Miyoshi Sightseeing Cormorant Fishing Held for the first time in XNUMX years Hiroshima
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The sightseeing route is shorter than usual because the muddy stream of the Saijo River is not settled, but on the first day, I was able to catch sweetfish of a fine size well.
The third sightseeing cormorant fishing, which was postponed due to the influence of the new corona, resumed on the XNUMXnd for the first time in about two years.The arrival of summer in Miyoshi ... → Continue reading
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Enokawa(Gonokawa) isShimane andHiroshimaFlowing throughFirst-class water system OfMain stream..Channel length 194km, basin area 3,900km2 ..In the national ranking, 12th in extension and 16th in area..It is the largest river in the Chugoku region and the only first-class river in the Chugoku region.Chugoku MountainsThroughLeading river.
"Gou" means river / riverbank, and the characters "e" and "town" were added to it...Of the estuaryJiangjinIs said to have been named after Gou no Tsu, the port of the river...The place name "Gotsu" in Kanji isEiwa2 years(1376), ButKobo4 years(967) 『Enki ceremony』Appears with the place name" Go ".
Also Hiroshima, especiallyMiyoshi CityUpstream from the centerCute river(Enokawa) Was said.this isYoro4 years(720) 『Japanese calligraphyIs the name that appears in..To this cuteYamato KanaThere is also a story that it was made into the river of the river by using the river of.
Until today, it was called by individual names in various parts of the basin..
- 19th year of Meiji (1886): Ministry of InteriorCivil Engineering Bureau ed. "XNUMX Okawa Basin Magazine"Iwami(Shimane) side is "Gogawa",Aki country(Hiroshima) side describes as "Yoshida River (or Kawai River)".
- Taisho 8 (1919): (old)River lawAccording to, Hiroshima Prefecture designated the management section as "Gogawa".
- Taisho 12 (1923): Ministry of CommunicationsHen "Hydraulic Survey Report" Shimane side is described as "Egawa" and Hiroshima side is described as "Kawai River".
- Showa 5 (1930): In accordance with the (old) River Act, Shimane Prefecture designated the management section as "Egawa"..
- 41: (Currently) With the enactment of the River Act, it was designated as "Enokawa" when it was designated as a first-class river (national management)..
Another name is "Chinese Taro"..According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, which manages the river, Gonokawa is the largest river in the Chugoku region, and Taro has come to be called because it means the eldest son or the largest and longest...Located in Gotsu CityIwami Chisuikan High SchoolThe old school name is Enokawa High School.
HiroshimaYama prefecture countyKitahiroshima TownOriginating at Mt. Asa (elevation 1,217m), heading northeast,Miyoshi CityThree tributaries merge from three sides in the center.From there, head west and enter Shimane PrefectureChugoku MountainsGo north insideMisato TownChange course to the southwest and pour into the Sea of Japan in Gotsu City.
The entire basin of Gonokawa is about 85km in the east-west direction and about 60km in the north-south direction. ..At first glance it is ovalKobe riverThe water system cuts into a wedge shape for about 20km from the north side near the center to the vicinity of Akarai, Iinan Town, Shimane Prefecture, so it is close to the shape of a butterfly spreading its wings...The length of the channel is about 190km, but the straight line distance from the headwaters to the estuary is about 50km...The basin area is 1,260km on the Shimane prefecture side.2, Hiroshima prefecture side is 2,640km2Becomes almost 1: 2..Below, the municipalities in the main stream and major tributariesIs listed from the upstream side.
- Gonokawa-Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Hiroshima PrefectureAkitakata City, Miyoshi City, Shimane PrefectureOchi-gunOnan Town, Misato-cho, the same county, the same countyKawamoto, Gotsu City, the same prefecture
- Hi River-Akitakata City, Hiroshima Prefecture
- Basen River-Sera District, Hiroshima PrefectureSera Town, Miyoshi City, the same prefecture
- Kannose River-Shobara City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture
- Izuwa River-Onan Town, Ochi District, Shimane Prefecture
- Shioya River-Shimane PrefectureIiishi DistrictIinan Town, Misato Town, the same prefecture
- Nigori River-Onan Town, Ochi District, Shimane Prefecture, Kawamoto Town, Shimane Prefecture
- Yato River-Onan Town, Shimane Prefecture, Shimane PrefectureHamada, Gotsu City, the same prefecture
- Tsuji River-Shimane PrefectureOta City, Gotsu City, the same prefecture
- In addition, Hiroshima Prefecture is the second and lower tributaries.Kamiishi DistrictKamiishi Kogen Town, The prefectureHigashihiroshima CitySome flow through the area.
Go south from Mt. Asayama and go east at Takano, Kitahiroshima Town.After the Tahara River and Otsuka River merged in Oasa, Kitahiroshima Town, proceed southeast from there, and the Shijihara River merged in Mibu, Kitahiroshima Town.Haji DamYachiyo Lake is formed.It flows down from the dam, the Toshima River merges at Nagaya, Yoshida-cho, Akitakata, the Toshima River merges at Katsura, Yoshida-cho, the Toshima River merges at Shimoobara, Koda-cho, and the Basen River merges at the center of Miyoshi City. ..From there, the course changes significantly to the west, the Kannose River merges, and then goes west to enter the Gonokawa Intake Weir (Naruse Weir).
From the headwaters to the vicinity of the Gonokawa intake weir..The most upstream part is Daiya RiverThe upstream area is also called the Kawai River.Riverbed gradient is 1/500 to 1/900, hills and upliftsQuasi-plainFlowing relatively slowly in.
Go west from the intake weir.From this section, the river becomes the city boundary between Akitakata City and Miyoshi City.The Ikeda River joins at Funaki, Takamiya-cho, Akitakata-shi, left bank, and the course changes significantly north at Sasabe, Takamiya-cho, Akitakata-shi, and Kadota, Sakugi-cho, Miyoshi-shi, right bank.The Nagase River merges at Takamiyacho Kawane on the left bank, and at Koyodo, Sakugicho, Miyoshi City, on the left bank, the left bank crosses the prefectural border with Shimane Prefecture and enters Onan Town, Ochi District.From here, the left bank side is Shimane prefecture, the right bank side is Hiroshima prefecture, and the river is the prefectural border.The Sakugi River joins the Sakugi River in Sakugi-cho, Miyoshi City on the right bank, and the Sunaidani River joins in the same area.Go north and enter Uzui, Onan-cho on the left bank and Kazushi Iga, Sakugi-cho on the right bank, and the right bank crosses the prefectural border with Shimane prefecture and enters Misato-cho, Ochi-gun.Although the river becomes a town border, the Onan town border soon moves to the west inland area, and the river surface becomes Misato town.Continue northward and form the Hamahara Reservoir at the Hamahara Dam.
