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😷 | Donation of handmade masks to "Life Care Orange" Naoetsu XNUMXth grade volunteers


Photo A handmade mask made by volunteers from the XNUMXth grade of Naoetsu was donated to "Life Care Orange".Delivered on behalf of three students from Itoigawa city

Donation of handmade masks to "Life Care Orange" Naoetsu XNUMXth grade volunteers

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is supposed to be used in the field such as helpers and drivers of long-term care taxis.
 

On the XNUMXth, a mask made by volunteers from the XNUMXth grade of Prefectural Naoetsu Junior High School (Principal Nozomi Ishizumi) was a long-term care welfare office "Rai ..." in Uekari XNUMX, Itoigawa City. → Continue reading

 Joetsu Times

We publish the daily newspaper "Joetsu Times" in the areas of Joetsu City and Myoko City, Niigata Prefecture, and the daily newspaper "Itoigawa Times" in the area of ​​Itoigawa City.
Based on the concept of "local cheering party", the editorial policy is "to support and stimulate the vitality of the area", and the first aspect to be seen in the morning is the citizens (administration) who are doing their best, moving topics, and soothing hearts. It is composed of photographs, etc., and we try to create a page suitable for the start of a refreshing day.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Japanese taxi

Japanese taxiIn (Japanese taxi)JapanInTaxiDescribe the situation.

Legal definition etc.

The taxi businessRoad transport lawThe above is the "general passenger car transportation business".

  • Article 3 No. 1 "General passenger car transportation business (passenger car transportation business other than specified passenger car transportation business)"
    • (C) General passenger car transportation business (general passenger car transportation business that rents out cars with a passenger capacity of 10 or less under one contract and transports passengers)

Commercial vehicleWhite letters on the green area (for light car taxis, yellow letters on the black background), number 3 or number 5 (passenger registration)License plateIs attached.Private carThose who operate taxis without permission usingWhite takuIt is illegal.This name is that the license plate is the green number of the business car, while the private car isWhite numberIt is derived from the fact that it is (white background green letters).

In addition to the Road Transport Law, there are other laws and regulations related to taxis.Taxi Business Optimization Special Measures Law,Act on Special Measures concerning Optimization and Activation of General Passenger Car Transportation Business in Specified Areas and Quasi-Specified Areas(Taxi Business Optimization and Activation Special Measures Law), Passenger Vehicle Transportation Business Transportation Regulations, General Passenger Vehicle Transportation Business Standard Conditions of Carriage, etc.

Market size

The size of the national market is2009(Heisei21) Approximately 1 trillion yen in fiscal year2010(22) 1 billion yen.Was the largest1991It has dropped to about 3% of the (Heisei 6) year.[1].

DeregulationByMetropolitan areaThe number of taxis has become excessive in many areas, mainly in 2009 (Heisei 21).10The Taxi Business Optimization and Activation Special Measures Law, which encourages taxi reduction, was enforced in Japan.[1]..As a result, the number of taxis in the Tokyo area, where the number of taxis was reduced ahead of the rest of the country, decreased by about 2% from the maximum.2010(22)7After that, the sales per unit started to increase, and in March of the following year.Great East Japan EarthquakeIncreased for 8 consecutive months until outbreak[1].

History

1912(Meiji45 years)May 7,Tokyo cityKojimachi WardYurakucho(CurrentTokyoChiyoda WardTaxi Automobile Co., Ltd. was established in Yurakucho)[2],same yearMay 8In front of the head officeT type FordStarted passenger business using 6 units.This was the first business of a taxi using a car in Japan.[3].

This taxiCharge meterIt is called "Tsuji waiting car" equipped withUeno StationとShimbashi StationWas based in.The price is the first 1MilesIs 60MoneyAfter that, it will increase by 0.5 sen every 10 miles,rickshawThe extra fare was set at night and during rain and snow.[3]. afterwards,1914(Taisho3 years)Tokyo StationWith the opening of the company, the company has also started operations at Tokyo Station.After that, taxis spread all over the country, but at the beginning, the fare system was different and there were many complaints, so1924(Taisho 13)Osaka1 insideYenA taxi that runs evenly has appeared.thisYen TakuThat is.Yen taxis also appeared in Tokyo two years later.Actually, it seems that if it was a short distance within the range, he negotiated with the driver and gave him 2 to 80 sen.

Manchurian IncidentからFirst Shanghai IncidentAs Japan-China relations deepen turmoil,Oil companyAnnounced a price increase, and taxis in Tokyo became more confused.1938(ShowaIn 13), supplies such as vehicles, parts, and fuelcontrolFrom the pressure ofMetropolitan Police DepartmentIs open for all taxisCorporationLimited to those with a rating (minimum standard vehicle 50 cars), and integrated into 175 companies.After that, the meter system was revived, and the price was 2 yen for the first ride and 30 yen for each kilometer.

Wartime regimeAs it gets ready,1937In (Showa 12), taxi sink business was prohibited in order to secure oil resources.After the warAs an alternative fuelcharcoal, Lignite, etc. have come to be used.Second World WarAfter the end of the war, only 1,565 taxis remained unburned in Tokyo.[4].

1950 eraAfter the second half,motorizationDue to the development ofKamikaze taxiRough driving, refusal to board, unfair fare billing (coolieTaxi) etc. became a problemTraffic accidentFrequently occurred, and white taku was rampant[5]..For the purpose of suppressing themPrivate taxiWhen the system was born, it was first approved in Tokyo in 1959, and individual taxis were approved in Kansai in 34 (Showa 1960), corporate taxis and individual taxis began to compete. Ta[5].1970In (45), the Taxi Business Optimization Temporary Measures Law was enforced, and taxi drivers were registered in the Tokyo and Osaka areas.Tokyo-Osaka Taxi Modernization CenterWas installed.

1992(4) On June 6, the thirdExtraordinary Administrative Reform Promotion CouncilIn response to the request for deregulation of economic regulations in fields closely related to people's lives in the "Third Report on Administrative Reforms Focusing on Internationalization and People's Life"Transportation Policy CouncilReported "About the future taxi business" (May 5, 5, Report No. 11).In response to this, the Ministry of Transport decided to work on diversification of fares and charges, relaxation of supply and demand adjustment operations, etc.1995In the fare revision in the Tokyo area implemented in March (7), long-distance discount fares, wagon dispatch / timed reservation charges, hourly fares, etc. were also included, and in the Osaka area implemented in December 3. In the fare revision of, fixed fare prepaid discount,No My Car DayDiscounts were set to stimulate demand and diversify menus to meet user needs.

In addition, the taxi business is characterized by the diversification of fares and fares, as the deregulation promotion plan includes diversification of fares and fares, easing of operation of supply and demand adjustment, and gradual expansion of business areas. In response to this, we decided to consider the ideal setting method from the viewpoints of providing incentives for further management efficiency, improving services, and protecting the interests of users.

Regarding supply and demand adjustment,1993From October (5), a system was introduced in the Tokyo area to flexibly allow vehicles to increase or decrease within a certain range. It was decided to take more flexible measures to dispose of licenses, etc., except when there is an oversupply exceeding the indicated certain range.Regarding the business area, from the viewpoint of improving business efficiency, we decided to gradually integrate and expand based on the actual situation of the area.[6][7].

1996(8) On December 12th, the Administrative Reform Committee announced "Opinions on Promotion of Deregulation (Second) -New Japan Created by Ingenuity".

In the future, we will abolish the supply and demand adjustment regulation, which is a quantitative regulation, and at the same time, we will take concrete measures to regulate the qualification requirements for taxi drivers and secure and improve the qualifications of business operators. The system should be improved.A schedule for a shift in this direction should be clarified.These measures should be taken in stages while observing the effect of service improvement, and for the time being, the standards for supply and demand adjustment regulation should be thoroughly objective, quantified, and transparent.In addition, at that time, after clarifying the calculation result of supply and demand in advance, unless there is an oversupply exceeding a certain range indicated in advance, we will establish a system that allows the increase of vehicles and entry according to the application, and operate it accordingly Should be done.In addition, regarding business area regulations, we will proceed with integration with the goal of halving the number of business areas for the time being, and deregulation will reduce the maximum number of vehicles from 60 to a maximum of 10. Measures should be taken promptly according to the content.Furthermore, price regulations should be easy for users to select, and it should be possible to set various fare levels that respect the independence of business operators as much as possible. For the time being, a zone system should be used. In the future, the maximum price system should be adopted.

Was made.

In response to this, the Ministry of Transport established the "Taxi Fare System Study Group", and based on the conclusions of the study group,1997Within the range of 9% from (10), we will introduce a "zone-based fare" that allows free fare setting, and allow fare to shorten the initial fare (2 km to 1 km). I decided.Regarding the expansion of the business area, the business area that was 1996 as of 1911 was integrated and measures were taken to reduce it by almost half in three years. The standard for the minimum number of vehicles owned is, for example, 3 cars in Tokyo. Was revised, such as reducing the number to 60 cars.

The abolition of supply and demand adjustment regulations will be deliberated by the Automobile Subcommittee of the Transport Policy Council.Based on this situation, on December 1997, 9 (Heisei 12)Administrative Reform CouncilThe final opinion was announced, "We request that the deliberation of the Transport Policy Council be expedited and that conclusions be reached as soon as possible in line with the purpose of the Commission's opinion. In addition, supply and demand adjustment standards and zone fare widths will be further increased. Mitigation should be considered. "

1999(11) On April 4, the Automobile Subcommittee of the Transport Policy Council stated, "Aiming for the activation and development of taxis-Regarding the environmental improvement measures necessary for the abolition of taxi supply and demand adjustment regulations-" (Heisei 9) Report No. 11 on April 4, 9)[8]Regarding entry, instead of the license system based on the conventional supply and demand adjustment regulations, we will examine whether or not we have a certain level of ability in ensuring transportation safety, providing stable services and protecting users. It was decided that a permit system would be allowed for those who meet the requirements of.

