[Shizuoka / New Corona] XNUMX people infected XNUMX person died Still higher than before the XNUMXth wave
If you write the contents roughly
On top of that, a state of emergency was declared in September, calling for continued thorough infection control measures and avoiding unnecessary and unurgent outings as much as possible.
The number of newly infected persons with the new corona confirmed in Shizuoka Prefecture has fallen below XNUMX for XNUMX consecutive days.On the other hand, prefectures are on a downward trend ... → Continue reading
"TV Shizuoka" (Fuji TV affiliate) news account. We will send you the latest news from Shizuoka prefecture.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Emergency declaration(Hijojitai Sengen) orEmergency declarationWhat is (Kinkyuji Taisengen)?Natural disasters,Infection(Epidemic-Disease)ofPandemic,Nuclear accidentSuch asdisasterAnd戦 争,terrorism,Civil strife,MayhemSuch,Health-life-property-EnvironmentDanger is imminentEmergency(Emergency)Country-Region Of政府(Local governmentEtc.)decreeTo activate a special authority based onpublicIt is to proclaim and declare such a situation in order to call attention to.
About the name
Current,Japanese lawThe basic wording ofEmergency(Emergency)"·"Emergency declarationDespite being unified as "Kinkyuji Taisengen", due to customs from the wording of the provisions of the former Japanese law, "(Kinkyuji Taisengen)" is used in foreign languages.emergency"Or"state of emergency"Emergency situation" and "Emergency declaration" are sometimes used in the media etc. as a Japanese translation of "," etc. It has the same meaning as "statement of emergency".
Measures includePolicemen-軍隊(in Japan's case,SDF)SuchCivil servantMobilization ofPublic financeCondemnation of an emergencycommandPromulgation of government ordinances superior to the law and suspension of constitutional human rights guaranteesWritIn addition to allowing arrests and home searches that do not depend on the media,Freedom of assemblyな どLibertyThere can be restrictions. But,Japan,アイス ランドAnd someCountry ruled by lawThen, there are some cases where the request is almost unenforceable.
in Japan,1954 Old until (Showa 29)Police lawAuthority to proclaim a "national emergency" under Article 62Prime MinisterWas given to the currentPolice lawbased onEmergency DeclarationOther than that,Disaster Countermeasures Basic Lawbased onDeclaration of a disaster emergency,New influenza measures special measures lawbased onPandemic influenza etc.And so onPrime MinisterIs announced.
The United States of AmericaThen,PresidentIt is not uncommon to declare a state of emergency, but it is declared when the assets are frozen under the authority of the president as "a threat from foreign countries" (For example, in November 2018, an anti-government demonstration was announced. Central America suppressed by forceEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTo see the turmoil as an American security threat and freeze the assets of those who undermine security and democracyDonald Trump(Proclaimed by the President) and othersterrorism,InfectionIs also declared to correspond to.. In the United States, vs. 1979(I.e.Approximately 30 declarations, including asset freezes, are reported to be valid as of February 2019 in US media.
List of National Emergency Situations
Here, as mentioned above, declarations with names which are almost synonymous with each other, such as "emergency declaration" and "emergency order", are also described.