From the Gonokawa intake weirHamahara DamIt hits near..It is a so-called mountain stream that meanders and flows through the Chinese mountains, and the riverbed gradient is 1/300 to 1/600, which is steeper than the upstream area..Leading valleyForming aRiver terraceVery narrowValley bottom plainHas developed, rocks and huge stones are exposed in the flow path, and steep slopes approach on both banks...Narrow in placesFlood plainVillages are scattered around..From the Sea of Japan(I.e.This middle basin is called "Enokawa Kanmon" because.
The river that was moving north changes its course to the southwest in the center of Misato Town.Entering Kawamoto Town, the Mitani River joins in the center and the Kitani River joins downstream of Kawamoto Town.When the Nigori River merges in Inbara, Kawamoto Town, it changes course to the west and enters Gotsu City.The Yato River merges at Kawado, Sakurae-cho, Gotsu City, changes course to the west-northwest, the Tsuji River merges at Shimokawado, Matsukawa-cho, Gotsu City, enters the plains at Watazu-cho, Gotsu City, and flows directly into the Sea of Japan.
From Hamahara Dam to the estuary..Riverbed gradient is 1/900 to 1 / 6,000..Proceeding through the uplifted quasi-plain called the Iwami Highland, the mountain current from the middle basin continues for a while, then the river width widens, and the villages are scattered in the flood plain that spreads slightly in the meandering river...The river that escaped from the hills pours into the Sea of Japan as it is..Large farmland / residential land availableAlluvial plainIt was also called "Incompetent River (Nohashi River)" because it did not make.
Topography and geology
The river shape of Gonokawa is completely different between upstream and middle / downstream..The source isChugoku MountainsThe upstream area is in the south of the Chinese mountainsSeto Inland SeaIn the plateau / basin on the side, the middle basin is in the China Mountains, and the downstream area is in the north of the China Mountains.Sea of JapanIt becomes a plateau / plain on the side..The channel was formed before the orogenic activity in the Chinese mountains.
The topography of the basin is first formed by hills (flat land at the foot of the mountain) centered on the tertiary at an altitude of 150m-200m, and then uplifted quasi-plains at an altitude of 400m-600m.Kibi plateau・ ・Iwami PlateauEtc.), and finally the Chinese Backbone Mountains at an altitude of 1,000m-1,300m were formed by crustal movements.. thisCenozoicTertiaryIn response to the mountain-building activity that occurred in Japan, the erosion force of the Gonokawa River exceeded that, so it remained as a flow path...Later CenozoicQuaternaryBecause it was relatively depressed due to crustal movementsMiyoshi basinWas formed, and the main stream and tributary confluence were formed by the gathering of the Basen River, Saijo River, Kannose River, etc...The area around the tertiary area is open, but the area around Gotsu at the mouth of the river is narrow and is also called a "gourd-shaped river" because of its shape..
|The main watershed.Red is the river capture point.|
On the other hand, when viewed from the mountainous side of China, the backbone is divided by the Gonokawa River.In the narrow sense of the Chinese Mountains, the east side of the river is called the East China Mountains, and the west side is called the West China Mountains or the Mt. Kanmuriyama Mountains..
Most of the headwaters of the main and tributaries of Gonokawa are in the mountains of China.For example, in Mt. Asayama, the main stream of Enokawa flows to the south, the Hachinohe River, the primary tributary of Enokawa, flows to the north, and the west.Ota RiverBecome a water system Takiyama River..On the other hand, on the south side of the basin such as the Basen River, there is a tributary with a headwater point on a gentle ground instead of the top of the mountain...This is with other water systemswatershedIs the same.Characteristically, in other rivers formed after GonokawaRiver captureIt can be mentioned that there are multiple points that have become watersheds due to the fact that..In other words, the Gonokawa basin has become smaller over tens of thousands of years from the beginning...A typical example of such a watershed is the competition by the Ota River system.Uene Pass-Around Mukaihara Town,Hii RiverAs due to the water systemOnukidawa Pass-Miinohara,Ashida RiverAs due to the water systemAround Joge TownThere is.
3 Shimane / Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 5Uene Pass.Altitude 268m.A typical example of river capture topography in Japan.
4 Mukaihara-cho crying farewell.Altitude 190m.Typical Yanaka watershed.
7 Miinohara.Altitude 730m.Watershed with the Hii River system.
The geological foundation isRhyoliteIs widely distributed..This is the mountainous region of China, that is, the headwaters, upstream tributaries, and middle basins.graniteIntrusive.weatheringUsing iron sand contained in granite, once in a wide area of the basinTatara steelmakingWas being done..Around the Miyoshi Basin in the upper reachesAlluviumHowever, the upstream tributary of the Basen River basin is KisaAndesiteIs widely distributed..From this Bihoku GroupBaleen whaleFossil (Show rose whale) Has been discovered, from which the Cenozoic TertiaryMioceneIt is believed that Miyoshi / Shobara, that is, the upper reaches of the Gonokawa River, was in the sea (Furuseto Inland Sea)...The estuary is three groupsMetamorphic rocksIs formed by..In Shimane prefectureStone roof tilesIs produced, but the Tsunozu Formation, which is one of the tile clays, is distributed on a small scale in the tributary part of this basin..
Climate / hydrology
The climate classification of the Chugoku region is basically divided by the Chugoku Mountains., The north sideSea of Japan side climate・ The south sideSeto Inland Sea climate, And the Chinese mountains become..However, most of the upper reaches of the Gonokawa River, which is on the south side of the Chinese mountains,Inland climateAppears..In winter, the monsoon flows in from the Sea of Japan, and the midstream area called the Enokawa Kanmon is harsh at the outlet..
Average annual precipitation is 1,650 mm on average in the basin[Annotation 1]..When viewed individually, it is approximately 2,000 mm on the Shimane prefecture side. ..On the Hiroshima prefecture side, the Gonokawa and Saijo river basins are about 1,600 mm, the Kannose river basin is about 1,800 mm, and the Basen river basin is about 1,500 mm. ..In other words, there is less precipitation on the Hiroshima side than on Shimane, and even in Hiroshima, the closer it is to the Setouchi Sea side in the south, the less precipitation there is..
Since it is the only river in the Chugoku region that runs through the Chugoku Mountains, all rivers on the Shimane prefecture side flow into the Sea of Japan, while on the Hiroshima prefecture side it is almost the Seto Inland Sea, but only the Gonokawa river system flows into the Sea of Japan.[Review required] ..Only the Nagase River basin, which is the primary tributary, joins the Gonokawa River in Shimane Prefecture on the upstream side and Hiroshima Prefecture on the downstream side.[Review required] .