In response to this report2002(14)May 2In addition, a part of the Road Transport Law and the Temporary Measures Law for the Optimization of Taxi Business was revised and enforced, and the business was changed from the license system to the license system, and the number of vehicles of the business operator can be increased or decreased freely only by notification (so-called "taxiDeregulation"" Refers to these amendments to the law).As a result, the number of new entrants is increasing in large cities, while existing small and medium-sized enterprises are attracting passengers due to the spread of private cars, expansion of public transportation networks, changes in social conditions, etc., regardless of whether they are in rural areas or large cities. In addition to the decrease, the nature of the business itself does not increase income and cannot reduce expenditure, resulting in structural poor performance and many management difficulties.Another problem is that workers are becoming overburdened to increase sales.At the same time, the "Taxi Business Optimization Temporary Measures Law" was made permanent and became the "Taxi Business Optimization Special Measures Law", and the Taxi Modernization Center was renamed to "Taxi Center".

2008(20)May 5The Ordinance for Enforcement of the Act on Special Measures for the Optimization of Taxi Business has been amended, and in addition to the Tokyo and Osaka areas, 11 major cities nationwide are designated areas.

Chronological Table

form

Nursing / welfare taxi

One of the advantages of taxis is that they can transport passengers door-to-door.1976, Kumamoto Prefectural Automobile Transportation Labor Union discounts the fare for people with severe disabilities by 2 as part of the spring battle, and the crew memberswheelchairAdvocated the introduction of a welfare taxi to assist in folding.There is a record that the company also agreed to the introduction[11]..After that, the bodyhandicapped,Senior citizensSuch,People with great restrictions on movementThe number of taxi operators targeting taxis has increased.Some to the driverhome helper(Helpers of level 2 and above can get on and off),Lifesaving classSuch as publicQualifications/LicensesThere are also businesses that have acquired.wheelchair8 numbers for taxis that can carrySpecial purpose vehicleSome are registered as.

My main business is not a taxiLong-term care provider(Especially home-visit long-term care and home-based long-term care providers) use long-term care serviceshospitalFor the purpose of transporting to such places, it is becoming more common to obtain a permit of the type of general passenger car transportation business (patient transportation only) (""Nursing taxi").this house,Long-term care insurance,Support fee systemThe case where is not applied is called the care transportation service, and the case where it is applied (assistance for getting on and off the hospital etc.) is called the long-term care transportation service, and there are differences in the method of collecting fares.

Private paid passenger taxi

As private paid passenger transportation according to Article 78 of the Road Transport Law (DetailsAbolished alternative bus # 80 Article busreference),Land Transport OfficeYou can run a taxi business with a white number vehicle that has been approved by.Some of the above-mentioned long-term care and welfare transportation take this form.
NPO taxiSee also

Taxi playing the role of local crime prevention and disaster prevention

The taxi says, "Travel everywhere in the area 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.wirelessThe means of communication is secured by. "Taking advantage of this characteristic, in an emergencyPolice radioIn some areas, we have a system to cooperate with each other (CriminalIf you suspect that you have escaped using a taxi after the crimeCipherAll-in-one arrangements will be made wirelessly. ).recentlyconvenience storeIn partnership with etc.Parking LotWhile waiting for passengers and radio, stop at the storeCrime preventionThere is also an area that doubles as.In Tokyo, the "Taxi Kodomo 110" system is being developed jointly with the Metropolitan Police Department and industry groups with the aim of ensuring the safety of children.In addition, the system of "disaster prevention report vehicle" that provides the live situation of the disaster site to the disaster countermeasures headquarters and mass media in the city is incorporated as a regional disaster prevention plan in the city.

Driving agency business

The taxi operatorDriving agencyThere have been many examples of working side-by-side in rural areas for a long time, but in addition to the diversification of the taxi business,2004Similar to a taxi due to the revision of the law (16)One of two types of ordinary driver's license, medium-sized driver's license, and large-sized driver's licenseOnly those who have acquired (the two medium-sized types have been enforced since 2007) can engage in substitute drive service (the law itself is2002However, since the mandatory type 2 license had a grace period of two years), the number of taxi operators entering the driving agency business is increasing rapidly.

Carrying luggage

Not a personComputerThere are also taxi operators that undertake the transportation of short-distance small items such as maintenance parts such as (Bike serviceOrRed capAlthough the usage is similar to the above, taxis are a passenger transportation business, and transportation of freight only is not permitted.When attempting to transport only freight, it is basically necessary for the business operator to obtain a paid freight transportation permit, and when undertaking the transportation of luggage, etc., the business operator who has obtained this permit accompanies the special measures described below. There are also examples of entering the delivery service).

In addition to the above, there are various types of unique businesses such as shopping for daily necessities and transportation to and from kindergartens and elementary schools for children. Recently, even the same taxi business is diversifying depending on the region and business operator. It can be said that it shows.

On the other hand, freight transportation is conditionally deregulated, and2017(29)May 11Asahikawa Chuo Higher (HokkaidoAsahikawa)WhenSagawa ExpressJointly carry out door-to-door delivery using a shared taxiMixed passengersStarted the business of[12].

Exceptional measures for 2019 coronavirus infectionDelivery of goods is permitted, although it is limited during the special periodDelivery(In addition, when entering in groups such as major companies or wireless cooperatives, it is necessary for affiliated businesses and affiliated businesses to obtain the necessary approval).

How to Use

station,空港,Harbor,Department store,(I.e.,Downtown,hospitalThere is a taxi stand in such places[Note 1], Ride in order (at Tokyo Station, etc., it says "Please ride on a first-come, first-served basis", and the platform guidance staff basically adheres to it).Customers are basically free to choose a taxi vehicle, and recently, due to the diversification of vehicles and payment methods described below, if you wish to pay for a wagon taxi or pay with something other than cash, you may be able to accept a change in order. is there[Note 2]..In some buildings and hospitals, a good platform (in the case of Tokyo, in the case of Tokyo) where the crew of a high-ranking company selected by the taxi center and the crew with a good certificate issued by the taxi center can enterTokyo StationMarunouchiSide orShibuya StationThere is a dedicated platform that only specific businesses can enter (such as the west exit).In some taxi stands dedicated to a specific business operator, the taxi business operator entering the facility may purchase the facility usage fee by paying the facility owner.In addition, even in the case of a dedicated platform for a specific operator, if a customer comes to the platform when the vehicle of that operator is not waiting, or if a customer calls to pick up the vehicle, the vehicle of another operator will enter. Sometimes.

In Tokyo,Shin Marunouchi Building,Tokyo Skytree Town"EV-HVThere is a "taxi stand" hereElectric carとHybrid carOnly can wait.However, the former can wait for regular taxis from 21:00 to 9:00 the next day, and the latter can also wait for regular taxis if there are no waiting vehicles.As with other waiting areas, users are basically boarded in order from the beginning, but this is not the case for reservations or wireless dispatch.

A running taxiEmpty carIf you are driving on the display, you can stop and board.In the case of other display, it passes.

Also, in urban areas of major cities, if you raise your hand to a running (sink) taxi with an "empty car" plate on the dashboard so that you can see it from the windshield, you can get on the taxi.Since it is difficult to see the plate at night, it is on the car instead of the plateCompany name indicator lightIn some areas, it can be distinguished by whether or not is lit.Previously, an empty car display board with white letters was attached to the arm that came out of the taximeter on a red background, and since this arm was tilted at the time of the actual vehicle, the fare calculation was described as "defeating the meter".Recently, most of the vehicles have electric signs such as "empty car", "pick-up car", "reserved car", "rental car", "surcharge", "payment", "forwarding", etc. ..

Call by calling the sales office / dedicated call center, or in recent yearsSmartphone-Tablet terminalYou can also use the taxi calling app (adopted by some taxi companies) to pick you up, but in that case you will be charged a pick-up fee (sometimes free).In rural areasDepopulationChangeMotorizationThere are many areas where you can call or board at the taxi stand because you cannot expect profits from the sink business (however, if the taxi you are driving is empty, you can get in by raising your hand. Same as in urban areas).

Taxis often open the rear left door automatically, so customers don't have to open it themselves.Doors other than the rear left side do not open automatically, so customers can open them (however, depending on the taxi stand, you may get on and off from the rear right side because it is a counterclockwise one-way street).For taxis with automatic doors,世界Not in (Japanese taxi specification cars are exportedHong KongIt can be seen in some parts of).

When you get in a taxi, tell your destination.Charges are incurred when the crew starts the fare meter when they start running.However, if the call is made by telephone or the like and the vehicle is picked up, the meter for the basic charge is operating or the pick-up fee will be charged.In either case, the fare is displayed based on the fixed mileage, the boarding time (however, the time meter is counted even if the taxi waits on the way and leaves the car), or both.When you reach your destination, the crew will stop the fare meter, so you will pay according to the amount displayed at that time.In addition to the basic meter, there is a meter called a fare unit that shows the payment amount, and the fare is settled according to this.This shows discounts and additions other than the usual meters, such as long-distance discounts, disability discounts (if you want to receive a discount, you need to show the face photo of the disability certificate), pick-up fee, reservation fee, etc. is there.Some contracts are based on a fixed fare set in advance (Haneda Airport fixed fare, Narita Airport fixed fare).In this case, a predetermined fare may be paid instead of collecting the fare by the meter.Passengers are responsible for tolls when using toll roads and parking fees when using toll parking lots for sightseeing, so they must be paid in addition to the meter amount.

In addition to cash, payment methods include tickets (issued by taxi companies, credit card companies, etc., which may have usage limits and expiration dates), coupons (abolished to prevent counterfeiting). , Credit card, debit card,Prepaid Transportation Cards(Suicaetc) / ID / QUICPayNon-contact IC card payment,PayPayThere are other bar code payments.For non-cash taxis, the taxis (operators) that can be used are limited, so it is necessary to check carefully when boarding.

The rear left door opens automatically when you get off.The door closes when the customer gets off, so the customer does not have to close it.However, this is for the crew to check and operate the customer's movements and surrounding traffic conditions, and in a general sense.Automatic doorIs different.In recent years, the number of negative pressure type (engine intake power) and electric type that do not require strong strength has increased.Also, when the customer closes the door when getting off, in the case of the lever type using a wire type or lever, the lever on the crew side also moves in conjunction with it, so the crew's arms and legs may be caught in the lever. The opening and closing of the door should be left to the crew.However, when riding in the passenger seat, the passenger must open and close by himself, which is the same as an ordinary car.The door on the right rear side is often child-locked to prevent passengers from escaping and to prevent accidents that may occur when passengers open and close the door without permission.

