Conversation without a mask, illegal parking ... Okinawa, where infections are rapidly increasing, now a popular diving spot
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I want tourists to put up with coming to the north. "
[North] In the northern part of the main island, while the explosive infection of the new coronavirus continues in Okinawa Prefecture and a thorough refrain from going out is required. → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Tourism(Kankou) is generally for funTravelRefers to.
EnglishThen the tourist side (en: sightseeing) And the tourist side (en: tourism) Separates words (concepts). It can be seen that this also shows the positions of the target person (the public: tourists) and the actor (initiator: tourist agency) of the religious acts described below.
In a narrow sense,TourismIt may also refer to.
Tourism and tourism
"Tourism" in Japan
Since ancient times in JapanShrines and TemplesA pilgrimage to was taking place. Social stabilityEdo PeriodSince the middle period,Ise ShrineWhile visiting, etc., the general public enjoyed a tour to visit famous places and enjoy food and drink. These were called "journeys", "journeys", and "mountains". Introducing temples and shrinesFamous placeOr,Tokaido Naka Knee Chestnut HairTravel literature such as was published.
The word "tourism" comes from ancient ChinaI Ching』"Kunkoku no Hikari, guest of the king (to watch the light of the country, to be a guest of the king)". As an early example of "tourism" in Japan that omits this phrase,BakumatsuThe warship sent to the Edo Shogunate from the NetherlandsSightseeing circle],Meiji ErafirstUS and European missionsLedIwakuraBut the report is "US-Europe circulation memoir] At the beginning, "view" "light" anddid. The latter seems to have meant "observing foreign countries well and making use of them in Japan," but Iwakura himselfTokyo ShrineDiminished in京都In order to revitalize the economy, foreigners are planning to visit Kyoto for the government.
TrainWith the modernization such as laying, domestic travel of Japanese people has become more active, and in the latter half of the Meiji era, "sightseeing" came to be used as a sightseeing trip..
TaishoSince the times, tourism has been established as a translation of "tourism", but the definition may differ depending on the scholar and scholar. For example, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism "" divides "accommodation trips" into "sightseeing", "cum-tourism", "housework and homecoming", "business", and "others". thisInterpretationAccording to the report, “tourism” refers to travel excluding housework, homecoming, work, and so on.
The Japanese government1930 ),Hamaguchi CabinetAt the time ofMinistry of RailwaysAs an external stationInternational Tourism BureauFounded.. ExImperial HotelDeputy managerAtami HotelOf the ownerShore guard(Shizuoka prefecture after the warAtamiHe served as the head and published "Tourism Nation"), and the name wasTsubasa EgiMinister of RailwaysIt is said that it was based on the opinion of. Eki, who was a well-known person, quoted "Yikyo".. Some say that it was used as "very rare" at this time, but in 1912Japan Tourist Bureau(Later Japan Transportation Corporation) has been established. The publication TOURIST (1918 3No.)Ainu cultureI am trying to spread the concept of national light = culture.
Generally speaking, tourism isMeijiFrom the times単 語However, it is used only in a very limited way, and rather attracts foreign tourists today,InboundThe implications of attracting are included. It was the historical background that was used as a translation of tourism.
Domestic tourism uses terms such as "Yusan", "Sightseeing", "Manyu", "Golf", etc. In the meaning of today, that is, "tourism", which means the meaning of domestic travel, has become established since the 1960s. There is also an argument that.. However, the word "sightseeing" has been widely used for domestic travel since the early Showa period. For example, in 1936, the “Sightseeing Festival Commemorative Tourism Bookmark” issued by the International Tourism Bureau said, “For all years and villages throughout Japan, each land should be beautiful and attract tourists. It can be called domestic tourism because it is a domestic problem."
In recent years, the interpretation of the "Ikkei" of seeing the light of the country again is often cited. Strictly interpreting the original meaning would be literally "observation" or "observation,"LightOne reason is that the metaphorical expression "" allows a wide variety of interpretations of the object.
In the beginning, when tourism was popular with the general public, it was worth the effort to go sightseeing, and there was no emphasis on the place or what to do. However, gradually going to sightseeing became a matter of course, and the status became where to go.(I.e.It was during this period that pamphlets and the like with the heading "A." However, that era did not last long, and the number of people who visited many tourist spots increased, making it proud of where they went.TimeSaid the end.
From this time, tourism is no longer a status, and tourism as a pure pleasure will spread. Specifically, it was an era when the purpose was to draw tourism rather than the location. Because I want to do ○○, I'm trying to go to a place where I can do that. It was from this period that experience-based tourism became popular. It is said that it is in this era now, but there is also the idea that it is one step further. The idea is that the customer does not come just for the purpose, specifically, to feel happy, to be healed, to have a relaxing time, such feelings have become the era of tourism. The fact is that such words are beginning to appear in pamphlets and the like.