Before the 21th century
- 1941 May 12 - Pacific WarOpen war ( Japan）
- 1948 May 4 - Hanshin Education Case( Japan）
- 1962 May 12 - Brunei People's PartyArmed uprising of ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Annotation 1]）
- 1963 May 3 - Baath partyThe administration is established ( (I.e.）
- 1969 May 7 - Singapore Race Riot (1969) ( Singapore） 
- 1975 May 6 -Opposition protest ( India）
- 1982 May 9 - Japan National RailwayExtreme deterioration of ( Japan）
- 1992 May 1 - Algerian Civil Waroutbreak( アルジェリア）
- 1996 May 9 - KB bridgeCollapse ( パラオ）
- 1999 May 9 - 921 earthquake( Republic of China）
- 2000 - McDonald's OfHello KittyConfusion due to product purchase ( Singapore）
- 2003 May 3 - JinjićPresidential assassination ( Serbia and Montenegro）
- 2006 May 2 - Coup d'etatattempted( フィリピン）
- May 1 - Jasmine Revolution( チュニジア）
- May 3 - Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident( Japan）
- May 3 - Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power StationLoss of pressure suppression function of ( Japan）
- May 3 - anti-government protest( Yemen）
- May 8 -Deterioration of security ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 9 -Dried (( (I.e.）
- 2012 May 6 - ReligiousIntensifying conflict ( Myanmar）
- May 1 -Cyclone "Ian" direct hit ( トンガ）
- May 5 - Torrential rain( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- 7~8 - West Africa Ebola outbreak
- May 2 - Boko HaramThe rise of ( ニ ジ ェ ー ル）
- May 3 -Cyclone "Pam" direct hit ( (I.e.- バヌアツ）
- May 3 - EbolaRe-epidemic of ( (I.e.）
- May 3 - typhoondamage( ミクロネシア 連邦）
- May 7 - HEATForeign attack by ( チュニジア）
- May 8 - 洪水( Myanmar）
- May 11 - Paris terrorist attacks( France）
- May 11 -Bus blastterrorism( チュニジア）
- May 3 - refugeesIncrease inflow of ( ハンガリー）
- May 3 -Zika fever epidemic ( マ ー ャ ル ル）
- May 3 -Dried (( ミクロネシア 連邦）
- May 4 -Demonstration plunge into Congress ( (I.e.）
- May 5 -Coup plan ( ベネズエラ）
- May 7 -Attempted coup ( トルコ）
- May 10 -Frequent anti-government demonstrations ( エチオピア）
- May 11 - Drought( ボリビア）
- May 1 -Demonstration to please the results of the presidential election ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 3 -Invasion of Islamic extremist groups from Mali ( ニ ジ ェ ー ル）
- May 4 - MocoaInEarth and stone flow( コロンビア）
- May 4 -Continuous bombing terrorism ( Egypt）
- May 4 - (I.e.( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 9 - Hurricane"Irma" direct hit ( バ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダ）
- May 9 - Mount Manaloeruption( バヌアツ）
- May 9 - PlagueFashion of ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 12 -Presidential election demonstration ( ホンジュラス）
- May 1 - Montego BayIn the cityMurder caseFrequent occurrence of ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 2 -Illegal rally of opposition ( Maldives）
- May 2 - flood( ボリビア）
- May 2 -Cyclone "Zeta" approaching ( トンガ）
- May 3 -AntiMuslimRiot ( Sri Lanka）
- May 5 - Socotra Island OfCyclonedamage( Yemen）
- May 6 -Demonstration against election results ( パ ュ ュ ニ ニ）
- May 8 -Hurricane “Lane” approach ( America）
- May 9 -Deterioration of security ( ベリーズ）
- May 9 -Spread of cholera infection ( Zimbabwe）
- May 1 -Deterioration of security ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 2 - Belushia GubaInPolar bearThe number of appearances of ロシア）
- May 2 - Mexican and american wallAiming for constructionDonald TrumpIssued by ( America）
- May 2 -Due to floodgold mineFlooded ( Zimbabwe）
- May 3 - BreadRiots against the price increase ( スーダン）
- May 3 - CycloneCatastrophic damage from "eye dye" ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 3 -Same ( Mozambique）
- May 4 - Sri Lanka bombing terrorist attacks( Sri Lanka）
- May 5 - Drought( Namibia）
- May 6 - Dengue feverFashion of ( ホンジュラス）
- May 7 -Rapid increase in murders in St Andrew ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 8 - Zika fever・Simultaneous fashion of dengue fever ( ペルー）
- May 8 - Evia IslandLarge-scale wildfire in ( Greece）
- May 8 - bananaEpidemic of disease ( コロンビア）
- May 8 - LivestockWith the peopleAgricultureConflict of people ( チャド）
- May 8 -Large-scale forest fire ( ボリビア）
- May 8 -Hurricane "Dorian" direct hit ( America）
- May 9 -Narcotics killed soldiers ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 10 - strikeRadicalization ( エクアドル）
- May 10 - Chile riot( チリ）
- May 10 -Government overthrow plan ( ボリビア）
- May 11 - Gaza StripfromRocketattack( イ ス ラ エ ル）
- May 11 - flood( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 11 -Bus bombing terrorism ( チュニジア）
- May 11 - 2019 Albania Earthquake( アルバニア）
- May 1 - KingstonDeterioration of security ( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- 1~8 - Global expansion of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)
- May 1 - イタリア- ミクロネシア 連邦
- May 2 - マ ー ャ ル ル
- May 2 - South Korea
- May 2 - アフガニスタン- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 2 - リトアニア
- May 3 - France
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 3 - アイス ランド
- May 3 - ハンガリー- ボリビア
- May 3 - アルゼンチン- チ ェ コ- ベネズエラ- ラトビア
- May 3 - America- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- エストニア- スペイン- パナマ- ブルガリア
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- ポーランド- ホンジュラス- (I.e.
