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😷 | Tokyo Olympics, Hyogo Prefectural Police mobilizer for security support, corona infection, 12 new infections found in 3 people in total


Photo: To 12 corona-infected persons of Hyogo Prefectural Police and MTF members who support the Tokyo Olympics security

Tokyo Olympics, Hyogo Prefectural Police mobilizer for security support, corona infection, 12 new infections found in a total of 3 people

 
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Although it was a private room at the accommodation facility, the Metropolitan Police Department believes that the infection may have spread from the washrooms and toilets in the common area, so police officers engaged in Olympic security should be thoroughly protected against infection by wearing masks at all times. I instructed again.
 

On the 27th, the Metropolitan Police Department was dispatched by the Hyogo Prefectural Police riot police as a "special dispatch unit" responsible for guarding the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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hotel

hotel(Shuku Hakusetsu) is for stayingFacility.

Overview

It is a facility for staying and rents sleeping rooms and bedding.

There are various accommodations in the world. For example,Youth Hostel,Hotel, United Kingdom, etc.INN Inn,AmericanMotel, Spain orHispano America OfhostelHostal, chineseHotels,JapaneseJapanese innAnd so on. Lends to the climbers in the mountains a place to sleep and beddingMountain hutIs also a type of accommodation.

Depending on the facility, there are petsGuide dogEtc. may be able to stay.

In the 2010s, with the spread of smartphones,AirbnbWorldwide by apps such asPrivate residenceSince it became easier to publicize information, search information, and make reservations (a mechanism in which apartments, condominiums, and single-family homes owned by the general public are rented out as accommodation places), the number of users increased, so accommodation facilities that existed before The percentage of people who use it is decreasing somewhat. In some parts of Europe, relatively cheap hotels have been declining by tens of percent.

The laws and regulations regarding accommodation facilities differ from country to country.

Accommodation in each country

Japan

Japanese standard industry classificationIn the business category of, restaurant, Accommodation business ”, and under the accommodation business, inn business, hotel business, and other accommodation facilities (Membership resort clubEtc.) are classified.

Sales regulations

In Japan, the laws and regulations relating to accommodation facilities are basically the inn business law, but nap facilities are handled differently by other laws.

Inn Business LawIn the second article ofInn businessIs defined by the structure and equipment of the facility.HotelSales""Japanese innSales""Simple lodgingIt is classified into "sales" and "boarding", and the definition of each business is as follows.

  • "Hotel business" refers to business that establishes facilities mainly with Western-style structure and equipment, receives accommodation charges, and accommodates people, and does not include simple lodging business and boarding house business.
  • "Ryokan business" refers to business that establishes facilities mainly of Japanese-style structure and equipment, receives accommodation fees, and accommodates people, and does not include simple lodging business and boarding business.
  • "Simple lodging business" is a business that has a facility and a facility mainly for sharing a place to stay for a large number of people, receives accommodation fees, and allows people to stay.
  • "Boarding business" means a business where a facility is set up and a person stays at the accommodation fee for a period of one month or more.

According to the law, "accommodation" means using the bedding to use the facilities in each of the above items.

In addition to the definition of law, there are various forms depending on the number of people and the purpose of the facility.

Note that facilities equipped with equipment such as naps that do not use bedding are not the inn business stipulated in Article XNUMX of the inn business law because of structural restrictions set by various business laws and laws.

Accommodation agreement

Accommodation agreement isGeneral terms and conditionsOne of these is the exchange between the accommodation facility and the user, which specifies matters such as business hours, payment of fees, and refusal of accommodation by gangsters. Formulation of the clause is not a statutory matter, but is optional.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismSince we have created a “model accommodation contract” that is a template, the content is almost the same for all accommodation facilities nationwide. The contracts formulated by each accommodation facility are reported to the Tourism Agency.[1].

Type of facility

In Japan (for accommodation)[Source required].

