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😷 | [9/6] Confirmed infection of XNUMX new coronaviruses


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[9/6] Confirmed infection of XNUMX new coronaviruses

 
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In addition, the prefecture announced that an infected population = cluster occurred at a private university in the prefecture and an elderly facility in Ikaruga Town.
 

Regarding the new coronavirus, Nara Prefecture and Nara City announced on the XNUMXth that XNUMX new infections have been confirmed.new… → Continue reading

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"Nara TV Broadcasting," a TV station in the ancient city of Nara, will provide you with the latest news about the prefecture, topics on the Great Buddha and deer, and information on delicious gourmet food.


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Ikaruga Town

Ikaruga Town(Ikarugacho) isNaraLocated in the northwestIkoma-gunBelongs totown.

Overview

Asuka PeriodToPrince ShotokuBy the hands ofHoryuji templeIt is a town with a long history that is well known for its construction.The village of Nishizato, which stretches just west of Horyuji Temple, is the most organized carpenter in Japan in the early modern period.Nakai MasakiyoIt is also the village where I grew up.There are many other old townscapes, but since the high economic growth, urbanization has progressed as a bed town in Osaka, and the calm townscape is becoming a thing of the past.again,Ancient City Preservation ActIt is also a designated city of.

Geography

To the southYamato RiverFlows to the northHoryuji templeIt corresponds to the back mountain ofMatsuoCentered onYada HillsLook up.In the westJihei AraharaA famous place for autumn leaves, known for its waka poemsTatsuda RiverHowever, in the eastern part, it is described as a "stream of wealth".Tomio RiverFlows.

History

ancientYamatoTaira-gunIt is the land of Miyuki Yamago and Sakado Township.The Kamuoka Shrine in the Enki-shiki is enshrined at the summit of Mt.Asuka PeriodPrince ShotokuIkaruga no miyaWas built at that timeHoryuji temple,Hokiji Temple,Falunji Temple,Chuguji TempleIs transmitted to the presentHoryuji templeとHokiji Temple world HeritageRegistered in.

in recent years,Fujinoki TumulusIt became famous for its excavation.

History

Transition of administrative divisions

Meiji 22Meiji 24Meiji 29Showa 22Now
Nara
Taira-gunIkoma-gun
Tatsuta VillageTatsutamachiIkaruga Town
Horyuji Village
Tomisato Village

Merger problem

Ikoma-gun OfRelief town,Misato Town,TairamachiとKitakatsuragi-gun OfOji Town,Kamimaki Town,Kawai TownThe merger with (Nishiwa XNUMX Town) was under discussion, but Ikaruga Town,Oji Town,TairamachiAs a result of the referendum conducted in Japan, there were many negative votes in both Ikaruga and Oji towns, where the financial situation is good, and both towns withdrew from the merger council.The council was dissolved and the merger was blank.In addition, as candidates for the name of the new city, Nishiwa City, Horyuji City, etc. have been raised as candidates, and the new city name "Saiwa CityI was going to the decision.

population

Population distribution of Ikaruga, Nara, Japan.svg
Population distribution by age in Ikaruga Town and the whole country (2005)Population distribution by age and gender in Ikaruga Town (2005)
■Purple-Ikaruga Town
■Green-All over Japan
■Blue-male
■Red-female

Changes in the population of Ikaruga Town (corresponding area)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Looking at the population increase / decrease from the previous survey from the 22 census (preliminary figures), the number of people decreased by 0.31% to 27,731, which is the 39th highest among 7 municipalities in the prefecture.

Nara Prefecture Statistics Population of Ikaruga Town

  • As of October 2007, 10: 1 people
  • Population growth rate (2002 → 2007): -2.7%

Region

Town name, etc.

In Ikaruga Town, in some areasAct on Residential Displaybased onHouse displayIs being implemented.

