New corona / XNUMX new infections
If you write the contents roughly
Regarding clusters (group of infected people), the number of educational and childcare facilities under the jurisdiction of the Chubu Health Center increased by one to a total of 1 people.
The prefecture announced on the XNUMXth that two men and women under the age of XNUMX and in their twenties have been newly infected with the new coronavirus.Severely ill ... → Continue reading
Iwate Nichi-Nichi Shimbun
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Wikipedia related words
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Nursery(Who is,, Nursery center) IsGuardianFor some reason, such asNeed childcare乳 幼 児To keepChildcareA facility for daily activities for the purpose of doing. in Japan,Child Welfare ActStipulated in Article 7Child welfare facilityIt has become. This section describes nursery schools in Japan.
Facility name is "○○NurseryIn many cases, "nursery school" is a common name, and the name under the law is "NurseryIs.
In addition, in the municipalitiesOrdinanceThere is an example in which the facility name is set as 〇 nursery school.
In childcare at a nursery school,NursingとEducationWill be deployed together. The term "nursing" is used to maintain the life and emotional stability of children.Childminder"Education" is the developmental assistance for children to grow up healthy and to develop their activities more abundantly. However, as for "education", "education for infants aged 3 years or older to cultivate the basics of compulsory education and subsequent education" is excluded..
- A nursery school is a facility for the purpose of providing day-to-day care for infants and young children in need of childcare by passing them from under a guardian every day. (Article 39 Paragraph 1)
- According to the provision of "education" in the definition of "nursing" in Article 6-3, paragraph 7, "education for infants over 3 years old as cultivating the foundation of compulsory education and subsequent education" will not be conducted. (KindergartenEtc.)
- Exceptionally moreage OfChildrenThere is also a case of childcare. (Article 39 Paragraph 2)
- Social welfare lawIs defined as a second-class social welfare business (Article 2, Paragraph 3),Social welfare corporationMany are managed by.
Childcare content and functions
Minimum standards for child welfare facilitiesas well as the Nursery school childcare guidelinesBased on the above, the childcare will be conducted in consideration of age and individual differences among children. The contents include "preservation of life" and "stabilization of emotions" corresponding to nursing, and 5 areas equivalent to education ("health", "human relations", "environment", "language", "expression"). At the root. At nursery schools, these are comprehensively developed while having mutual relations through the life and play of children.
A nursery teacher prepares a monthly plan that summarizes the contents of childcare for one month by intermingling the direction of childcare, goals, seasons, events, etc., a weekly plan that summarizes the contents of childcare for one week, and a plan that summarizes the flow of daycare. It is general to make and promote childcare along them.
The time when childcare is possible varies depending on the daycare center or local government. It is common from 7:19 to 22:XNUMX, but the number of cases where it is opened until XNUMX:XNUMX is increasing.Bon holiday-New Year's HolidayWhether or not to open is also different depending on the day care center or local government.
Though it is a small number, after school child healthy upbringing business operation summarybased onAfter-school child healthy upbringing businessMay be operated within daycare facilities (as of May 2008, 5, 1% of children's clubs after school as a whole).
In recent yearsChild care support centerIn some cases, the garden is openEventsAnd child-rearing consultation.Temporary childcare is also provided to temporarily take care of children who have not been admitted (see details).ChildcareSee article).
“Authorization” and “out of authorization” at daycare centers
Licensed nursery school
In addition to so-called licensed daycare centers, there are small-scale licensed daycare centers and night-time licensed daycare centers. In addition to conforming to the minimum standards for child welfare facilities, licensed daycare centers are licensed. Guidelines Guideline for small-scale nursery installation approval Criteria for nighttime nursery installation approvalMust meet the requirements of.
A bill has been submitted to the Diet to eliminate the national minimum standards for child welfare facilities that are applied to licensed nursery schools and to establish by local government ordinance, and discussion is emerging..
Unlicensed childcare facility
Childcare facilities that fall under the Child Welfare Law but are not licensed are called “unlicensed childcare facilities” or “unlicensed childcare centers” and are installed by notification. It is also called an unlicensed nursery school.
For so-called unlicensed nursery schools that meet the standards set by local governments, the local governments may provide their own subsidies and supervision.Local independent childcare businessI call it. For example, in TokyoCertified nursery schoolIs called.