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- フィリピン- ペルー- South Africa- Maldives- Lebanon
- May 3 - アルメニア- エクアドル- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- スイス- スーダン- パラグアイ- フィンランド- ルーマニア
- May 3 - Eswatini- コロンビア- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- Namibia- パラオ- Luxembourg
- May 3 - Australia- Northern Macedonia- Portugal- Lesotho
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- ハイチ
- May 3 - サモア- トンガ- (I.e.- Brazil- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- モロッコ
- May 3 - ジ ョ ー ジ ジ
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 3 - セントルシア
- May 3 - シエラレオネ- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- セネガル- パ ュ ュ ニ ニ
- May 3 - グレナダ- New Zealand
- May 3 - Thailand- バヌアツ- Fiji
- May 3 - アンゴラ- バ ブ ブ ダ ダ ダ- (I.e.- セ ァ · · · · · · · · · · ·- ニ ジ ェ ー ル
- May 3 - 東 テ モ ー ル
- May 3 - メキシコ
- May 3 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- ボツワナ
- May 4 - ト ー ゴ- ベリーズ- Mozambique
- May 4 - ウクライナ
- May 4 - Japan[Annotation 2][Annotation 3]
- May 4 - エチオピア- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[Annotation 4]
- May 4 - コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル
- May 4 - ガボン
- May 4 - Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- May 7 - north korea
- May 8 - ブ ー タ タ
- Date unknown - オーストリア- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu- (I.e.
- May 2 - Massive flight of grasshoppers( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 6 -Crude oil spill ( ロシア）
- May 6 -A large number of locusts arrived ( アルゼンチン）
- May 8 - Beirut explosion accident( Lebanon）
- May 8 - Fuel spill( Mauritius）
- May 8 - Large-scale wildfire( America）
- May 9 - flood( スーダン）
- May 9 - Sex crimeincrease of( Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- 10Since then-Re-expansion of new coronavirus infection
- May 10 - Antigovernment demonstration(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- May 10 - anti-government protest( Thailand）
Invocation from outside the nation
Federal systemCountries andDecentralizationIn advanced countries,Local governmentMay be authorized to declare an emergency. Also, although the special law does not come into effect,International organization,armyHas established effective controlArmed organizationMay make a declaration for the purpose of calling attention.
It is an international organization WHOIt is,2005 Since then, in response to a large-scale epidemic,Public health emergencies of international concernIs to be declared. The example of activation is "#Notification/designationSee.
Local Government/Local Government
- America : -The chief has the authority to declare a state of emergency in the area due to a disaster.There are mainly the following examples.
- The United Kingdom
- Japan : Local governmentOr ordinary local governmentEmergencyDeclaration" may be carried out. However, these do not trigger special laws, but are merely requests or warnings that are not legally binding. The main examples are as follows.
- Miyazaki : 2010 (Heisei22 years)May 5ToHideo HigashikuniharaGovernor Foot-and-mouth diseaseExample of proclaiming the epidemic.2021 (Reiwa3 years)May 1ToShunji KonoGovernorEpidemic of new coronavirus (COVID-19)Example declared for.
- Hokkaido : 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 2ToNaoichi SuzukiGovernor Epidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Declared againstexample.
- Aichi: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 4And the same yearMay 8ToHideaki OmuraGovernor Epidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Declared againstexample.