Town nameTown name readingHouse display dateTown name just before the display of the residenceRemarks
Large printRice fieldNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeRice field1977/8/1Part of Oaza Awa
On November 1986, 11, a part of Oaza Awa was incorporated into Awa 4-chome.
Large printHeyNot implemented
XNUMX chomeHey1977/8/1Each part of Oaza XNUMXi, Oaza Tatsuta, Oaza Inabakurumase
Large printInaba KurumeNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeInaba Kurume1979/11/1Part of Oaza Inabakurumase, Oaza Tatsuda, Oaza Koyoshida
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeInaba Nishi1983/11/7Each part of Oaza Inabakurumase, Oaza Tatsuda, Oaza Shinnan
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeOkidomeAugust 1977, 8 (1-XNUMX)Each part of Okidome, Okidome, Oaza Horyuji, and Oaza XNUMXi
November 1996, 11 (5 (transfer), XNUMX)Each part of Okidome, Okidome, and Okidome
XNUMX chomeOkidome Higashi1977/8/1Each part of Okidome and Awa
Large printKozenNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeKozen1986/11/4Each part of Oaza Kozen, Oaza Horyu-ji, and Oaza Tofukuji
Large printKoyoshiNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeKoyoshi1979/11/1Each part of Oaza Koyoshida, Oaza XNUMXi, Oaza Tatsuda, Oaza Inabakurumase
Large printJinnanNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeJinnanNovember 1979, 11 (1)Part of Oaza Shennan
November 1983, 11 (7-XNUMX)Each part of Oaza Shennan and Oaza Inabakurumase
Large printTakayasuTakayasuNot implemented
TakayasuXNUMX and XNUMX chomeTakayasu1986/11/4Part of Takayasu Akira
TakayasunishiXNUMX chomeTakayasu1986/11/4Each part of Oaza Takayasu and Oaza Horyu-ji
Large printTatsutaNot implementedLarge character guideline enclave
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeTatsuta1979/11/1Each part of Oaza Tatsuta, Oaza Horyu-ji, and Oaza Inabakurumase
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeTatatakitaNovember 1979, 11 (1-XNUMX)Each part of Oaza Tatsuta and Oaza Horyu-ji
February 1983, 11 (Sat)Part of Oaza Tatsuda
XNUMX-XNUMX chomeSnail1983/11/7Each part of Oaza Tatsuda and Oaza Inabakurumase
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeTatsuta Minami1979/11/1Oaza Tatsuta, Oaza Horyuji Temple, Oaza Koyoshida, Oaza Inabakurumase, Oaza XNUMXi
XNUMX chomeTofukuji1986/11/4Part of Oaza Tofukuji Temple and Oaza Horyu-ji Temple
Large printEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1977/8/1Each part of Oaza Hattori, Oaza XNUMXi, Okidome Okidome, and Oaza Horyu-ji Temple
Large printHoryujiNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeHoryuji1986/11/4Part of Oaza Horyu-ji Temple
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeHoryu Jikita1986/11/4Each part of Oaza Horyuji Temple and Oaza Mitsui
There is no Horyuji1986/11/4Part of Oaza Horyu-ji TempleHoryuji temple
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeHoryuji1986/11/4Part of Oaza Horyu-ji Temple
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeHiryuuji Higashi1986/11/4Each part of Oaza Horyuji Temple and Oaza Tofukuji Temple
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeHoryuji Minami1986/11/4Each part of Oaza Horyu-ji, Oaza Tofukuji, Oaza Awa, Oaza XNUMXi, Oaza Takayasu, Okidome Okidome, Oaza Tatsuda
Large printMiiNot implemented
Large printGuideNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeGuide1996/11/5Large character guideline, each part of large character Awa
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeMeiyasukita1996/11/5Large character guideline, large character Okidome, each part of large character Hattori

Post

Mail collection and delivery is available throughout Ikaruga TownOji Post OfficeIs in charge.Prior to the privatization of the postal service, the Tatsuta Post Office (Tatsutaminami) was in charge of collection and delivery operations in the "636-01xx" area (entire area of ​​Ikaruga Town) as a collection and delivery specific post office, but as of February 2007, 2. Transferred to the Oji Post Office, and currently only has window operations.[2]

Administration

Parliament

Constant: 13[3]

Economy

Commercial facility

Financial institution

* In addition, ATMs will be set up in the Ikaruga Town Hall and the Mandai Horyuji store.