The tributaries in the upper reaches are centripetal and gather in the Miyoshi Basin.Among them, the Basen River, Saijo River, and Kannose River are about the same size as the upper reaches of the Gonokawa River.[Annotation 2]Has the characteristic of..As a result, the flow rate at the confluence reaches almost half of the flow rate at the estuary...The Miyoshi Basin, which is surrounded by mountains on all sides and where the main and tributaries meet, is prone to large-scale fog from autumn to spring (Sea of fog (Miyoshi City)）.
On the other hand, the tributaries in the middle and lower reaches are pinnate-shaped, with tributaries of relatively short channels flowing into the leading main stream...The middle and lower reaches of the main stream are narrow and mountains approach both banks, and since there are no large alluvial fans or plains including the confluence, there is no escape for water and the water flows in as it is, so the water level rises by 10 m or more during floods..
Below is the current state of water quality in the nationally controlled section in 2017Is shown.Looking at changes over time, there is no sudden deterioration in water quality because there are no densely populated areas that affect rivers...On the other hand, lakes (dams) are in a state of eutrophication..
|River||Observation point||類型||BOD||Observation point||類型||BOD||Observation point||類型||BOD|
|Gonokawa (representative value)||Mikuni Bridge||A||1.0||-|
|Middle stream of Gonokawa||Kawamoto Ohashi||A||0.6||Kawamoto Ohashi||A||0.6||-|
|Downstream of the river||Sakurae Ohashi||A||0.6||Kawahira||A||0.7||Egawa Bridge||A||0.6|
|Saijo River||three times||A||0.9||-|
|Kannose River||Kannose River||A||0.9||-|
|Enokawa||Haji Dam Site||A||3.6|
|Joge River||Haizuka Dam Site||A||3.6|
Flora and fauna
In pure freshwater fishKawamutu-OikawaIs a representative species..In the whole basin for migratory fishSweetfishInhabits, Upstream is land-sealed, There is a large one called shaku ayu in the middle class. Alsosalmon,eel,Cherry salmonHas also been confirmed..In the downstream brackish waterJapanese sea bass-Blackfish-ボ ラEtc. have been confirmed.
Vegetation in the basin is almostSecondary forestIs..In the mountains of China and its north side, that is, in a wide range of the whole Shimane prefecture and the Bihoku region of Hiroshima prefectureQuercusForests are distributed..On the other hand, on the Kibi plateau surface, which is a lowland on the south side.Chestnut・ Including deciduous trees such as oakRed pineForests are widely distributed..Near the headwaters of the upstream tributary, near the Chinese Backbone Mountains in the Bihoku regionMizunaraThere are many forests..Natural vegetation is distributed in the northern highlands of the upper reachesBeechForest, upstream lowlandsShasoSlightly remains inShirakashiForests, white oak forests remain in places in the middle and lower reaches..Bamboo forests are also planted as flood protection forests on a wide range of river banks in the middle and lower reaches..
Birds vary by basin.Species that live in rivers and coasts in the lower reaches, species that live in forests because the middle basin is in the mountains, and agricultural land that spreads along the river in the upper reaches, although it has almost the same composition as the middle basin. Therefore, fewer species are strongly dependent on the forest..
Confirmed in the river waterside census conducted in 2003, 2008 and 2013,Seed preservation method(Rare wild flora and fauna)・Cultural property protection law, Ministry of the Environment, Shimane Prefecture, Hiroshima PrefectureRed listThe number of specific species registered in is as follows.
Among them, as a rare wild animal and plant species,Scaly-sided-Goshawk-Bear hawk-Peregrine Falcon,Giant salamanderHas been confirmed..On the other hand, environmental deterioration due to insufficient agitation of the riverbed has been confirmed in some of the upstream and downstream areas, and it is a alien species that requires attention in a wide range of the upstream area.Greater CanadaInhabits, and exotic species such as largemouth bass breed in dam lakes..
The topography of the basin is roughly divided into the backbone mountain range / plateau surface / flat land in a stepped shape...In the tributary of Gonokawa, it took thousands of years to create waterfalls and valleys at this stepped point...Below, typical onesTo enumerate.
- Kokakekyo 12
- Kanose Gorge 13
- Sand is a pool 14
- Nachi Falls 16
- Terai Waterfall 17
- Shinano Waterfall 18
- Hino Waterfall 19
- Narutaki 20
- Otaki / Metaki 21
Also, from ancient timesRiver transportation・ In the Gonokawa basin, where fishing was thriving, as a good fishing ground or a dangerous place for navigationFuchi-CurrentIs named..These were the objects of people's worship, legends were made, and they became tourist attractions as scenic spots...In the middle basin of the main streamItsukushima shrine(Misato Town Myojiniwa)-Kompira Shrine(Misatocho Nakoshi no Se)There is a shrine that enshrines the god of water or boats.Separate upstream of the main stream (Kamagabuchi, Akitakata City) and downstream of the main stream (Suijinsan, Gotsu City)ApesThere is a legend about.
Ichie-dori Ishishu, a royal fern, a royal fern, a royal fern, a royal fern — Rai Kyohei "Egawa",
Noriyoshi NakamuraExpresses in a newspaper column:
Almost all of the rivers on both the Sanyo and Sanin roads use the Chinese Mountains as a watershed and pour into the Seto Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. While passing through this half, the lower part enters the Sanin region and flows away to the Sea of Japan.The northern part of Bingo borders Aki Province, and the border between the two provinces of Unishi is approaching, and the Miyoshi Basin, which is about two ri in the wide area, opens up, and the water source of the fifty ri of Enokawa is large. The part is recharged by the four major rivers of Yoshida, Marai, Saijo, and Konose who meet here.Moreover, Tsuiheiji, where the Gonokawa River enters Ishishu, is the flow of Yanaka, so the use of irrigation water as a river is exhausted in this upstream area.Therefore, except for the fact that Funakashi's flights have been sent to the Sea of Japan for a long time, the sea breeze of the spring and north winds is sent to this hinterland, and the brocade leaves of this quiet town are only sent to the waves of the Sea of Japan in the fall.However, when the season is heading toward summer, innumerable scented fish go back from the mouth of the river to the tributary of this river, which is a tributary of the river. Opened. — Kenkichi Nakamura, "Osaka Asahi Shimbun" dated August 1926, 15 (Taisho 8)
Near the headwatersWest China Mountains Quasi-National Park, From Mt. Azumayama near the headwaters of the Saijo River, a tributary of the upstream area, to the Mt. Dougoyama areaHiba Dogo Taishaku Quasi-National Park, Around Mt. Sanbe in the lower reaches of the main stream of GonokawaMt. Ooyama Oki National ParkMt. Sanbe area.The Kannose River basin, which is a tributary of the upstream area, is the Kannosekyo Prefectural Natural Park (Hiroshima), the Enokawa Prefectural Natural Park (Shimane) is on the downstream side of the prefectural border in the middle basin of the main stream, and the Senjokei Prefectural Natural Park (Shimane) is on the downstream side. Designated as Kannon Falls Prefectural Natural Park (Shimane).