Fare

In the past, the fare was the same regardless of the company in the same area in principle according to the same fare system in the same area.1993This system was abolished in (5).Currently, fares can be freely decided at the discretion of each company within a certain range up to the amount set for each region.For example2017(29)2Currently, the general initial fare for ordinary cars in the 410 wards of Tokyo is 400 yen, but some companies charge 300 yen or XNUMX yen.Also,1997In (9), a system called the first mileage shortening fare system was introduced by some companies.This is to shorten the distance to which the initial fare is applied instead of lowering the initial fare, and it will be the same as the normal fare after traveling a certain distance, but it is a short distance that tends to be avoided due to the high initial fare. We are aiming to promote the use.

The cheapest taxi in Japan isIshikawaNanao City OfPort sightseeing taxiAnd it's 250 yen.

Private taxiSince the business tax exemption point system based on the Consumption Tax Act is applied (because the sales are below the specified value), the consumption tax obligation is exempted.Corporate taxiIn some areas, fares are cheaper than.

Basic fare system

Normal taxi fares and charges are structured as follows.

Basic fare

Distance fare
First fare
The fare is fixed for a certain distance after boarding.This is called the first fare.
Additional fare
A fixed fare is added each time a certain distance is traveled.2002Since the deregulation in (14), businesses have become able to set it freely.
Time-distance combined fare
While traveling at a constant speed (10 km / h) or less, or while stopped, the elapsed time is converted to distance by a fixed standard calculation method instead of the mileage, and the fare is added.For this reason, if the travel route is congested, the fare will be high for the distance traveled.This fare also applies when the taxi you were on is kept waiting for the convenience of the passenger.
Depending on the region,highwayDoes not apply the time-distance combined fare.This is to prevent the fare from rising too high due to traffic jams on the highway where you cannot get off the train.In this case, as soon as the driver passes the "automobile only" sign at the entrance of the highway, he presses the highway button (or the pay button if not) on the taximeter so that only the distance can be added, and as soon as he passes the exit sign. Must be released.
Hourly fare
Fares determined only by the time of the boarding contract.It is often used around famous places in tourist areas.Sometimes called simply "chartered".
Flat rate fare
If the departure point and arrival point are decided, the fare will be a fixed amount regardless of the mileage and travel time, and it is mainly used for airport communication etc.Haneda airportInternational flights andNarita AirportIn some cases, the route is specified.However, it may not be applied if the distance-based fare is judged to be cheaper.
Chartered fare
Regardless of time or distance, for example, a method of "renting a crew member and a car driven by the crew member for a day by paying the minimum compensation that would be expected for the crew member's daily sales as a" fare "". ..Private taxi operators with regular customers andMediaIt can be found in businesses with related customers, taxi companies in rural areas where one trip is long for tourism purposes, and in areas where the tourism industry is thriving.

Extra / discount fares

Midnight surcharge
From 22:23 (5:2 in some metropolitan areas) to 3:XNUMX the next day, XNUMX to XNUMX% is usually added.The addition is not added to the meter display, but the distance that the meter goes up is shortened.Therefore, there is no change in the initial ride price.This time zone is also called "Aotan" because the indicator light displays "extra" in blue (diverted from the Hanafuda term (blue short)).
Winter extra fare
In consideration of the poor road conditions in winter in Hokkaido, Tohoku, Hokushin'etsu region, etc., the fare is added all day only during the severe winter period for taxis traveling in specific areas.Usually 2% is added.
Disability discount
handicapped TheDisability certificateIn many cases, the fare will be discounted by 1 depending on the area.
Long-distance discount
If you use more than a certain fare, a certain amount will be discounted.
There are various discounts depending on the operator, such as 5,000 discounts for fares of 5 yen or more (commonly known as "Go-Go Discount" and "Go-Go Fares"), 5,000 discounts for 3 yen or more, and 9,000 discount for 1 yen or more.Some businesses do not offer long-distance discounts.
Round-trip discount
If you make a reservation in advance and tell us that you will use it for a round trip, a "round trip discount certificate" will be issued and you will get a 1% discount on the return trip.
License refund discount
Due to the rapid increase in traffic accidents caused by elderly driversDriver's licenseA system created to encourage voluntary return.Issued when the license is returnedDriving career certificateIf you show, the fare will be discounted by one.

Differences in fares depending on vehicle type

In addition to the above fare system, taxi vehicles are classified according to vehicle type, and the fare differs depending on the class.Not only the initial fare but also the mileage to which the fare is added is different.

Although it is roughly classified into the following four types, this classification is not necessarily common throughout the country, and there are many areas where there is no distinction between large vehicles and specific large vehicles, and there are many areas where these and medium-sized vehicles are the same. ..The classification method isRoad Traffic LawNote that it is different from.In some areas such as the Takezo district in the 23 wards of Tokyo and the city area of ​​Kyoto, the fare by vehicle type has been abolished and integrated into the category of "ordinary vehicles".Even in areas where only medium-sized cars and small cars are unified, the classification name is often "ordinary car".

Specific large vehicle
Regular cars and compact cars with a passenger capacity of 7 or more.Jumbo taxis that use wagons and one-box cars fall under this category.Granace,Hiace(Wagon 10-seater, commuter 14-seater commuter is treated as 2 numbers),Alphard,Vellfire,Elgrand,Estima(7-seater) etc.
Large car
A car with a capacity of 3 people or less in a regular car (6 number car).LS,Cima,fugue,Century,Celsior,Crown Majesta,ク ラ ウ ン(Royal Series / Athletes),Mark X,legendetc.Estima(8-seater),Presage,OdysseyMinivans such as (3rd row seats removed, substantialStation Wagon(Approximate to).
Medium-sized car
Among small cars (number 5 cars), cars with a length of 4.6 meters or more and a passenger capacity of 6 or less.Crown sedan,Crown comfort,Cedric,NV200 VanetteSuch. It may include 2000 number cars of 3cc or less.In the past, medium-sized taxis were mainly equipped with a column shift and had a bench seat for 6 people (up to 5 passengers), but now the crown (both sedan and comfort) has a capacity of 6 people. No model, Cedric2009(21)9Since the bench seat specification was abolished due to the improvement of the taxi, almost all medium-sized taxis now have a seating capacity of 5 (up to 4 passengers).The difference in passenger capacity from the compact car has virtually disappeared, and there is only a slight difference in the comfort of the rear seats.
Small car
Among small cars (number 5 cars), cars with a length of 4.6 meters or less and a passenger capacity of 5 people or less.コ ン フ ォ ー ト,crewetc.Cube,Wingroad,Fun Cargo,Ractis,Corolla Fielder,Sienta,Japan taxi,shuttleSmall size such asTall wagon, And a small station wagon.In the past, the Mark II (~ X80 series) and Laurel (~ C32) sold taxi-specification vehicles with a bumper with a small overhang and a total length of less than 4.6 meters in accordance with the standards for compact cars.On the other hand, because there was a slight difference between the medium-sized and large-sized vehicles depending on the region, the Mark II and Laurel 6-seaters were sometimes treated as medium-sized vehicles.

コ ン フ ォ ー トAfter production discontinuationPremio,Corolla Axio,GraceVarious models are also used in sedans.

Since the passenger capacity includes crew members (unless there is a tour conductor in the passenger seat for training, etc.), the actual number of passengers that can be boarded is one less than the passenger capacity.

Depending on the area, there are areas with many medium-sized cars, areas with many small cars, and areas with about half and half of medium-sized cars and small cars.In general, there are many medium-sized cars in the three major metropolitan areas of the Greater Tokyo Area, Kinki Area, and Chukyo Area, but exceptionallyKyoto City,Wakayama CityThen, about half of medium-sized cars and half of small cars.In addition, there are many small cars in Hokkaido, Tohoku, Hokuriku, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa.

Fees etc.

Pick-up fee
Charges for calling a car by phone or app.Some companies do not charge a pick-up fee, but usually 310 yen or 410 yen is added in addition to the meter fare.
Waiting fee
If you wait for the convenience of the customer after the vehicle is dispatched, the charge will be added after about 10 minutes.Subsequent charges will be added to the basic charges.
Vehicles with no pick-up fee are also free.
More
highwayな どtoll roadIf you pass, a highway fee will be added in addition to the fare.In order to return to the business area after unloading customers, you may be required to pay a high-speed return trip (generally when the actual vehicle distance exceeds 50 km).

Payment Method

cash
The most common means.Payment methods other than cash are increasing due to safety and service improvements.
Ticket (taxi ticket)
Taxi company or wireless group, customer customer,Credit cardIssued by the company.Tickets are filled in with the amount column when passengers get off, and crew members are prohibited from filling in to prevent dressing and fraud.In a broad sense, coupons with preset amounts andLocal governmentIt also includes welfare taxi tickets for which the amount issued by is fixed.Some have an expiration date, and some have an upper limit on the amount of money used.If the amount is written, change will occur if the fare is within the indicated amount, but change will not be given if you use only the welfare taxi ticket.In addition, if the upper limit is set, it is necessary to pay cash or other tickets for the amount exceeding the upper limit.Alternatively, depending on the ticket, it may be possible to use multiple tickets.In addition, in the case of a welfare taxi ticket, depending on the area, it may not be a cash ticket type but a ticket that refunds some percentage of the fare at a later date.
Credit card
card readerCredit reference terminal(ImprinterVehicles equipped with (in some cases) can be used up to the usage limit.It may not be available depending on the communication status of radio waves or the maintenance time of the payment destination.
debit card
bankaccountThose whose charges are settled directly from.It can be used in vehicles equipped with card reader terminals, but it is rarely distributed.As with credit cards, it may take some time or payment may not be possible depending on the radio communication status.A debit card with an international brand on the face of the card can be settled by credit card.
Member card
Issued by taxi companies or wireless groups to customers.Unlike a credit card, it is exclusively for taxi rides, so if you pre-register for multiple taxi dispatches at the time of boarding, you can complete payment for multiple taxis with one card.
Electronic money
Payment is completed by holding an electronic money such as PASMO or Suica or a mobile phone equipped with electronic money over the in-vehicle terminal.No sign required.
QR/Bar code payment
Read the barcode posted in the car with your mobile phone, enter the payment amount, and settle.No sign required.