Until 2015,Kinki Osaka Bank Ikaruga branch office (manned branch office) was also open.

Agricultural cooperative

  • Nara Agricultural Cooperative(JA Nara)
    • Summary Ikaruga Branch (Tatsutaminami)
      * General branch of Koriyama / Ikoma district (Ikoma City / Yamatokoriyama City / Heguri Town / Ikaruga Town / Ando Town / Sango Town / Oji Town / Kawai Town / Kammaki Town).
    • Ikaruga Branch (Koyoshida)

Japan Post Group

(As of 2014 year 6 month)

  • Japan Post Co., Ltd.
    • Horyuji Post Office (Horyuji)
    • Tatsuta Post Office (Tatsutaminami) --Former collection and delivery office.Japan Post BankATM Holiday Service Execution Bureau.
    • Ikaruga Okidome Post Office (Okidome)
    • Aeon Ikaruga Inner Simple Post Office (Tatsutanishi)

As mentioned above, the collection and delivery work for the entire area of ​​Ikaruga Town ("636-01xx" area)Oji Post OfficeIs in charge.

Education

high school

Junior high school

  • Ikaruga Municipal Ikaruga Junior High School (Tatsutakita)
  • Ikaruga Municipal Ikaruga Minami Junior High School (Meyasukita)

primary school

Transportation

Train

bus

道路

General national road

Prefectural road

Famous places, historic sites, sightseeing, festivals, special events

Sights and historic sites

Old tomb

And many more.

From

Other

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b "Established "Ikuru" for birds in the town and "Tsubaki" for flowers in the town”. Ikaruga Town (June 2017, 6). 2017/11/28Browse.
  2. ^ Enforcement Director of "Reorganization of Collection and Delivery Bases, etc." (Former Japan Post Kinki Branch, announced on January 2007, 1)
  3. ^ "What is a town council?”. Ikaruga Town. 2019/5/6Browse.
  4. ^ Constituencies and constants Nara Prefectural Election Commission

Related item

外部 リンク

Private universities

Private universities(private university,(British: private university) Isprivate OfUniversityThat.Abbreviation ThePrivate university(Gradually)Is. "City UniversityEven with the abbreviationHomophoneSo don't get confusedSpokenThen, I sometimes say "I'm sorry".

Japanese private university

Private universities in JapanSchool corporationorLtd.Refers to the university established by.Some educational institutions are established by a special law (Open University-Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University(Etc.), those in which the national and local governments are deeply involved in the establishment of school corporations (Jichi Medical University-Occupational Medical University,So-calledPublic private universityEtc.), but these are classified as private universities.Also,Special area for structural reformAtLtd.Is allowed to set up a universityUniversities established by a corporation (school establishment company) (Ritsudai University)Is also classified as a private university.

Of the Japanese universities, private universities account for three-quarters of the total number of universities, and the number of students accounts for 4% of all university students in Japan.[Annotation 1].Old university,Old technical collegeThere are few private universities that have been promoted from 1949 (Showa 24).School reformMost of them are private universities newly established after that. As of 2021 (3rd year of Reiwa), onlyShimane Does not have a private four-year university.

Management

Student payments account for about 8% of the income of private universities in Japan, and only about 1% of the subsidies from the national government such as subsidies for ordinary expenses such as private universities (private school subsidies).[2]..Subsidies from the government account for nearly 7% of incomeNational University Corporation[3]The income structure is very different from that.In addition, in the case of a corporation, it is not possible to receive subsidies from the national government, and the investment will be one of the financial resources.Some universities have special financial resources such as the Open University of Japan and Jichi Medical University.