Orochi and Kagura
In addition, there is a description of Izumo's Izumo River in the XNUMXth dan XNUMXst book of "Nihon Shoki", which flows through the Izumo region of Shimane prefecture.Hii RiverTo be..However, a river with the same name also exists in the primary tributary of the Gonokawa River that flows through Akitakata City, and the tradition of Yamata no Orochi remains upstream..
The legend of Yamata no Orochi is "Record of Ancient MattersHowever, unlike Nihon Shoki, the name of Kawai River does not appear.There are various theories about the interpretation of this story, but in the Izumo region, Yamata no Orochi represents a tributary of the Hii River main stream that rampages in the flood, and Susanoo is the god who contributed to the water control, or from the belly of Yamata no Orochi.Tenso cloud swordThere is a theory that the depiction of taking out means ancient ironworks..
This Orochi legend is one of the themes in a wide range of Shimane and Hiroshima prefectures in the Gonokawa basin.Shinto musicCulture remains.Broadly divided, in the middle and lower reaches of the main stream, that is, on the Shimane prefecture sideIwami Kagura, The upper reaches of the main stream is called Geihoku Kagura, and the tributaries of the upper reaches are called Bingo Kagura...These kagura have their roots in the Izumo style kagura,Tatara steelmakingIzumo'sSada ShinnoWas introduced to Iwami and established as Iwami Kagura before the early modern period, and from there it was introduced to the northern part of Aki Province and became Geihoku Kagura in the early modern period...Our countryImportant intangible folk cultural properties.
Tatara with boat luck
Gonokawa has abundant flow and a relatively gentle slope, the middle basin is a leading river that cuts through the Chinese mountains, and the upstream basin is a main stream and tributaries that extend radially around the Miyoshi Basin. A wide range of mountains and a combination of land routes made it possible to reach the Seto Inland Sea side, so in the entire basinRiver transportationWas developing.Until the early modern period, one of the major industries in the Chinese mountains was tatara iron making, and the center of shipping was iron, wood, and grain.
- Ancient / medieval
In the Miyoshi BasinYaya TombTherefore, it is believed that people were interacting between Sanin (on the Sea of Japan side) and Sanyo (on the Seto Inland Sea side) in the latter half of the Yayoi period...It is said that boating has been practiced for a long time...Just prehistoric ruinsGungeFrom such positions, it is estimated that until ancient times, boat transportation was carried out in a very narrow range as an extension of land transportation...The oldest record that a riverboat was used is in the 8th year of Tengyo (945), which remains in the history of Sugawara Shrine in Onan Town..
It is said that tatara iron making in this basin spread from the ruins to Iwami and Aki from the latter half of the 6th century of the Kofun period to Bingo and from the 11th to 16th centuries of the Middle Ages...Especially in the Middle AgesManorAs it developed and developed, iron was paid as a tax on the Chinese mountain side., Iron production is said to have increased..And it is known from old records that there was a boat transport connecting the upstream area and the estuary in the late Middle Ages., A number of castles have been built on the mountain facing the river, especially at the key points of boat transportation...In such a castle during the Warring States period,Battle of Yamashiro, Yoshida-gunIt became the stage of the battle.
Hiroshima Prefectural Miyoshi Fudoki no OkaThe ironworks ruins of the late Kofun period that were restored in.
Iwawaki TombView from.The other side of the trees is Gonokawa.
Yoshida Koriyama CastleView from.Gonokawa flows at the top.
- The early modern period
|Main river ports and surroundings|
|Misato Town Kasubuchi.During the Edo period, it was a Tenryo, and was the intersection of Gonokawa River Transport and the Iwami Ginzan Kaido (from upper left to lower right).|
In generalTakase boatIt is said that the boat transportation by was developed in the Edo period.But things are a little different in this basin.First of all, most of Aki and Bingo in the upper reachesHiroshima DomainOr the territory of the third domain, which is its branch domain, Only around the top and bottomHeavenMet.Boat transportation is regulated by Tsuru[Annotation 3]Was limited to the territory of the Hiroshima Domain (Miyoshi Domain)..On the other hand, Iwami in the middle and lower reaches is under the direct control of the shogunate.Omori GinzanBecause there was, the north side of Gonokawa was a tenryo..There were several bansho (riverboat bansho) on the coast to control the unloading and selling of goods from the silver mine, and it was necessary to pay a transportation fee to pass through the bansho...On the contrary, the south side of Gonokawa is almostHamada domainIn the territory, the others are river ports at the mouth of the riverWest shippingOnly Goda (currently Gotsuhommachi), which was the port of the city, has long been a heavenly territory, etc.Tsuwano ClanThere was a territory enlave..Due to these factors, boat transportation over the entire basin was interrupted during the Edo period..
Grains, pig iron, steel, ramie, paper, mulberry, wood, etc. were carried by boat...Especially in the steel industry, boat transportation was used, such as iron sand as a raw material, firewood as fuel for refining, iron produced, and steel...Even in the silver mineAshbuki methodSince a large amount of fuel was required because the refining was carried out by the river, the transportation of fuelwood by boat also supported the operation of the silver mine...It was made by refiningSilver bullionIs by land (Iwami Ginzan Highway), But "Mypedia』States that Gonokawa was also a transportation route for Iwami GinzanThere is.The production and distribution of these special products supported the basin economy, and especially in Iwami Province in the middle and lower reaches of the Gonokawa River, the flat land where agricultural land could be developed was narrow, so the profits obtained from the distribution of special products were used to buy rice from the outside and support the population..
Iron hole sink・ Iron production increased further due to the invention of the balance bellows and the introduction of the corporate method of tatara Takaden...However, the iron hole sinking performed upstream caused a large amount of earth and sand to flow downstream.The central part of Onan Town, which is located in the middle and lower reaches, is located in the (Ohochi Basin), but the river that flows through the center is always muddy due to the outflow of sediment due to the iron hole drainage, so it is called the Muddy River (Primary Tributary of the Enokawa River). Became..Resident lawsuits "turbid water conflicts" between the downstream side that was damaged by sediment damage due to iron hole drainage and the upstream side that is the perpetrator are occurring in various parts of the Chugoku region, and in this basin, they occur in the main stream and the tributary Saijo River...Below are examples of conflicts within the Hiroshima Domain.