With entrance requirement "we need childcare"
- Working outside the home of parents (full-time work, part-time work, agriculture, forestry and fisheries as a business, etc.)
- In-home labor of parents (self-employed, in-house work, etc.)
- Before and after childbirth
- Parental injury or disability
- Nursing care for relatives living together
- Disaster recovery
Can be given.
In some cases, priority is given to these households from the perspective of family welfare for mothers and children.
In addition, the following conditions are listed as admission requirements, in which case the priority of admission will be low (as determined by the municipality).
- When parents are attending daytime school
- When a parent has a willingness to work and is seeking a job (some municipalities have a one month limit)
In the past, admission to a nursery school was "lacking childcare"MeasureHowever, under the current system, it is established as a "contract."
In many municipalities, childcare fees areincome tax-Resident taxCalculated based on the taxation status and the age of the child. Depending on the age of the child entering the school or at the beginning of the year, there are many cases where people are classified as 3 years old or older and under 3 years old, but there are categories such as "0 years old", "1, 2 years old", "3 years old", "4 years old and older", etc. In some cases. If more than one child is admitted to the nursery school at the same time, the childcare fee is often exempted according to the number of children in the nursery school.
Payment method, etc.
The payment method depends on the municipality.Account transferIn some municipalities, the method of paying directly to the municipalities is adopted, and in other municipalities, the nursery school collects the money. The Child Welfare Law does not allow children to leave due to non-payment of childcare fees. If unpaid payment occurs, payment is urged by the commune of the municipalities, etc., but due to the increase in unpaid childcare in recent years, many local governments take legal measures such as seizure of salaries.
From the day of admission年度Even if the child's age increases by one by the end of the period, the age category will not change. Therefore, even children with the same date of birth may have different childcare fees or different classes if they enter during the year.
The situation of authorized nursery school
- There are 23,711 daycare centers.
- The number of childcare staff is 2,240,178.
- Number of children used is 2,176,802
- The number of waiting children is 24,825.
- The overall utilization rate is 34.2%.
- Utilization rate under 3 years old is 25.3%.
The number of children using nursery schools is1975 Due to the declining birthrate, the peak of 50 people (1,996,082)1994 The decreasing trend continued until (6),1995 After (7), it started to increase,2004 (16) 1,966,9291975 The peak of (50) was exceeded. It has continued to increase since then. this is,1973 Born (Showa 48) (peak of the second baby boom) was 2 years old1978 (Showa 53) The situation of kindergarten where the number of children continues to decrease with the peak time,1994 (6) It was similar before,1995 After 7, it is obviously different.
Status of waiting-list children
Waiting children who cannot accept due to overcapacity even if they want to use a nursery school have become a problem mainly in urban areas (for example, Kawasaki City also accepts overcrowding, but still responds to applications. I can't)
According to the situation of the nursery school, most of the waiting-list children are 1-2 years old (63.7% of the total).. This is because the number of children under the age of 3 that can be accepted by daycare is small. In addition, waiting-list children account for 7% of the total in seven prefectures in Kanto (Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa) and Kinki (Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo) and other ordinance-designated cities and core cities. It is estimated that most of the waiting-list children are apparently waiting-list children who are admitted to non-licensed childcare facilities, and it is estimated that there are few true waiting-list children who cannot enter unlicensed childcare facilities. In addition, according to statistics by local governments, waiting children who enter childcare facilities not authorized by the local government may be excluded from the number of waiting children. In 77.7, the government and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare announced a policy to clarify the number and timing of zero waiting-list children nationwide in 2013, two years later.. Yokohama City announced that it has achieved zero waiters as of April 2013, 4.
Current situation of shortage of childcare workers
In recent years, as the construction of nursery schools is progressing mainly in large cities to eliminate the waiting children, we are facing new problems such as a serious shortage of human resources for nursery teachers. It is expected to be a major obstacle to the development of nursery schools.
Difference from kindergarten
KindergartenSchool education lawbyEarly childhood educationIt is a facility and is defined in Article 1 of the same law.Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular(Ichijo school)”. Kindergarten teachers provide guidance. Not for children under 3 years.
The opening hours are around 9 pm and the closing hours are around 14:17 on noon or lunch day (or lunch day), but in recent years, many kindergartens have been provided with childcare services (childcare performed after hours). The target closing time has been expanded until around XNUMX:XNUMX.
