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😷 | New Corona Infection XNUMXrd XNUMX people Infection spread / Saitama Prefecture


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New Corona Infection XNUMXrd XNUMX People Infection spread / Saitama Prefecture

 
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The prefecture is calling for refraining from having dinner with friends and going to and from Tokyo, where a state of emergency has been declared, during the period of priority measures such as prevention of spread.
 

On the XNUMXrd, XNUMX new coronavirus infections were newly confirmed in Saitama prefecture. Same as last week for XNUMX consecutive days ... → Continue reading

 Tele ball

Saitama Prefecture's TV station, "Tele-Tama, which is good for you," delivers "news that is good for you," such as daily incidents, accidents, and topics of the town.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Emergency declaration

Emergency declaration(Hijojitai Sengen) orEmergency declarationWhat is (Kinkyuji Taisengen)?Natural disasters,Infection(Epidemic-Disease)ofPandemic,Nuclear accidentSuch asdisasterAnd戦 争,terrorism,Civil strife,MayhemSuch,Health-life-property-EnvironmentDanger is imminentEmergency(Emergency)Country-Region Of政府(Local governmentEtc.)decreeTo activate a special authority based onpublicIt is to proclaim and declare such a situation in order to call attention to.

About the name

Current,Japanese lawThe basic wording ofEmergency(Emergency)"·"Emergency declarationDespite being unified as "Kinkyuji Taisengen", due to customs from the wording of the provisions of the former Japanese law, "(Kinkyuji Taisengen)" is used in foreign languages.emergency"Or"state of emergency"Emergency situation" and "Emergency declaration" are sometimes used in the media etc. as a Japanese translation of "," etc. It has the same meaning as "statement of emergency".

Overview

Measures includePolicemen-軍隊(in Japan's case,SDF)SuchCivil servantMobilization ofPublic financeCondemnation of an emergencycommandPromulgation of government ordinances superior to the law and suspension of constitutional human rights guaranteesWritIn addition to allowing arrests and home searches that do not depend on the media,Freedom of assemblyな どLibertyThere can be restrictions. But,Japan,アイス ランドAnd someCountry ruled by lawThen, there are some cases where the request is almost unenforceable.

in Japan,1954Old until (Showa 29)Police lawAuthority to proclaim a "national emergency" under Article 62Prime MinisterWas given to the currentPolice lawbased onEmergency DeclarationOther than that,Disaster Countermeasures Basic Lawbased onDeclaration of a disaster emergency,New influenza measures special measures lawbased onPandemic influenza etc.And so onPrime MinisterIs announced.

The United States of AmericaThen,PresidentIt is not uncommon to declare a state of emergency, but it is declared when the assets are frozen under the authority of the president as "a threat from foreign countries" (For example, in November 2018, an anti-government demonstration was announced. Central America suppressed by forceEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTo see the turmoil as an American security threat and freeze the assets of those who undermine security and democracyDonald Trump(Proclaimed by the President) and othersterrorism,InfectionIs also declared to correspond to[1].. In the United States, vs. 1979(I.e.Approximately 30 declarations, including asset freezes, are reported to be valid as of February 2019 in US media[1].

FranceThen in 2015Paris terrorist attacksでFrancois HollandeAnnounced by the President and extended until October 2017, 10[2][3].

In a similar situation, “national legislation, judiciary, administrationControlPart or all ofMilitary"Transfer to"Martial"[4].

List of National Emergency Situations

Here, as mentioned above, declarations with names which are almost synonymous with each other, such as "emergency declaration" and "emergency order", are also described.

Before the 21th century

2000 era

2010 era

2020 era

In addition, Okinawa Prefecture has already issued a declaration from May 5, which was originally scheduled for July 23, but with this declaration, the period will be extended to September 7. rice field[212]..After that, from August 8nd, Saitama prefecture, Chiba prefecture, Kanagawa prefecture, Osaka prefecture (total 2 prefecture, 1 prefecture, 1 prefectures), from August 4th.Ibaraki,Tochigi Prefecture,Gunma,Shizuoka, Kyoto prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture (1 metropolitan area, 2 prefectures, 10 prefectures in total), Hokkaido from August 8,Miyagi, Gifu prefecture, Aichi prefecture,Mie,Shiga、岡山県、広島県(計1都1道2府17県)に拡大した。}}。その後宮城県、茨城県、栃木県、群馬県、岡山県、広島県、沖縄県は9月26日まで、北海道、静岡県、愛知県、岐阜県、三重県、滋賀県、京都府、大阪府、福岡県は10月17日まで、首都圏1都3県(東京都、埼玉県、千葉県、神奈川県)の期間はMay 11to. }}Quote error: <ref> Corresponds to the tag </ref> Missing tags.

army

Armed organization

  • Yemen flag Yemen : 2017May, armed organization of the countryFuchsia choleraDeclaration of “emergency situation” based on the seriousness of the epidemic[237].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ at that timeThe United KingdomAlthough he was a territory, he had already obtained the autonomy of internal affairs.
  2. ^ New influenza measures special measures lawDate of emergency declaration by.Historical emergencyToMay 3However, the declaration date is generally treated as April 4.
  3. ^ As of the beginning of April 4, the scope of issuance is 7 city, 1 prefecture and 1 prefectures (Tokyo,Osaka,Kanagawa,Saitama,Chiba,Hyogo,Fukuoka) Was,May 4And expanded to all other prefectures, totaling 47PrefecturesBecame the scope of official announcement[179].. afterwardsMay 539 prefectures (other than 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures and 4 prefectures, which will be described later)May 5In Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture,KyotoBut,May 5Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba,HokkaidoHave been released respectively.
  4. ^ Date of declaration. It will be activated at 9:0 on the XNUMXth of the following day.
  5. ^ As of the beginning of January 1, the scope of the announcement was 8 metropolitan area and 1 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa).May 1ToTochigi,Aichi,Gifu, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture.afterwardsMay 2Tochigi prefectureMay 2Aichi prefecture, Gifu prefecture, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture were canceled respectively.[202][203]..The remaining 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa)May 3Until.
  6. ^ As of the beginning of April 4, the scope of the announcement was 25 metropolitan area, 1 prefectures and 2 prefecture (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo).May 5In Aichi and Fukuoka prefecturesMay 5To Hokkaido,Okayama,HiroshimaAlso,May 5ToOkinawaWas also expanded.After that, 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures and 5 prefectures other than Okinawa prefectureMay 6The remaining Okinawa prefectureLaterlike,May 7May 9Scheduled up to.
  7. ^ As of July 7, the scope of issuance is 12 prefecture and 1 prefecture (Tokyo, Okinawa), and the period is initiallyMay 8However, on August 8th, Okinawa Prefecture handed over the cooperation money to the restaurant that was extended until September 8th, and Tokyo until November 9th ... The fourth "declaration" was announced to Tokyo. , Okinawa is extended