- In the 10th year of Kanei (1633), Takata-gun, Aki Province demanded that the iron hole flow be stopped in Yamagata-gun, upstream of the Kawai River (Enokawa), but the Hiroshima domain prioritized profits and rejected it, and dredged instead. Ordered.
- In the 4th year of Tenpo (1833), in Eso-gun, Aki Province, a request was made to stop the iron hole drainage upstream of the Hiwa River (secondary tributary of the Enokawa River). rice field.
Yakami Basin, Onan Town.The surrounding mountains do not retain their original shape due to the iron hole sink.
The Mikawachi basin, which is a tributary of the Hiwa River in Shobara City.A paddy field of iron hole sink marks.
Tsunozu dunes on the west side of the mouth of the river Enokawa.Until the Middle Ages, this dune did not exist and the coastline was on the inland side, but in the early modern period, the coastline was reclaimed using the discharged earth and sand from the iron hole, and as a result of the development of Nitta, it became the current coastline..
Entering the Meiji era, boat transportation and tatara ironworks reach their peak.Due to the abolition of the clan, the regulation of Tsuru was lifted, and boats could come and go freely, connecting from the upstream to the estuary...Demand for iron increased during the turmoil at the end of the Edo period, and continued to increase thereafter, reaching its peak around the 20s of the Meiji era...This applies not only to the Gonokawa River basin, but to the entire Chugoku region. From the end of the Edo period to the middle of the Meiji era, 90% of Japan's iron production was from the Chugoku Mountains..
In the 20s of the Meiji era, there were 49 docks in the basin, including the docks on the tributaries of the Marai River, Nishijo River, and Hachinohe River...The most upstream is in Toshi (currently Akitakata City), and in order of luggage handling, Goda Kawabata (currently Gotsu City), Kasubuchi (currently Misato Town), Yoshidahama (currently Akitakata City), Miyoshi Gokaichi (currently Miyoshi City), Many were handled by Kawamoto Imazu (currently Kawamoto Town), etc...It took 2 days to go down from Etsu to Miyoshi and 5 days to go up, and when there was wind, when there was no sail, the boat was pulled from the coastal boatman's road with a rope...In the past, iron products produced on the Iwami side of the middle basin of the Gonokawa River were transported only to Goda at the mouth of the river, but by this time they were transported by boat to Miyoshi-Yoshida and the upper reaches of the Gonokawa River (Kawaii River).Ota RiverIt was also carried to Hiroshima by water transport..In addition to the same contents as in the Edo period, copper was also carried.This was because the Omori Ginzan was closed, but after a while copper was produced, so it was also carried to the mouth of the river..
A liner that connects Hamahara and Gotsu appeared in the latter half of the Meiji era, Egawa airship appeared in the Taisho era..This is a ship with a propeller on the back[Annotation 5]So, I made two round trips a day between Gotsu and Kasubuchi...However, when the Narutaki Dam was constructed for the purpose of power generation in 10, the shipping service rapidly declined due to the division of the shipping route...Around the same time, the road network began to improve, along the river.Mie LineDue to the progress of maintenance and the completion of the Gotsu-Hamahara section in 12, boat transportation was completely cut off..
About 92% of the land use in the basin is forest, about 7% is agricultural land, and about 1% is residential land...The main industry is agriculture and forestry, but there are many small ones...In the area around the Chinese mountains, ironmaking was once carried out during the off-season, but due to its decline, it moved to other areas in search of jobs.DepopulationIt is said that the conversion has begun..In recent years in the basin, it has greatly exceeded the national average,Low birthrate and aging populationIs progressing.
Fishing grounds are scattered throughout the basin.Ayu fishing accounts for 6% to 7% of the total..In the basinFishingIt is unknown when the beginning of.Miyoshi UkaiThere is a tradition that it started from the end of the Warring States period...In the olden days, it was carried out locally in good fishing grounds, but many of the captains used to live in boating because the wages were higher. It has been around since the latter half of the era..It is said to be one of Japan's three major river fishing cultures, and is known as the "Material for Fishing Grounds with Fishing Equipment in the Gonokawa River Basin".Important Tangible Folk Cultural PropertyIs specified in..Currently, fry are released and artificially hatched for the purpose of resource maintenance, but the catch is decreasing year by year due to factors such as changes in the waterside environment, a decrease in fishermen due to depopulation, and changes in eating habits..
The area around Miyoshi and Shobara in the upper reaches is relatively developed as a commercial and industrial area..
Gotsu city at the mouth of the river is the center ofpulp・ Ceramic roof tiles are being produced..PulpKorean special demandDue to the increase in demand at that time, production began in 26 using the abundant amount of water in the Gonokawa River and the abundant wood that grows in the Chinese mountains as raw materials...The tile isStone roof tilesIt is called, and accounts for 12% of Japanese roof tile production.Sanshu tileBoasts the second largest production volume.
Floods and hydraulics
This river is said to have been flooded since recorded history..The oldest flood record in the basin is the first year of Tenpuku (1233)It is in the luck of Yumigamine Hachimangu in Kawamoto Town.According to the records of the Edo period, it was hit by a flood once every few years...Records show that there were 1620 floods during the 1945 years from 325 to 133...However, the response was limited to local renovation until the beginning of the present age..
In modern times, major floods occurred in 1893 (Meiji 26), 1919 (Taisho 8), and 1943 (Showa 18)...September 1945 (Showa 20) immediately after the end of the warMakurazaki TyphoonIn the basin, 2,091 people were killed or missing, 8,183 houses were completely or partially destroyed and spilled, and 68,536 houses were flooded above and below the floor (announced by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)...As a response, a renovation project under the direct control of the Ministry of Construction (currently the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) began in the upstream area in 1953, and the "Enokawa River Water System Construction Implementation Basic Plan" was formulated in 28...The centerpiece of this plan wasHaji DamWas the construction of.
While the renovation was underway, in 1972, "Heavy rain in July 47In the basin, 28 people were dead or missing, houses, houses were completely or partially destroyed and spilled 3,960 houses, inundation above and below the floor 14,063 houses, and many bridges spilled. Caused no damage (published by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)..In response to this, the basic plan was revised, Was in the midst of a fierce opposition movement in the upper reachesHaizuka DamTakes this opportunity to move toward constructionIn the middle and lower reaches, the land use integrated water disaster prevention project was promoted ahead of the rest of the country..
2007River lawAlong with the revision, the "Enokawa River Improvement Basic Plan" was formulated, and in 2016 (Heisei 28), the "Enokawa River Improvement Plan" was formulated, which will be the plan for the next 30 years..