- Gifu: On April 2020, 2 (Reiwa 4), the prefecture's own state of emergency was issued in line with Aichi Prefecture's own "state of emergency" (above) due to the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection... The same yearMay 7As the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased, the prefecture issued its own second wave emergency (state of emergency) until the end of August..
- Mie: On April 2020, 2 (Reiwa 4), the prefecture issued an emergency declaration to prevent the spread of infection in line with Aichi Prefecture's own "emergency declaration" (above) due to the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection... The same yearMay 8からMay 8Issued a prefecture-specific emergency alert declaration.
- Tochigi City: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 4ToHideko OkawaThe mayor declares a state of emergency unique to the city based on the fact that the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the city is the second highest in the prefecture and the ratio per 2 population is the highest in the prefecture. ..Request hand washing, cough etiquette, wearing a mask and refraining from going out.
- Nasu area: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 4ToNasushiobaraDeclared against the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). On the 27thOtawara CityとNasu TownDeclared for the same reason. On 28th, the heads of these three municipalities discussed measures at the Nasushiobara City Office, and jointly issued a joint emergency declaration.Road StationIn a form that aligns the footsteps such as complete blockade ofTomio TsukuiMayor Otawara said, "We will establish a joint front and cooperate in the three cities and towns.".
- Okinawa: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 7As the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased,May 8からMay 9Issued a state of emergency unique to the prefecture.
- Fukuoka: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 8,New influenza measures special measures lawBased on Article 24, Paragraph 9May 8からMay 8Invokes "Fukuoka Corona Warning" to request closure cooperation to stores with insufficient infectious disease countermeasures and to restrict dinner and drinking parties to citizens of the prefecture.. It was canceled on October 10thHowever, it reoccurred on December 12th..
- Okayama: 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)May 12As the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased, the prefecture issues its own medical emergency declaration..
- Miyagi: 2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 3Since the number of people infected with the new coronavirus infection has increased, from this dayMay 4Issued a state of emergency unique to the prefecture throughout the prefecture.
- Fukui: 2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 4,May 5In the period until, the prefecture's own state of emergency was issued throughout the prefecture..
- Ishikawa: 2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)May 5,May 5In the period until, the prefecture's own state of emergency was issued throughout the prefecture..
- Yemen : 2017 May, armed organization of the countryFuchsia choleraDeclaration of “emergency situation” based on the seriousness of the epidemic.
- ^ at that timeThe United KingdomAlthough he was a territory, he had already obtained the autonomy of internal affairs.
- ^ New influenza measures special measures lawDate of emergency declaration by.Historical emergencyToMay 3However, the declaration date is generally treated as April 4.
- ^ As of the beginning of April 4, the scope of issuance is 7 city, 1 prefecture and 1 prefectures (Tokyo,Osaka,Kanagawa,Saitama,Chiba,Hyogo,Fukuoka) Was,May 4And expanded to all other prefectures, totaling 47PrefecturesBecame the scope of official announcement.. afterwardsMay 539 prefectures (other than 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures and 4 prefectures, which will be described later)May 5In Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture,KyotoBut,May 5Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba,HokkaidoHave been released respectively.
- ^ Date of declaration. It will be activated at 9:0 on the XNUMXth of the following day.
- ^ As of the beginning of January 1, the scope of the announcement was 8 metropolitan area and 1 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa).May 1ToTochigi,Aichi,Gifu, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture.afterwardsMay 2Tochigi prefectureMay 2Aichi prefecture, Gifu prefecture, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture were canceled respectively...The remaining 1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa)May 3Until.
- ^ As of the beginning of April 4, the scope of the announcement was 25 metropolitan area, 1 prefectures and 2 prefecture (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo).May 5In Aichi and Fukuoka prefecturesMay 5To Hokkaido,Okayama,HiroshimaAlso,May 5ToOkinawaWas also expanded.After that, 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures and 5 prefectures other than Okinawa prefectureMay 6The remaining Okinawa prefectureLaterlike,
May 7May 9Scheduled up to.