Source

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  4. ^ “Kotoba Commentary: Difference between “Emergency Declaration” and “Martial Law””. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2015, 12). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20151203/mul/00m/030/00700sc 2017/7/6Browse. 
  5. ^ Conceicao. "The 13th May 1969 (Kuala Lumpur) Disturbances", pp. 112—113
  6. ^ Weird fashion situation in "Singapore" that Japanese people have difficulty understanding
  7. ^ Question on the Special Measures Act concerning the implementation of humanitarian reconstruction support activities and security assurance support activities in Iraq-House of Representatives 国会House of Representatives: 2004 (Heisei16 years) April 11
  8. ^ State of emergency issuance, confusion overwhelming new government process-Bangladesh AFP (January 2008, 1)
  9. ^ Prime Minister declares emergency, 46 dead in Greek wildfire expansion AFP (January 2008, 8)
  10. ^ President of Pakistan declares emergency and dismisses Supreme Court Reuters Communication (November 2008, 11)
  11. ^ Georgia's state of emergency declared canceled before 22 days of parliamentary approval AFP (January 2008, 11)
  12. ^ Fiji: Heavy rain in western Viti Levu Embassy of Japan in Fiji
  13. ^ Chad issues a national emergency declaration AFP (January 2008, 2)
  14. ^ Declaration of emergency in Mongolia, due to riot over general election Reuters Communication (November 2008, 7)
  15. ^ Zimbabwe declares emergency, cholera dead over 560 Reuters Communication (November 2008, 12)
  16. ^ Hurricane "Ida" hits Central America, killing 124 people in El Salvador AFP (January 2009, 11)
  17. ^ State of emergency declared by police station attack Jamaica Nippon Television News
  18. ^ Eruption of volcanic eruptions in Guatemala and Ecuador, Latin America Rescue Now
  19. ^ Kyrgyz clash, over 80 dead, second emergency state declaration -(June 2010, 6) AFP
  20. ^ Spanish controller abandons all workplaces, declares emergency -AFP News
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  22. ^ Yemen declares state of emergency Security forces fire on demonstrators(March 2011, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  23. ^ (Untitled)(August 2011, 8) Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago
  24. ^ Tuvalu Crisis Due to Global Warming Water Shortage Government Declares State of Emergency(October 2011, 10) Excite News
  25. ^ State of emergency declared in western Myanmar, religious confrontation worsens(June 2012, 6) Reuters News
  26. ^ Mali declares state of emergency across France France dispatches troops CNN (January 2013, 1)
  27. ^ Egyptian president declares emergency in three provinces after riot after soccer trial AFP (January 2013, 1)
  28. ^ Meteorite falls in Russia, 500 people are injured Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2013, 2)
  29. ^ Declaration of state of emergency in the three northeastern states-No effect on Lagos- JETRO (June 2013, 6)
  30. ^ Emergency assistance for cyclone damage in the Kingdom of Tonga Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2014, 1)
  31. ^ Floods in Serbia kill three people "worst natural disaster" AFP (January 2014, 5)
  32. ^ Rod Mac Johnson (August 2014, 8). “Sierra Leone declares emergency with spread of Ebola infection”. AFP. AFPBB News. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8.. http://archive.is/zOZcP 2014/10/11Browse. 
  33. ^ “Ebola, Liberia declares emergency”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8.. http://archive.is/foXQW 2014/10/11Browse. 
  34. ^ “Nigeria also declares an emergency” Third country due to Ebola outbreak”. Kyodo News. 47NEWS(November 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141010214834/http://www.47news.jp/CN/201408/CN2014080901001053.html 2014/10/11Browse. 
  35. ^ “Guinea declares emergency with spread of Ebola infection”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8.. http://archive.is/rhG9a 2014/10/11Browse. 
  36. ^ Niger declares state of emergency Boko Haram's offensive AFP (February 2015, 2) Ryukyu Shimpo
  37. ^ UNICEF decides to provide US$60 assistance to Japanese government, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu damaged by Cyclone Pam UNICEF (March 2015, 3)
  38. ^ Ebola fears reignite, Guinea declares "emergency" AFP (January 2015, 3)
  39. ^ Typhoon damage in the Federated States of Micronesia (issue of sympathy messages from Prime Minister Abe and Foreign Minister Kishida) (April 2015, 4) Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  40. ^ President of Tunisia announces 30-day declaration of emergency AFP (July 2015, 7) Huff Post
  41. ^ Myanmar flood 47 dead, 21 affected(2015 8 年 月 日 3)
  42. ^ "Simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris: suicide bombing and 120 shooting deaths”. Mainichi Shimbun (December 2015, 11). 2015/11/14Browse.
  43. ^ Terror in Tunisia's capital kills 12 presidential declaration Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 11)
  44. ^ Immigration/Refugee Issues: Issuance of Emergency Declaration Embassy of Japan in Hungary (March 2016, 3)
  45. ^ Declaration of health emergency due to Zika fever (Marshall Islands) PIC (April 2016, 4)
  46. ^ Emergency assistance for drought damage in the Republic of Palau Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2016, 4)
  47. ^ Iraq and Shiite demonstrators declare parliamentary emergency Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2016, 5)
  48. ^ President Venezuela declares emergency, "US plans to overthrow government" Reuters Communication (November 2016, 5)
  49. ^ Turkish President announces state of emergency Coup attempt BBC NEWS JAPAN (July 2016, 7)
  50. ^ Ethiopia declares emergency situation Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 10)
  51. ^ Bolivia South America declares emergency due to drought worst in 25 years AFP (January 2016, 11)
  52. ^ Gambia crisis, neighboring countries temporarily dispatch new president inauguration ceremony in Senegal AFP (January 2017, 1)
  53. ^ State of emergency declared in western Niger attacked by Islamic extremists in Mali AFP (January 2017, 3)
  54. ^ Colombian Debris Flow declares emergency BBC (April 2017, 4)
  55. ^ Egypt continuous explosion, 44 deaths Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2017, 4)
  56. ^ Moldova Weekly Report [April 4-16] Embassy of Japan in Moldova (May 2017, 5)
  57. ^ Barbuda, hit by a hurricane, unmanned for the first time in 300 years CNN (January 2017, 9)
  58. ^ Emergency assistance for volcanic eruption damage in Vanuatu Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2017, 10)
  59. ^ State of emergency against Madagascar plague Nihombashi Yumeya (October 2017, 10) Read December 4, 2017
  60. ^ Declaration of emergency in Central America Honduras, violence demonstration after presidential election AFP (December 2017, 12) Read December 3, 2017
  61. ^ Declaration of emergency in Jamaica's second largest city, frequent murder calls alert tourists AFP (December 2018, 1) Read December 21, 2018
  62. ^ Maldives Emergency Situation Cancellation(March 2018, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
  63. ^ Bolivian domestic affairs and diplomacy (February 2018)(March 2018, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bolivia
  64. ^ Tonga approaching a powerful cyclone declares an emergency(February 2018, 2) AFP
  65. ^ Sri Lanka is the epitome of a world that leans to the right-emergency statement due to delay in hate speech regulation(March 2018, 3) Yahoo! News
  66. ^ Two people dead, three missing in Oman after cyclone(June 2018, 5) Reuters News
  67. ^ State of emergency declared in the Highlands (Papua New Guinea)(June 2018, 6) PIC
  68. ^ Hawaii approaching hurricane, president declares emergency AFP (January 2018, 8)
  69. ^ Issuance of Emergency Situation (Belize City) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2018, 9)
  70. ^ Cholera expanded in Zimbabwe, 20 dead, state of emergency declared in capital CNN (January 2018, 9)
  71. ^ Burkina Faso Issuance of Emergency Declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 1)
  72. ^ "A lot of ferocious polar bears roam... Declaration of emergency on Russian island”. AFP (July 2019, 2). 2019/2/10Browse.
  73. ^ "U.S. Trump administration to declare state of emergency for construction of" border wall "". NHK News (NHK). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20190215/k10011815671000.html 2019/2/16Browse. 
  74. ^ Gold mine inundation, 24 deaths declared state of emergency Mainichi Newspaper (a 2019th, 19)
  75. ^ Sudanese Parliament Approves Presidential Declaration of Emergency AFP (January 2019, 3)
  76. ^ Cyclone damage and Malawi Seibo Japan (April 2019, 4)
  77. ^ UN WFP strengthens emergency response to cyclones and floods in Mozambique WFP (March 2019, 3)
  78. ^ Sri Lanka declares emergency, terrorist attacks, dead 310 Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2019, 4)
  79. ^ Honduras dengue fever declared emergency declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 6)
  80. ^ Details of areas subject to emergency declaration Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2019, 7)
  81. ^ Information on the issuance of hygiene emergency declarations against Zika virus infection and dengue in Peru Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Quarantine Station (August 2019, 8)
  82. ^ Wildfire state of emergency announced on an island in eastern Greece TV Tokyo News (August 2019, 8)
  83. ^ Bananas disappear from the table? New Panama disease goes to South America Nationalism (August 2019, 8)
  84. ^ State of emergency in eastern Chad = President due to intensified collision JIJI (August 2019, 8)
  85. ^ State of emergency declared in Bolivia due to forest fire sputnik japan (August 2019, 8)
  86. ^ Hurricane, Florida landing on the 2nd or declaration of emergency(March 2019, 8) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  87. ^ Guatemala Calling attention to the state of emergency -Nihonbashi Yumeya
  88. ^ Regarding the issuance of an emergency situation declaration following the radicalization of the Ecuador strike(March 2019, 10) Nihombashi Yumeya
  89. ^ "State of emergency declared in Chile's capital, violence over subway fares”. AFP (July 2019, 10). 2019/11/3Browse.
  90. ^ Bolivia, presidential election declared emergency situation suspected of intervention(March 2019, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  91. ^ Israel bombs Gaza and announces emergency(November 2019, 11) TRT
  92. ^ Congo (joint) monthly report November 2019
  93. ^ Extension of the emergency declaration Travel Sun
  94. ^ Albanian earthquake continues to rescue 28 dead(November 2019, 11) JIJI
  95. ^ Eastern Kingston Area Emergency Declaration Target Area Map (Issued January 2020, 1)(Jan 2020, 1) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica
  96. ^ "Italy declares emergency with new coronavirus, first domestic infection confirmed“Reuters” May 2020, 1.2020/2/1Browse.
  97. ^ Micronesia Presidential Office Declaration of Emergency for New Coronavirus(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
  98. ^ Marshall Suspension of air and sea routes with China, Hong Kong and Macau(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
  99. ^ South Korea declares emergency due to spread of coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
  100. ^ Declaration of emergency due to new pneumonia in Herat, Afghanistan(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
  101. ^ Presidential Emergency Order in Bishkek Embassy of Japan in Kyrgyzstan
  102. ^ Declaration of emergency in all three Baltic countries and restrictions on foreign entry(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  103. ^ Declaration of emergency in France following pandemic of new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
  104. ^ Measures for new coronavirus infection by the Guatemalan government (general)(Read April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Guatemala
  105. ^ COVID19 Related Information 7(March 2020, 3) Viking Co., Ltd.
  106. ^ "Hungary declares an emergency Situation ban on new viruses such as Italy”(Japanese). NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  107. ^ Confirmed first person infected with new coronavirus, issued national emergency declaration(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  108. ^ Argentinian flight stop from Europe and America in new Corona(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  109. ^ "Czech Republic declares emergency Slovakia closes border". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2020/4/5Browse.
  110. ^ Even in Venezuela in South America, the new Corona economic collapse makes it difficult to prevent(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  111. ^ New Coronavirus: Latvian Government Declares Emergency Situation(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Latvia
  112. ^ "Trump declares emergency with new Corona”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020/3/13Browse.
  113. ^ Confirmed the first new corona infection in Uruguay, currency depreciation(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  114. ^ Estonian Government Announces Emergency Situation Regarding New Corona Infection(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Estonia
  115. ^ "Spain declares emergency to reduce spread". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  116. ^ National Emergency Declaration on the New Coronavirus in Panama(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Panama
  117. ^ New Coronavirus-related information (extension of the expiration date of measures to spread infection accompanying declaration of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bulgaria
  118. ^ Issuance of emergency declaration regarding the new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in El Salvador
  119. ^ [Poland] Prohibition of entry by foreigners-With the spread of coronavirus infection [Declaration of emergency](March 2020, 3) European navigation
  120. ^ Coronavirus infection (Honduras: Stay-at-home order issued: As of 3:16 pm on March 9)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Honduras
  121. ^ "Libya declares emergency situation Temporary administration, airports etc closed”(Japanese). Tokyo Newspaper. 2020/3/13Browse.
  122. ^ "State of emergency declared in Kazakhstan Concerns over spread of infection in Central Africa". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  123. ^ Information on new coronaviruses in Slovakia (declaration of emergency, etc.)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Slovakia
  124. ^ "Status of new coronaviruses in Serbia (PDF)”. Embassy of Japan in Serbia. 2020/3/27Browse.
  125. ^ First community-acquired president declares emergency(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  126. ^ New Coronavirus in Peru (National Emergency Ordinance-Part 2)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Peru
  127. ^ "South Africa National Emergency Situation Prohibition of entry from Italy". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  128. ^ Alert regarding the new coronavirus (9: State of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Maldives
  129. ^ Lebanon defaults, state of emergency declared against coronavirus, major airports closed(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  130. ^ Armenian government declares emergency against new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  131. ^ New coronavirus (situation until 6:16 on the XNUMXth)(May 2020, 5) Embassy of Japan in Ecuador
  132. ^ Announcement of the National Emergency Declaration in Costa Rica(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Costa Rica
  133. ^ Switzerland also declares an emergency situation: store bans, entry restrictions(March 2020, 3) Tokyo Shimbun
  134. ^ Lebanon, Jordan, and Sudan are limited to economic activities due to extension of international flight suspension and outing restrictions(March 2020, 4) JETRO
  135. ^ New coronavirus infectious disease (restriction on night out due to public health emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Paraguay
  136. ^ Finnish government declares emergency with new coronavirus measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  137. ^ "Romanian government announces emergency”(Japanese). Business report. 2020/3/24Browse.
  138. ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
  139. ^ The government issued an emergency declaration and announced 10 economic measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  140. ^ New Coronavirus Measures (Sao Tome and Principe: Emergency State Declaration on Public Health dated 17th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
  141. ^ Namibia Monthly Report (March 2020)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Namibia
  142. ^ Information on the new coronavirus in Palau (March 3th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Palau
  143. ^ Alert about new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Luxembourg
  144. ^ Australia's "emergency declaration" de facto ban on new corona(March 2020, 3) Sankei Biz
  145. ^ [Emergency] [New Coronavirus] Declaration of emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Macedonia
  146. ^ Declaration of emergency due to expansion of new coronavirus infection, impact on Japanese companies due to blockade of some local governments(March 2020, 3) JETRO
  147. ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
  148. ^ Issuance of a curfew by the government of the Dominican Republic(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Dominican Republic
  149. ^ Haiti first confirmed new coronavirus infected person(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
  150. ^ Alert about new coronavirus (partial relaxation of emergency orders)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Samoa
  151. ^ About National Restrictions Notice(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Tonga
  152. ^ New coronavirus (infection control measures in the Bahamas)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Bahamas
  153. ^ "New Coronavirus Brazil declares emergency". NHK News. 2020/4/5Browse.
  154. ^ Regarding the National Disaster Declaration by President Mutarika(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Malawi
  155. ^ New coronavirus (sanitary emergency, long-term stay, health consultation)(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Morocco
  156. ^ Declaration of national emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Georgia
  157. ^ Declaration of national health emergency and implementation of inspections for Madagascar immigrants within 14 days(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Madagascar
  158. ^ a b c d Monthly situation report for 6 countries returning to the East Caribbean countries (March 2020) -Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago (read April 2020, 4)
  159. ^ Sierra Leone's New Coronavirus Measures (Part 6): National Emergency Situation (1 Year)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Ghana
  160. ^ Congo (People) Declaration of Emergency: Border closure, Kinshasa-Prohibition of traffic between states, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  161. ^ Declaration of emergency in Senegal: Prohibition of movement between cities, restrictions on transportation, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Senegal
  162. ^ Coronavirus Response <Papua New Guinea> Latest Information(April 2020, 4) Nippon Express Pelican Travel Net
  163. ^ "NZ declares national emergency”(Japanese). Kobe Shimbun NEXT. 2020/3/24Browse.
  164. ^ "Thailand, new corona to declare emergency situation Number of infected people ... (Photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. 2020/3/24Browse.
  165. ^ Alert about the new coronavirus (Vanuatu government announced "Emergency Declaration")(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Vanuatu
  166. ^ Fiji alert for new coronavirus(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Fiji
  167. ^ New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases: Announcement of Presidential Decree on Declaration of Emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Angola
  168. ^ Declaration of Emergency Situation in Guinea Due to Epidemic of New Coronavirus: Border Blockade, Regulations on Transportation, etc.(2020 3 年 月 日 26)
  169. ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Niger (Part 3))(2020 3 年 月 日 27)
  170. ^ East Timor Banned foreigners from entering the country (March 2020, 3 28:00 to April 00, 4:26)(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
  171. ^ Announcement of hygiene emergency declaration (Mexico)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Mexico
  172. ^ Equatorial Guinea: Prime Minister's Ordinance on Extension of Hygiene Emergency Declaration and New Measures(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Equatorial Guinea
  173. ^ New Corona virus protection-Botswana declared a state of emergency(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Botswana
  174. ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Togo (Part 3))(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Ivory Coast
  175. ^ Declaration of emergency situation nationwide, prohibition of going out at night from 4 April, daytime, shops, banks are open(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Belize
  176. ^ The "actual situation" of the new corona that cannot be seen in numbers Africa where poverty is serious(March 2020, 4) Sankei Biz
  177. ^ Ukrainian new coronavirus countermeasures (addition of prohibitions, penalties, etc .: April 4)(2020 4 年 月 日 5)Embassy of Japan in Ukraine
  178. ^ Prime Minister Abe declared an emergency situation 7 prefectures Effectiveness Until May 5 -NHKNEWSWEB, delivered at 2020:4 on April 7, 18.
  179. ^ Declaration of emergency, spread all over the country Until next month, 6th month Corona infection explosion sense of crisis-Government(April 2020, 4) Jiji Press
  180. ^ Declaration of national emergency with new coronavirus countermeasures (Ethiopia)(March 2020, 4) JETRO
  181. ^ Liberia National Emergency Situation (April 2020, 4-)(March 2020, 4) Nihombashi Yumeya
  182. ^ Downtown only watched by mannequins(February 2020, 4) AFP
  183. ^ Temporary interruption of inter-city traffic in Mongolia(March 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
  184. ^ [Correction] New Coronavirus Measures (Health Emergency Declaration: Great Libreville Blockade)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Mongolia
  185. ^ Is corona infected person outbreak in North Korea?(March 2020, 7) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  186. ^ [Summary] Response to new coronavirus infections(January 2021, 1) WAVOC
  187. ^ 30 countries around the world are implementing the strictest measures such as emergency declarations and city blockades(March 2020, 3) Japanese version of People's Network
  188. ^ New virus, which country will reach the end in the world?(April 2020, 4) BBC NEWS JAPAN
  189. ^ Somalia declares emergency situation Kenya is the worst outbreak in the last 70 years(February 2020, 2) Japan Agricultural Newspaper
  190. ^ Fuel spill accident in Russia's Arctic, climate change-permafrost melts(June 2020, 6) bloomberg
  191. ^ "Ministry of Agriculture declares phytosanitary emergency for South American grasshopper hordes”(Japanese). JETRO. 2020/7/4Browse.
  192. ^ [{https://jp.reuters.com/article/lebanon-security-blast-cabinet-idJPKCN2512D5 Lebanon State of Emergency Declares Beirut Explosion to 135 Dead] (August 2020, 8) Reuters
  193. ^ MOL's ship aground, Mauritius “environmental emergency declaration”... Request for heavy oil recovery cooperation(So-net, August 2020, 8)
  194. ^ California wildfire declares "emergency"(ParsToday, August 2020, 8)
  195. ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(ASC, September 2020, 9)
  196. ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(AFP, September 2020, 9)
  197. ^ Hygiene emergency declaration reissued throughout France(March 2020, 10) JETRO
  198. ^ Spain declares state of emergency again Italy also restricts food and beverage business(March 2020, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  199. ^ Extension of the Portuguese State of Emergency (until December 2020, 12)(March 2020, 12) Nihombashi Yumeya
  200. ^ "State of emergency in the Kyrgyz capital spreads political unrest-Livedoor News”(Japanese). news.livedoor.com. 2020/10/13Browse.
  201. ^ "Thailand's big blow, anti-government demonstration continued, state of emergency, capital outflow and tourism reconstruction fear of retreat"SankeiBiz" Sankei Digital, October 2020, 10.2020/11/13Browse.
  202. ^ "Tochigi Prefecture Declaration Cancellation Relaxation is step by step". NHK News. 2021/2/14Browse.
  203. ^ "State of emergency Canceled today in 6 prefectures excluding the Greater Tokyo Area". NHK News. 2021/3/1Browse.
  204. ^ Announced tomorrow's state of emergency, to announce restaurants that do not respond to time saving requests at XNUMX:XNUMX pm(January 2021, 1) TBS NEWS
  205. ^ "Declaration of emergency Expanded to 11 prefectures Government refrains from going out unnecessarily during the day". NHK News. 2020/1/14Browse.
  206. ^ Malaysia declares state of emergency in Corona Possibility of prolonging administration(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 1)
  207. ^ "Declaration of emergency, announced in Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo ... XNUMX days from XNUMXth to May XNUMXth". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head Office (September 2021, 4). 2021/4/26Browse.
  208. ^ "Government decides to extend state of emergency in 4 prefectures Aichi and Fukuoka until 31st". Mainichi Newspapers. Mainichi Shimbun (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/10Browse.
  209. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Declaration of emergency in Hokkaido, Okayama, Hiroshima Government policy change subcommittee approval". NHK News. 2021/5/14Browse.
  210. ^ "Declaration of emergency in Okinawa Prefecture Government officially decided until June 6". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/25Browse.
  211. ^ "Declaration of emergency in 9 prefectures Decided to extend until 20th next month Government". NHK NEWS WEB. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/28Browse.
  212. ^ Quote error: invalid <ref> It is a tag. "emergency-July21Text is not specified for an annotation named "
  213. ^ London UK declares serious incident, corona infection "out of control"(REUTERS, January 2021, 1)
  214. ^ Jakarta declares emergency in new Corona request to stop using office -Nihon Keizai Shimbun
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  220. ^ Aichi Prefecture issues emergency declaration(Chunichi Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
  221. ^ a b “Municipal movements one after another The government is cautious about adding more Emergency declaration one week” (jp). Mainichi Daily News(July 2020, 4). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20200414/k00/00m/010/238000c 2020/11/29Browse. 
  222. ^ Gifu Prefecture declares a second state of emergency(Chunichi Shimbun, August 2020, 7)
  223. ^ Governor of Mie Prefecture "One step before an emergency" New virus infections one after another Emergency alert declaration(Ise Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
  224. ^ "3 Municipalities to "declare a joint emergency" Nasu Shiobara, Otawara, Nasu | Local topics, society | Shimotsuke Shinbun "SOON" News | New pneumonia-COVID19- | Shimotsuke Shinbun SOON”(Japanese). Shimotsuke Newspaper SOON. 2020/5/1Browse.
  225. ^ Okinawa Prefecture's original "emergency declaration" Call for refraining from going out without unnecessary urgency(NHK, July 2020, 7)
  226. ^ Okinawa Prefecture's original warning level "Infestation spread" to be extended to the declaration(NHK, July 2020, 8)
  227. ^ Okinawa extends its own state of emergency again until September 9th Be wary of spreading infection in the old tray(Ryukyu Shimpo, August 2020, 8)
  228. ^ Fukuoka Prefecture Official Home Page "Fukuoka Prefecture Corona Warning" Activation and Future Responses (August 8)
  229. ^ "Fukuoka Corona Warning" cancellation is also decided to partially review the trigger index ". West Japan Newspaper (Nishi-Nippon Shimbun). (March 2020, 10). https://www.nishinippon.co.jp/item/n/652571/ 2020/10/9Browse. 
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  231. ^ Okayama Prefecture Medical Emergency Declaration “Even if infected, it is not always possible to be hospitalized”(NHK, July 2020, 12)
  232. ^ Governor Miyagi Murai issues his own state of emergency due to a rapid increase in infected people(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 3)
  233. ^ Unique emergency declaration for Yamagata City The number of people infected with the new corona is increasing rapidly(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 3)
  234. ^ Declaration of emergency in Sagae City New Corona(Yamagata News Online, March 2021, 3)
  235. ^ Fukui Prefecture's own "state of emergency" spread of new corona infection(Nikkei, viewed May 2021, 5)
  236. ^ <Breaking news> Ishikawa Prefecture declares its own emergency situation Requests to refrain from going out unnecessarily after XNUMX:XNUMX pm Until the end of May(Hokkoku Shimbun DIGITAL, May 2021, 5)
  237. ^ Yemen and cholera continue to grow, killing 1 in a month Asahi Shimbun Digital (June 2017, 6) Read June 3, 2017