The word "tourism" is not common in China, and "travel" and "tourism" are used.National Tourism Board of the People's Republic of ChinaIs written in Chinese as “National Travel Agency of the People's Republic of China”.
Contrast with "sightseeing"
Especially in recent years, when the term "sightseeing" gives a sense of exploration or business or business nuance, we do not use "sightseeing"TourismThe term is increasing. The original meaning of tour is "Potter's wheelIt is said that there is a meaning of "turning with a potter's wheel", and in that senseExcursionIt can be said that the concept is close to. Today, however, "tourism" is interpreted as "sightseeing," and in a broader sense, it is a trip that includes business.
However, in recent years, the word tourism has been increasingly recognized as something special, especially by tourists. There is a growing movement to regard the former sight-seeing leisure tourism as an old thing as sightseeing, and to position tourism as an experience-based tourism. Also, tourism itself is distinguished by adding various words depending on its characteristics. Eco-friendly tourism is called eco-tourism, tourism that deals with nature, especially mountains and forests, is called green tourism, and tourism that deals with nature, especially the sea is called blue tourism.
In Japan, even in prefectures and municipalitiesTourism AssociationHowever, there are some examples of organizations that are equivalent to the Tourism Federation that bear "tourism". For example,HyogoThen, with "Hyogo Tourism Association",OitaSo, "tourism Oita" and "tourism" are not included. Also, Oita PrefectureTakedaThen, with the merger of municipalities, the tourism association, which was the former local government unit, was integrated, and the "Takeda City Tourism Tourism Association"Was recurred as (March 2006).
Terms with tourism
There are many terms with tourism. However, some concepts and ideas are preceded.
- Urban tourism, Industrial tourism,Infrastructure tourism,Eco tourism, Over tourism,Alternative tourism,Garden tourism,Green tourism,Anime tourism,Industrial tourism,Sustainable tourism,Sports culture tourism, Slow tourism,Sex tourism,Social tourism,Dark tourism,New tourism,,,,Film tourism,Heritage tourism,Health tourism,Micro tourism,Mass tourism,Medical tourism(Medical tourism),,Such.
- * As a notation, "・" may be added before "tourism".
"Tourism" also means tourism industry,Visitor industrySometimes called. The idea was originally from the United States, and the idea is to target all people (visitors) who visit the place, regardless of their purpose. However, in the United States, depending on the distance traveled by a visit and whether or not it involves accommodation, cases such as neighborhood and day trips may be excluded (Mizoo 2003).
Western countries such as Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States are implementing advanced initiatives such as restoration and revitalization of historical buildings and activation of old urban areas..
In Spain, tourism policies have been positively linked to the preservation and utilization of historic buildings for tourism... Specifically, a historical buildingParadorIs used as In Spain, new paradors were built one after another to accommodate the increasing number of tourists in the 1960s due to the tourism boom... However, it was pointed out that the increase in newly built paradors led to the incorporation of contradictory elements into existing historic buildings, and many paradors constructed in the 1960s were later abolished... After that, when installing a parador, a mechanism was introduced that utilizes the oldest building possible, considers the artistic value and historical value, and judges whether the building can be used as an accommodation facility. Are.
Basic Tourism ActAt the time of enacting the law, the House of Representatives Legal Affairs Bureau, which worked on the drafting of the bill, abandoned the attempt to define the legal definition of tourism, but said it was difficult, and said the concept of tourism had the same meaning as that used in the world. It has been reported (“Ministry of Transport's Tourism Bureau's Explanation of Basic Tourism Law”, Gakuyo Shobo 1963, p.208)
According to the search results by the Asahi Shimbun database "Konzo", the word "tourism" is initially used only for proper nouns (tourist circle, tourist company, tourist temple, etc.). The first case to be used as a common noun is "horse riding sightseeing", which was used by Japanese soldiers to visit overseas military facilities on October 1893, 10. After that, it expanded from Japanese military personnel to foreign military personnel, to overseas inspections of non-military personnel, etc., and eventually it was used for inspections of ordinary people inside and outside the country, but both were international. There was no change in that it was related to.
During the Meiji era, many concepts were imported from the West, coined in Chinese, and converged. Although society, religion, company, information, etc. are recognized as examples, tourism as a lexical word, unlike these newly coined ones, is already present. As mentioned above, it is also used as part of proper nouns and has appeared in the Asahi database. On the other hand, it is unclear in the present materials that tourism had to be coined as a term in Japanese society. Regarding tourists, tourists and foreign words were displayed in katakana.
Tourism was used in legislation requiring clarification of the concept, by Royal Decree No. 1930 of 83.International Tourism BureauThis is the first governmental system. As the Asahi Shimbun database speculates, despite the fact that the world was limited to tourism related to international relations, it was described as "international tourism." Year and "Retrospection of 1931 Years of Tourism" Ministry of Railways International Tourism Bureau It was stated in 10 that there was a strong feeling of the then Minister of Railways Tsubasa Eki. From the vocabulary of those days, it seems that there was an impression that international was added to the world of tourism and was described as international tourism. However, it is also considered that at this time there was room for the terminology of domestic tourism due to the internationalization of tourism.