- ^ As of July 7, the scope of issuance is 12 prefecture and 1 prefecture (Tokyo, Okinawa), and the period is initiallyMay 8However, on August 8th, Okinawa Prefecture was extended to September 8th, and Tokyo Metropolitan Government was extended to November 9th...In addition, Okinawa Prefecture has already issued a declaration from May 5, which was originally scheduled for July 23, but with this declaration, the period will be extended to August 7. Ta..After that, from August 8nd, Saitama prefecture, Chiba prefecture, Kanagawa prefecture, Osaka prefecture (total 2 prefecture, 1 prefecture, 1 prefectures), from August 4th.Ibaraki,Tochigi Prefecture,Gunma,Shizuoka, Kyoto prefecture, Hyogo prefecture, Fukuoka prefecture (1 metropolitan area, 2 prefectures, 10 prefectures in total), Hokkaido from August 8,Miyagi, Gifu prefecture, Aichi prefecture,Mie,Shiga、岡山県、広島県（計1都1道2府17県）に拡大した。その後宮城県、茨城県、栃木県、群馬県、岡山県、広島県、沖縄県は9月26日まで、北海道、静岡県、愛知県、岐阜県、三重県、滋賀県、京都府、大阪府、福岡県は10月17日まで、首都圏1都3県（東京都、埼玉県、千葉県、神奈川県）の期間はMay 11Until.
- ^ a b "President Trump has declared three emergency situations". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. October 2019th, 2Browse.
- ^ "That emergency situations become everyday”(May 2016, 11). October 2017th, 4Browse.
- ^ "After 2 years, France lifts the declaration of emergency 6 times due to terrorism”. TV Asahi (September 2017, 11). October 2019th, 7Browse.
- ^ “Kotoba Commentary: Difference between “Emergency Declaration” and “Martial Law””. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2015, 12) October 2017th, 7Browse.
- ^ Conceicao. "The 13th May 1969 (Kuala Lumpur) Disturbances", pp. 112—113
- ^ Weird fashion situation in "Singapore" that Japanese people have difficulty understanding
- ^ Question on the Special Measures Act concerning the implementation of humanitarian reconstruction support activities and security assurance support activities in Iraq-House of Representatives 国会House of Representatives: 2004 (Heisei16 years) April 11
- ^ State of emergency issuance, confusion overwhelming new government process-Bangladesh AFP (January 2008, 1)
- ^ Prime Minister declares emergency, 46 dead in Greek wildfire expansion AFP (January 2008, 8)
- ^ President of Pakistan declares emergency and dismisses Supreme Court Reuters Communication (November 2008, 11)
- ^ Georgia's state of emergency declared canceled before 22 days of parliamentary approval AFP (January 2008, 11)
- ^ Fiji: Heavy rain in western Viti Levu Embassy of Japan in Fiji
- ^ Chad issues a national emergency declaration AFP (January 2008, 2)
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Mongolia, due to riot over general election Reuters Communication (November 2008, 7)
- ^ Zimbabwe declares emergency, cholera dead over 560 Reuters Communication (November 2008, 12)
- ^ Hurricane "Ida" hits Central America, killing 124 people in El Salvador AFP (January 2009, 11)
- ^ State of emergency declared by police station attack Jamaica Nippon Television News
- ^ Eruption of volcanic eruptions in Guatemala and Ecuador, Latin America Rescue Now
- ^ Kyrgyz clash, over 80 dead, second emergency state declaration -(June 2010, 6) AFP
- ^ Spanish controller abandons all workplaces, declares emergency -AFP News
- ^ “Tunisia State of Emergency Declaration 5 Demonstrations, Cabinet Resignation”. 47NEWS (Kyodo News). (November 2011, 1) October 2011th, 1Browse.