Fare revision

When more than 7% of taxis in the business area apply for a price increase (price reduction), the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism will start deliberations.Especially in the Tokyo district, we will hold to discuss the validity of the price.

Tokyo area fare increase
In the Tokyo area2007(19)May 12In addition, the fare for the first ride of 2km was revised from 660 yen to 710 yen.In the mass media reports, only "price increase" was emphasized, but on the contrary, the price was reduced by 11% for passengers boarding after 1:11 pm.This is because the application time zone and premium rate of the midnight premium have changed from "3% increase after 10:2 pm" to "XNUMX% increase after XNUMX:XNUMX pm".At this time, the division between medium and small size was abolished.[13].
2014(26)May 4Isconsumption taxDue to the tax increase, the initial fare was revised to 730 yen.
さ ら に2017(29)May 1In addition, the first fare has been rearranged, and the first ride is 1,052.Metersに短縮され、初乗り運賃が410円に改定された。加算幅も従前の280mもしくは105秒で90円から、237mもしくは90秒で80円に変わり、2kmから6km程度であれば据え置きであるが、2km未満であれば値下がり、6km以上の利用では逆に値上がりとなった。
2019(First year of Reiwa)May 10The initial fare has been revised to 420 yen due to a further consumption tax hike.The addition width is 233m or 85 yen in 80 seconds.
Price cartel problem in Niigata area
NiigataThen, 25 taxi operators in the prefecture2009Price fromcartelAnd the fare was raised by connectingFair Trade CommissionCertified bySurchargeReceived payment order and order[14][15].

Airport transfer taxi

South Kanto,Aichi(Nagoya cityAnd its surroundings),Keihanshin,Chugoku / Shikoku regionThen at home空港There is a shared taxi service between the two.There are two types.One is the pattern of "going from home to a certain place by a regular taxi, then changing to a large taxi and going to the airport with other guests".The other is a pattern in which a large taxi patrolls each user, attracts customers, and then heads directly to the airport.Cheaper than taking a taxi alone to the airport.There is also a pattern in which a medium-sized car or a small car heads directly to the airport from home (or with a stop at a distance that does not detour).It is usually a flat rate no matter where you ride from anywhere in the service area.

In addition,Tokyo WardとMusashino-Mitaka CityIn, the boarding place or getting-off place is within the business area, from the 23 wards and Mitaka City / Musashino City.Narita International Airport,Tokyo International AirportWhen requesting an outbound or inbound transfer between (Haneda Airport), make a reservation in advance by telephone, etc. at least 1 hour before boarding the taxi dispatch room of each taxi company, which is set for each ward or city. There are businesses that carry out transportation with "area flat-rate fare".in this case,TaximeterA flat fare will be applied even if the fare exceeds the displayed amount. (For example, from home to the airport, the main sectionShuto ExpresswayAs a general rule, there is one place for boarding and one place for getting off), and the user is responsible for the highway fee during boarding.

When departing from or arriving at a 24-hour airport from midnight to early morningTrain,Connecting busSuch asPublic transportIs not in service and is in demand by passengers.

There is a taxi company where airport personnel such as airlines go to work or leave work outside the train / bus operating hours, or pick up and drop off between your home or accommodation and the airport. This is a reserved dispatch.

Chinese white taku

Chinese peopleTo Japan byTravelingThe Chinese-style white taku was born in a very popular environment.It is popular and major because it is safe for Chinese tourists to use Chinese, it is convenient to guide them, and the fare is exceptionally cheap.Japanese airportIt is explosively spreading around.This Chinese-style white taku is performed by Chinese residents in Japan and Chinese students using their own cars.Vehicle dispatch appUse with.According to media reports, as of August 2017, it has been confirmed that thousands of drivers are registered in the vehicle dispatch app.2020 Tokyo OlympicsTends to increase more and more towards[16].

Don't give or receive money locally, before entering or boarding JapanインターネットThroughAlipay(Alipay) etc. on the netsettlementBecause it does not use a Japanese bank account and does not use receipts, it is difficult to obtain evidence of money transfer, so it is illegal to claim that it is a "friend's transfer" to the police crackdown. It was difficult to identify it as a tactile act.

Since Chinese-style white taku is an illegal act without a type XNUMX license and without permission, it is treated as not having voluntary insurance in the event of an accident, and there is no remedy such as compensation for passengers and victims.It is highly likely that you do not even know the voluntary insurance system, and even if it is not found to be illegal, there may be no compensation.[17]..Even if a civil compensation claim is made, the driver is incapable of paying and will return to Japan, so the victim is likely to fall asleep.I also used overseas online paymenttax evasionIt is an act.

Most of the Chinese group customers are operated illegally by Chinese people in addition to Chinese white taku.Private residenceUse and visitDuty-free shopUses Chinese-owned stores, all of which are operated by Chinese companies online, so by ChineseInboundRevenue continues to decline and is large社会 問題It has become[18][19].

Police have marked and scrutinized passenger cars that have entered and exited multiple times, and the number of arrests is increasing.The arrested personRoad transport lawAccording to Article XNUMX, "less than three yearsImprisonmentOr less than XNUMX million yenfineOr thisCombined courseTo do. "

Crew

Required qualifications, etc.

Crew (driver)In order to board a passenger car engaged in the passenger transportation industry,Second-class driver's license(Normal XNUMX types, or XNUMX types of medium-sized and XNUMX types of large-sized licenses, which are higher licenses) are required.AT carIf only the crewAT car onlyYou can fly with a normal type XNUMX license.

  • In the case of Tokyo Takezo transportation area, to become a taxi crew,Ordinary carFirst classDriver's licenseAlternatively, a person who has passed three years after obtaining a semi-medium-sized driver's license is designated by the employer.Medical checkupIf you pass through, you can join the company as a Type XNUMX license training crew member.

A daily allowance will be paid during the training period.PrefecturesPublic Safety Commission(Driver's license examination site) After passing the department test and proficiency test, and after obtaining the Type XNUMX license,Car accident prevention mechanismReceive proper diagnosis of (NASVA)[Note 3]After obtaining the Type 1 license, register as a crew member at an organization designated by the business area in order to obtain a crew member ID that stands on the back of the empty car indicator light (super sign).After being assigned to a sales office, there is a detention period that requires one to two years of enrollment.[Note 4].

In Tokyo and Osaka, those who have passed the geography test conducted by the taxi center and have undergone new training can become registered crew members.

Furthermore, in order to respond to the diversification of the taxi business mentioned above, after joining the company,home helper,Security guard certification,Lifesaving classCompletion,Operation managerSome companies are required to obtain qualifications such as.

Duty

The crewMaleThere are many, but about taxi crew1999(11)Labor Standards ActBefore the revisionFemaleLate-night work (22:5-XNUMX:XNUMX the next day) is permitted, and the crewa working womanThere are not a few cases.However, in general, there are many daytime workers.Most of the crew members are full-time employees (employment contracts with no fixed term), and in the case of working every other day, 11 to 13 crew members a month.In the case of working every other day, one crew member is calculated as two days' worth of work, so it is equivalent to 2 to 1 days a month.There is also a work system in which day shifts (from morning to evening), night shifts (from night to morning), and up to 22 hours are on duty every day, but in this case, it is possible to have 26 to 12 shifts a month. Possible.Regular employees often have this kind of work system.

Part-time crew members (contract employees / contract employees) are not full-time employees, but up to 8 crew members on a bi-day basis per month (in the case of day and night shifts, up to 16 crew members can work up to 12 hours per work).In many cases, elderly people and other contractors work in this way.

Monthly salary is a fixed salary system, a commission system, and a mixed type for monthly sales.Therefore, in the case of the commission system, the salary may increase when the number of working days is large or the sales are large, but the salary decreases when the sales are small.If a certain amount of transportation revenue is not reached, the commission rate for sales will decrease. (Generally referred to as "cutting the foot").Bonuses are paid in the form of bonuses, which are divided into several times a year by deducting a certain amount of commission from the monthly salary.If the sales do not reach the specified operating amount, it may not be paid.The commission rate may be determined based on the daily operating fare income or the monthly fare income.About 1% to 40% of sales, depending on various conditions of each company.

In recent yearsDeregulationAs a result, the number of taxis has increased sharply, excessive competition has occurred in some areas, and there is a view that the working environment for crew members is deteriorating.In some areas, the average annual salary of crew members is well below the average annual salary of all workers' regional minimum wages.minimum wageDisparity societyThis is often mentioned in the mass media as part of the problem.

Taxi driverJob adsIs mainlysports newspaper,Evening paper,Public Employment Security OfficeIt is often done by (Hello Work).General paperAnd generalJob information magazine, JobsWebsite(Recruit'sRikunabiThere are few job advertisements for taxi drivers in (etc.)Hanging advertisementEtc. in the trainAds(EspeciallyPrivate railwayThere are companies that are looking for jobs through taxi companies) and radio commercials.

Refusal of underwriting of transportation / prohibited acts of passengers

Pursuant to Article 13 of the Road Transport Law, the carrier shall not refuse to accept the carriage except in the following cases.

  • (1) When the application for carriage does not comply with the approved Conditions of Carriage.
    • General Passenger Car Transportation Business Standard Conditions of Carriage
    • "Underwriting of carriage and refusal to continue" (Article 4)
      • Passengers must follow the job instructions given by the driver and other personnel to ensure the safety of transportation.
      • When the applicant (passenger) requests a special burden regarding transportation
      • When transportation violates the provisions of laws and regulations, public order, or good manners and customs.
      • When there is a transportation problem due to a natural disaster or other unavoidable reason
      • When the passenger does not comply with the measures taken under the passenger car transportation business transportation regulations of the crew
      • When a passenger carries an item that is prohibited from being brought in by the passenger car transportation business transportation regulations.
      • When passengers are so drunk that they cannot tell their destination clearly or are difficult to walk without the help of others.
      • When passengers are wearing unclean clothing that can contaminate the interior of the vehicle
      • When the passenger is a seriously ill person without an attendant
      • According to the Act on Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients with Infectious DiseasesClass I infection, Kind II infection orDesignated infectious diseaseWhen a patient (limited to those who require hospitalization) (including those who are considered to be these patients) or a person who has a finding of a new infectious disease
      • Passengers are prohibited from smoking in non-smoking vehicles (meaning vehicles that indicate that they are non-smoking vehicles).
      • If the Passenger smokes or intends to smoke in a non-smoking vehicle, the driver may request that he / she stop smoking, and if the Passenger does not comply with this request, he / she may refuse to accept or continue carriage.
  • (2) When there is no transportation equipment
  • (6) When there is a legitimate reason specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
  • (B) Persons carrying explosives or other dangerous materials
  • (F) When it is not possible to underwrite transportation due to meals or breaks, or when a forwarding board is posted in an attempt to forward to the garage or sales office due to the end of the crew, etc.
  • The carrier has both the origin and the landing.Business areaDo not carry passengers outside.