As of 2016, there are 2019 school corporations that are in danger of bankruptcy by the end of 287 and are classified as bankruptcy reserve forces.[Annotation 2][4]..In response to this, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has decided to significantly cut the subsidy (private school subsidy) to the school corporation that operates private universities and junior colleges whose management is deteriorating and the quality of education is also declining from 2018. ing[4]..Approximately 4% of Japanese private university corporations are operating in the red, and school payments are 77 of their income.%We are actively attracting foreign students, and 6% of the students are Chinese universities.[5]..It is also pointed out that students who choose a university tend to focus on going on to university in the Greater Tokyo Area.[6].

However, in addition to universities, the school corporations that establish and operate private universities areJunior college,Vocational schools,Junior high school,high schoolSuch asPrivate university affiliated schoolIs often operated.Therefore, even if a private university is in the red, it does not mean that the entire school corporation is in the red.Tetsuo KobayashiIt is,Capacity crackAs for the reason why private universities are not closed immediately, "If we manage with the income and expenditure of the university alone, there must have been a university that collapses more. So to speak, the university is a deficit department of a group company, so it is so easy to close. It doesn't mean that the university has a decent amount of physical strength. "[7].. actuallyTeikyo GroupAs can be seen in the above, an increasing number of corporations are actively managing assets such as securities in the management of school corporations to enhance their basic funds and solidify university management.

In addition, weekly magazine articles that deal with the management difficulties of private universities are often published, but "I confuse university accounting with corporate accounting." It is more appropriate to comprehensively look at changes over time, including debt, assets under management, and durability. "[8].Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid AgencyIs "Classification of management status based on quantitative management judgment index (whole corporation)[9]"Is the balance of funds for educational activities in the red for two or more years out of three years?" "Is the external debt exceeded by comparing external liabilities with assets under management?" Will assets under management be consumed by cash flow every year?) (A:Training periodLess than, a: period of study or more and less than 10 years, c: 10 years or more) "" Is the pre-adjustment receipt holding rate less than 100%? " Shows classification based on seven flows: "less than" and "less than 3% reserve rate"[10].

Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation "30 (Heisei 2018) Private Universities, Junior Colleges, etc. Admission Application Trends"[11]According to the report, the number of private universities is less than 210, accounting for 36% of the total, and 50 universities have a capacity sufficiency rate of less than 11%.Furthermore, in 2021 (3rd year of Reiwa), the enrollment capacity sufficiency rate[Annotation 3]Was 99.8% for all private universities, falling below 100% for the first time, and the number of universities with less than capacity increased by 93 from the previous year to 277, up to 46.4%.[12]. However,Ministry of education"Handling of subsidies for ordinary expenses such as private universities related to capacity management after 31"[13]Then, from the viewpoint of suppressing overcapacity, it is clear that the enrollment capacity sufficiency rate will increase by 95% for faculties with 100% to 4% and 90% for faculties with 94% to 2%. Has beenCapacity crackHowever, this does not mean that private universities are in trouble.

また、定員厳格化や共通テスト導入、23区内定員抑制(東京都内のみ)によって、定員充足率80%未満の私立大学は、2014年の122校(21.1%)がピークで、2015年以降は114校(19.7%)・117校(20.3%)・90校(15.5%)と減少し、2019年は51校(8.6%)にまで減少している[14].

Publicization

In recent years, in Japan, management has been transferred due to management difficulties, etc., from private to public (Public university corporation) Is changing to some universities.Matsumoto UniversityThe president'sHiroyuki Sumiyoshi"With the declining birthrate and the decrease in subsidies, it is the same at all private universities that management is difficult. Among them, there are universities like us who are desperately making management efforts and stepping on at private schools. On the other hand, if you give up your efforts and make it public, students will gather, and if the management is safe with subsidies, those who made efforts may see stupidity, "he said, questioning publicization. ing[15].