Related item

外部 リンク

Tokyo

Tokyo(Tokyo Metropolitan area,(British: Tokyo Metropolis) IsJapan Ofcapital[2][3].Kanto regionに 位置 す る都.Tokyo Metropolitan Government TheShinjuku ward[2][Note 2].

Ward(23 wards),Tama area(With 26 citiesNishitama County3 towns and 1 village) andIslands(2 towns and 7 villages). Located in the southwestern part of Kanto, with a long and narrow metropolitan area in the east and west,Tokyo BayFace[3].. In the westMt. KumotoriyamaTo be the highest peakKanto MountainsBecome[4].

Administrative agency,Financial institution,large companyAnd so on,News (Chinese)-broadcast-PublicationSuch asculturesurface,University-research InstituteSuch asEducation-AcademicIn terms of JapanCentralMake up.TransportationAlso in terms ofTrainnetwork,道路network,AirwayCenter of.Has one of the largest populations in the worldInternational metropolisIs[3].

In Tokyo and 7 surrounding prefecturesCapital AreaConsists of.In particularTokyo areaThe total population of (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa) has reached about 3500 million.Japanese populationOccupies about 30% of[5]..The population of the Tokyo metropolitan area is the largest in the world.

Overview

The area of ​​jurisdiction isTokyo Ward(23 wards of Tokyo),Tama area(26 cities[Note 3]And 3 towns and 1 village in Nishitama district) andTokyo islands((I.e.,(I.e.,Hachijo,Ogasawara) 4 branch offices (2 towns and 7 villages).Okinotorishima,MinamitorishimaIncluding Ogasawara Islands includingJapan's southernmost and easternmost pointsに 位置 す るPrefecturesBut also. Tokyo Metropolitan (Tokyo Met.) is the English notation of Tokyo, which is officially recognized by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. There are also Tokyo Prefecture and Tokyo Metropolitan Prefecture.

populationThere are 14,043,239 people (as of April 2021, 8).This is the most populous prefecture in Japan,Japanese populationIt accounts for about 11% of.The population densityIs also the highest in the prefectures.Centered on TokyoTokyo metropolitan areaHas a population of over 3700 millionWorld's largest metropolitan areaIs.About 3% of Japan's population is concentrated,ポーランド,モロッコ,カナダIt is comparable to the total population of such countries.

Tokyo is,Edo ShogunateWas once placedEdoAndTokugawa Ieyasu OfLand use planningGreatly developed by.BakumatsuAfter the upheaval, the texts of the first year of the Meiji era began to be written as "Tokyo."1869On February 2 (January 11, 2)Heianjing(京都) To the capital ()Tokyo Shrine,List of former capitalsSee also),1878Prefectural government came into effect in (Meiji 11)TokyoIt became.Second World WarIn1943(18)May 7, Of the capitalAdministrative functionFrom the purpose of strengtheningTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentWas enforced. With this, with TokyoTokyo cityWas abolished, and in the form of integrating theseTokyoWas installed[6].. After the end of the war1947(Showa 22)Local government lawWith the enforcement, the Tokyo system since 1943 was abolished, but the name and administrative area of ​​"Tokyo" have not changed. In other words, the ward established in the former Tokyo city, which was directly controlled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, is a special local public entity due to the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law.special areaHowever, some office work and tax collection rights were retained in the city.[Note 4].. For this reason, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government still includes “23 wards.municipal officeFunction asPrefectural officeIt also has the "function as".

Of TokyoVoting bodyAsTokyo Metropolitan AssemblyIs installed. Of TokyoChief TheGovernor of TokyoIs. Its authorityLocal government lawIs defined byelectionElected by. The term of office is 4 years. As an assistant to the governorDeputy Governor of TokyoFour people will be placed.2017(HeiseiAs of April 29, the number of Tokyo Metropolitan Government employees (so-called “Tokyo Metropolitan staff”) is about 4 general administrative staff, such as governor departments.Public enterpriseDepartment (Transportation-Water supply-Sewer) Is about 1. to thisTokyo Fire DepartmentandMetropolitan Police DepartmentStaff in TokyoPublic schoolThe total number of faculty members is about 16.[7].

Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building(Main government building) is longChiyoda WardYurakuchoWas there,1991(3)May 4ToShinjuku wardNishi-ShinjukuMoved to. The regulations were revised in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law along with the relocation, and after thatNishi-Shinjuku XNUMX-chome, Shinjuku-ku, TokyoHas become[8].. However, "Tokyo" is used for the convenience of notation of the location of Tokyo Metropolitan Government such as maps.[9].Geographical Survey InstituteAccording to the report, prefectures other than Tokyo use the name of the city, whereas in the case of Tokyo, 23 wards including Shinjuku ward, which is the actual location, are collectively referred to as "Tokyo".[10][Note 5].. Many textbooks also refer to "Tokyo" as the Geographical Survey Institute. The cause is that the special ward is not a municipality, it does not have some of the authority of the business that the municipality has, and the ward part was once a city called Tokyo city.[11].

Japanese private sectorgraduate School 2016Announced in "Global Cities Competence Ranking""UKとニ ュ ー ヨ ー クRanked 3rd in the world after[12].. Research department of "Economist",Economist Intelligence Unitby2019According to the survey, Tokyo is the 7th largest city in the world as "the most livable city in the world".AsiaElected to 2nd place[13]..Also in the United Statesthink tankAnnounced in 2020World cityIn the ranking (GCI 2020), New York, London,Paris4th in the world aftercityWas evaluated as[14].The United Kingdom2021 "World" announced by the institutionFinancial centerIn the Index, it was rated as the 7th largest financial center in the world and the 5th largest financial center in Asia.[15].

capital

TokyoCity centerWas onceEdoHits the,Edo ShogunateSince its establishment, it has been a substantial center of Japanese politics and administration.1868ToHeianjingFrom EdoImperial Palace,Prime MinisterIt is said that the capital functions such asTokyo Shrine), then EdoTokyoIt was renamed and became the capital for the purpose.Dainichi this empireIn the periodImperial CapitalAlso called.Pacific WarIn1943In TokyoTokyo cityWas merged and Tokyo became the capital again. Post-war1950To TokyoJapanese capitalSo that it can fully demonstrate its functionCapital Construction LawWas enacted in 1956.Metropolitan Area Improvement ActWas abolished with the enforcement of. In this way, due to the abolition of the Capital Construction Law, Tokyo legally lacks the ground that it is the capital of Japan.Japanese GovernmentThe official opinion and official document is that it is the capital, and the central function of Japan exists in Tokyo.2018In 2 monthMember of the House of RepresentativesSeiji Osakaquestion of[16]However, there is no law that directly stipulates that the capital is Tokyo, but I think that Tokyo is the capital of Japan is widely accepted by the general public, the government said. Was[17].

Also, according to the Metropolitan Area Improvement Act, Tokyo isCapital AreaThe metropolis of Tokyo's official English notation "Tokyo Metropolis" has the meaning of "capital" in addition to "major city, metropolitan area".

As mentioned above, what directly defines Tokyo as the capital isThe Constitution of JapanandJapanese lawAlthough not in the center of the capital (especiallyTokyo 23 Ward) To the Japanese governmentHouses of Parliament,Prime Minister's OfficeAnd major ministries,Supreme CourtThe central authority of the three powers, including In addition to this, there are also laws that set the institution in Tokyo.[Note 6].

Geography/Region

The main part of Tokyo isKanto PlainLocated inTokyo BayFacing. Besides this,Izu Islands-Ogasawara IslandsThe islands are also administrative areas. This island is the southernmost tip of JapanOkinotorishimaIs the easternmost point of JapanMinamitorishimaIs also included.In the sense that the southernmost and easternmost points of Japan are included in the administrative area, the southernmost point of Japan and the easternmost point of JapanPrefecturesIt has become.

Area/range

Geographical Survey InstituteAccording to the national area distribution by prefecture, the area of ​​Tokyo is 2193.96 square kilometers.[18].

The north, south, east, and west ends of Tokyo are as follows:[19].. North endMt. Ohira (Chichibu district, Saitama prefecture)The west and eastern ends of the island are on Minamitorishima, and the southern and western ends are on Okinotorishima. The center of gravity obtained by putting a provisional boundary line in the prefecture boundary undetermined area without considering Okinotorishima is also shown.[20]. AlsoStatistics BureauAccording to the 22 national census,SuginamiLocated near Narita Higashi 1-chome[21]..Kobo is about 1,700km from the north end to the south end and about 1,900km from the west end to the east end.

Center of gravity
North Latitude 35 Degrees 01 Minutes 18 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 35 min 44 sec /35.02167 degrees north latitude 139.59556 degrees east longitude / 35.02167; 139.59556 (Center of gravity of Tokyo)

Northern end
North Latitude 35 Degrees 53 Minutes 54 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 01 min 06 sec /35.89833 degrees north latitude 139.01833 degrees east longitude / 35.89833; 139.01833 (Northernmost part of Tokyo)
↑
Center of gravity
North Latitude 35 Degrees 41 Minutes 15.49 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 38 min 15.28 sec /35.6876361 degrees north latitude 139.6375778 degrees east longitude / 35.6876361; 139.6375778 (Tokyo center of population)
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building Location
North Latitude 35 Degrees 41 Minutes 22 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 41 min 30 sec /35.68944 degrees north latitude 139.69167 degrees east longitude / 35.68944; 139.69167 (Tokyo Metropolitan Government)
Eastern end
→North Latitude 24 Degrees 16 Minutes 59 Seconds East longitude 153 degree 59 min 11 sec /24.28306 degrees north latitude 153.98639 degrees east longitude / 24.28306; 153.98639 (The easternmost point of Tokyo)
West end and South end↓
North Latitude 20 Degrees 25 Minutes 31 Seconds East longitude 136 degree 04 min 11 sec /20.42528 degrees north latitude 136.06972 degrees east longitude / 20.42528; 136.06972 (Southwestern tip of Tokyo)←

Topography and geology

In the eastern part of the ward,Sumida River,Arakawa,Edogawa,中At the mouth ofAlluvial plainIs spreading. The ground is soft,Zero meters above sea levelNot a few. SouthernTamagawaThe area along it is also lowland. The western part of the wardMusashino PlateauIs the end of theTongue plateauIt has become a terrain with a height difference in which the plateau and the lowlands are complicated. The coastal areaLandfillHas become. LandfillTokugawa IeyasuIt started in the era ofNew sea surface disposal siteLandfill of waste and construction soil is being carried out.

In the Tama area,TamagawaAlong the lowlands along the north,Musashino Plateau, The south sideTama HillsHas become. In western TamaKanto MountainsThere is a mountain range included in.Saitama OfIruma-gunからOme,Tachikawa,Fuchu-shiIn the direction ofTachikawa faultIs confirmed to exist. Tachikawa Fault is JapanActive faultAmong theEarthquakeThe probability of occurrence of is expected to be relatively high. Besides this, Edo-TokyoSagami Trough giant earthquakeFrequent big earthquakes (Genroku Earthquake,Ansei Edo Earthquake,Great Kanto Earthquake) Has been damaged.

On the islandsIzu IslandsとOgasawara IslandsIs included. BothVolcanoIt is a volcanic island formed by activities. In the Izu Islandsactive volcanoThere are many,MiyakejimaOyama has been volcanic since 2000.Alsoizu-Oshima OfMiharaBut in 1986eruptionActivity was seen. Of the Ogasawara IslandsNishinoshimaThe area of ​​the island is expanding due to volcanic ejecta.