  • Accommodations where food is not included in the room rate
    • Urban type
      • business hotel -A facility for pure accommodation that grew in anticipation of business trips at the beginning, and is truly an accommodation facility. You can stay at a reasonable price.
      • capsule hotel -Legally a simple lodging business. Big cityStation square,Red light districtLocated in many places. A central price range is set that is almost the same as the amount of money required for the central customer segment of the entertainment district to return home by a late-night surcharge taxi.
      • City Hotel -A facility built in an urban area with enhanced functions that have nothing to do with accommodation such as pools and spas. The percentage of guests who only use the pool or spa without staying is high, so it cannot be said to be a pure accommodation facility.
      • Simple accommodation -Known as "Doya",SlumSimple accommodation in the city. Legally, a simple lodging business.OsakaCommonly known asKamagasaki"TokyoCommonly known asvalley"WaitDay laborerIt is often found in the town where It is said that the word "yado" was read upside down in the terms of day laborers, and the town where simple lodgings gather, such as Kamagasaki and Yamaya, is also called "doya town." Recently, due to the low price (about 1 yen per night),ForeignerBackpackerThe number of users of is increasing. The reason for this was2002 OfFIFA World Cup tournament co-hosted by Japan and KoreaForeigners who came to Japan to watch the game were featured in the media using a simple lodging facility around Minamisenju[2]In addition to the beginning of, there is also the effect that the day laborers who should have stayed due to the recession are unable to stay overnight.
      • Weekly Mansion/Monthly Mansion -Refers to the low-cost urban version of the "condominium" below.Single to doubleIt is used for long-term business trips and short-term use by single people because it has a number of beds and a minimum of self-catering functions and appliances. Prices are cheaper than hotels and condominiums. Weekly monthly differences are mainly classified by the number of contract days. There are cases where the hotel business has been licensed and cases where it is treated as a rental house.
    • Urban and suburban
      • Simple lodging type guest house - Simple lodgingAnother name for. Go to bed in the same room as other guestsDormitoryAn inn that shares a bathroom, kitchen, etc.Youth HostelIt's similar to.
      • Shared residence type guest house -An ordinary single-family house, apartment, condominium, etc. has been renovated into a simple accommodation facility. It started for foreigners, but now there are many Japanese users. There are many long-term users because the room rate is cheap,room shareIt may be considered as a form of.
      • Love hotel -A facility that rents rooms for intercourse rather than for accommodation. Be regulated by the Customs and Business Law. In recent years, due to the shortage of general hotels, people who use it as a hotel that can be always entered without reservation during travel, or for multiple peoplekaraokeThe number of people who use it as a box is increasing.
    • Outdoor related, sightseeing spot type, etc.
      • Cottage -Accommodation such as a small house with a self-catering function.
      • バ ン ガ ロ ー -Facility like a hut with shared water supply
      • Self-catering accommodation-with mealsA basket of lizardsIn contrast, self-catering accommodationWooden rentWas called. Currently,SpaLocal wood renting is called self-catering lodging,Hot springIt is offered cheaply for business. In many cases, the water supply around the kitchen is shared.
      • Hutte -Western style breakMountain hut.. There are everything from emergency evacuation to full-fledged accommodation functions.
      • Rider house - オ ー ト バ イThere are lodging facilities for traveling by car, such as tatami mats and dormitories where you can sleep in small fish.
      • Resort hotel - ResortHotels in
      • Condominium -In the US, etc.ApartmentIn Japan, there are kitchens, washing machines, etc., and it is possible to bring groceries etc.ResortIt means a condominium. Facilities suitable for family and group long vacations
  • Facilities where meals are basically included in the room rate
    • It does not depend on the place
      • Japanese inn -Medium to large-scale accommodation facility with Japanese or Western mixed style (mainly Japanese style). Located in both urban and tourist areas.
    • Tourist attraction
      • National housing -Accommodations located in scenic spots such as natural parks and national hot spring resorts.
      • Guesthouse -Japanese-style small accommodations (many of them are privately owned and serve as homes)
      • Pension -Western-style small-sized accommodation (many of them also run their own homes)
      • The lodge -Western-style mountain villa style accommodation (many of them are privately owned and serve as homes)
      • Youth Hostel -Accommodation that can be used at a low price for boys and girls for the purpose of developing youth. Legal simple lodging business
  • Accommodation with high-class meals
  • More

Places with lodging facilities, etc.