Difference in qualification
Issued by the prefectural board of education to be a kindergarten teacherKindergarten teacher licenseThe nursery school qualification is required at the nursery school. In addition to childcare teachers, the number of 0-year-olds set by local governments as a zero-year-old special care programnurseorMidwifeMay be placed.
Can be placed in kindergartennursing teacher・The nursery or midwife is the occupation type of a nursery school that corresponds to a nursing assistant teacher, but these are intended for 0-year-olds and not for all ages.
Authorized child institution
- Policy that nursery schools and kindergartens should be unified (Yoho unification)for
- One of the reasons for unification of kindergartens is that it is difficult to secure a group of the size necessary for the growth of children when there are a large number of kindergartens and nursery schools while the birthrate is decreasing.
- If parents are not working, they cannot use the nursery
- Waiting-listTo eliminate
- To enhance support for parents who feel uneasy and burdened about parenting
There are several types of certified children's schools, but among these, the nursery school-certified children's school and the nursery school part of the childcare cooperation-certified children's school are equivalent to the nursery school mentioned in this section.
Differences with nursery schools
- Applications for admission to a certified children's school should be made directly to the school, not to the local government. Entrance examinations and judgments are made by each garden, not by the municipality (the examination standards of the municipality apply accordingly).
- The nursery school for children also accepts children who do not lack childcare (with the number of people deemed appropriate by the prefectural governor).
- Childcare fees are set independently by each institution (according to the criteria such as childcare fees of nursery schools set by the local government) and collected independently.
- Childcare cooperation type (nursery school part) ・In the nursery school type, education is provided in accordance with the guidelines for kindergarten education in addition to the guidelines for daycare.
- Staff qualification
- For 0-2 year olds, a childcare worker qualification
- For children aged 3 to 5 years, it is desirable to have both a kindergarten teacher's license and a nursery teacher qualification. However, consider not to exclude those who have only one qualification
- ^ "Kojien XNUMXth edition",Koto bankHow to read by.
- ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, “Handbook of Language, Second Edition”, p. 2, allows two types of reading: “-sho” and “-jo”. ((PDF) by)
- ^ "Welfare Statistics Manual (Children)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. October 2019th, 8Browse.
- ^ Child Welfare Act - e-Gov Law Search
- ^ Child Welfare Act(Law No. 6, December 3, 7) Article XNUMX-XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMinisterial OrdinanceNo. 63 (April 2008, 4). “ (PDF)". October 2009th, 2Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfarenoticeNo. 141 (March 2008, 3). “ (PDF)". October 2009th, 2Browse.
- ^ Notification of Director General of Child and Family Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 294 from Children (April 1998, 4)."Out-of-school health promotion program for children"". About conduct of after-school child healthy upbringing business. October 2009th, 2Browse.
- ^ Director of Child and Family Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare notification Child No. 295 (March 2002, 3). “"Guidelines for approval of nursery school installation"". About setting authorization of nursery school. October 2009th, 2Browse.
- ^ Notification of Director of Child and Family Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare No. 296 (March 2002, 3)."Guidelines for small-scale nursery installation approval"". About setting authorization of small nursery school. October 2009th, 2Browse.
- ^ Notification of Director of Child and Family Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare No. 298 (March 2002, 3)."Criteria for approval of installation of night nursery school"". About setting authorization of night nursery school. October 2009th, 2Browse.
- ^ Q&A by Yoshio Yamashita at the General Assembly Committee of the House of Councilors on April 2010, 4
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Equal Employment and Child and Family Affairs Bureau, Childcare Division, Childcare Section (September 2009, 9)."About the situation of nursery school (April 21, 4)"". October 2009th, 9Browse.
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ (PDF)
- National Child Care Council
- List of nursery schools in Japan
- Friedrich Froebel -German who had a great influence on Japanese kindergarten and nursery school education.
- On-site childcare
- In-hospital care
- Nursery library
- Recent trends
- Toilet bowl
- Child Welfare Act - e-Gov Law Search
- Shogakukan "Nippon University Encyclopedia" "Nursery" item (from Kotobank)
- National Federation of Private Nursery Schools
- National Child Care Organization Liaison Meeting
- Children's Future Foundation
- 21st Century Vocational Foundation
- Meeting of parents thinking about nursery school