The Ogasawara Islands are uniqueEcosystemHold,Oriental OfGalapagosThere are many precious plants and animals,world Natural Heritage SiteRegistered in.

climate

23 wards for climate classification in JapanTamaEastern andIzu Islands ThePacific climate, Tama West etc.Central highland climateBelong to.Ogasawara Islands TheSouthern Japan climateIs. Characteristically, the changes of the four seasons are clear, and the weather tends to change day by day. Summers are hot and rainy, and winters are sunny and dry.Köppen climate classificationThen the whole of TokyoHumid subtropical climate (Cfa)However, since it is a world-class classification, it cannot fully explain the various climates of Tokyo.

In spring, the weather changes cyclically and there are many sunny days, but the developed low pressure system may pass through and the weather may collapse.Cold vortexUnder the influence ofthunderstormThere are times whenrainy seasonIn the season ofRainy season frontIt is covered with rain and it is easy to rain. The first half is mainly light rain, but the second half is heavy. RarelySky rainy seasonThere are also years. Summer,Pacific highIt is covered with a lot of rain, and there are many hot and sunny days, and thunderstorms are likely to occur. However, depending on the yearOkhotsk Sea HighThe weather may become cloudy and rainy.

In the first half of autumnAutumn rain frontIt makes it easier to rain. AlsotyphoonMay pass and become a storm. In the latter half, the weather changes cyclically and there are many sunny days. In winterWest High East LowThe winter typePressure patternIt is easy to get wet, and there are many days when the air is sunny and dry. From February to MarchSouth coast lowIs easier to pass throughCentimeterThere may be some snowfall. However,Tama regionIn some cases, the snowfall may be 20 cm or more.When snow piles upTransportationThe operation of may be disturbed.

  • Tokyo Ward -Meteorological AgencyOpen airAccording to the observation near Otemachi where there wasHeat islandIs greatly affected.1920 eraHas been observed for about 70 days a yearWinter dayHas decreased and the number of tropical nights has more than tripled. Also, in winter, in southern KyushuKagoshima,Miyazaki CityThe lowest temperature could be higher than that.NahaNationwide excludingPrefectural office locationIn横 浜 市,Chiba,Kobe City,OsakaIt was not uncommon for the lowest temperature to be the highest along with the above. However, the maximum temperature in summer itself is not so high. On the other hand, inlandNerima-kuAMeDAS observation[Note 7][22]Winter days are not uncommon in the region,Shinjuku ward,Shibuya WardWinter day observations are often seen in central Tokyo. Also in Chiyoda Ward, where the weather station is located, the area near Otemachi and the Meteorological Agency depot were relocated.Kitanomaru ParkThere is a difference in the minimum temperature in winter, and the average minimum temperature in January 2012 was 1 ° C in Otemachi and 1.8 ° C in Kitanomaru Park, and the number of winter days was 0.4 days in Otemachi and 3 days in Kitanomaru Park. Is.This is the temperature from Nerima (average minimum temperature -11 ℃, 1th winter day) in January.Due to these factors, even within the same metropolitan area, it is a suburb from the inland such as Nerima Ward.Chuo-ku,Chiyoda WardIt can be seen that there is a large difference in temperature from the coastal area. further,Edogawa-kuAmedas under the name of the Edogawa seaside is also installed in the coastal area of, and the lowest temperature in winter is often lower than that in Otemachi, indicating that the heat island phenomenon of Otemachi in winter is extremely remarkable. , The temperature displayed in the weather forecast for Tokyo's wards was based on the temperature at the outdoor area of ​​Otemachi.
  • Tama region - Inland climateTherefore, the lowest temperature in winter is very different from that of Tokyo's 1 wards.The average minimum temperature in January in Fuchu is -0.8 ℃, Ome is -2.3 ℃, Hachioji is -2.0 ℃, and Okutama is -3.0 ℃, which is below freezing, and it is rare that the temperature difference from the city center is 5 ℃ or more. Absent.In winter, the low pressure on the south coast can cause heavy snowfall, often resulting in snowfall of 20 cm or more.Even if the city center is sleet or rainy, it often snows in the Tama region where the temperature is low.In particularOkutama Town,Ebara-mura,OmeIn western Tama, such as in the mountains, from around NovembersnowMay rain.
  • Izu Islands - Oceanic climateAnd, the difference in temperature is small throughout the year. The average temperature in the middle of winter is around 7℃-10℃, but the climate is mild, but it is located in the northernmost part.izu-OshimaIt is not unusual for it to get colder than the central part of Tokyo due to heavy snowfall. Further southHachijojima,MiyakejimaIs warmer.
Meteorological data for various locations in Tokyo (Source:Meteorological Agency / Meteorological Statistics Information)
Average price
(Monthly)
23 wardsTama(I.e.NiijimaMiyakejimaHachijojimaOgasawara Islands
eastWestern partNorthSouthernWestern part
Edogawa-ku
Coastal town
Chiyoda Ward
Otemachi
Ota-ku
Haneda
NerimaSetagayaFuchuHachiojiOmeOkutama Town
Ogouchi
Ebara-mura
(I.e.
Oshima Town
(I.e.
Niijima Village
Niijima
Miyake-mura
Miyakejima
Hachijo
Hachijojima
Ogasawara Village
ChichijimaMinamitorishima
Climate classificationcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFACwacFAcFAcFAcFAcFAAw
average
temperature
(° C)
Warmest month26.0
(August)
27.1
(August)
26.9
(August)
26.2
(August)
25.8
(August)
25.1
(August)
23.0
(August)
25.3
(August)
26.4
(August)
26.1
(August)
26.5
(August)
27.6
(August)
28.2
(August)
Coldest month5.6
(August)
5.8
(August)
4.5
(August)
4.1
(August)
3.1
(August)
2.7
(August)
1.3
(August)
7.0
(August)
9.1
(August)
9.4
(August)
10.3
(August)
17.7
(August)
21.3
(August)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months193.2
(August)
208.5
(August)
207.0
(August)
220.4
(August)
225.8
(August)
223.7
(August)
261.0
(August)
243.4
(August)
286.6
(August)
297.1
(August)
373.8
(August)
282.0
(August)
371.3
(August)
443.5
(August)
174.4
(August)
166.9
(August)
Minimum month33.2
(August)
39.6
(August)
34.9
(August)
32.0
(August)
38.6
(August)
35.9
(August)
32.2
(August)
26.6
(August)
26.2
(August)
27.6
(August)
93.6
(August)
72.3
(August)
133.6
(August)
169.6
(August)
61.4
(August)
42.1
(August)
precipitation
Number of days
(Day)
Most months12.5
(August)
11.9
(August)
11.9
(August)
12.5
(August)
12.9
(August)
12.7
(August)
14.2
(August)
14.2
(August)
15.5
(August)
14.7
(August)
13.2
(August)
12.9
(August)
14.8
(August)
16.6
(August)
10.9
(August)
14.6
(August)
Minimum month4.5
(August)
3.8
(August)
4.5
(August)
4.0
(August)
4.5
(August)
4.4
(August)
4.1
(August)
3.7
(August)
3.2
(August)
3.4
(August)
6.7
(August)
7.5
(August)
9.5
(August)
11.4
(August)
7.2
(August)
6.0
(August)

Region

Area name

Tokyo is generallyWard(Tokyo 23 wards, oldTokyo city), "Tama area (26 cities, 3 towns, 1 village in Tama)","Islands"(Izu Islands-Ogasawara Islands) Is often divided into three areas.

Tokyo Ward

In the ward,Edo Castle(Imperial Palace) As a referenceChengbei""Joto""Seongnam""Josai". The west side of the wardMusashino PlateauBecause it is the end ofYamanoteIt is also called. Urban functions are concentrated in the center of the ward.City centerIs called. The scope of “city center” does not have a uniform definition, but in the narrowest senseChiyoda Ward,Chuo-ku,Minato-kuOften referred to as the "city center 3 wards", and in a broad sense, the entire ward area is sometimes called the "city center" ("City center # city center and centerSee also).Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentThen variousLand use planningInFukutoshinHas been formulated and todayShinjuku Fukutoshin,Ikebukuro Fukutoshin,Shibuya Fukutoshin,Ueno/Asakusa Fukutoshin,Kinshicho/Kameido Fukutoshin,Osaki/Shinagawa Fukutoshin,Tokyo waterfront subcenterThe 7 locations may be called "Fukutoshin".

Tama area

Tama areaWas onceRegulatory country OfTama-gunFrom the remnants ofSpecial WardincludeHigashitama DistrictOther thanMinamitama County,Kitama-gun,Nishitama CountyAs a general termSantamaIt may also be called.While playing a role as a commuter town in central Tokyo, some cities have offices and factories of large companies such as Hachioji, Tachikawa, and Fuchu.The Tama area is also popular with families because nature remains from the city center.During the era of the province of Japan, Musashi Kokubunji was located in Fuchu City and Musashi Kokubunji was located in Kokubunji, which was the center of economy and politics.

Tokyo islands

On the other hand, the islands areOshima Branch""Miyake Branch""Hachijo branch office""Ogasawara Branch", but this isBranch officeHowever, the towns and villages in the area do not belong to the branch office. For example,Ogasawara VillageThe address is "Ogasawara-mura, Tokyo", not "Ogasawara-mura, Tokyo Ogasawara branch office".

Basic local government (ward municipalities)

Within the Tokyo area,Basic municipalityThere are 23 wards, 26 cities, 5 towns and 8 villages as below. All towns are read as "towns" and all villages as "mura".

Tokyo WardAdachi-ku,Arakawa,Itabashi ku,Edogawa-ku,Ota-ku,Katsushika,Kita,Koto Ward,Shinagawa,Shibuya Ward,Shinjuku ward,Suginami,Sumida-ku,Setagaya,Taito,Chuo-ku,Chiyoda Ward,Toshima ward,Nakano,Nerima-ku,Bunkyo ku,Minato-ku,Meguro
Tama areaCityAkishima-shi,Akiruno,Inagi-shi,Ome,Kiyose,National city,Koganei-shi,Kokubunji,Kodaira,Komae,Tachikawa,Tama City,Chofu City,Nishitokyo,Hachioji City,Hamura,Higashikurume shi,Higashimurayama city,Higashiyamasa,Hino city,Fuchu-shi,Fussa,Machida-shi,Mitaka City,Musashino,Musashimurayama-shi
Nishitama CountyOkutama Town,Hinode Town,Mizuho,Ebara-mura
Tokyo islandsOshima BranchOshima Town,Toshima Island,Niijima Village,Kozushima Village
Miyake BranchMiyake-mura,Mikurajima Village
Hachijo branch officeHachijo,Aogashima Village
Ogasawara BranchOgasawara Village

Old province of Japan

In light of history,Regulatory country OfMusashi countryPart of (generallyTamagawaNorth, and generallyArakawaSouth),IzukuniThe Izu Islands, which were a part of the above, correspond to the current Tokyo area.

Land price

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAccording to the officially announced land prices, which are officially announced, Tokyo is the prefecture with the highest land prices in Japan. The average land price per Tokyo announced in 30 is 340 yen (the unit price per square meter is 2840 yen), which is the second highest in Japan.OsakaThe average price is 90 times higher than the average price per tsubo of 1015 yen and the average price per square meter of 27 yen.[24].. Tokyo's land prices are rising further ahead of the Tokyo Olympics, and the average rate of increase in 30 is 3.39% compared to the previous year at the points where the announcement was continued from the previous year. Then the 2nd and 1st place in JapanOkinawaThe land price increase rate for 30 is 5.74%).

The municipalities with the highest publicly announced land prices in Tokyo areChuo-kuThe average unit price per tsubo is 2568 yen (unit price per square meter of 4691 yen). The municipalities with the highest rate of land price increase in TokyoChuo-kuThe average rate of increase is 7.48% compared to the previous year. Second place belowShibuya Ward(Rise of 7.07%), 3rd placeTaito(The rate of increase is 6.99%).

The stations with the highest public land price in the surrounding area in TokyoGinza StationThe unit price per tsubo is 1 yen (the unit price per square meter is 1878 yen). The area around Ginza Station is the place with the highest public land price in Japan, and the announcement of the public land price is attracting attention every year. On the other hand, the stations in Tokyo that have the highest rate of increase in land pricesMeiji Jingumae StationIs. The average rate of increase is 14.83% year-on-year, exceeding the rate of increase of 11.79% around Ginza Station. Second place belowHarajuku Station(Rise of 14.47%), 3rd placeTsukiji market station(Rise of 13.51%). At Harajuku Station, a large-scale commercial and residential complex development project with a total project cost of 2020 billion yen is underway toward 550, and it is considered that this is affecting the soaring land prices.[25].

Adjacent municipality

Saitama,Chiba,KanagawaAdjacent to the mountainous area of ​​OkutamaYamanashiI am in contact with him. The boundaries of land are as follows.

Saitama prefecture flagSaitama
Chiba prefecture flagChiba
Kanagawa prefecture flagKanagawa
Yamanashi prefecture flagYamanashi

population

The population of Tokyo as of October 2015, 27 is 10 million according to the 1 Census.[26].. This is an increase of approximately 22, or 1316%, compared to the "35 million" of the 2.7 census before that.[26].

Demography13000.svg
Population distribution by age in Tokyo and Japan (2005)Population distribution by age and gender in Tokyo (2005)
■Purple-Tokyo
■Green-All over Japan
■Blue-male
■Red-female

Changes in Tokyo population
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Age structure

Senior citizens

As of 2010 (Heisei 22)Aging rateIs 20.4%, which means one in five elderly people[26](The elderly population is expected to continue to grow, and by 2020, one in four people living in Tokyo is expected to become elderly.[26]).

The number of elderly people living alone was 2010 as of 22.[26](10 years later, by 2020, it is expected to exceed 80.[26]).

youth

The population of young people (0-14 years old) in Tokyo is already smaller than that of the elderly[26](Expected to decrease in the future[26]).

Daytime population, nighttime population, daytime inflow population

Daytime and nighttime population

2015As of (27)Daytime populationIs about 1592 million. On the other handNighttime populationIs 1352 million[27].. This is to the workplace in TokyoCommutingTo the people who go to school in TokyoCommuting to schoolIndicate that the daytime population is increasing[26](Some people commute from Tokyo to surrounding prefectures only in the daytime, but because the population that flows in is larger than that number, the difference is that the daytime has more than 241 million people. stay up). Tama area and Tokyo area (not adjacentIbaraki,Tochigi,Gunma(Including the southern part of)Bed townAre scattered,ShizuokaEastern partNiigataFrom the southShinkansen commutingAlso exists[28].