- ^ Yemen declares state of emergency Security forces fire on demonstrators(March 2011, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ (Untitled)(August 2011, 8) Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago
- ^ Tuvalu Crisis Due to Global Warming Water Shortage Government Declares State of Emergency(October 2011, 10) Excite News
- ^ State of emergency declared in western Myanmar, religious confrontation worsens(June 2012, 6) Reuters News
- ^ Mali declares state of emergency across France France dispatches troops CNN (January 2013, 1)
- ^ Egyptian president declares emergency in three provinces after riot after soccer trial AFP (January 2013, 1)
- ^ Meteorite falls in Russia, 500 people are injured Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2013, 2)
- ^ Declaration of state of emergency in the three northeastern states-No effect on Lagos- JETRO (June 2013, 6)
- ^ Emergency assistance for cyclone damage in the Kingdom of Tonga Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2014, 1)
- ^ Floods in Serbia kill three people "worst natural disaster" AFP (January 2014, 5)
- ^ Rod Mac Johnson (August 2014, 8). “Sierra Leone declares emergency with spread of Ebola infection”. AFP. AFPBB News. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8. October 2014th, 10Browse.
- ^ “Ebola, Liberia declares emergency”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8. October 2014th, 10Browse.
- ^ “Nigeria also declares an emergency” Third country due to Ebola outbreak”. Kyodo News. 47NEWS(November 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 10. October 2014th, 10Browse.
- ^ “Guinea declares emergency with spread of Ebola infection”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2014, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 8. October 2014th, 10Browse.
- ^ Niger declares state of emergency Boko Haram's offensive AFP (February 2015, 2) Ryukyu Shimpo
- ^ UNICEF decides to provide US$60 assistance to Japanese government, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu damaged by Cyclone Pam UNICEF (March 2015, 3)
- ^ Ebola fears reignite, Guinea declares "emergency" AFP (January 2015, 3)
- ^ Typhoon damage in the Federated States of Micronesia (issue of sympathy messages from Prime Minister Abe and Foreign Minister Kishida) (April 2015, 4) Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- ^ President of Tunisia announces 30-day declaration of emergency AFP (July 2015, 7) Huff Post
- ^ Myanmar flood 47 dead, 21 affected(2015 8 年 月 日 3)
- ^ "Simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris: suicide bombing and 120 shooting deaths”. Mainichi Shimbun (December 2015, 11). October 2015th, 11Browse.
- ^ Terror in Tunisia's capital kills 12 presidential declaration Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 11)
- ^ Immigration/Refugee Issues: Issuance of Emergency Declaration Embassy of Japan in Hungary (March 2016, 3)
- ^ Declaration of health emergency due to Zika fever (Marshall Islands) PIC (April 2016, 4)
- ^ Emergency assistance for drought damage in the Republic of Palau Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2016, 4)
- ^ Iraq and Shiite demonstrators declare parliamentary emergency Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2016, 5)
- ^ President Venezuela declares emergency, "US plans to overthrow government" Reuters Communication (November 2016, 5)
- ^ Turkish President announces state of emergency Coup attempt BBC NEWS JAPAN (July 2016, 7)
- ^ Ethiopia declares emergency situation Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2015, 10)
- ^ Bolivia South America declares emergency due to drought worst in 25 years AFP (January 2016, 11)
- ^ Gambia crisis, neighboring countries temporarily dispatch new president inauguration ceremony in Senegal AFP (January 2017, 1)
- ^ State of emergency declared in western Niger attacked by Islamic extremists in Mali AFP (January 2017, 3)
- ^ Colombian Debris Flow declares emergency BBC (April 2017, 4)
- ^ Egypt continuous explosion, 44 deaths Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2017, 4)
- ^ Moldova Weekly Report [April 4-16] Embassy of Japan in Moldova (May 2017, 5)
- ^ Barbuda, hit by a hurricane, unmanned for the first time in 300 years CNN (January 2017, 9)
- ^ Emergency assistance for volcanic eruption damage in Vanuatu Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2017, 10)
- ^ State of emergency against Madagascar plague Nihombashi Yumeya (October 2017, 10) Read December 4, 2017
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Central America Honduras, violence demonstration after presidential election AFP (December 2017, 12) Read December 3, 2017
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Jamaica's second largest city, frequent murder calls alert tourists AFP (December 2018, 1) Read December 21, 2018
- ^ Maldives Emergency Situation Cancellation(March 2018, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Bolivian domestic affairs and diplomacy (February 2018)(March 2018, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bolivia
- ^ Tonga approaching a powerful cyclone declares an emergency(February 2018, 2) AFP
- ^ Sri Lanka is the epitome of a world that leans to the right-emergency statement due to delay in hate speech regulation(March 2018, 3) Yahoo! News
- ^ Two people dead, three missing in Oman after cyclone(June 2018, 5) Reuters News
- ^ State of emergency declared in the Highlands (Papua New Guinea)(June 2018, 6) PIC
- ^ Hawaii approaching hurricane, president declares emergency AFP (January 2018, 8)
- ^ Issuance of Emergency Situation (Belize City) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2018, 9)
- ^ Cholera expanded in Zimbabwe, 20 dead, state of emergency declared in capital CNN (January 2018, 9)
- ^ Burkina Faso Issuance of Emergency Declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 1)
- ^ "A lot of ferocious polar bears roam... Declaration of emergency on Russian island”. AFP (July 2019, 2). October 2019th, 2Browse.