2018 (30) heavy rainFollowing the disaster caused byHeavy rain in July 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)Then, inundation damage due to flooding occurred at 90 places from the estuary to 63km upstream.Damaged area 318.4ha, 126 damaged houses.Damage also occurred on the tributaries of the Kannose and Saijo rivers...In response to these disasters, the residents' briefing session explained that "there is a limit to the river maintenance of the national and prefectural governments", and in addition to the conventional civil engineering work, group relocation of residents is also considered in Gotsu City and Misato Town. It became so..At the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismBackwater phenomenonIn order to prevent flood damage caused by the flooding, construction work to partially excavate the river channel to increase the flow rate will begin in 2021..
2021(3nd year of Reiwa)May 8The torrential rain caused flooding from the left bank in Sakurae-cho, Gotsu, the right bank in Misato-cho, the left bank in Awayamachi-market district in Miyoshi-shi, and the left bank in Yonemaru-cho, Miyoshi-shi..
From ancient times, hydraulic control measures have continued to the present day.However, as of 2016, hydraulic control measures in the middle and lower reaches tend to be delayed compared to the upper reaches...This is because the water level during floods rises, which requires a high embankment and takes time to maintain...The characteristic water control measures in the basin are shown below.
- Flood protection forest
- Bamboo forests, which are still abundant on the banks of rivers in the middle and lower reaches, are flood protection forests intentionally planted for the purpose of hydraulic control.
- This visited the present Kannabiji Temple in Sakurae Town, Gotsu City from the Nara period to the Heian period.Kobo DaishiIt is said that it was planted according to the teaching of..Another theory is that a person named Sasahata of Ise Yamada, who was ordered by the imperial court to rule the Egawa River at the same time, planted it with Jiro Yamada Kunihisa...The Hamada domain encourages proliferation even in the Edo period.
- In addition to the fertility of bamboo, there are many undeveloped sections of the embankment in the middle and lower reaches, so many remain even today.Conservation management is being promoted due to the fact that some of them have been devastated and their flood control functions have declined, and that they have historical value..
|The river flows from the bottom (south) to the left (west).The Basen River from the right (east) and the Saijo River join from the upper part (north).The upper left is the Kannose River.The area near the left end of this map is the boundary of the Miyoshi Basin.|
- Confluence of Miyoshi Basin
- Since multiple tributaries merge in the Miyoshi Basin, floods are likely to occur when heavy rains fall upstream of each...It is said that embankment construction began at the end of the 16th century as a measure for hydraulic control..
- In the early Edo period, the upper reaches were ruled by the third domain of the Hiroshima domain.Kanei 9 (1632) The first feudal lordChoji AsanoPlaces the Third Clan Hall,Total trackThe embankment was constructed over about 2km so as to surround the clan building...Currently, it remains as a monument as an Asahi embankment in Asahi-cho, Miyoshi City along the Saijo River..
- In the present age, measures such as revetment maintenance and river channel repair have been advanced, but this timeInland floodHas started to occur, and drainage facilities corresponding to it have also been developed..
- Land use integrated water disaster prevention business
- In the middle and lower reaches, there are many settlements with houses scattered on a narrow land...If water is controlled by a normal type embankment in such a place, the scale will increase and the residential land and fields will be crushed...Therefore, a land-use integrated water disaster prevention project to maintain the village by building an embankment after raising the embankment together with the residential land has come to be carried out..
- In the Gonokawa basin, it is the first in JapanIn Kawamoto Town in the 20's of the Meiji era, there is a record of raising the land of fields under the initiative of the private sector and making it a new residential area...The current business started in 1950 (Showa 25) in the current Shimomishima district of Kawamoto Town., It was not until after the catastrophic damage caused by the "July 47 heavy rain" that it was promoted in earnest..
2010..After raising the building, home construction and road maintenance have been carried out.
|number||Maximum water intake|
|Industrial water||Law||3||2.438||Divided water 0.615m3/ s not included|
|Water supply||Law||30||0.669||Divided water 2.316m3/ s not included|
|Water for power generation||Law||24||Up to 324.094|
|Up to 22.0m3/ s diversion|
- Water diversion
Development of agricultural water in the basin began from the end of the Warring States period to the beginning of the Edo period..For Yachiyocho Haji, Akitakata CityThroat Chuzaemon , Sakuraecho Imada, Gotsu City, The tradition that created the well dam remains.
Mainly supplies to the industrial area in Gotsu City at the mouth of the river..Shimane Prefectural Government operates a water supply system that supplies water to the Gotsu area base industrial park as a water source..
- Sheung Shui
Waterworks are maintained mainly in Shobara City and Miyoshi City in the upstream and Gotsu City in the downstream.In addition, a simple water supply is in place.
- Power generation
It was from the Taisho era to the Showa era that water intake facilities for hydroelectric power generation began to be built by making use of the abundant amount of water...It was the first business by Chugoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. in the present age.Hamahara DamIs.. As of 2015, 28 power plants in the basin are supplying electricity with a total maximum output of about 14 kW..
By boatMiyoshi UkaiSuch as fishing,Yamabe ShrineHoran AFestivals such as, and the Gonokawa basin have been closely related to people since ancient times...Under such circumstances, there are hydrophilic facilities in the basin where you can take a walk, play in the water, learn about the waterside, and enjoy recreation... EspeciallyCanoe Village Ochi,Enokawa Canoe Park Sakugi,Lake Yachiyo,WhenCanoeThere are several water areas that you can experience..In addition, some of the hydrophilic facilities are used as places for environmental and experiential learning of elementary schools along the river..
Below, the evaluation in the 2017 new river water quality management index published by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, 2009 Evaluation in the river report cardIndicates.