Daytime inflow population

The daytime inflow population to the ward is1980The number of 55 million was gradually increasing in (266), and in 1995 (HeiseiPeaked at 7 million in 372 years[26]After that, it gradually decreased to 2015 million in 27.[27].. The large number of inflowing population during the daytime means that these people are energized by performing various activities (production activity and consumption activity) in the daytime in the ward area. But at the same time,disasterSometimes in large quantitiesPeople who have difficulty returning homeIt also means that there is a risk that[26](Great East Japan EarthquakeAt that time, it was estimated that about 352 million people were difficult to return home in Tokyo (Cabinet OfficeEstimates based on an internet survey released by the company on November 2011, 11. Detail is"People who have difficulty returning home due to the Great East Japan EarthquakeSee article).

History

Second World WarIn1943May 7ToTokyo cityとTokyoWas abolished,TokyoWas installed. The first Tokyo SecretaryMinistry of InteriorFromShigeo OdateMet. Of the end of World War II1945May 3ToTokyo air raidThe downtown is burned down by theAir raidDue to the damage caused by the disaster, much of the city of Tokyo has become a "burn field". Also, of the Ogasawara IslandsIwo JimaThen.Ground warWas done and caused a lot of damage in both Japanese and US troops.

After the war, the government gave top priority to the reconstruction of the capital, Tokyo, and in the Tokyo Metropolitan War Reconstruction City Plan, there were plans to develop 34 radially extending trunk roads and 8 loop lines, as well as roads in Tokyo, but they eventually failed. It is said that1964HeldTokyo OlympicsThe postwar reconstruction ended and Tokyo wasHigh economic growthIt has made great progress as a new political and economic center of Japan.1962Tokyo's permanent population (nighttime population) surpasses an estimated 1 million for the first time in the world[29][Note 8], Economically violentTokyo extreme concentration, And this trend continues to accelerate even today.

Also in TokyoShinjuku-Shibuya-IkebukuroAround the terminal station in the western part of TokyoFukutoshin-DowntownWhile it rapidly developed asAsakusaThe stagnation tendency in the eastern part of the Tokyo ward, which is symbolized by the decline of the city, was a problem.Donut phenomenonDue to the1966The peak began at 810 million and began a gradual decline. on the other hand,Tama areaIn the ward, commuting to the city caused a rapid population increase,Hachioji CityとTachikawaThe number of unlisted cities has increased to 26, and the population ratio has risen.Inagi-shi-Tama City·Hachioji City·Machida-shiSpread overTama HillsToTama New TownWas built and otherwiseFarmland,MusashinoFrom the hills, forests and wildernessHousing complexThe conversion to residential areas was promoted.

1968, The Ogasawara Islands andVolcanic islandsWas returned from the United States and transferred to Tokyo.1991In ShinjukuNew Tokyo Metropolitan Government BuildingWas completed and became a new symbol of Tokyo, and Shinjuku came to be called the "new city center".1999ToShintaro IshiharaSince taking office as Governor of Tokyo,Shinagawa,Marunouchi,ShiodomeandCoastal subcenterUrban redevelopment such as the above, and the development of main roads are being promoted, but the areas are not developed and the road conditions are complicated. As it is an overcrowded city, it is being promoted by the regulations of the city etc. to make it incombustible and safe as a whole against the earthquake.

From the high economic growth period in TokyoBubble economyWages and asset prices soared significantly over the period,1980 era~ In the 1990sLand price,物 価Was at the top level in the world.1990 erafirstBubble burstLand prices have plummeted. Since 1998deflationAgainst the backdrop of falling prices and exchange rate fluctuations,2010 eraIs no longer at the world's top prices[30].. Land prices in Tokyo have been declining for a long time since the bubble era, but began to rise at most points around 2012.[31].

Will be held for the second time in 2020Tokyo Olympics-ParalympicIs planned and towards thatInfrastructureAnd other capital improvements are planned to be carried out (a full-scale epidemic was confirmed from 2020)New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)The Tokyo Games were scheduled to be postponed to 2021 due to the influence of the above, but it was held safely on July 2021, 7, and the Paralympics were held from August 23, 8. )Tokyo Olympics.Paralympic Opening Ceremony

Politics

Metropolitan government

Organizations in Tokyo can be broadly divided into parliament as a voting body and governor as an executive body.[32].. The parliament and the executive body are in an equal position and have a “two-person representation” relationship that checks (evaluates/monitors) each other's actions.[32](Check-and-balance relationship[32]).

Organizations in Tokyo are responsible for the politics of the entire metropolitan area (metropolitan government) and the politics of cities in wards.

Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly

Voting body TheTokyo Metropolitan AssemblyIs. this isThe Constitution of JapanandLocal government lawInstalled according to[32].. Make up parliamentMetropolitan assemblyIs elected by the citizens of Tokyo[32].

Tokyo Metropolitan Government

Enforcement agencyIt is,Governor of TokyoRepresented byTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentAnd its main task is to carry out projects based on the decisions of the Parliament.[32].. The term of governor of Tokyo isLocal government lawStipulated as 4 years by[33].. Governor of TokyoelectionElected in[32].

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office has the functions of both the administrative agency (city hall) of the so-called ward and the general prefectural office. However, due to the progress of delegation of authority from the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to each special ward, its peculiarity has diminished and it is approaching general prefectures.

Within the regionBasic municipality(市町村) Has 26 cities, 5 towns and 8 villages. otherSpecial local governmentThere are 23 special wards. The special ward is considered to be a basic local public body that is similar to the city, and exists only in the Tokyo area in Japan. Special ward otherGovernment-designated cityThe form is very different from that of "ku". The mayor and ward council are publicly elected, and in recent years the delegation of authority from the city has progressed, and the city is almost the same as a “city”. However, the name “ward” still exists today because the residents are reluctant to change the name from the ward to the city and the delegation of remaining authority is not well organized.

In addition, in the regionLocal governmentAs a special wardSome office associationsIsSpecial ward personnel/welfare office association,Twenty-three wards of Tokyo cleaning part office association(Former: Tokyo Metropolitan Cleaning Bureau),Special Ward Horse Racing Association,市町村Partial office association (34 groups),Property wardThere are 1 property districts in 2 city and 8 towns.

Finance and business

Of Tokyofinancehow's it going,BusinessThe increase in metropolitan tax income due to the recovery ofShintaro IshiharaDue to the austerity measures under the administration by the Governor of Tokyo, the worst level around 2000 was recovered. The “hidden debt” that the general account borrows from other accounts is expected to be paid off in fiscal 2006, and the fiscal 2005 general account will be in the black for the first time in 16 years, the balance as of fiscal 2016 is balanced, and the current account is in the black doing. Debt dependence is at a minimum of 5.0% among municipalities nationwide, indicating that fiscal soundness is progressing. As of 2016, it is the only municipality in the prefecture that has not received a local allocation tax grant, and the ratio of local taxes to revenue is 74.3% (average of all prefectures: 45.1%), which is extremely high.[34].

In the consolidation of Tokyo including special accounts and supervising organizationsliabilitiesWas the highest in the country at the end of 2004, with 16 billion yen, and the amount of debt per person was about 9508 million yen.[35]By the end of FY2015, it was 9 billion yen, about 522 yen per Tokyo resident, which is on a downward trend. Real debt service ratio is 66.7%, future cost ratio is also low at 0.7%, maintaining a perfect financial position.[34].

The factors that once deteriorated the consolidated financial statusThird sectorIs a financial problem. In the coastal subcenter development project promoted by Tokyo,Tokyo Teleport Center,Tokyo waterfront subcenter construction,Takeshiba regional development,Tokyo fashion town,Time twenty fourSeaside relatedThird sectorProblems such as bankruptcy of five companies occurred one after another, and the initials of the five companies were taken and called the "5T problem." Other,International Trade Center,Tokyo Seaside High Speed ​​Rail,Tokyo subway construction(However, it was noted that the transportation infrastructure of Tokyo Seaside High-speed Railway and Tokyo Metropolitan Subway Construction is a future investment and is not a liability but a capital or subordinated bond).Also, under the initiative of Governor Ishihara中小企业Finance as a name2003(HeiseiWas established in 15 years)New Bank TokyoHas recorded a huge deficit, which requires additional investment by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.2016ToYoichi MasuzoeBy Governor of TokyoTokyo TY Financial GroupWas sold to.

WelfareAs of April 2005, there were 4 households receiving 140,848 households.

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 25.House of CouncilorsThen, make up one ward in the whole city.

Economic and industrial

As the center of the world's third largest economy, it occupies a major position not only in the Japanese economy but also in the world economy.2014Annual gross domestic product is about 93 trillion yen[36]And in JapanGDPAccount for nearly 20%. Centered around TokyoCapital AreaIs the United StatesNew York metropolitan areaAnd the world's largest economyMetropolitan areaIs[37].Forbes Global 2000Was ranked as the world's most populous city, with the number of world-class large corporate headquarters exceeding that of New York and London.[38].2021According to the survey results released in March, it is the 3th largest in the worldFinancial centerIs[39]

Economic history

Prehistory

Edo Period

Edo Period OfEdoIt is,Edo ShogunateAnd various daimyoClan residenceIt was established as the center of politics and was the largest consumer center in Japan. Also,currencyThen.Gold coinWas the mainstream and formed the “Edo economic zone”. However, "7 minutes of wealth in JapanOsakaThe economic center was Osaka, as it was called. Also, the tax system in the Edo period wasHeaven,Flag bookIt was mainly tax revenue from Japan, not the centralized taxation system of today.

Meiji Restoration

Meiji government Tokyo cityHeadquartered in Tokyo, the government has concentrated its administrative functions on Tokyo in order to have national power that is stronger than the Western powers. In administration,Abandoned DomainCarrying out administrativeCentralizationThe local government was replaced by a governor resident in the local area and replaced by a prefectural governor dispatched from the central government. However, in terms of culture and economy, there were many wealthy people京都-Osaka-KobeStill had a high weight, which remained unchanged until the war regime was adopted.

World War II

Since the Showa 10s,Wartime regimeIs created, the economicTokyo extreme concentrationStarted to strengthen. For example,Tokyo OfNews (Chinese)Company by the governmentmergerIs forced toAsahi Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,Yomiuri notification,Nihon Keizai ShimbunOf the two companiesNational newspaperWhen,Local newspaperIsTokyo NewspaperArranged in. In addition to this, a merger of companies headquartered in Tokyo,KeihanshinWith a company headquartered inCapitalistAlso moved to Tokyo in the 10's.

After the end of World War II

Second World WarImmediately before the end of the war, Tokyo Prefecture and Tokyo City were integrated and the Tokyo system was established. From here is the economic history of Tokyo.

The integration strengthened the administrative power. The tendency of centralization and monopoly continued even after World War II.1953(Showa28 years) in FebruaryJapan Broadcasting Corporation tv setStarting from the beginning of broadcasting,Private broadcastingSome TV stations have also been established. However, with the central government of Japan aiming for monopoly information, theKey stationWas founded virtually unrecognized.

Especially during the high economic growth period1964 Tokyo OlympicsBefore and after the construction rush, the labor required for this was "Golden eggAsEast JapanCollected from various places.Bubble economyDuring this period, land prices soared in Tokyo's ward area, and a wave of "capital-oriented" rushed to rural areas. During this period, the number of people going to private universities in Tokyo increased rapidly.

Even after the collapse of the bubble economy, concentration in Tokyo's wards is accelerating. Then, as the concentration becomes faster, the head office (head office function) will be relocated to the ward of Tokyo from the local cities where many manufacturing head offices were established and from other large cities where many head offices were gathered. A tendency is emerging. as a result,GDPTokyo (including the Tama area and the Izu Ogasawara Islands) accounts for one-sixth of the total in Japan.Stock exchangeAbout 8% of securities trading inTokyo Stock ExchangeAs a result, Tokyo has become an overwhelming position in the Japanese economy.

1998(Heisei10 years)Ryutaro HashimotoImplemented by the administrationFinancial bangSince then, in TokyoShibuya Ward,Minato-kuToITCompanies are becoming more concentrated, and as a new industry, youth workforce is being absorbed in particular. In addition, existing companies have started to advance information technology, and the labor force has concentrated on the wards of Tokyo centering on intellectual workers.

そ し て,Bad debtBecause of the processing, companies resold company housing and idle land, the former Japan National Railways site was disowned by the private sector, the designated use of public land was changed, and reclaimed land could be converted to residential land. High-rise condominiums have been built one after another, mainly in the city center and coastal areas. As a result, the number of properties that have become relatively cheap due to the rise in the number of people has increased, and the number of households that have relocated from the suburbs to the city center has increased, giving the appearance of a “land bubble”.

Due to the effects of the financial big bang, etc.stock,Real estate investment trustMade a fortune in the financial sector such asMoneyAppears,Roppongi HillsSome people live in super luxury apartments such as. In this way, in TokyoYamanote LineIn the area, the attractiveness is further strengthened due to the increase in wealthy people living in the city center and the emergence of "IT Seikin". On the other hand, in contrast to the Yamanote line area where wealthy people gather, especially on the north and east sides outside the Yamanote line area,WelfareThe number of poor people who receive the disease is increasing rapidly, and the polarization is becoming more prominent.

Those who commute from other areas to Tokyo's ward areas are "Citizens of Tokyo" (Example:Ibaraki residents). Also, if you live in the Tama area or commute to the Tokyo ward from the area,Tama TominSometimes called. When land prices soared during the bubble economy, the commuting area to Tokyo wasUtsunomiyaFrom the westNumazuIt was expanded until it was said "from". In recent years, the phenomenon of returning to the central part of the city has also occurred.

From reflections on excessive concentration,Capital function relocationWas discussed. However, the debate over the transfer of the capital function has been substantially suspended due to the financial crisis, and the redevelopment of central areas such as Chiyoda Ward and Minato Ward has recently taken place.Return to the city centerCan be seen. In terms of economy, there are some companies that move as the headquarters function does not need to be located in Tokyo due to the development of information and communication infrastructure, but this is a small number.

In response to this situation in TokyoEarthquakeSuch asNatural disastersIf that happens, the Japanese economy could be hit hard. In addition, it invades every 75 yearsKanto earthquake(Tokai earthquakeIt is expected that a direct type different from the above) will occur in the near future, and there is growing concern over the excessive mono-centric concentration in Tokyo.

Average annual income by academic distinction

Yamanote LineInside ofLand priceTends to be high, inside the Yamanote lineAverage annual income by academic distinctionHighestRegion TheMinamiyama Nanzan Elementary School1409 million yen in the school district, Ota Ward outside the Yamanote LineDenenchofuIt is 1016 million yen in the school district of the elementary school[40].