- ^ "U.S. Trump administration to declare state of emergency for construction of" border wall "". NHK News (NHK) October 2019th, 2Browse.
- ^ Gold mine inundation, 24 deaths declared state of emergency Mainichi Newspaper (a 2019th, 19)
- ^ Sudanese Parliament Approves Presidential Declaration of Emergency AFP (January 2019, 3)
- ^ Cyclone damage and Malawi Seibo Japan (April 2019, 4)
- ^ UN WFP strengthens emergency response to cyclones and floods in Mozambique WFP (March 2019, 3)
- ^ Sri Lanka declares emergency, terrorist attacks, dead 310 Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2019, 4)
- ^ Honduras dengue fever declared emergency declaration Nihombashi Yumeya (January 2019, 6)
- ^ Details of areas subject to emergency declaration Embassy of Japan in Jamaica (September 2019, 7)
- ^ Information on the issuance of hygiene emergency declarations against Zika virus infection and dengue in Peru Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Quarantine Station (August 2019, 8)
- ^ Wildfire state of emergency announced on an island in eastern Greece TV Tokyo News (August 2019, 8)
- ^ Bananas disappear from the table? New Panama disease goes to South America Nationalism (August 2019, 8)
- ^ State of emergency in eastern Chad = President due to intensified collision JIJI (August 2019, 8)
- ^ State of emergency declared in Bolivia due to forest fire sputnik japan (August 2019, 8)
- ^ Hurricane, Florida landing on the 2nd or declaration of emergency(March 2019, 8) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ Guatemala Calling attention to the state of emergency -Nihonbashi Yumeya
- ^ Regarding the issuance of an emergency situation declaration following the radicalization of the Ecuador strike(March 2019, 10) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ "State of emergency declared in Chile's capital, violence over subway fares”. AFP (July 2019, 10). October 2019th, 11Browse.
- ^ Bolivia, presidential election declared emergency situation suspected of intervention(March 2019, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ Israel bombs Gaza and announces emergency(November 2019, 11) TRT
- ^ Congo (joint) monthly report November 2019
- ^ Extension of the emergency declaration Travel Sun
- ^ Albanian earthquake continues to rescue 28 dead(November 2019, 11) JIJI
- ^ Eastern Kingston Area Emergency Declaration Target Area Map (Issued January 2020, 1)(Jan 2020, 1) Embassy of Japan in Jamaica
- ^ "Italy declares emergency with new coronavirus, first domestic infection confirmed“Reuters” May 2020, 1.October 2020th, 2Browse.
- ^ Micronesia Presidential Office Declaration of Emergency for New Coronavirus(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Marshall Suspension of air and sea routes with China, Hong Kong and Macau(March 2020, 2) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ South Korea declares emergency due to spread of coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
- ^ Declaration of emergency due to new pneumonia in Herat, Afghanistan(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
- ^ Presidential Emergency Order in Bishkek Embassy of Japan in Kyrgyzstan
- ^ Declaration of emergency in all three Baltic countries and restrictions on foreign entry(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Declaration of emergency in France following pandemic of new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) ParsToday
- ^ Measures for new coronavirus infection by the Guatemalan government (general)(Read April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Guatemala
- ^ COVID19 Related Information 7(March 2020, 3) Viking Co., Ltd.