The English name of the International Tourism Bureau is "Board of Tourist Industry" and it is not labeled as international. In the article search by the Asahi Shimbun database "Konzo", tourists have been used as things related to foreigners since 1913, but it is proved that the original language tourist itself was limited to those related to foreigners in the original language at that time. Is a topic for future research. According to the Asahi Shimbun database "Konzo", the term "tourism" is not searched before the war, but it is hardly shown in the search results until the end of the Showa era. It should be noted that tourism was used without distinction between domestic tourism and international tourism when the post-war Allied occupation policy ended, that is, when domestic tourism for Japanese people became active.
Government tourism policyCouncil"About the basic direction of future tourism policy" (Report No. 39,1995 May 6)” defines tourism as “Leisure timeIn time,Everyday lifeIt is a variety of activities that are conducted away from the area, with the purpose of interacting, learning, and playing." It is defined from the three aspects of "time", "place/space", and "purpose".
further,"21st centuryAbout tourism promotion measures at the beginning" (Report No. 45,2000 May 12), "the definition of so-called "tourism" should be understood more broadly, not just as part of leisure activities."
2008 May 10,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism OfOuter officeAsTourism AuthorityWas established, the registration of the first type travel agency has changed from the previous registration of the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism to the registration of the Commissioner of Japan Tourism Agency.
Light and shadow of "tourism"
The spread and development of "tourism" is whether or not accommodation is involved.(I.e.'Causes various positive or negative effects. This phenomenon is called "tourism (localization)",Mass tourismFamiliar with.
- Koji Oguchi Edited by Isamu Maeda, Tsuji Sasaki “Social Psychology of Tourism: From the Three Perspectives of People, Things and Things” Chiba University Faculty of Letters Humanities Series Kitaoji Shobo ISBN 4762824968
- Charles R. Goeldner, JRBrent Ritchie "TOURISM" --The bible of Western tourism.From psychology to marketing, P624's book.Researchers and graduate students are a must read. John Wily & Sons, Inc. ISBN 9780470084595
- ^ a b c d e "Modern Spanish Information Handbook Revised Edition" Sanshusha, 2007, 40 pages
- ^ Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Circular of the US-Europe Circular.National Diet LibraryDigital collection (viewed January 2018, 1)
- ^ [Meiji Akasaki 150 years of Meiji Restoration] (1) Travel/Temporary shrine visits to cultural tourism Gumi Iwakura, Kyoto revitalization “Yomiuri Shimbun” morning edition January 2018, 1
- ^ Fumihiko Sunamoto (2008). “International Resorts of Modern Japan, Focusing on International Tourist Hotels in the XNUMXs”. Aoyusha
- ^ "Hotel and Modern Japan" (Gakugei Publishing)
- ^ Mizoo 2003 p8
- ^ National Travel Agency of the People's Republic of China
- ^ Takeda City Tourism Tourism Association website
- ^ a b c d "What is tourism? Differences from sightseeing and travel/Experiences and exchanges that go beyond what you can see/explain about 10 new tourism and over tourism”(Japanese). Visit Lab (September 2019, 10). October 2020th, 6Browse.
- ^ a b c "Modern Spanish Information Handbook Revised Edition" Sanshusha, 2007, 41 pages
- Yoshitaka Mizoo"Tourism basics and practice" (Kokin Shoin, 2003). There is also a detailed explanation of interpretations in other countries and differences between "sightseeing" and "recreation" and "leisure."
- Shuichi Teramae"Regional Policy Studies" (Takasaki University of Economics, Regional Policy Association) Vol. 11, No. 2008, September 9 This is a new way of thinking about tourism, focusing on the similarities between media and information.
- Thomas Cook -19th century British businessman, also known as the father of tourism and the creator of package tours
- --PC or TV screen,VRIt is a favorite to acquire live camera images from all over the world online. Under the influence of the new coronavirus in 2019, it is being developed on various online sites including aerial images of drones under the restriction of going out.Also called remote travel.
- Tourism studies
- Japan Tourism Association
- Japan Tourism Association
- Japan International Tourism Association(JAFIT)
- Asia Pacific Tourism Association
- Travel and Tourism Research Association(TTRA)
- Tourism economic newspaper - Travel journal - Seasonal travel newspaper
Industry/regional promotion, international cooperation
- Tourism Association
- Tourism resources - (I.e.
- Travel - Eco tourism
- Tourism charisma
- World Tourism Organization
- International Tourism Promotion Organization
- Travel/Tourism Competitiveness Report
- Sightseeing spot development cycle
- Tourist train - Sightseeing bus