Industrial composition

The composition ratio of Tokyo's total production by industry isPrimary industryIs 0.4%,Secondary industryIs 18.1%,Tertiary industryIs 81.5% (FY2016). In this way, the percentage of primary industry is extremely low, that of tertiary industry is extremely high, and the percentage of service industry, wholesale industry, and retail industry is high. EspeciallyMediaHas most of the major Japanese companies in Tokyo.

In Tokyo, there are many head offices of major companies and the head offices of Japanese corporations of foreign companies.Business world3 major economic groups called (Japan Business Federation,Keizai Doyukai,Japan Chamber of Commerce) Headquarters is also located. From this point, Tokyo can be regarded as a “headquarters economic city” whose economy is made up by the existence of the head office.[Note 9].. In addition, since Tokyo's wards are also central cities in the Kanto region, the headquarters located in Tokyo often serve as the "Kanto branch office" or "Kanto branch" covering the entire Kanto area. Therefore, TokyoBranch economy cityIt also has the aspect.

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

The cultivated area of ​​Tokyo is 7330 hectares (2015,Ministry of Agriculture)[Note 10]And it is the lowest in the whole country.However, the cultivated land ratio isKochi-OsakaMore than that.Agricultural land is concentrated in the Tama area[Note 11], Agricultural land in the 11 wards is shrinking year by year.Some areas have no agricultural land, and in the XNUMXth arrondissement, where there are central and sub-centersAgricultural cooperativeIs not organized[Note 12][42]..In Tokyo, due to its geographical characteristics close to large consumption areas,Vegetables-Fruit tree-flowersIs mainly produced,Komatsuna,SpinachIs the main product. Especially Komatsuna,Tokyo Central Wholesale MarketAccount for 32.5% (2000, Tokyo) of the total amount In the old daysNerima DaikonWas a special product, but nowadayscabbageHas been replaced by, and is not much produced. AlsoChestnutThe production volume of is 8th in the whole country, and all 7 prefectures in Kanto (Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa) are in the top 10 production of chestnuts in the whole country.[43].. on the other hand,RiceIs the only prefecture in Japan designated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.Origin variety brandExcept for direct sales by producers, it is not possible to sell rice with the notation "rice produced in Tokyo", but production of specific brands such as "Edokko" in Ome City is carried out on a small scale.[Note 13].

The number of producers in the livestock industry is decreasing year by year due to the rapid progress of urbanization, but the producers are trying to strengthen their management structure by taking advantage of the advantageous condition that they are close to large consumption areas.FoundationThe Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Promotion Foundation and the Ome Livestock Center (formerly Tokyo Metropolitan Livestock Experiment Station) are working hard to develop new varieties.Ed[Note 14]""TOKYO X"(BothDream Pork), "Tokyo Spider"(Game chicken), "Tokyo"(Cow bone chicken) Is being developed. Above all, "TOKYO X"brandIs becoming more and more recognized. In recent years, in Chitose Karasuyama of Setagaya WardLandscaping shop-It was broadcast on TV that Yoshimien breeds TOKYO X with medium-sized pigs. Originally, Yoshimien was a farmer and is still a rare part-time farmer who raises livestock in the 23 wards. (In addition to TOKYO X, we also do chicken raising at Yoshimien. We introduced TOKYO X on TV with Celebut (celeb) because the location is close to a high-class residential area.)Nerima-kuThere is a dairy farmer who runs a dairy farm in Oizumi Gakuen Town, and Tama produced in Tokyo.Wagyu beefThere are also fattening farmers. (All appear in national news)

Forestry is declining due to factors such as lower timber prices, higher forestry operating costs, and the aging of forestry workers. The forest area of ​​Tokyo accounts for about 36.0% of the total area of ​​Tokyo. Especially in the western part of the Tama area,Akiruno,Ome,Okutama Town,Hachioji City,Hinode Town,Ebara-muraAnd so onCedar,CypressAlthough there are many mountain forests consisting of, etc., forest degradation is progressing, which is also an environmental problem. Especially, the large amount of cedar pollen generated every year from the forests of Okutama ishay feverAs a cause of this, it has a great adverse effect on the lives of the residents.

The fishing industry is one of the major industries in the islands. OnceTokyo BayIs "EdomaeCalled the "sea ofEdomae sushiIt was a fishing ground that became the origin of the word. The current center of the fishing industry is the islands,izu-Oshimanear,HachijojimaA large amount of fish is caught in the nearby waters. As a type,bonito,Chicken wicker,Horse mackerelThere are many,KusayaThere are also special products like dried fish.

Also in the Tama regionRainbow troutThe land-sealed trout are being cultivated.GoldfishIs a fish pond in Edogawa Ward,Katsushika Mizumoto ParkOn the former site of the former Fisheries Experimental StationAquacultureIt is carried out.

Manufacturing industry

Tokyo isChiyoda Ward,Chuo-ku,Minato-ku,Shinjuku wardSo-calledoffice StreetHeadquarters of many major manufacturing industries representing Japan are located in.Keihin Industrial AreaBecause it is also a corner ofTokyo BayOffices mainly in coastal areas (工場) Gathers a lot. EspeciallyOta-kuIn the so-calledSmall factoryThere are many. In the Tama areaHino city,Fuchu-shi,Hachioji City,Hamura,Mizuho,OmeThere are also many large-scale business establishments in these areas, and the value of product shipments in these areas is also large.However, the manufacturing industry in Tokyo has been on a rapid decline over the last few decades.The number of establishments continued to decrease from 1983 in 9, to 7646 in 2008 and 4 in 0137 when the survey method changed, a decrease of almost 2015%.The number of employees also exceeded 2 million in 7142, from 7 in 1975 to 100 in 1983 and 94 in 4074, more than 2008% in 40 years. Was reduced.The value of manufacturing and shipment began to decrease from 4917 billion yen in 2015, and in 29 it was 6132 billion yen, a decrease of about 40%.[45]..The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Economy, Labor and Welfare has said that high land prices and stricter environmental measures due to past pollution have outweighed the convenience of transportation and caused the manufacturing industry to flow out of Tokyo. It is analyzed that the relocation is accelerating the relocation of small and medium-sized factories outside Tokyo.

As a manufacturing field,Print, Information and communication equipment,leather,Precision machineryThe number of products shipped in these fields is the highest in Japan (1, Tokyo). Besides this,Electric machine,Transport machinery, The shipment amount of general machinery is large.

Commercial

The commercial value of Tokyo's commerce is 19 billion yen (4627, Tokyo), which accounts for 2001% (the same) of Tokyo's total production, which is the second highest after the service industry. Tokyo has a large share of Japanese commerce, with 23.0% of establishments, 10.5% of employees, and 14.3% of sales (Tokyo, 32.2). Both are number one in Japan.

In particularWholesale tradeThe number of establishments is 15.2%, the number of employees is 22.6%, and the sales amount is 38.7% (the same). The feature is that the sales amount is larger than the number of business establishments and employees, indicating that many business establishments handle large amounts.Retail tradeThe number of establishments is 9.2%, the number of employees is 10.2%, and the sales amount is 12.4% (same). Comparing the wholesale business and retail business in Tokyo, the number of business establishments in the retail business is significantly higher than that in the wholesale business, but the sales amount accounts for the overwhelming proportion of the sales amount, and the wholesale business also handles it. It is shown that many establishments have large sums.

The wholesale business in Tokyo has 57,653 establishments and sales of 159 billion yen (9582, Tokyo).In terms of the number of business establishments, there are many small business establishments with 2002 or less employees, but large-scale business establishments with 30 or more employees account for an overwhelming ratio of about five-eighths.There are many offices especially in Chuo Ward.By industry sub-category, machinery and equipment wholesale trade accounts for 100 billion yen (same as above), followed by various product wholesale trade, building materials, mineral and metal materials wholesale trade, and food and beverage wholesale trade. Continue.In the machinery and equipment wholesale business, more than half of the electrical machinery and equipment wholesale business accounts for.Although the number of business establishments is very small at 8, the sales value of various product wholesalers is 5 billion yen, indicating that there are very large-scale business establishments.

The retail industry in Tokyo has 119,016 shops and sales amount of 16 billion yen (Tokyo, 7460). The number of shops is large in the ward area, and the ratio to the sales amount is also large. Especially in Chuo Ward, Shinjuku Ward, Shibuya Ward, etc.Department store,Consumer electronics store, Various specialty stores are concentratedDowntownThe sales amount is large in some areas.

Finance/Insurance

Tokyo is not only Japan but also one of the best in the worldFinancial center.Tokyo Stock ExchangeIs important in the worldStock exchangeThere is also a market for stocks and financial products.With the expansion of the functions of the Tokyo head office one after another by companies originating in the Kansai regionOsaka Stock ExchangeThe two exchanges merged in 2013 in response to social changes that have become less important.Japan Exchange GroupWhen the company was launched, the conventional competitive relationship was reformed, and while some highly specialized transactions were consolidated on the Osaka Exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange established a vertical division of labor system for intensive general stock trading. It has an overwhelming advantage in the domestic securities market.

Tokyo, JapanCentral BankBarrelBank of JapanIn addition to the main store,Resona BankとSaitama Resona Bankexcept forCity bankHead office,Japan Post BankHead office, majorSecurities company, MajorInsurance company,Trust bankHeadquarters or Tokyo headquarters is located. Also,Citigroup,Hong Kong Shanghai Bank,Allianz,AIGThe head office and the Tokyo branch of Japanese financial institutions other than Japan are also in the special ward.

Britishthink tank(English edition)Has announced(English edition) According to (GFCI), it is ranked third in the world in the ranking announced in March 2021.[39]..On the other hand, it is formed in these financial institutions and securities markets.Tokyo financial marketLost its absolute position in Asia, especially under the influence of the economic power of the People's Republic of China, which became prominent in the 21st century, and became Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China. ,MoreoverAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsRegional competition with Singapore and other countries, which also benefit from the economic growth of (ASEAN) countries, is intensifying.

Publication

Kodansha,Shogakukan,ShueishaMany nationwide publishers, such as, have a head office/editing room in the Tokyo ward area.Okayama CityHeadquartered inBenesse Corporation,KitakyushuHeadquartered inZenrinAre rare exceptions. WholesaleTohanとDaily salesIt is a duopoly by two companies. Tohan has recently become a logistics hubSaitamaOkegawaMoved to.

Other industries

The real estate industryMitsui Fudosan,Mitsubishi EstateThe head office of a major real estate company is located.Especially Mitsubishi Estate is on the west side of Tokyo StationMarunouchiAn eight-story building completed in February 7, seven months before the Great Kanto Earthquake, the landowner of the district.Marunouchi BuildingWas described as "the tallest building in the Orient" and was built on this site in 2007.Marunouchi BuildingIs also called the "Marunouchi Building" along with the old building, and is one of the representative buildings in Tokyo.

In Tokyo, there is a lot of demand for office buildings, stores, condominiums, etc.Marunouchi,Nihonbashi,RoppongiFor example, large-scale development is in progress.Bubble economyReal estate prices, which overheated during the period, fell sharply after the collapse, but in recent years, overseas investors are also investing in real estate, and in response to this, transactions have become active.

In addition, a telecommunications company in Tokyo,IT related,Advertising agency,Temporary staffingThe headquarters of a company that provides various services is located.

Life and transportation

Policemen

Of TokyoPolicemenAsMetropolitan Police DepartmentThere is. Since the Metropolitan Police Department has jurisdiction over the capital city of Tokyo, it has the character of not only the police of the municipality but also the capital police.

Fire

Installed by the city and has jurisdiction over TokyoFireThere is the Tokyo Fire Department. However, municipalities other than Inagi City and the islands have outsourced fire to the Tokyo Fire Department.

Transportation

空港

In Tokyo,Tokyo International Airport,Chofu Airfield,Oshima Airport,Miyakejima Airport,Hachijojima Airport,Niijima Airport,Kozushima AirportThere are various airports.

Tokyo International Airport is also called Haneda Airport,Ota-kuIn the south. It is the largest airport in Japan and one of the largest in the world. May 1978Narita International AirportAfter the opening of the port, most of the domestic flights are in Japan, but the new international terminal building was completed in October 2010. Due to the close distance to the city center,Government machineIn addition, special aircraft of foreign governments used by state-class passengers often use Tokyo International Airport. As a means of transportation with the city centerTokyo MonorailとKeikyu CorporationGoes directly under the terminal,Limousine busConnects to major stations in Tokyo, major hotels, and major stations in neighboring prefectures.Other route busesTaxiContact means such as are also used.

International flights other than those departing from Tokyo International Airport,ChibaNarita CityIt is inNarita International AirportDeparts and arrives from. At the time of opening the port, the means of contact with Tokyo wasEast Kanto ExpresswayNarita Airport Station at the time (currently:Higashi-Narita Station)Keisei Electric Railway OfSkylinerWas limited to1991Directly under the airport terminal from MarchEast Japan RailwayKeisei Electric Railway came in, and the contact situation improved. However, it may still take about an hour from the center of Tokyo, so in July 1Narita High Speed ​​Rail AccessOpened.

In the Tama areaChofu AirfieldThere,New Central Airlines Izu IslandsOperates a small number of regular flights. Other airports are island airports.izu-OshimaIt is inOshima AirportHas regular flights to Chofu Airfield and Hachijojima Airport.Miyakejima AirportHas regular flights to Chofu Airfield.Hachijojima AirportHas regular flights to Haneda Airport.Niijima AirportとKozushima AirportOperates regular flights to Chofu Airfield.Ogasawara IslandsThere is no airport in the country, causing controversy over whether to build an airport to improve traffic conditions or prioritize nature conservation.

Also, in the Izu IslandsTokyo Air Land ShuttleIs in service.

Train

The number of stations in Tokyo is 654, which is the most in all prefectures in Japan and more than 522 stations compared to Hokkaido (100 stations), which has the largest area.

It is one of the best infrastructures in the world.

The wards of TokyoEast Japan Railway OfYamanote Line Circular drivingThe roads are lined up in a circle.Tokyo Station,Ueno Station,Ikebukuro Station,Shinjuku Station,Shibuya Station,Shinagawa StationEach station such as each railway lineNoduleToTerminal stationIs functioning as. The east side of the Yamanote lineKeihin Tohoku Line,Yokosuka/Sobu Rapid Line とUeno Tokyo Line(Tokaido Line-Utsunomiya Line-Takasaki Line-Joban Line) But on the west sideSaikyo LineとShonan Shinjuku LineRun side by side. Inside the Yamanote lineChuo Line Rapid,Chuo/Sobu LineIn addition,Tokyo subwayとToei SubwayThe 13 subway lines run by are lined up in all directions. 10 subways are mutualDirect operationIn addition to the Tama area, direct trains run all day to Saitama, Chiba, and Kanagawa prefectures.