Entrance examination

In the case of Japan, the entrance examinations for private universities differ depending on the university, faculty, and department, and the methods and schedules are also diverse.[16].

General entrance exam

University entrance examination center examinationThere is no need to take the (Mark-type exam), and the exam subjects are basically only 3 subjects (English / math / science for science, English / national language / geography public or mathematics for liberal arts).[Annotation 4], In many cases, the center test imposes 5 subjects and 7 subjects, and also imposes secondary tests (mainly descriptive tests) by university.National universityThe actual number of exam subjects is very small compared to.In addition, while the secondary exams for general entrance exams at national and public universities are mainly in the description format, the general entrance exams for private universities and the entrance exams for center exams are mainly in the mark sense format where only the answers are answered.Therefore, from an early stageStudy focusing on only 3 subjectsMany people do.

However, because the number of exam subjects is small, failure of each subject is not allowed and a high score is required.In addition, difficult private universities tend to be different from national and public universities, where the weight of the center is high, such as difficult problems that go beyond the scope of high school.further,Capital AreaAt the famous private university, students from all over the country gather, so the entrance examination rate is extremely high and the difficulty level tends to increase. Tighter quotas in 2019 make private liberal arts faculties difficult[17], There are reports that the number of cases that fail is increasing even though it was said to be a pass safety zone.[18][19]..In other words, the general theory of university entrance exams does not apply, and it is necessary to take measures for university-specific exam formats.

In addition, while the number of universities and faculties that can be taken is limited to a maximum of 3 schools and 3 faculties (first, middle, and second semesters) in the general entrance examinations of national and public universities, it is limited in the general entrance examinations of private universities. However, there is a feature that you can apply for as many as you like as long as the entrance examination schedule is different, and the university side is increasing the opportunities to take the examination by various entrance examination forms.[20].

Center test use entrance exam

The center test use entrance examination is an entrance examination method in which pass / fail is determined based on (or using) the results of the center test.[21]..Since it is not necessary to prepare for entrance examinations for each private university, this method is often used by those who are first-choice national and public universities and who also apply for private universities.[21]..However, it is said that the difficulty of passing the entrance examination for the center test will be high because the number of applicants is quite small and many universities have high magnification.[21].

Recommended admission / AO admission

Recommendation entrance examination(Designated school recommendation-Open recruitment recommendation(One performance entrance examinationEtc.)) andAO entrance examinationThere is also an entrance examination system that does not impose an academic ability test.For details, refer to each item.

Private universities in each country

The United States of America

In the United States, private schools first developed as higher education institutions, and then state universities were born, but private universities played a major role before and after the founding of the country.[22]..State support for private universities continued until the beginning of the 20th century[22].

Private universities in the United States have continued to increase until the 1980s since Harvard College and William Mary College were founded on the basis of religious groups.[23]..The number of students doubled to 1960 million in 360 and 1970 million in 800, and the rate of enrollment in private universities exceeded 40%.[23]In the 1980s, 1200 million students were enrolled and the number of universities increased to 3200.[23].. In the first half of 1980, the economic recession and budget deficit led to the "university winter era," but there were no major closures. As of 2001-2002, 74.1% of all universities were private universities, junior colleges. Private junior colleges account for 39.9% of the total[23].

On the other hand, liberal arts colleges accounted for 1960% of the total number of students in 50, but decreased to 2000% in 17.[23]..In addition, there are cases where small, unnamed, new junior colleges, liberal arts colleges, and religious colleges with few basic assets are closed due to financial difficulties or failure to recruit students.[23].

Private university tuition is high and it is difficult to get a university education unless you are a child of a high-income earner[22]..At state universities, there is a big difference in tuition fees between those inside the state (residents) and those outside the state (non-residents), but at private universities there is no such distinction.[22].