Items prohibited from being brought into the car

  1. GunpowderKind (excluding cartridges and blanks of up to 50 shots that are inserted into the belt or medicine).
  2. Fireworks for toys over 100 grams (fireworks)
  3. Volatile oil,kerosene,Light oil,alcohol,Carbon disulfideOther flammable liquids (for smoking)Writeras well as the Pocket furnaceExcludes items used for (Cairo). )
  4. Films and other celluloids weighing over 100 grams
  5. yellow phosphorus,Carbide, Metallic sodium and other flammable substancesmagnesiumpowder,hydrogen peroxide, Soda peroxide and other explosives
  6. Radioactive material (radioactive isotope, nuclear fuel material)
  7. caustic soda,nitric acid,Sulfuric acid,hydrochloric acidOther corrosive substances
  8. High pressure gas(However,Fire extinguisherEnclosed insidecarbon dioxide gasAnd sealed in a medicated oxygen deviceoxygenExcludes gas. ).
  9. Chloropicrin, Methyl chloride, liquidhydrocyanic acid,Chloroform,formalinOther substances that may emit toxic gases
  10. Over 500 gramsMatch
  11. Power Input(Dry cellexcept for. )
  12. cadaver
  13. Animal(Assistance dogs for the physically challenged or equivalentdogExcludes small animals for pets and pets.Some companies allow pets to ride on condition that they are placed in cages. )

"Rejection" problem

Refusal to board is "to refuse to accept the vehicle without a justifiable reason after receiving an application for transportation by suspending or slowing down while the vehicle is parked or admitting the customer."

As an example of boarding refusal recalled from the passenger's aspect before boarding, for intoxicated passengers at nightVomitusIn some cases, the inside of the vehicle may be polluted, or a refusal may be made in anticipation of trouble as a result of poor communication.For drunk people, there is a provision in Article 13 of the Passenger Vehicle Transportation Business Transportation Regulations (Refusal of underwriting and continuation of transportation) that the passenger can be refused boarding.In addition, as an example of boarding refusal that may be caused by the political and economic conditions of a specific area,Nuclear power plantIn the municipality whereOpposition to nuclear powerIn some cases, the company refused to dispatch the vehicle to the deputy of the theorist (in this case, the company later apologized, and the Chubu District Transport Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism also requested prevention of recurrence).[20].

During the bubble period, the number of long-distance passengers was overwhelmingly higher than it is now, reflecting the good economy at that time, so there were many refusals to board short-distance passengers, but the recent social situation. In Japan, it is becoming less common for crew members to intentionally refuse to board.

If you are traveling on a road with multiple lanes other than the first lane, even if you accept the customer and receive an application for transportation, you must not accept the acceptance in consideration of safety. , On the other handTokyo Taxi CenterThen, from the one that applied for boardingclaimIf it is received, it is treated as a "case of refusal to board".

Crime prevention

For the safety of the crew, take a picture of the transparent resin security plate between the driver's seat and the back seat and the inside of the car.Surveillance camera(drive recorder) Is being installed.However, the security boardOsakaThere are also negative opinions from taxi drivers, etc., due to the decline in customer service, and surveillance cameras are evidence in the event of trouble such as violence against the driver or unpaid boarding.PoliciesIt is necessary to prepare a management system for recorded video and audio in order to spread it.[21][22]..In some cases, smoke screen generators are installed mainly by businesses that are negative on the security board.

In addition, if a driver carrying a passenger with a suspicious physiognomy or appearance feels dangerous, he / she may send a report to the police, an emergency signal to the radio station, or a code to notify a colleague's taxi. ..

vehicle

1990 liter displacement for taxis since the 2ssedanIsToyota OfCrown comfort,Crown sedan,コ ン フ ォ ー ト,Nissan Motor Ofcrew,Cedric commercial vehicleIs mainly used, but in 2010 at NissanMinivan OfNV200The taxi specification car was released and the crew was discontinued in June 2009, and the Cedric commercial vehicle was discontinued on December 6, 2014, and Toyota announced in 12.Tall wagon OfJapan taxiSince the production of the Crown Comfort, Comfort, and Crown sedans was discontinued within the same year, as of 2017, all sedans for small and medium-sized taxis with restrictions on standards have been discontinued, and one each of this minivan and tall wagon. The model is sold as a taxi car.

Considering corporate demand, taxi-only cars have simple and mediocre interior equipment for low-cost sales, so they dare to differentiate themselves from other companies by using expensive higher-grade crown sedans and Cedrics. Classic SV etc.High grade taxiSome companies choose.

In addition to taxi cars, commercial sedans andStation WagonThere is also a taxi that is a modified minivan.Previously 1.5-2 liter classFRI used to use a vehicle that was slightly redesigned based on the commercial vehicle of the system, but now the commercial vehicle of that class has been switched from FR to FF, and along with the pursuit of comfort as a taxi, in the 1990s Toyota / Nissan has developed a FR-driven taxi car.

Light carDue to safety and durability issues, it was never used for anything other than long-term care, but since June 2009, electric light vehicles have been approved.[23].

1980 eraDue to fuel efficiency, taxi vehicles up toAutomatic transmission) MT than a car (Manual transmission) Cars were often used, but nowadays, the improvement of AT cars has improved fuel efficiency and the gap with MT cars has decreased, and in order to reduce the fatigue of crew members, only AT cars are set for taxi cars. It has become.Especially2000 eraFrom the latter half of the year, until the hybrid vehicle described later became widespread, the torque converter type was the mainstream among ATs due to the vehicle class, but with the spread of hybrid vehicles, the CVT (AT in a broad sense)Continuously variable transmission) Cars (especiallyPower / mechanical combined stepless transmission) Is in progress.

Vehicles are required to be safe and smooth to get on and off because passengers are placed in the back seats for business.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIt is supposed that it cannot be operated unless it conforms to the safety standards for road transport vehicles (hereinafter abbreviated as safety standards).For example, always in the back seatHeadrest(In many cases, it is not installed in cheap private cars), and it is also obligatory to meet the values ​​above the standard for the front and rear spacing and door openings.[Note 5].

Global warmingIn response to growing awareness ofHybrid car(HV),Plug-in hybrid vehicle(PHV),Electric car(EV),Fuel cell carSome businesses have introduced (FCV)[2]..For hybrid cars, Toyota MotorPriusIs widely adopted.However, since the second and subsequent Prius bodies emphasize air resistance reduction, there is less room for overhead space and trunk space in the rear seats compared to the Crown Comfort and crew.In order to avoid those weaknesses, in recent years the same Prius is a wagon typePrius αThe number of cases of adopting is increasing.Also, it is the same hybrid carHonda Motor Co., Ltd. OfInsightThe width of the door opening isRoad Transport Vehicle ActIt could not be used because it does not meet the safety standards for taxi vehicles based on, but it became available from April 2011.[24]..On June 27, 6, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced the relaxation of taxi vehicle standards.[25].

Electric carMitsubishi Motors Ofi-MiEVAnd Nissan MotorLeaf, For plug-in hybrid vehicles, Prius PHV, for fuel cell vehiclesToyota MIRAI,Honda Clarity Fuel CellThere are businesses that introduce.

On the other hand, FR cars are difficult to drive in snowy areas, soArionTaxis based on FF vehicles such as, etc. are rarely seen (onceマ ツ ダ OfCapellaAnd Mitsubishi MotorsGalant ΣFF / LPG taxi cars were set up in Japan).4WDSince cars have poor fuel economy, few companies have introduced them even in snowy areas.[26]..Due to the spread of the hybrid vehicles mentioned above, there is a shift to FF vehicles including areas other than snowy areas.

As a fueltaxBecause ofFUELMany vehicles use (auto gas), but since the number of vehicles for which LPG specifications are set by the manufacturer is limited to only two,gasoline engineAnd hybrid cars may be converted to LPGPrivate taxiIt can be found in hire cars in metropolitan areas, small local taxis and jumbo taxis.Also appeared in 2011Mazda AxelaThere is a movement to adopt LPG for small taxis, but on the other hand, there was a newspaper report that Toyota will abolish the Crown Comfort LPG car around 2016, but after that, on May 2017, 5, the Crown Comfort system It has been discontinued. According to Toyota's announcement dated October 25, 2015, sales began in 10.Japan taxiLPG hybrid system is newly developed and installed in[3].

Areas where LPG stands are not installed and taxi operatorsgas stationIf you also run a business,diesel engineThere are also places that use the vehicle of.Also, because the number of LPG stands that are open 24 hours a day is small, it is easy to get crowded just before the store closes.To avoid this, many private taxis use gasoline or diesel engines.

When filling LPG, in the case of a corporate taxi, it is filled using an in-vehicle card, but basically it is filled at a stand that has a contract with each operator or the wireless cooperative to which it belongs (gasoline). Unlike light oil and light oil, just because the original signboard is the same does not mean that it can be shared).Even for corporate taxis, in the case of gasoline cars and diesel cars, in the case of a credit card, the refueling location depends on the conditions of the credit card.

Also, many corporate taxisFender mirror(In recent years, many models, including the Cedric, have no fender mirror settings from the beginning).The reasons are that the movement of the line of sight at the time of visual recognition is small, and that the width of the vehicle is narrower than that of the door mirror, so that it is easy to enter and exit a narrow alley.In addition, the door mirror may be misunderstood that the driver is facing the customer when visually recognizing the left mirror, and there is an intention to avoid this. Even after the 2010s, due to such persistent demand for fender mirrors, unlike the Nissan NV200, which is a taxi specification for general-purpose commercial vans, Toyota's Japan Taxi, which is a pure taxi-only model, is a fender mirror unlike the prototype Sienta. It was adopted.