Record the number one passenger in the worldShinjuku StationIs the western part of the city (Shinjuku Fukutoshin) Is the central station, besides the Chuo LineKeio LineとOdakyu Odawara LineConnects the station with the Tama area. It is the gateway to TokyoTokyo Station TheTokaido Shinkansen,Tohoku ShinkansenIt is the starting point of the Shinkansen includingSpecific city areaandTokyo Yamanote LineIt is said to be the central station.

Headquarters located in the Kanto regionMajor private railwayTrains from all nine companies enter the 9 wards, eight of which have their own routes.In addition to the Tokyo subway, where most of the route network is located in the wards due to the history of establishment and route construction,Odakyu Electric Railway,Keio Electric Railway,Keikyu Corporation,Keisei Electric Railway,Seibu Railway,Tokyu Corporation,Tobu RailwayEach company's line enters the ward area, and most of the main lines are connected to the Yamanote line. Meanwhile,Tobu Isesaki LineAlthough it is a long line with business kilometers exceeding 100 kilometers, it does not have a connecting station on the Yamanote line, but in 1962Kitasenju StationVia the subway Hibiya Line (current:Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line) And mutual direct operation have been started to ensure convenience.Kita-Senju Station has the largest number of passengers in the 5 wards where the Yamanote Line does not pass, and XNUMX lines including the same line can be used.The only major private railway company that does not have its own route in TokyoSagami RailwayOpened in 2019Sotetsu/JR direct lineI was able to get on to Shinjuku station.Besides this,Third sector railwayOpened asMetropolitan New City Railway TheTsukuba ExpressOperateAkihabara StationIt has become one of the radial railway networks.

Tokyo MetroとToei SubwayThere are two different subway operators running, but this is the only one in Japan in Tokyo.

While the "radiation system" is being enhanced, the situation is lacking in north-south railway lines in the east-west area across the Yamanote Line.Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line OfToyosu StationFrom the sameHanzomon Line OfSumiyoshi StationUntilBranch lineTo grow[46]Of the "ring system"Metro seven,Eight linerThere is a concept such as.

The Tama area has a particularly large number of transport personnel on the Chuo Line, which connects directly to Tokyo Station and Shinjuku Station.Keio Inokashira LineConnect toKichijoji Station,Nambu LineとOme LineConnect toTachikawa Station,Yokohama LineとHachiko LineConnect toHachioji StationEach has its own downtown area. On the north side of the Chuo LineSeibu Shinjuku LineとSeibu Haijima Line, On the south sideKeio LineとKeio Takao LineRun side by side, and in each case the track extends toward Shinjuku. On the other hand, there are few routes that cross the Chuo Line,Musashino LineとTama city monorail lineCan be mentioned. Adjacent to Kanagawa PrefectureMachida StationIs one of the leading terminal stations in the Tama area, but the stations before and after it are sandwiched between Kanagawa prefectures, and the Odakyu Odawara Line is responsible for access to the Shinjuku area.From Machida city to the north side of the Odakyu lineKeio Sagamihara Line, On the south sideTokyu Denentoshi LineAre running in parallel.Central station of Tama New TownTama Center StationWith the Keio Sagamihara LineOdakyu Tama LineGet in.Both lines are competing with trains that run directly to Shinjuku Station throughout the day.

For medium-capacity transportation that operates in Tokyo,Tokyo Monorail Haneda Airport Line,Yurikamome,Nippori Toneri Liner, Tama city monorail line,Toden Arakawa Line,Tokyu Setagaya LineIt is responsible for commuting to work and school and airport access.In addition, there are some routes with a transportation volume and operating distance that are not much different from those of medium-capacity transportation on ordinary railways, which are mass transportation, but all of them are operated as being closely related to the lives of local residents.

道路

In Tokyo and its surrounding areasShuto ExpresswayIs being built. Downtown areaInner city loop lineとCentral loop lineIt is surrounded by a double circular line of, and in the form that penetrates these circular lines,No. 1 Haneda Line,No. 2 Meguro LineRadiation such as that extends from the central part of the city toward the outer periphery. Most of these radiations areEast Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.andCentral Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.Managed byhighwayConnected with. Other in TokyoHigh standard highway-Regional high standard roadIt is,Shintakiyama HighwayExceptEast Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.andCentral Japan Expressway Co., Ltd.Is in control.There is no service area on the expressways in Tokyo.

bus

In TokyoTokyo Metropolitan Bureau of TransportationOperatesToei BusHas a wide range of bus routes.

Route buses in Tokyo are operated by dividing the business area between company stations to some extent, and there is relatively little competition or joint operation of routes as seen in other prefectures. In the Joto areaTobu Bus,Keisei BusHowever, in the Johoku area, Tobu Bus,Seibu Bus,Kokusai Kogyo BusBut the Josai areaKeio Bus,Odakyu Bus,Seibu Bus,Kanto busHowever, in the Jonan area, Keio Bus, Odakyu Bus,Tokyu bus,Keikyu BusBusinesses such as operate a number of routes. Keio Bus, Odakyu Bus, Seibu Bus, etc. in the Kitatama area, Toei Bus in the Nishitama area,West Tokyo Bus,Tachikawa BusHowever, in the Minamitama area, Keio Bus, Odakyu Bus,Kananaka BusEtc. are operating. Some islands in the Izu/Ogasawara Islands have public or private bus services. In addition, in some ward municipalitiesCommunity busHowever, both are outsourced to operators such as buses and taxis, and the local government does not operate them.
The common commuter buses in Tokyo's ward and Musashino, Mitaka, Chofu, and Komae cities have a flat-fare system with front and back stops, but the fare is different for Toei and private buses. The method of boarding a community bus differs depending on the vehicle used, but it uses a flat-rate system. The rest of the area basically adopts a fare system for getting on and off the bus before and after the ride, but some routes also have a free ride system.
In Tokyo, as a welfare business for the elderlyTokyo Silver PassIs issued by the Toei Subway, Toei Bus, Toden, Nippori Toneri Liner, and other companies' route buses operating in Tokyo (excluding some). Long-distance busesTokyo Station,Shinjuku StationFrom large-scale terminal stations such as, there are many routes to various parts of Honshu in addition to the Kanto area.

Port

Tokyo PortIs one of the major ports in JapanSuper central portReceived the designation ofYokohama port,Kawasaki PortIt supports the economic activities of the Keihin industrial area as "Keihin Port" integrated with.In the port of TokyoTakeshiba wharfThere is a passenger terminal in the area, from hereIzu IslandsToTokai KisenBut,Ogasawara IslandsToOgasawara ShippingHas entered service and has become a transportation hub connecting the wards and islands.In addition, the coastal area handles ferries and freighters on domestic long-distance routes.Tokyo Port Ferry TerminalIn addition, it opened in 2020Tokyo International Cruise TerminalThe aim is to attract international cruise ships, but it is idle due to the postponement of the Tokyo Olympics due to the new coronavirus problem and immigration restrictions for foreigners.In addition, although the route from Tokyo Bay to the Sumida River is maintained mainly for sightseeing purposes, most of the waterway networks of rivers and canals that spread to the eastern part of the former Tokyo city were reclaimed by debris disposal during postwar reconstruction. The use of inland waterways in Tokyo is very limited compared to Osaka.

Medical and welfare

Disaster base hospital
Nursery

Education

Higher education

Tokyo Public University CorporationManages the operation of higher education institutions in Tokyo,Tokyo Metropolitan University,Industrial Technology Graduate University,Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial TechnologyIs installed.The current Tokyo Metropolitan University was established in April 2005 as "Tokyo Metropolitan University" by integrating four metropolitan universities, but was renamed in 4 and closed in March 4.Tokyo Metropolitan UniversityIs another university with a different legal personality. Graduate School of Industrial Technology, April 2006Professional graduate schoolIt was opened as a university.

In addition, in TokyoTokyo Roku University[Note 15]And many otherNational university,Public university,private university,Junior college,College of technologyHas its headquarters.Also,Japanese school at a foreign universityIs also installed in Tokyo.on the other hand,Koreans in JapanMain purpose is ethnic educationKorean schoolHigher education institutionKorean UniversityIs also installed in Kodaira City, but this is under the Japanese education systemVarious schoolsIs treated as.In addition, ChristianSeminaryThere are also higher education institutions in Tokyo that provide specialized education in the form of miscellaneous schools.

high school

Metropolitan High SchoolThere are 2015 schools as of 188. However, due to the decrease in the number of students in recent years, Tokyo Metropolitan High Schools have been closed and many schools and departments have been merged (not absorbed or merged with the remaining schools, but newly built after the closures). In addition, part-time high schools once had courses in many high schools, but the number has decreased due to integrated and closed courses,Machida High SchoolThere is also a large-scale part-time course with more than 400 enrolled students.

In addition, both public high schools and private high schools are very large in Tokyo.

Vocational school
Special school
high school
Junior high school
primary school
Kindergarten

Mass media

MediaOf the various news media called nationwide, more than 95% of the companies cover the whole country are headquartered in Tokyo.

tv setabout,NHK,Key stationCalled "Nippon Television Network,TBS TV,Fuji Television,TV Asahi,Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd. OfPrivate broadcasting5 stations are in KantoWide area broadcastingAnd disseminates information all over Japan by placing TV stations in each region under the affiliate.The capitalBroadcast target areaToPrefectural broadcastAs a station,Tokyo Metropolitan Television There is (TOKYO MX).

radioThere is a similar situation inTBS Radio,Nippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.,Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc.Is the key station,NHK No. 1-Second broadcastIncluding, Kanto wide area broadcasting is carried out.In addition, the broadcast target area including the area around the city[47]To whatInter FMHowever, as a prefecture broadcasting station J-WAVE,FM Tokyo There is (TOKYO FM). Other,U.S. ForcesIs broadcast by AFN Yokota baseIt is done from within.

These prefectural broadcasting stations, including those located in neighboring prefectures,SpilloverIs large[48][49][50][51],Kanto PlainSince there are broadcasting stations that receive radio waves in almost all areas, each station is conducting programming in consideration of them.

News (Chinese)InNational newspaperIs headquartered.Asahi ShimbunとMainichi ShimbunWas established in Osaka in the early 1870s of the Meiji era, and then entered Tokyo in the form of an existing paper acquisition, but more than a century has passed since the entry, and the Asahi Shimbun has become the headquarters function.Tokyo Head OfficeThe Mainichi Shimbun, which is centralized in Japan and continues the regional headquarters systemTokyo Head OfficeHas a great influence.On the other hand, it boasts the largest circulation in the world.Yomiuri ShimbunAnd has a paper structure specializing in economic informationNihon Keizai ShimbunWas first published in Tokyo in the 1870s,Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head OfficeとNihon Keizai Shimbun Tokyo Head OfficeBoth have the core functions of their respective companies.On the other hand, before the war, it was a leading paper in Tokyo.Miyako ShimbunHas its headquarters in Nagoya after the transition during and after the warChunichi ShimbunBecame under the umbrella ofChunichi Shinbun Tokyo HeadquartersIs a newspaper that it publishesTokyo NewspaperThe only one in Tokyo that publishes many unique articles that take regional characteristics into consideration.Block paperIt is published as.In addition, English newspapers and various industry newspapersSpecialty paperMost of them are published by the XNUMX wards of Tokyo, both major newspapers and independent newspapers.

Culture/Sport

dialect

Spoken in central Tokyodialect(Tokyo dialect) Is YamanoteMountain hand wordAnd downtownEdo languageIt was broadly divided into (Shitamachi language), of which Yamate language became the mother body of standard language (common language). After that, the number of people moving up to Tokyo and the outflow of residents from the center of the city (doughnutization phenomenon) caused the traditional Tokyo dialect to decline, and the difference between the Yamanote language and the downtown language diminished.Metropolitan dialectHas become dominant. Also, in the Tama regionTama valve, On the islandsNorthern Izu Islands dialect-Hachijo dialect-Ogasawara dialectThere is. The Hachijo dialect is known as a dialect that retains the image of the ancient Eastern dialect, and is considered to be the most peculiar dialect of the mainland Japanese dialect.

Entertainment, street performance

Since 2002 in TokyoStreet artCertified system of peopleHeaven artistIf you are certified as “passed” in a test demonstrating the performance in front of the Governor of Tokyo, you will call yourself a “Heaven Artist” and put up that panel at a metropolitan park etc. You will be able to do performances without being driven away.

Ukiyo-eMost of the painters were active in Edo.Rakugo TheAboveIt originated, but in the latter half of the Edo period, it was the center of many performances in Edo.The theater tradition isJapanese movieIt also became the basis of.

In addition,Comic,ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンThere are many writers who have been active in Tokyo, and modern Tokyo is "maniac culture" and "NerdIt has become a global source of "culture".In addition, rather than Tokyo in generalAkihabara,Koganei(WorldwideStudio GhibliLocation),NishitokyoThere are some particularly concentrated areas and prominent places, such as (there are many production companies such as the studio of "Doraemon").

Like rakugo, it originated upwards, but at the end of the 17th centuryGenroku cultureSince then, it has been overwhelmingly popular among the common people of Edo.kabukiHas maintained its momentum as one of the representative entertainment fields of Japanese traditional culture since the Meiji era, and the first generation is now in 1899.Chuo-kuCompleted inKabukizaAnd 1913ShochikuThe modernization was promoted in the period of seizing the management right by.Kabuki continues to be popular even today through the reconstruction of Kabuki-za and the advancement into movies and television, after the Kabuki-za was burned down by the bombing of Tokyo and the performance was restricted by GHQ after the war.On the other hand, I rebelled against this Shochiku KabukiForward seat,Proletarian literatureAffected byTsukiji small theaterfollowed byLiterary Theater,ActorSuch asNew schoolThe theater companies were active even after the war, and against the backdrop of the upsurge of the student movement in the 1960s.Underground play,Small theaterIn Tokyo in the 2010sMinato-kuHamamatsu TownDevelop a large-scale commercial theater based in a dedicated theaterTroupe four seasonsWhile activeSetagayaShimokitazawa OfHonda TheaterIn, various theater activities are being developed, such as small theater groups taking turns performing.

Music

Tokyo Metropolitan SongThere is. It was established in April 22, written by Shigehisa Harada, supplemented by Sumuko Fukao, and composed by Hiroshi Kasoya.[52].