Private universities in the United States are strengthening their financial structure that does not depend on tuition income by obtaining government subsidies, increasing donation income, and asset management.[23]..Especially since the latter half of the 1970s, the concept of corporate management was introduced, and it became like a small and medium-sized enterprise.[23]..With the economic growth of the United States, the financial base was strengthened, and the number of graduates increased, so donations from graduates became stable income, and with the positive donations from wealthy people, the financial base of private universities was established.[22].

Private universities in the United States are, in principle, unaffected by the government, so they can take actions that the government cannot.For example, religious institutions can advance their teachings and teach other religions to be incorrect.Private universities also have the freedom to discriminate on the basis of race, religion, or gender.For example, in the belief that interracial relationships are prohibited in the Bible.South carolina OfBob Jones University The1971 から2000 UntilAfrican AmericanWas refusing to enroll the student.But,United States Supreme CourtIs a private university and even if it is a legal act of a private person such as an applicant or a student, if a state act intervenes in a part of it (for example, a federal or state subsidy or scholarship is paid to a private university). (If so, etc.) has been regarded as a national act, and the doctrine of national acts that allows the direct application of the Constitution has been established.Therefore, even if it is a private university, there is 1 federal fund for racial discrimination.CentBut if it is used, the act is a violation of the Civil Rights Act and is unconstitutional.

Big for American universitiesUniversityとLiberal Arts CollegeMost of the liberal arts colleges are private universities.[Annotation 5].Harvard UniversityWas a liberal arts college, but expanded in scale and continued to establish graduate schools, becoming a comprehensive university.But,Faculty of Liberal ArtsLiberal Arts College remains as.otherIvy leagueEspecially at schoolPrinceton University,Brown universityIsLiberal ArtsIs important.Also,Carnegie Mellon UniversityIn some cases, a private vocational school was approved as a university and developed into a comprehensive university.

Universities run by the state, not the state,U.S. ForcesSchool established by the government as a specialized educational institution (Maxwell Air Force BaseEtc.).Basically, the target is only military personnel who meet the admission conditions, but the tuition fee is free and it is treated as a mission even while enrolled, and the salary is paid, and if the conditions are met, a degree can be obtained.

United Kingdom

The education system in the United Kingdom is very complicated due to historical background, and it is difficult to explain the system by distinguishing between private and public.

Australia

Australian private universitiesBond UniversityとNotre Dame UniversityIs only[24].. (3 schools including Greenwich University, which focuses on distance learning[25]. )

South Korea

Korean private universitiesSeoul・ Hierarchized into leading private schools in the metropolitan area, leading private schools in rural areas, and emerging private schools in rural areas[26]..National and public universities are Korean Science and Technology UniversitiesSeoul National UniversityNot as competitive as private universities, except[26].Seoul National University(National) andKorea University(private)·Yonsei UniversityTogether with (private), it is called "SKY".[27].

Officially the first private university in South KoreaJoseon eraWas founded as the only private university inSungkyunkwanBased on (1398-)Sungkyunkwan UniversityIs[28]..In South Korea, about 78% of university students are enrolled in private universities, and 96% of professional university students are enrolled in private universities.[29]..Historically, indigenous entrepreneurs and groups have established many private schools, and religious groups such as Christianity and Buddhism have played a major role in establishing schools.[29]. As an example,modern Ulsan University,Pohang Steel Pohang University of Science and Technology,Korean Air Inha UniversityAre each running[29].

People's Republic of China

Private higher education institutions in the People's Republic of China are higher education education that is explained by non-national financial education expenses by social organizations other than national institutions or individual citizens based on the standards for establishing higher education schools established by the national education administration department. , Or defined as a non-educational institution[30]..Private universities in China are called private universities[31]..The operation of the university is supported by tuition and the investment of the founder, and tuition income accounts for 80% of the total income.[31]..Tuition fees are higher than those of national universities[31].