For taxis, there is a high need to make people aware of the lighting of blinkers and hazard lamps when stopping, changing direction, and getting on and off passengers.Tokyo,Sendai cityDepending on the area, auxiliary blinkers are standardized on the roof and on both sides of the company name indicator light (because it is not mandatory, some businesses do not have it).However, it is not mandatory even in standardized areas, so as an exampleHigh grade taxiIt is often not installed when the vehicle is classified as or if it is a vehicle with a high vehicle height such as a minivan.

When using a minivan, many cars with captain seats are used for the second row seats so that passengers in the third row seats can evacuate according to security standards. When using a car with bench seats in the second row, the seats in the third row are often removed and used as a 3-seater.In most cases, the former is adopted when the base vehicle has a two-row seat vehicle and a three-row seat vehicle.

Tire manufacturers manufacture taxi tires called taxi radials for taxi-only models (Bridgestone: MILEX series,Sumitomo Rubber Industries: SP TX-01 (ダ ン ロ ッ プBrand) ・ TAXI-MILER (Taxi Mylar) series (Goodyearbrand),Yokohama Rubber: TAXI TOURING series,TOYO TIRE: LIZA series, J60, etc.).Abrasion resistance is improved to correspond to the mileage of a vehicle used as a taxi, but on the other hand, grip performance (especially wet grip) is inferior to general tires.For taxisス タ ッ ド レ ス タ イ ヤAlthough there are some, it is often installed only on the drive wheels unless it is in a snowy area.Even if it is not a taxi-only model, some companies install taxi tires if the size matches.[Note 6]..Also, in order to eliminate the trouble of changing clothes in winter and other times when it is not in a snowy area, and to reduce the storage space for tire and wheel sets due to changing clothes.All season tiresSome businesses use it all year round.

In addition, due to the specifications of the tires,Spare tire(Emergency tires are also acceptable) must be on hand.If the puncture repair kit is standard equipment, you need to select the optional spare tire.

In addition, there are vehicles that are painted taxis and have the name of the taxi company but are equipped with white numbers.This is a retired vehicle for commercial useFor in-house trainingIt is used as a commercial vehicle.Taxi companyDriving agencyIf you also have a business, you may use it as a companion vehicle.This vehicle is used for the purpose of learning the basic operation of equipment such as meters, and of course cannot carry real passengers.After the training in this vehicle, a real taxi vehicle will carry a boss who plays the role of an instructor and a real customer for practical training (some companies omit either training).An unusual example isHiroshimaThere is a monitoring vehicle for the company's taxi that is open in Japan.In addition, there are vehicles that are used for moving staff between multiple sales offices by removing meters and the like, and for newcomers to run and learn the road.

There are many places where bright colors such as green (Tokyo radio etc.), orange (checker cab etc.), yellow (Tokyo XNUMX companies etc.), light blue, white are used for the body color, but on the contrary, Keihanshin,North Kanto,Hokuriku, Shikoku taxis have few, and the proportion of black and navy is high.

In-car equipment

  • Taximeter
    • A meter that displays the price.It is linked with the actual empty car display.When the midnight charge application time comes, it automatically switches to the midnight charge, and when the application time ends, it returns to the normal charge.On the other hand, the discounted charge cannot be calculated by the meter itself, and may be calculated by pressing the built-in button or installing an external unit and a card reader terminal.In a private taxi, when using a taxi vehicle as a private car, cover the display with a hood that says "private use".The meter isMeasurement LawBy annual inspection (to be exact, the expiration date is one yearTest) Is obligatory.To prevent fraud such as adjusting the inside of the meter,leadIs sealed (certification stamp).receiptIt is linked with the printer that issues the payment, and a receipt is printed when the payment operation is performed.1980 eraUntil that time, the mode was switched by turning a lever with a length of about 20 cm and a disk with a "empty car" character with a diameter of about 10 cm at the tip, but it was linked with the actual empty car indicator. It was switched to electronic.
    • (Note: Since there was a time when the expression "taxy" was used (until the early Showa period), relatively old manuals based on the Measurement Law are referred to as "taxi meter" for that reason. May have been done)
Real empty car indicator
Hitachi Kogyo Catch HK-05 Taxi Sign Front.jpg
Hitachi Kogyo Catch HK-05 Taxi Sign Rear.jpg
Above: Outside the car
Bottom: Inside the car
(Hitachi Kogyo Catch HK-05)
Note that it is tilted forward to the left to improve visibility from the sidewalk.
  • Real empty car indicator
    • Also known as a super sign, window sign, or tariff.Represents the condition of the vehicle.In the past, if the taximeter lever was at the top, it could be judged as an empty car, but it appeared because it was switched to an electronic type.When it was first installed, there were only items that displayed only "empty car" and "forwarding", but since it is difficult to understand with "forwarding", "pick-up" and "reserved car", and more recently "rental" "payment" "extra" "High speed" "Wireless reservation" etc. are displayed.In the past, there were many lighting and curtain ceremonies, but nowadaysLEDThere are many display-type items, and in an emergency, some are displayed as "SOS" or "help" in conjunction with the company name indicator. In the case of the 3-color display type, "empty car" is displayed in red, "extra" is displayed in green, and the other displays are displayed in orange. In the case of full color, the character color or background color must conform to the curtain type. There are many.Depending on the area and the business operator, the actual empty car can be recognized from the rear window.
  • card reader
    • Credit cardA machine that accepts payments.There is a sticker of a credit card company that can be used on the rear left window glass, so customers need to confirm before boarding.Of course, you cannot pay by credit card if the car is not equipped.debit cardCan be used if radio waves reach and data communication is possible.However, there are many problems such as some companies paying fees.In addition, some have keys for different payment methods and numeric keys, and work with a printer dedicated to printing receipts.In recent years, an increasing number of vehicles are equipped with non-contact IC card readers that support transportation IC cards and Osaifu-Keitai.Some models are attached to the LCD screen for displaying advertisements, and some models can be linked with electronic payments made on the LCD screen.
  • Speed ​​recorder (tachograph)
    • In business areas where speed recorders are required by law, speed, time, and distance are recorded on disk-shaped paper.TachographIs installed.
    • The shape is a large analog clock with a lock embedded in the instrument panel (unlike buses and trucks, the tachograph cannot be built into the speedometer due to the structure of the instrument panel. Depending on the model, it is inside the trunk, inside the bonnet, inside the console box).Recently, some businesses use digital tachographs.
    • Recently, as the number of vehicles without space for tachographs in the instrument panel has increased, the number of digital tachographs with integrated taximeters is also increasing.Record the boarding place, getting-off place, fare, business distance, etc. on a memory card, and let the computer at the sales office read the memory card at the end of work without the crew recording the business details of the turn in the daily report. If so, a payment instruction and a daily business report will be created.Some have a function to cooperate with the drive recorder described later.
  • Company name indicator light
    • The so-called "andon".Also called ceiling lights, rooftop lights, security lights, etc.There are regional differences in lighting methods, such as regions that turn on when the vehicle is empty and turn off when the vehicle is actual, regions that turn on only at night, and regions that turn on only when the vehicle is empty at night.In an emergency such as robbery, it can be flashed in red.Recently, there are some that display "SOS" or "help" on the actual empty car display in conjunction with the company name indicator light (If you see this situation in the city, immediately110It is desirable to report).Some companies have adopted a system in which wireless devices are linked, and when the security switch is pressed, the vehicle's location information and rescue signal are automatically transmitted, the wireless microphone is turned on, and the communication inside the vehicle can be heard in the wireless room. ..Recently, some businesses have used the ones with advertisements.There are Kamaboko type, rugby ball type, spherical type, star type, drum type, etc., and the spiral type (generally called denden type) and lantern type are exclusively for private taxis.In addition, some taxis do not have lanterns installed. (Many in areas without hire)
  • Auto door
    • LeverFormula, negative pressure formula, compressed air (Air compressorThe rear left door can be operated from the driver's seat by using the formula) or electric type.[27]..There are few countries in the world where auto doors are the standard, and foreign customers are often surprised.It has advantages not only in terms of customer service but also in terms of safety management (because an accident caused by opening a door is basically a driver's fault regardless of the actor).In Japan, some companies also offer door services that allow drivers to open from the outside of the car.Originally in Hirakata City, Osaka Prefecture, when the dragonfly traffic closed the door that the passenger forgot to close when getting off, the driver reached out from inside the small car and closed it, but in 1950 the medium-sized car was introduced. Then, there were cases of finger stuffing that could not be easily reached inside the car, so it is said that the first development was made so that the driver could be safely and easily closed from inside the car.
  • car navigation
    • Recently, the operator may install it before the start of operation, but the crew may install it as a personal item.The car navigation system installed by the operator is linked to the radio station, and as a general rule, the vehicle is dispatched from a vehicle close to the vehicle dispatch destination by GPS polling, and the radio station knows the vehicle position.
  • wireless
    • Dedicated for corporate taxis and individual taxis affiliated with wireless associationswireless deviceIs installed and used by the dispatcher to guide the crew to where the passengers are.Some companies collect radio usage fees from the crew.
    • For wireless on the roofantennaEquip.Police carAntennas such as these are attached directly to the roof, but for taxis, almost all are retrofitted (magnets, stickers attached, screwed to rain gutters), and the antenna cable is also exposed.To find out the nearest car, the dispatcher can ask the crew to report the radio number and current location, or search by GPS.Some crew members can talk to each other and some cannot, depending on the policy of the operator.Those that cannot talk are called the semi-duplex system, and the dispatcher (base station)SENDFrequency to crew (Land mobile station)ofReceiveThe frequency and the transmission frequency of the land mobile station are used as the reception frequency of the base station.Centralized base station system (for multiple operators in the business area) for effective use of frequencies and stable communication in large citiesbase stationCentrally installed in a specific location[28]) Has been taken.In the case of this method, the radio waves of the base station are always transmitted, and a "snap" sound when the dispatcher releases the transmission button of the microphone (SquelchIt is identifiable because the tail noise) is not heard.Most companies have their own wireless operations, but in big citiesinterferenceIt is organized into several groups to avoid.
    • History
      • 1953-Hokkaido Transportation Co., Ltd. in Sapporo150MHz bandStart taxi radio at[29]
      • 1957-Allocate dedicated waves to the 150MHz band[30]
      • 1965- Mobile radio centerStarted centralized base station business[31]
      • 1966-Allocate a dedicated wave with a frequency interval of 50kHz[30]
      • 1969 --Narrowing the frequency interval to 20kHz (narrowing)[30]
      • 1982-Re-narrowed to 12.5kHz[30]
      • 2002-Resolved the policy of "fully digitizing on June 28, 6"[30]
      • 2003- Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsWill digitize the 400MHz band with a frequency interval of 6.125kHz, and will not allow new analog radios to be opened after June 2011.And four companies in Kanto were licensed for the first digital radio[32].
      • 2015 --Page about digitization of taxi radio on the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications radio wave usage homepage[35]Was done.Among them, analog radio with an expiration date of "May 28, 5" can be relicensed by attaching a written promise of termination plan.It is provided as a remedy for businesses that cannot be transferred by the expiration date.
    • There are too many taxis, mainly in big cities, and there are not so few customers who jump in without making a reservation or wait for the station.Mobile phoneDue to the spread ofTabletTerminalDue to the advent of the vehicle dispatch system, some vehicles do not have a radio or an antenna.In addition, in the case of IP radio using a mobile phone line, even if there is a radio, it may not have an antenna exposed outside the vehicle.
    • In a private taxiAmateur radioSome people are equipped with machines (people called "ham at a taxi company" get together to create a "wireless club" or in the name of a club.Corporate bureauMay have been opened. ) I enjoy chatting while the car is empty.However, some people use amateur radio to perform communications that appear to be business-oriented (road congestion, information waiting for customers, etc.).This isRadio ActIt is an illegal act that corresponds to "unintended use" in Article 52, and may be criticized by general amateur radio operators.
  • Crew ID / Driver ID
    • The crew ID is the employee ID of the taxi company.Driver IDs are Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Saitama, Chiba, Yokohama, Kyoto, Kobe, Hiroshima, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (except Tokyo and Osaka)20086(Applicable from) will be issued by the taxi center.A face photo (dimensions are also stipulated by law) must be pasted and presented on the indoor display part of the actual empty vehicle display so that it can be seen in the cabin.If the photo does not match the driver's face, the criminal act of robbing the vehicle is suspected.In addition, there is a face photoIdentificationThe face is the "back", not the "front" (the back side, that is, the glass side is the "front").
  • drive recorder
    • One of the equipment that is being installed by an increasing number of businesses.Attach it around the rearview mirror and always shoot the situation in frontHDD,SSDOrSD cardAlthough it is recorded in, unnecessary parts are automatically deleted.When a certain predetermined condition (sudden braking, vibration, etc.) is detected, the image for several seconds before and after is saved, and the image can be saved by pressing the button near the driver's seat.Initially, it was introduced to facilitate resolution and negotiations after a taxi accident, but as a secondary result, the driver's driving manners have been improved, the taxi is not a party, evidence of an accident or accident, and the cause of the accident. It is used for accident prevention by analysis.In addition, some photographs are taken inside the room to prevent troubles such as robbery and customer service.
  • ETCOn-board unit
    • Recently, the number of businesses that equip it is increasing, especially in urban areas.If you drive on the highway during midnight hours or on holidaysETC discount systemIn many cases, you can receive it.Usually, the ETC card owned by the taxi company is used to issue a receipt together with the fare.
  • Echo card
    • A postcard that allows users to write their opinions, impressions, complaints, etc. and send them to the user company.Most of them do not require stamps, pay the fee, and just post them to the mailbox.Since the driver's name (car number) is written on the card, it can also be an opportunity to encourage the driver in charge to improve the reception.
  • More
    • Booster cable(To help friends when the battery runs out), rubber band (to prevent falling when a large luggage that does not close the lid can be loaded in the trunk room), first aid kit, umbrella (to pick up on a rainy day) . Some companies have original umbrellas with a large company name because it is an advertisement),Fire extinguisher, Blankets, buckets, brushes and other car wash tools (some companies have to bring their own).
    • weddingThere is a "bride taxi" that allows the ceiling on the left rear side to be deployed vertically so that the bride in kimono can easily get on and off.