Facilities that can be used for the same purpose as accommodation

Transportation with facilities similar to accommodation

  • Sleeper (railway) - JapaneseJRRegarding the fact that the sleeper train is expensive to manufacture,CrewSince it takes a long time to work, it cannot be said that it is cheap in terms of fares, fees and required time (the cheapestB sleeperIt costs Â¥6300, which is the same as or higher than a business hotel)HotelEquivalent toHokutosei-Cassiopeia-Twilight express3 trains and high train speedSunrise expressOther than that, the number of passengers has not stopped, and some sleeper trains have been forced to abolish. Sleep time can be used as travel time.pillowAnd sheets,blanket,Hanger,SleepwearFor each bunk. Open typebedThere are also private rooms.
  • Ship
    • Passenger shipSpecial room- luxury linerIs described as a first-class hotel floating on the sea.
    • ferry -For long-distance ferries, there are various options such as suite, special, first-class, second-class sleeper, second-class Japanese room. Generally, 1st or more rooms are private rooms for 4 to XNUMX people and have the same facilities as city hotels. An open bunk bed is generally used as the second-class sleeper, and although it is not a private room, it can be protected by curtains or the like to maintain a certain level of privacy. The Japanese-style room is a large room with a carpet and you can lie down and sleep.

In addition to the above, there may be different facilities depending on the route/shipping company, and there may be no other than second grade at short distance routes.

Facilities that have the same facilities as accommodation facilities

Other forms

スペイン

Tourist registration (approval) is required for business in the accommodation industry[3].. Accommodations must meet hygiene standards, evacuation routes, number of rooms, room facilities, etc., construction standards, fire protection standards, and city planning standards.[3].

イタリア

In Italy, the lodging business requires notification to the local government[3].. Accommodations must meet the number of rooms, bathroom/breakfast space regulations, fire protection and city planning regulations[3].

Australia

In Australia, business permits are required under each state law[3].. Accommodation must meet the structure and fire protection requirements, and a permit is required if the local government has location restrictions[3].

カナダ

In Canada, the business of lodging business requires business registration, license, etc. as a general business[3].. There are restrictions on construction and fire prevention for accommodation facilities, and there is a limit to the location where the hotel, etc. can be constructed.[3].

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Model accommodation agreement (PDF)”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (September 2011, 9). 2018/3/17Browse.
  2. ^ "The World Cup is over,”. Hotel Juyoh. As of March 2004, 3オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2006/5/1Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Status of regulations in other countries". Kyoto City. 2020/2/16Browse.

外部 リンク

Infection control

Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.

Infection control can be roughly divided into two.

  • Preventive activity
  • Trend measures
    • Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.

Infection control in medical institutions

Occurrence monitoring

Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.

actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventable[1]Infection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.

Preventing the spread of infection

Nosocomial infectionOf each pathogen to prevent transmission and protect health care workers themselves from infectionTransmission routeAccording to(I.e.Stand upprocedureTheWell-knownThere is a need to.

Standard precautions centered on hand washing

Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to[2].Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing".[3].

Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United States[4]Requires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.

In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control Council[5]And other guidelines were formulated in 2002.

  • It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
  • Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
  • When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
  • Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.

Isolation precautions

In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.

Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation

  • Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
  • In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
  • Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.

Isolation of droplet infection

  • A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
  • When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
  • Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.

Contact infection isolation

  • Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
  • Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
  • Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.

Cleaning/disinfection/sterilization

The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.

Personal protective equipment

(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.

In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.[6]

Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.[7]

Vaccination of medical staff

Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.[8]

Survey during an epidemic

When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.

Infection control and medical epidemiology training system

There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.

In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.

In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).

Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee

  • The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).

Infection control profession

footnote

  1. ^ Weinstein et al
  2. ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
  3. ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
  4. ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
  5. ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
  6. ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
  7. ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
  8. ^ CDC Vaccine Site
  9. ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.

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外部 リンク


 

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