The first private university after the establishment of the People's Republic of China1980 Established Hunan Nine Suspicious Vocational Academy[30].. As of 2013, there are 717 private universities, accounting for 28% of all general higher education institutions nationwide, 557.5 million current students, and about 22% of examinees are said to be enrolled in private universities.[30].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Including junior college students[1].
  2. ^ 2019 failures by the end of 21, 2025 failures by the end of 12, 79 failures, 175 management crisis reserves, total 287, normal 373
  3. ^ The value obtained by dividing the number of enrolled students by the enrollment capacity
  4. ^ Depending on the university or faculty, it may be possible to take only two or one subject.
  5. ^ There are also a few state liberal arts colleges.

Source

  1. ^ "Private universities". Ministry of education. 2016/7/6Browse.
  2. ^ "What is a private university / junior college? | University portrait (private school version)". www.shigaku.go.jp. 2020/2/1Browse.
  3. ^ "Revenue structure of national universities”(Japanese). Ministry of Finance. 2020/2/1Browse.
  4. ^ a b Private university with difficult management and low quality of education, to drastically reduce subsidies Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyAsahi Shimbun November 2018, 1
  5. ^ 6% of students are from Chinese universities ... 4% of private universities are under capacity, which happens instead of "bankruptcy rush"(Released on August 2018, 7)
  6. ^ "1. Current situation of concentration in Tokyo" "Meeting of experts on promotion of local universities and employment of young people (reference material)(Pdf) Prime Minister's Office, December 2017, 29, pp. 12-8.
  7. ^ Tetsuo Kobayashi (September 2018, 9). “Over 30 universities, with 300 more schools in 800. 210 School capacity is not enough, but why can't it be crushed?”(Japanese). www.businessinsider.jp. 2020/2/1Browse.
  8. ^ "Weekly Toyo Keizai "Dangerous Private University" Articles and Rankings Thoroughly Examined-University Shows Discomfort, Toyo Keizai Reporter Denied (Reiji Ishiwatari) --Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. 2020/5/31Browse.
  9. ^ "Classification of business conditions based on quantitative management judgment indicators (whole corporation)”. Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation. 2020/5/30Browse.
  10. ^ "Private school management analysis and management improvement plan”. Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation. 2020/5/30Browse.
  11. ^ "Trends in application for admission to private universities, junior colleges, etc. in 30”. Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation. 2019/10/22Browse.
  12. ^ "Almost half of private universities are under capacity, and there is a risk of management difficulties ... This spring, the" sufficiency rate "will fall below 100% for the first time.". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2019, 9). https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/kyoiku/kyoiku/news/20210928-OYT1T50212/ 2021/10/2Browse. 
  13. ^ "Regarding the handling of ordinary expenses subsidies for private universities, etc. related to capacity management after 31 (Notice): Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology”(Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology website. 2020/2/1Browse.
  14. ^ "F-rank university disappears in urban areas-What is the situation of university entrance exams in a fierce battle (Reiji Ishiwatari) --Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. 2020/4/8Browse.
  15. ^ "Success or failure of "Ultra C" to publicize local private universities | AERA dot.”(Japanese). 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン (September 2016, 12). 2020/3/15Browse.
  16. ^ "General Entrance Examination (Private University) | Manavision | Benesse University / Junior College / Vocational School Examination, Advancement Information". manabi.benesse.ne.jp. 2020/5/31Browse.
  17. ^ Keiji Kasagi (20190806T080000 + 0900). “Concentrate on mid-career private universities by "taking exams up to 2 ranks" The curse of "stricter capacity" for university entrance exams <Weekly Asahi>”(Japanese). AERA dot.. 2020/5/31Browse.
  18. ^ ""Even if it is judged as A, it will fail ..." The reason why the difficulty of the private university entrance examination did not stop this year (Keitaro Tanaka) @gendai_biz". Contemporary business. 2020/5/31Browse.
  19. ^ "Criteria for selecting schools for concurrent applications in the era of stricter capacity Lecture report | University Times". times.sanpou-s.net. 2020/5/31Browse.
  20. ^ "General Selection | Admission Guide for High School Students". Go to Mynavi. 2020/5/31Browse.
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