Vehicle advertising

Because an unspecified number of passengers get on and off the vehicle and drive around the city all day longAdsIt is also used as a medium, and there are advertising agencies specializing in taxi advertising.

  • Body advertisement
    • Wrapping ads --A film with an advertisement printed on four double-sided doors of the car body.It may be applied to the entire vehicle.
    • An advertisement is attached to the rear door with a magnet.
    • A sticker is attached to the window of the rear left door.
    • A film is attached to the rear window.It can be seen through from the inside of the car, and the advertising surface can be seen from the outside.
    • A large company name indicator with a product advertisement.
    • On the wheelStatic wheelWhat to attach.
  • In-car advertising
    • A case is attached to the back of the passenger seat and a leaflet advertisement is placed.A business card-style card with the company name, number, and vehicle number (vehicle registration number at the company) may be installed in case something is left behind in the vehicle.
    • Liquid crystal displayInstall and advertiseTeletextThere are also times when we are broadcasting text news using.In particular, some types are installed behind the passenger seat so that electronic payments can be made.Some businesses have completely switched to screen advertising and abolished leaflets.

problem

Many traffic accidents

There are many accidents compared to ordinary cars, and the number of accidents per car is extremely high, more than eight times that of all cars.Causes include forcible driving and fatigue driving (both)Road Traffic Lawviolation). There is a claim that "there are only a lot of accidents because the mileage per vehicle is long", but the taxi accident rate is outstanding even when compared with the number of accidents per mileage (as of 1). Then, the number of taxi accidents per million km traveled was 2003, while the number of all automobiles was 100.[36]).

Driver wage problem

Most of the wages of corporate taxi drivers are progressive, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has repeatedly issued notifications recommending changes.Progressive combined salary is a type of ability salary system in which salaries are added progressively according to sales, but it is a general feature of the taxi industry that the base fixed salary is extremely low.MotorizationThe fact that the ownership of private cars has permeated the majority of the people with the progress ofDeregulationCombined with the increase in the number of taxis in, the composition is to compete for a limited pie, and only some good drivers can earn a satisfactory income, and most drivers earn very little ( But"Car graphicAccording to the "Kyoto Taxi Driver Diary" serialized in the December 2006 issue of the magazine, for example, even if you work 12 hours or more every day for a month, sales are 1 yen and wages are 12 yen. The condition is not uncommon).In connection with this issueOsakaFour corporate taxi drivers in the company have increased their income and reduced their fare because their income has declined due to excessive vehicle increases due to deregulation, leading to worsening working conditions and an increase in traffic accidents.LicensingIn October 1, a lawsuit was filed against the government for cancellation and compensation for damages of about 50 yen per person.Osaka District CourtOn March 2009, 3, the district court filed a lawsuit, saying that "deregulation does not mean that there was an oversupply or an extreme drop in driver salaries." Rejected[37]..However, in 2008, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism will create a new system to reduce the number of vehicles in order to alleviate the excessive competition caused by the increase in vehicles so far, and will try to limit the area where there are too many vehicles as a "specific area". There is a contradiction in the views of the judiciary and the administration.

Problems related to fares

Some taxi operators may set fares that are cheaper than general taxi fares in the area (such as one-coin taxis), but in response to this move,Taxi Optimization / Activation Special Measures Law"But20141It was amended to be obliged to operate at the official fare set by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.Failure to comply may result in administrative sanctions such as suspension of use of the vehicle.

In opposition to these national movements, some businesses that operate cheap taxis have filed proceedings to apply for fares below the official fare, or to issue fare change orders or vehicle suspension orders. Taking actions such as[38][39][40][41].

Customer waiting monopoly problem

Some taxi operatorsRailway operatorFocusing on the system etc.stationIn some cases, the waiting for customers on the premises is monopolized and other taxi operators are excluded from entering.2014May 10IsKobe Electric RailwayAlthough it is a taxi company affiliated with Kobe Electric RailwaystationExcluded taxi operators other than the company from entering the taxiAntitrust lawThe ruling that it is a violationOsaka High CourtHas been handed down in[42]..However, it should be noted that the judgment may change depending on whether the platform of the station is private land of a railway company or public land of a local government, etc. (If it is private land, it may be judged as trespassing. Because there is sex).

In some cases, mainly in metropolitan areas, taxi operators or wireless associations have contracts with office buildings, hospitals, etc. to use the parking lot as a platform. In this case, the platform is privately owned, so there is no contract. There is no legal problem in eliminating the taxi, but on the other hand, there are cases where the call is refused when there is no waiting vehicle because of such a contract (however, it is not a direct application from the passenger). Therefore, it will not be denied boarding).

Crew quality, poor behavior

1969In Japan around that time, taxi crews trapped female passengers in the car and assaulted them one after another. There was a time when it was called "wolf taxi"[43]..However, it is not uncommon outside Japan, and the US ride-hailing service between 2017 and 2018,UberThe number of sexual assault damages that occurred in Japan reached 5981.[44].

Crime targeting taxis

The room may be closed during the ride, and assault cases by customers and robbery-murder cases by persons pretending to be customers often occur. There were 2016 taxi robbery cases in Japan in 97, of which 88 were arrested.[45].

Major taxi robbery murder cases

More

Ride sharing business

Uber,Didi ChuxingSuch asRide shareWhile the business is expanding worldwide, in Japan it is illegal to carry customers using private cars for a fee as "white taku".There are criticisms of this as a late regulation to protect existing vendors.[46].

On the other hand, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has expressed the view that "even if you use your own car to pick up and drop off for a fee, if the payment is" any reward for your favor ", you do not need permission or registration" and set the fee. There are companies that develop ride-sharing businesses where passengers decide the payment amount without[47].

NPO taxi

Hamamatsu cityTenryu WardIn the Sakuma area, the taxi company's office was located in a remote area, which caused inconvenience for flexible traffic.So the areaNPOCorporation"Do your best or SakumaIn August 2007, NPO taxis were started for the purpose of paid transportation in depopulated areas, and since then, taxi operations by NPOs have been increasing in depopulated areas.