Folk song
Local song

Sports

1964ToThe 18nd Olympic GamesIs opened,2021Again, with Tokyo as the host city,The 32nd Olympic GamesWas held[Note 16]..This 2021 Olympics and its followers2020 Tokyo ParalympicsThen it was built in Shinjuku Ward and Shibuya WardNational StadiumIs the main stadium, and in addition to the reuse of each facility constructed at the 1964 convention, each facility in the coastal area,Chofu City OfTokyo Stadium (Ajinomoto Stadium)Or adjacentMusashino no Mori Comprehensive Sports PlazaEach facility newly established in will also be used.

Japan Baseball OrganizationIn (NPB) as of 2021Central League OfYomiuri GiantsとTokyo Yakult Swallows2 teams in Tokyo's XNUMX wardsFranchiseAnd especiallyBunkyo ku OfTokyo DomeYomiuri Giants based inSumida-kuFromSadaharu OhIs also the main playerNagashima ShigeoWith from 1965 to 1973No. 9 in Japan for XNUMX consecutive yearsIt has gained nationwide popularity due to its achievements and the influence of past terrestrial television broadcasts.Japan Professional Soccer LeagueIn (J League)FC TokyoとTokyo Verdy 1969Is based in the above Tokyo Stadium (Ajinomoto Stadium) and covers the entire area of ​​Tokyo.home townBesidesMachida-shiPerform limited activitiesFC Machida ZelviaAs a whole, activities in the Tama area are flourishing.It has its origins in the 18th century during the Edo period as a competition before ancient times and as a current organization.Grand SumoIn 1925, the Tokyo side (Edo sumo) integrated the Osaka side (upper sumo).Japan Sumo AssociationBecame the only national organization since its inauguration, and after many twists and turns, in 1984Sumida-kuCurrentRyogoku KokugikanIs being built on its own.

Besides this,Japan Olympic Committee, The former Japan Sports Association changed its nameJapan Sports Association, And most of the sports competition organizations affiliated with the association are headquartered in Kyoto Ward, since 18 when the 1964th Olympic Games were held.Kishi Memorial Gymnasium, From 32 ahead of the 2019nd OlympicsJAPAN SPORT OLYMPIC SQUAREAnd all are concentrated in the facilities in Shibuya Ward[Note 17].

Tourism

Coat of arms/symbol mark

Coat of arms

In December, 22Tokyo City CouncilWhat was decided as a city mark in Tokyo was taken over by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government when the government administration took effect on July 18, 7. The design shows that the sun shines in six directions, wishing for the development of Tokyo, and symbolizing Tokyo as the center of Japan.[1].

symbol mark

It means that the "T" of Tokyo is hidden in the center, and it is the tree of the city.stomachIt is said that it was not in the shape of a leaf.

Logo

In October 2015 as part of the Tokyo brand strategyYoichi MasuzoeThe "& TOKYO" logo was formulated by the Governor of Tokyo.United StatesNew York Cityof"I love new york", etc.madder red,Mauve,Branch color,Matsuba color,Dark colorThe five traditional colors of Tokyo express the history and diversity of Tokyo, where tradition and innovation are fused. By putting various words before the "&", various people who are active in Tokyo can enjoy the charm of Tokyo. The concept is to be able to express value, feelings for Tokyo, and each activity.However, he took office in 5.Yuriko KoikeGovernor Koike says that the “Tokyo Brand Appraisal Committee”, which is a gathering of experts, has not penetrated despite spending ¥28 billion, and Governor Koike suggests a revision.[53][54].

Foreign relations

Tokyo is 12 cities around the worldSister cityConclude relationships and engage in a wide variety of exchanges such as sports, environment, and culture[55].. In addition, the city is not limited to sister-friendly cities, and it will promote bilateral urban diplomacy by selecting cities that should strategically establish exchange relationships.[55].

Sister city

Country/NameYears
United States flag America-New York City1960
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku-北京市1979
French flag France-Paris city1982
Australian flag Australia-New South Wales1984
Republic of Korea flag South Korea-Seoul Special City1988
Indonesian flag Indonesia-Special Capital Region of Jakarta1989
Brazilian flag Brazil-State of Sao Paulo1990
Egyptian flag Egypt-Cairo1990
Russian flag ロシア-Moscow city1991
German flag Germany-Berlin State1994
Italian flag イタリア-Rome city1996
British flag The United Kingdom-UK2015

Cities that have signed exchange and cooperation agreements

Country/NameYears
Russian flag Russia·Tomsk2015
Belgian flag ベルギー-Brussels metropolitan area2016
United States flag America·City of Los Angeles2018

person

A work set in Tokyo

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Adjacent across the sea.
  2. ^ As mentioned below, Shinjuku is a special ward,Tokyo 23 Ward,TokyoIt may be written as.
  3. ^ Also called "Tama 26 City".Tokyo City Council/26 cities in Tama
  4. ^ As an example, municipalities canFire-Water supplyThe offices were set up by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government within the 23 wards of Tokyo.Tokyo Fire Department,Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks BureauIs going. Also, it is usually a municipal taxProperty taxIn the Tokyo metropolitan area, the city tax is collected by the city, and after the city collects it collectively, based on the “Tokyo Metropolitan Government Finance Adjustment System” established by the Local Autonomy Law, It is distributed to the special ward.
  5. ^ However, the specific response may differ for each publisher or even for the same publisher, but for each map.Heibonsha Map Publishing Where is the capital of Tokyo?
  6. ^ Impeachment court,Judge Prosecution Committee,National Printing Bureau,Statistics CenterHeadquarters,National ArchivesHeadquarters,National Hospital OrganizationHeadquarters,Product Evaluation Technology InfrastructureHeadquarters,Labor Force Labor Management Organization, etc.Headquarters,Bank of JapanHead office,Workers' retirement allowance mutual aid organizationHeadquarters,Employment Support System for Elderly/Disability/Job SeekersHeadquarters,Welfare Medical OrganizationHeadquarters,Labor Policy Research and Training OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan External Trade OrganizationHeadquarters,Nuclear Safety Infrastructure OrganizationHeadquarters,International Tourism Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,Car accident prevention mechanismHeadquarters,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices AgencyHeadquarters,National Institute of Information and Communications TechnologyHeadquarters,National Youth Education Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,National Cultural Property OrganizationHeadquarters,Information Processing Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Expressway Ownership and Debt Repayment OrganizationHeadquarters,Pension fund management operationHeadquarters,National College of TechnologyHeadquarters,University Evaluation and Degree Conferring OrganizationHeadquarters,Petroleum Natural Gas/Metallic Mineral Resources OrganizationHeadquarters,Agriculture and Livestock Industry Promotion OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan International Cooperation AgencyHeadquarters,New Energy and Industrial Technology Development OrganizationHeadquarters,SME Infrastructure Development OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Aerospace Exploration AgencyHeadquarters,Japan Pension ServiceHeadquarters,Housing Finance AgencyHeadquarters,Postal Saving Simple Life Insurance Management/Post Office Network Support OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Expressway Ownership and Debt Repayment OrganizationHeadquarters,Japan Central Horse RacingHeadquarters,Japan trade insuranceHeadquarters,Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid AgencyHeadquarters,Automotive Technology AgencyHeadquarters,Norinchukin BankHeadquarters,Peace Memorial Service Special FundHeadquarters,Farmer's pension fundHeadquarters,Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Credit FundHeadquarters, Fire brigade members, etc.Japan FoundationHeadquarters,University entrance examination centerHeadquarters,Japan Sports Promotion CenterHeadquarters,Japan Judicial Support CenterHeadquarters,Industrial property information/training centerHeadquarters,National Science MuseumHeadquarters,National MuseumHeadquarters,Nippon Electric Meter Inspection Center,Electronic Navigation Research Institute,Maritime Technology Safety Research Institute,Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute,Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,Road Safety and Environment Research Institute,National Institute of Health and Nutrition,National Public Service Mutual Aid AssociationHeadquarters,National Municipal Staff Mutual Aid AssociationHeadquarters, Japan Fire Fighting Certification Association Headquarters,Local Horse Racing National AssociationHeadquarters,Japan Broadcasting CorporationHeadquarters,High Pressure Gas Safety AssociationHeadquarters,Japan Workers Housing AssociationHeadquarters,Northern Territories Problem Countermeasure AssociationHeadquarters,Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceHeadquarters,Japan Arts and Culture Promotion AssociationHeadquarters,Japanese Red Cross SocietyMain office
  7. ^ Nevertheless, the observation site in Nerima was moved to the park in Ryokuchi Park from 2013 due to the strong influence of urban climate.
  8. ^ In addition, the daytime population including the commuter attending school outside Tokyo who has gone to Tokyo has already exceeded 1960 million in the census of 35 (Showa 1000).[29].
  9. ^ Of TokyoInput-output tableHowever, it is divided into three categories: “goods” (agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining, manufacturing, construction and electricity, gas, and water) and “service” and “head office”.
  10. ^ According to the 2003 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries survey, it was 8460 hectares, which was 12 hectares in 1330 years, a decrease of about 16%.
  11. ^ 以下、JA東京が情報源とした農林水産省関東農政局統計部「東京農林水産年報」よると、西多摩地区が1130ヘクタール(全体比15.8%)、南多摩地区が1607ヘクタール(22.5%)、北多摩地区が2721ヘクタール(38.2%)で多摩地区合計が5458ヘクタール(76.5%)。区部が559ヘクタール(7.8%)、島しょ地区が1113ヘクタール(15.6%)。[41]
  12. ^ Chiyoda, Chuo, Minato, Bunkyo, and Taitung wards, which are called "city center 5 wards," Sumida, Shinagawa, Shibuya, Shinjuku, and Nakano wards, which have sub-centers, and Arakawa ward are applicable.In Koto Ward, there are regional agricultural cooperatives only in some areas.
  13. ^ Since there is no brand of rice varieties, it is not possible to obtain proof of the origin and varieties, and there is no merit to undergo a rice grain inspection.The indication of "rice produced in Tokyo", which is possible in the case of direct sales by producers, described in the text is permitted outside the display frame.[44]
  14. ^ It is produced as a three-way hybrid pig. The land race lineage pig Ed used in the development is a pig developed by the Tokyo Stockbreeding Experiment Station.
  15. ^ However,Hosei UniversityAll five universities have campuses outside of Tokyo.
  16. ^ Originally planned to be held in 2020,Global pandemic of new coronavirus infectionsIt was postponed for one year.
  17. ^ All Japan Ski Association,Japan Skating FederationAs a result of the competition, winter sports organizations that are difficult to hold games in Tokyo also have their headquarters in both facilities.In addition, it should be noted.Japan Football Association,All Japan Judo FederationHas an independent headquarters in Bunkyo Ward.Also,Shaolin Temple Kenpo FederationIn JapanShorinji KempoFounded placeKagawaTadotsu TownIt is a rare example of having a headquarters in Tokyo and a sports federation headquarters outside of Tokyo.

Source

  1. ^ a b "Tokyo 2012", p. 14.
  2. ^ a b "The complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)"
  3. ^ a b c "Britannica International Encyclopedia"
  4. ^ "Encyclopedia mypedia"
  5. ^ "Nihon Keizai Shimbun”. Total population decreased for 5 consecutive years, Japanese 1 million concentrated in the metropolitan area. 2020/8/5Browse.
  6. ^ “Prefectures and ordinance-designed cities with increasing distortion”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2011, 11). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNZO36675800R21C11A1L83000/ 2015/12/2Browse. 
  7. ^ Tokyo official website "Outline of staff quota"
  8. ^ [1]Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentRegulations (Tokyo) that determine the position of
  9. ^ About the prefectural office of Tokyo -Tokyo Metropolitan Policy Planning Bureau
  10. ^ "[Tell me] Why is the location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building written on the map as" Tokyo "?". Yomiuri Shimbun Evening (Tokyo: Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 16. (April 2005, 4) 
  11. ^ The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office is in Shinjuku Ward. Why is this location shown as "Tokyo" instead of "Shinjuku"? --Tokyo Shoseki Textbooks / Books Teaching Materials FAQ Q & A Junior High School "New Edition New Society"
  12. ^ Global Urban Power Ranking (GPCI) 2016 Retrieved November 2016, 10, Mori Memorial Foundation Institute for Urban Strategy.
  13. ^ “The Global Liveability Index”(2019 edition). http://www.eiu.com/topic/liveability 2021/3/19Browse. 
  14. ^ 2020 Global Cities Index / KEARNEY URL / https://www.kearney.com/global-cities/2020 | Retrieved March 2021, 3.
  15. ^ GFCI official website URL / https://www.longfinance.net/programmes/financial-centre-futures/global-financial-centres-index/gfci-29-explore-data/gfci-29-rank/ | Retrieved March 2021, 3.
  16. ^ Question form about capital of Japan
  17. ^ Submitted by Mr. Seiji Osaka, member of the House of Representatives
  18. ^ Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages nationwide Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 11 reading
  19. ^ Shizuoka Prefecture's municipal offices, government offices, and the latitude and longitude of the north, south, east, and west end points (world geodetic system) Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 2 reading
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  27. ^ a b 27 national census result (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
  28. ^ Let's live in Yuzawa Town(Retrieved October 2018, 8).
  29. ^ a b Uno 1991, p. 1123.
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  31. ^ Area where land prices are rising
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  33. ^ Tokyo bulletin special issue No. 5 -Tokyo, February 2014, 2 Archived August 2014, 2, at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ a b Fiscal year 28 Tokyo Metropolitan FinanceTokyo April 2016
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  46. ^ What is the merit of the new subway Tokyo Line Yurakucho Line “branch line”? (Yoshikazu Kusamachi) -Vehicle News (2018.07.04 version) viewed on July 2018, 7
  47. ^ Broadcasting target area of ​​the broadcasting station that conducts foreign language broadcasting among the ultra-high frequency broadcasting performed by general broadcasting companies according to the provisions of 2) (2) (1) c of the Basic Plan for Broadcasting Promotion (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
  48. ^ Estimate of reception area (Tokyo Metropolitan Television)
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  50. ^ Overview of J-WAVE (viewed on June 2014, 6)
  51. ^ "TOKYO FM resume”. River Planning Division, Water and Disaster Management Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As of October 2020, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/2/6Browse.
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  53. ^ Review Tokyo's brand strategy to determine direction within this yearNHK July 2016, 11 Archived August 2016, 11, at the Wayback Machine.
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  55. ^ a b Tokyo Metropolitan Policy Planning Bureau

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Predecessor:
Tokyo-Tokyo city
Changes in administrative districts
1943 -
Next generation:
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Predecessor:
Tokyo
Japanese capital
1868 - Current (For Tokyo1943July -)
Next generation:
Now