|Main stream||Primary tributary||Secondary tributary||Point name||New water quality index||Report card|
|Of people and rivers|
|Rich ecosystem||Easy to use|
|Enokawa||Katsura waterside paradise||B||B||-||3|
|Enokawa||Canoe Park Sakugi||-||4|
|Enokawa||Salmon hometown park||-||3|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Eighth waterside paradise||B||B||-||-|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Tokaichi Water Park||-||3|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Inaricho Ground||-||3|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Saijo River||Asahi embankment||-||3|
|Main stream||onceTributary||Secondary tributary||Third tributary||River facility||Model||高 さ||Total water storage capacity||business person||Year of completion||Remarks|
|Enokawa||Haji Dam||重力||50.0||47,300||Hiroshima||1973||Dam Lake XNUMX selections|
|Enokawa||Irie floor stop||Weir||-||-||1976|
|Enokawa||Hamahara Dam||重力||19.0||11,200||China Electric Power||1953|
|Enokawa||The river||Kajiya Tanigawa||Yamato pond||Ground||15.0||152||Inoue River Land Improvement Zone||2004|
|Enokawa||Itaki River||Imaidehara River||Itaki Tameike||Ground||33.0||302||Hiroshima||1983|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Eighth head weir||Weir||-||-||1967|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Potato river||Kaijin Tameike||Ground||18.6||144||Chugoku-Shikoku Agricultural Administration Bureau||1959|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Joge River||Haizuka Dam||重力||50.0||52,100||Chugoku Regional Development Bureau||2006|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Kunikane River||Kunikane Pond||Ground||16.4||1,060||Chugoku-Shikoku Agricultural Administration Bureau||1953|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Tobari River||Nagata River||Naosuke Reservoir||Ground||16.0||106||1956|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Kurobuchi River||Rock fill||49.7||1,308||Chugoku-Shikoku Agricultural Administration Bureau||1986|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Saijo River||Otogawa||重力||42.0||701||Hiroshima||2015|
|Enokawa||Basen River||Saijo River||River north river||Ogiya Pond||Ground||17.5||295||Chugoku-Shikoku Agricultural Administration Bureau||1953|
|Enokawa||Kannose River||Kasugahara Dam||重力||19.5||750||China Electric Power||1941|
|Enokawa||Kannose River||Kobo Dam||重力||69.4||39,658||China Electric Power||1944||Modern civil engineering heritage|
|Enokawa||Kannose River||Nakamiharai dam||Weir||-||-||1952|
|River||Power plant||Authorization output||Always output||Power generation type||Power generation method||Water source||business person||Year of start of operation||Remarks|
|Enokawa||Akatsuka||25,000||2,100||Dam waterway type||Adjustment pond type||Hamahara Dam||China Electric Power||1953|
|New bear viewing||23,300||2,300||Waterway type||Pour-in type||Gonokawa Intake||China Electric Power||1996|
|Saijo River||Ochiai||4,600||520||Dam waterway type||Adjustment pond type||Rokunohara Reservoir||China Electric Power||1964|
|Kannose River||Kannose||20,000||6,200||Dam waterway type||Adjustment pond type||Kobo Dam||China Electric Power||1950|
|Kannose River||(I.e.||140||82||Dam type||Pour-in type||Kobo Dam||China Electric Power||2013|
|Kannose River||Kimita||9,620||4,770||Dam waterway type||Adjustment pond type||Kasugahara Dam||China Electric Power||1941|
|Morihara||7,200||3,160||Waterway type||Pour-in type||Hagi River intake||China Electric Power||1952|
|Funo River||Funo||220||43||Waterway type||Pour-in type||Nuno water intake||China Electric Power||1995|
|Izuwa River||Izuwa River||670||490||Waterway type||Pour-in type||Fushiya intake||China Electric Power||1979|
|Hayamizu River||Kasubuchi Daiichi||160||61||Waterway type||Pour-in type||Kubo water intake||China Electric Power||1953|
|Kasubuchi No. XNUMX||1,200||350||Waterway type||Pour-in type||Hayamizu River intake||China Electric Power||1927|
|Ie Furuya River||Katsuji||770||0||Waterway type||Pour-in type||-||Shimane Prefecture Enterprise Bureau||2000|
|Hachinohe River||Hachinohe River Daiichi||6,300||570||Dam waterway type||Pour-in type||Shimane Prefecture Enterprise Bureau||1982|
|Hachinohe River||Hachinohe River No. XNUMX||2,500||270||Dam type||Reservoir type||Yato Dam||Shimane Prefecture Enterprise Bureau||1976|
|Hachinohe River||Hachinohe River Third||240||159||Dam type||Reservoir type||Yato Dam||Shimane Prefecture Enterprise Bureau||2000|
Boats were once used for exchanges in the upstream and downstream areas,Mie LineIt declined due to the opening of the road and the improvement of the road network.The Sanko Line is also due to the decrease in users due to depopulation and the cost of recovery from heavy rain disasters., 2018 was abolished.
The same is true for river crossings, which changed from boats to bridges in the 1950s...In the middle basin, many of them spilled due to the "heavy rain in July 1972" in 47, and bridges that have been replaced since then are currently in use.In addition, the old Sanko Line bridge also has the first Egawa bridge with a sidewalk on the track and the third Egawa bridge with a double truss bridge on the track and sidewalk, but it is currently off limits due to the discontinuation of the line.
|Bridge||Service road||Year of service||Left bank location||Right bank location||Remarks|
|Kamejiri Bridge||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 312||1981||Kitahiroshima-cho, Yamagata-gun, Hiroshima||Same as the left|
|Oasa Ohashi||Shimane / Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 5||Kitahiroshima-cho, Yamagata-gun, Hiroshima||Same as the left|
|Gonokawa Bridge||Hamada Expressway||1991||Kitahiroshima-cho, Yamagata-gun, Hiroshima||Same as the left|
|Shinjo Nakabashi||National Route 261||Shinjo, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Same as the left|
|Sekimei Bridge||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 311||1956||Shinjo, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Same as the left|
|Tafukuri Bridge||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 311||1927||Iwato, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Kitahiroshima Town Shinjo|
|Kawato Ohashi||National Route 433||1995||Kawado, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Same as the left|
|Noga Bridge||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 69||Somori, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Same as the left|
|Adobashi||Shimane / Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 5||Kawahigashi, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Kitahiroshima Town Mibu|
|Mibu Bridge||Chinese motorway||Kawahigashi, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Kitahiroshima Town Mibu|
|Kawai Ohashi||Shimane / Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 5||1973||Kawai, Kitahiroshima Town, Yamagata District, Hiroshima Prefecture||Akitakata City Yachiyocho Haji|
|New cute river bridge||National Route 54||Nagaya, Yoshida-cho, Akitakata-shi, Hiroshima||Yoshidacho Kamiirie|
|Rock castle bridge||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 29||Yoshida, Yoshida Town, Akitakada City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Yoshidacho Kunishi|
|Yoshida Ohashi||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 212||1974||Shimoobara, Koda-cho, Akitakata-shi, Hiroshima||Same as the left|
|Chitoku Bridge||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 52||1979||Kamikotate, Koda-cho, Akitakata City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Kodacho Takatabara|
|Kawachi Ohashi||Hiroshima Prefectural Road No. 63||Akimachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Kamishiwachimachi, Miyoshi City|
|Nishikibashi||National Route 54||1966||Akimachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Shimoshiwachimachi, Miyoshi City|