Type of vehicle

Vehicles currently on sale from manufacturers as taxi specifications

Vehicles currently used for taxis, although not released as taxi specifications

  • ★ = Mostly used in private taxis in the Greater Tokyo Area
  • ● = Mostly used in wagon taxis and long-term care taxis

Models for which taxi specifications have been released by manufacturers in the past

Major operators / business groups

From the company name, the above four companies are commonly referred to as "Dainichi this empireAlso called.
  • Asahi Transportation (Sapporo)
  • Venus Motor (Venus Higher) (Sapporo, Asahikawa, Hakodate, Kushiro, Obihiro, etc.)
  • XNUMX Taxi Group(Read "Miyago": Hachinohe, Misawa, Aomori, Kamikita, Tohoku, Rokkasho, Gonohe)
  • Maruichi Group(Fukushima Prefecture)
  • First taxi group(Tochigi)
    • Kanto Transportation (Utsunomiya / Shimotsuke)
    • Kanuma Godo Taxis (Kanuma)
    • Shiobara Motor (Nasu-Shiobara)
    • Nasu Joint Motor (Nasu Shiobara, Otawara, Nasu)
  • (Gunma)
  • Yajima taxi(Ota)
  • Alpico taxi(Nagano Prefecture)
  • (Kofu City, Yamanashi Prefecture)
  • Toyama Transportation(Toyama)
  • Shizutetsu Taxi (Shizuoka)
  • Entetsu Taxi (Hamamatsu)
  • Tokai Kotsu(Toyohashi)
  • Treasure group(Nagoya)

Themed movies, dramas, novels, manga, games, etc.

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In addition to these, in large cities, there may be a dedicated taxi lane at the left end of a large trunk road.
  2. ^ Depending on the region, the order may be changed (as long as the conditions allow), as long as the offer is made.
  3. ^ In a major taxi company in Tokyo, in a groupDriving schoolAnd affiliated driving schools, where you can take lessons to obtain a Type XNUMX license.
  4. ^ In some cases, a written contract may be made stating, "If you retire before the end of this period, you must refund the acquisition cost."
  5. ^ 1970 eraUsed in private taxisMark II(Up to X10 series)ス カ イ ラ イ ンIn (C10 / C110 / C210 series), there were many models that were not equipped with rear seat headrests, mainly in lower grades, so it is presumed that the headrests were retrofitted by manufacturers and dealers to meet the standards. ..
  6. ^ プリウス(20系:185/65R15、30系・50系:195/65R15)、ノア・ヴォクシー・エスクァイアおよびセレナ(195/65R15)、ノート(185/65R15、ただしオプションホイールまたは社外ホイール装着時)等の例がある。
  7. ^ Keisei GroupAlthough it belongs to, the K'SEI GROUP logo is not posted on the car body and lanterns (specified on the official website).
  8. ^ Walt Disney CompanyDepending on the relationship withKeisei GroupThe unified lantern is not used and the K'SEI GROUP logo is not posted.Also, due to this, it is not under the umbrella of Keisei Taxi Holdings (although a joint dispatch system is in place).
  9. ^ Although it is the Keisei Group, it is highly independent and does not use the K'SEI GROUP logo.
  10. ^ Although it is the Keisei Group, the K'SEI GROUP logo is not used on the body of the taxi.

Source

  1. ^ a b c Acceleration of taxi reorganization "Nikkei" June 23, 6 Tokyo evening edition
  2. ^ Taxi car advertisement,"Records of executives of companies throughout Japan. 21st edition"(National Diet Library Digital Collection)
  3. ^ a b Toshihiko Saito, "Social History of Cars," Chuokoron-sha, Chuko Shinsho, 1997, pp. 119-120.ISBN 4-12-101346-8.
  4. ^ Tokyo Passenger Vehicle Association, Takkun Mini Information March 2012 No.3
  5. ^ a b Kenji Asai "Dictionary to understand roads and roads"Japan Business Publisher, November 2001, 11, first edition, page 10.ISBN 4-534-03315-X.
  6. ^ Transport Policy Council "Future Taxi Business" (May 5, 5 Report No. 11)
  7. ^ Ministry of Transport, “8 White Paper on Transportation Chapter 6 Toward the Formation of a Car Society Friendly to People and the Earth Section 2 Toward the Formation of a Car Society that Meets User Needs 1 Activation of Passenger Transportation by Automobile” (Press release), http://www.mlit.go.jp/hakusyo/transport/heisei08/pt2/825206.html 2012/10/6Browse. 
  8. ^ Ministry of Transport, "Aiming for revitalization and development of taxis-Environmental improvement measures necessary for abolishing taxi supply and demand adjustment regulations-" (Press Release), Ministry of Transport Transport Policy Council Automotive Transportation Subcommittee Report, http://www.mlit.go.jp/kisha/oldmot/kisha99/koho99/taxi_.htm 2012/10/7Browse. 
  9. ^ "Suddenly adopting a new meter Short-distance surcharge is free" "Asahi Shimbun" March 45, 1970, morning edition, 3th edition, 1 pages
  10. ^ Passenger Division, Automobile Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, “Questionnaire survey on taxis (information written in the questions in the materials)” (Press release), http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/001088425.pdf 2017/6/8Browse. 
  11. ^ Blue pencil "Asahi Shimbun" March 1976, 51, morning edition, 8th edition, 2rd page
  12. ^ Mixed passenger and freight delivery by taxi, first in Japan in Asahikawa, Hokkaido Mainichi Newspaper (November 2017, 11) Read December 1, 2017
  13. ^ "NEKO MOOK 1903 Special Equipment Encyclopedia" p.66 Cat publishing Published April 2013 ISBN 978-4-7770-1403-3
  14. ^ Fare Cartel: First Certified by 25 Taxi Companies Mainichi Newspapers 2011/12/21
  15. ^ Cease and desist order and surcharge payment order for taxi operators located in Niigata City, etc. (PDF) Japan Fair Trade Commission Press Release December 23, 12 (National Diet LibraryArchives: Collected February 2013, 4)
  16. ^ "It is difficult to arrest Chinese white taku rampant ...Smartphone paymentThousands of registered ". Mainichi Newspapers (June 2017). 2017/11/12Browse.
  17. ^ "Increasing “white taku” behavior by Chinese residents in Japan Reasons for “unexpected popularity”, not just cheap rates". Daily Shincho. 2018/2/27Browse.
  18. ^ "Accommodation Travel Statistics Survey". Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismTourism Authority. 2017/11/13Browse.
  19. ^ "Aggregation and announcement of statistics on foreign visitors to Japan". JTO(Japan Tourism Board). 2017/11/13Browse.
  20. ^ Tsuruga taxi company: Refused to dispatch a nuclear power plant member and apologized --Mainichi Shimbun (January 2014, 1)
  21. ^ A series of taxi robbers in Osaka Weekly Osaka Nihon Shimbun February 2009, 1 (Internet ArchiveArchives: Collected February 2009, 4)
  22. ^ Prefectural taxi with security measures Northern Japan Newspaper(Internet Archive Archive: Collected May 2013, 5)
  23. ^ Japan's first electric car taxi appeared in Ehime prefecture in August 47NEWS July 2009, 7 (Internet Archive Archive: Collected on July 13, 2009)
  24. ^ Abolition of taxi entrance height restrictions Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism -Response, December 2011, 3
  25. ^ Relaxation of taxi vehicle standards, etc. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Press Release June 27, 6
  26. ^ However,HokkaidoOtaruSo beforeBluebird(U14 series) 4WD vehicles[1],Subaru Leone,Legacy4WD car was introduced.
  27. ^ Service / Product List --Toshin Tech Co., Ltd.
  28. ^ Taxi radio station configuration Radio Museum ()
  29. ^ Digitization of taxi radio The 48th Mobile Communication Study Group 17 ()
  30. ^ a b c d e Digital taxi radio and its system RF World No.7 2009-09 pp.53-54 (CQ publishing)
  31. ^ History About Mobile Radio Center (Mobile Radio Center)
  32. ^ Digitization of taxi radio started ahead of the rest of the world-Allow four taxi operators to change digitization- Kanto General Communication Bureau Press materials November 15, 11 (Internet Archive archive: collected on October 19, 2007)
  33. ^ (Yes) Daito Taxi Passenger Transport (Mobile Radio Center) (Same as above: Collected on October 2009, 10)
  34. ^ Mobile Create, automatic taxi dispatch system to expand nationwide as MVNO Japan Communication, MVNE supports regional MVNO Japan Communications News Release June 2009, 6 (Same as above: Collected on December 19, 2017)
  35. ^ About digitization of analog taxi radio stations, etc. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Usage Homepage (National Diet Library Archive: Collected on January 2016, 1)
  36. ^ Trends in increasing traffic accidents for taxis and all automobiles
  37. ^ "Deregulation drastically reduces income" Taxi driver's complaint not accepted Osaka District Court Sankei Shimbun March 2009, 3
  38. ^ Apply to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism for MK taxi "illegal fare" less than "official fare" --Sankei News west, March 2014, 3
  39. ^ ["Forced price increase is damage" 2014 yen taxi sues the country Asahi Shimbun April 4, 29
  40. ^ Taxi fare range is "illegal" MK and others file a national suit --Sankei News west, March 2014, 5
  41. ^ Taxi company sued for fare regulation --NHK Fukuoka NEWS WEB, May 2014, 5
  42. ^ Taxi stand: Antitrust law is illegal Osaka High Court decision Mainichi Shimbun October 2014, 10
  43. ^ "Wolf Taxi Confinement of Customer Girl" "Asahi Shimbun" August 44, 8 evening edition, 27rd edition, page 3
  44. ^ "Uber's sexual assault damage, 2 cases in 5981 years”. CNN (July 2019, 12). 2020/9/29Browse.
  45. ^ "Taxi industry initiatives”. National Higher Taxi Association (2017). 2020/9/29Browse.
  46. ^ President Son "Crisis" criticizes national regulations for ride-sharing business - NHKNEWS
  47. ^ Business feature Ride sharing that causes ripples - NHKNEWS
  48. ^ "All-round specification car”. Yamaha Motor Power Products. 2020/10/7Browse.
  49. ^ "Electric car taxi going to narrow alleys, Fukuyama / Tomo, the first commercial operation in Japan". Sankei Shimbun (September 2019, 4). 2020/10/7Browse.

 

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