials". About special support education. Ministry of education. 2020/3/16Browse.
- ^ "Educational Support Material VIII Autism". About special support education. Ministry of education. pp. 5,11. 2020/3/16Browse. "(P5) When educating at a special needs school (intellectual disability) Depending on the state of having a disability of the degree of the item of persons with intellectual disabilities in the table of Article 11-XNUMX of the School Education Law Enforcement Ordinance. If you do not receive appropriate medical care before going to school, you may think that you have an intellectual disability even though there is basically no delay in intellectual development. It is important to analyze and carefully decide where to go to school. (PXNUMX) In addition, many children with intellectual disabilities with autism are enrolled in special needs schools. "
- ^ "Educational Support Materials Part XNUMX Explanation of Cabinet Orders that amend some of the School Education Law Enforcement Orders". About special support education. Ministry of education. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ "Survey on special needs education in 30 (Attachment 1)". About result of investigation about 30 special needs education. Ministry of education. pp. 21. 2020/3/18Browse. "Reference: Status after 25"
- ^ "About school attendance for children with disabilities”. Aomori Prefectural Board of Education. P. 4. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ August 2014th, 8, 9:23 NHKE telecast ETV special issue "Evacuation of school children of physically challenged children without battle placement"
- ^ Integrated educationSee.
- ^ Examples of syllabus with prior/post-instructionSee
- ^ School teacher statistics survey(Ministry of education)
- ^ The Bulletin of Statistics of Education, Science and Technology, 19 Edition The “blind, deaf, and handicapped school” in 2004 is equivalent to the current “special needs school”.
- ^ MEXT Statistics Manual 19 version
- ^ "Study on the change of school names of blind, deaf, and disabled schools based on the law that partially amends the School Education Law" Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology 
- ^ About deaf school name change opposite signature movement development
- List of special needs schools in Japan
- Special support education
- Special support class
- Special Needs School Teacher
- Special support school learning guidelines
- Developmental disability support law
- Inclusion education
- Ordinary school that provides support education
- Visually impaired
- School for the blind
- Deaf education
- Deaf culture
- sign language
- Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
- Stretch man
- Clinical psychologist
- nursing teacher
- School counselor