|Gonokawa Third Bridge||Chinese motorway||1979||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Aogamachi, Miyoshi City|
|Enokawa Second Bridge||Chinese motorway||1979||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Aogamachi, Miyoshi City|
|Second Yoshidagawa Bridge||Geibi Line||1915||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Aogamachi, Miyoshi City|
|Gonokawa Daiichi Bridge||Chinese motorway||1979||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Nishisakeyamachi, Miyoshi City|
|Daiichi Yoshidagawa Bridge||Geibi Line||1915||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshi City Tokaichimachi|
|Miyoshi Ohashi||National Route 54||1968||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshi City Tokaichimachi|
|Kotobuki||National Route 183||1968||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||6-chome, Tokaichinishi, Miyoshi-shi|
|Iwaibashi||Hiroshima / Shimane Prefectural Road 112||1921||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshimachi, Miyoshi||Modern civil engineering heritage|
|Daiichi Kawai River Bridge||Mie Line||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshimachi, Miyoshi|
|Ozeki Ohashi||National Route 54||1975||Awayamachi, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshimachi, Miyoshi|
|Shikijiki Ohashi||National Route 433||1974||Takamiyacho Sasabe, Akitakata City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshi City Sakugicho Koyodo|
|Second Kawai River Bridge||Mie Line||Takamiyacho Sasabe, Akitakata City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Kadota, Sakugicho, Miyoshi City|
|Third Kawai River Bridge||Mie Line||Kawane, Takamiya-cho, Akitakata City, Hiroshima Prefecture||Miyoshi City Sakugicho Koyodo|
|Ryogoku Bridge||Hiroshima / Shimane Prefectural Road 4||1976||Shimokuchiba, Onan-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Otsu, Sakugicho, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture|
|Fourth Egawa Bridge||Mie Line||1975||Shimokuchiba, Onan-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Kazushi Iga, Sakugicho, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture|
|Third Egawa Bridge||Mie Line||1975||Uzui, Onan-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Kazushi Iga, Sakugicho, Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture|
|Second Egawa Bridge||Mie Line||1975||Tsuganishi, Misato-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Misato Town Ueno|
|Toga Ohashi||Shimane Prefectural Road 55||1978||Tsuganishi, Misato-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Misato Town Tsugahongo|
|Tsuga Yukuhashi||Shimane Prefectural Road 296||1973||For Tsugayuki, Misato-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Misato Town Nagato|
|Daiichi Egawa Bridge||Mie Line||1973||Noi, Misato-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Misato Town Kasubuchi|
|Ago Ohashi||Shimane Prefectural Road 40||1954||Misato Town, Ochi District, Shimane Prefecture||Misato Town Ago|
|Kawamoto Higashi Ohashi||Shimane Prefectural Road 31||1968||Kawamoto, Kawamoto-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Kawamoto Town Kuzani|
|Kawamoto Ohashi||Shimane Prefectural Road 40||1961||Kawamoto, Kawamoto-cho, Ochi-gun, Shimane Prefecture||Kawamoto Town Tanito|
|Downstream bridge||National Route 261||1989||Inbara, Kawamoto Town, Ochi District, Shimane Prefecture||Downstream of Kawamoto Town|
|Sakurae Ohashi||Shimane Prefectural Road 41||1977||Kawado, Sakurae-cho, Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture||Sakuraecho Tanijukyo|
|Matsukawa Bridge||Shimane Prefectural Road 221||1957||Minamikawakami, Kawahira-cho, Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture||Matsukawacho Nagara|
|Shinegawa Bridge||National Route 9Gotsu Road||1992||Gotsu Town, Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture||Watazucho||The Japan Society of Civil Engineers Tanaka Award|
|Gogawa Bridge||San'in Main Line||1920||Gotsu Town, Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture||Watazucho|
|Egawa Bridge||National Route 9||1950||Gotsu Town, Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture||Watazucho|
- ^ Average annual rainfall in Japan is 1,700 mm .
- ^ Basin: Upper main stream basin 686km2, Basen River basin 699km2, Saijo River / Kannose River basin 627km2 .. In 1923, Shimane Prefectural Education Association edited "Shimane Prefectural Magazine", the source is the northeastern part of Aki Province.Bingo countryIt is written that it originates in the northern part of.
- ^ Prohibition of transportation beyond the clan border.
- ^ Government-operated Yawata Worksetc.
- ^ Kumano RiverIt is said that it brought in a boat that was operated in.
- ^ Law: Those who have obtained permission from Article 23 of the River Act. Wikibooks hasRiver Act Article 23There are commentary and textbooks on.
Custom: A customary water right that has existed before the River Act.
- ^ a b c d e Maintenance plan 2015, p. 1.
- ^ a b c Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 1-2.
- ^ a b c d e f "(PDF) "30 Years of Hamada Construction Office, Ministry of Construction", Hamada Office, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism,2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 1-4.
- ^ a b "Japanese River-China-Enokawa-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Water and Disaster Management Bureau". www.mlit.go.jp. 2019/9/7Browse.
- ^ a b "Gotsu is such a city”. Gotsu City. 2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ "Cute river”. Kotobank. 2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b c d e Tabuchi Ruins 2018, p. 5.
- ^ a b c Kimura Yosui, Iwami Monogatari: Essay, Shimane Critics, 1932, pp. 109-112.NDLJP:1170495/73.2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g Enokawa Fishing Culture Study Group "(PDF) "River Development Fund Grant Program", River Environment Management Foundation, pp. 1-40,2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ "1886 Okawa Basin Magazine", Civil Engineering Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, 83, p. XNUMX.NDLJP:1876462/54.2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b c Ministry of Communications, Hydropower Survey, Volume 3, Western Honshu, Ministry of Communications, 1923, pp. 475-479.NDLJP:966484/261.2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b c Maintenance plan 2015, p. 34.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Maintenance plan 2015, p. 2.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Maintenance plan 2015, p. 5.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "XNUMX. Overview of the basin" (PDF). Ayumi of Hamada Construction Office, Ministry of Construction for 30 years (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Hamada Office) 2019/4/27Browse..
- ^ a b c d e Maintenance plan 2015, p. 36.
- ^ a b c Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 2-19.
- ^ a b c Maintenance plan 2015, p. 37.
- ^ "Compact Japanese Place Name Encyclopedia", supervised by Tsuneyoshi Ukita, Kazuo Nakamura, Nobuo Takahashi,Shogakukan,Year 1998
- ^ a b "Enokawa”. Kotobank. 2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 1-1.
- ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 2-12.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tabuchi Ruins 2018, p. 1.
- ^ "Chugoku Mountains”. Kotobank. 2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ a b Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 1-5.
- ^ a b c Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 1-3.
- ^ a b c Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 2-24.
- ^ a b c d e Maintenance plan 2015, p. 3.
- ^ a b c d e "(PDF)”. Sabo Frontier Maintenance Promotion Organization (February 2018). 2019/4/27Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism materials, p. 2-11.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Maintenance plan 2015, p. 4.
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