- ^ "Hungary declares an emergency Situation ban on new viruses such as Italy”(Japanese). NHK News. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ Confirmed first person infected with new coronavirus, issued national emergency declaration(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Argentinian flight stop from Europe and America in new Corona(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ "Czech Republic declares emergency Slovakia closes border". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ Even in Venezuela in South America, the new Corona economic collapse makes it difficult to prevent(March 2020, 3) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ New Coronavirus: Latvian Government Declares Emergency Situation(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Latvia
- ^ "Trump declares emergency with new Corona”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. October 2020th, 3Browse.
- ^ Confirmed the first new corona infection in Uruguay, currency depreciation(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Estonian Government Announces Emergency Situation Regarding New Corona Infection(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Estonia
- ^ "Spain declares emergency to reduce spread". NHK News. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ National Emergency Declaration on the New Coronavirus in Panama(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Panama
- ^ New Coronavirus-related information (extension of the expiration date of measures to spread infection accompanying declaration of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Bulgaria
- ^ Issuance of emergency declaration regarding the new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in El Salvador
- ^ [Poland] Prohibition of entry by foreigners-With the spread of coronavirus infection [Declaration of emergency](March 2020, 3) European navigation
- ^ Coronavirus infection (Honduras: Stay-at-home order issued: As of 3:16 pm on March 9)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Honduras
- ^ "Libya declares emergency situation Temporary administration, airports etc closed”(Japanese). Tokyo Newspaper. October 2020th, 3Browse.
- ^ "State of emergency declared in Kazakhstan Concerns over spread of infection in Central Africa". NHK News. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ Information on new coronaviruses in Slovakia (declaration of emergency, etc.)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Slovakia
- ^ "(PDF)”. Embassy of Japan in Serbia. October 2020th, 3Browse.
- ^ First community-acquired president declares emergency(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New Coronavirus in Peru (National Emergency Ordinance-Part 2)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Peru
- ^ "South Africa National Emergency Situation Prohibition of entry from Italy". NHK News. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ Alert regarding the new coronavirus (9: State of emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Maldives
- ^ Lebanon defaults, state of emergency declared against coronavirus, major airports closed(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ Armenian government declares emergency against new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New coronavirus (situation until 6:16 on the XNUMXth)(May 2020, 5) Embassy of Japan in Ecuador
- ^ Announcement of the National Emergency Declaration in Costa Rica(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Costa Rica
- ^ Switzerland also declares an emergency situation: store bans, entry restrictions(March 2020, 3) Tokyo Shimbun
- ^ Lebanon, Jordan, and Sudan are limited to economic activities due to extension of international flight suspension and outing restrictions(March 2020, 4) JETRO
- ^ New coronavirus infectious disease (restriction on night out due to public health emergency)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Paraguay
- ^ Finnish government declares emergency with new coronavirus measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ "Romanian government announces emergency”(Japanese). Business report. October 2020th, 3Browse.
- ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
- ^ The government issued an emergency declaration and announced 10 economic measures(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New Coronavirus Measures (Sao Tome and Principe: Emergency State Declaration on Public Health dated 17th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
- ^ Namibia Monthly Report (March 2020)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Namibia
- ^ Information on the new coronavirus in Palau (March 3th)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Palau
- ^ Alert about new coronavirus(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Luxembourg
- ^ Australia's "emergency declaration" de facto ban on new corona(March 2020, 3) Sankei Biz
- ^ [Emergency] [New Coronavirus] Declaration of emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Macedonia
- ^ Declaration of emergency due to expansion of new coronavirus infection, impact on Japanese companies due to blockade of some local governments(March 2020, 3) JETRO
- ^ New Coronavirus Information (South Africa, Eswatini, Lesotho Information)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in South Africa
- ^ Issuance of a curfew by the government of the Dominican Republic(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Dominican Republic
- ^ Haiti first confirmed new coronavirus infected person(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Alert about new coronavirus (partial relaxation of emergency orders)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Samoa
- ^ About National Restrictions Notice(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Tonga
- ^ New coronavirus (infection control measures in the Bahamas)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Bahamas
- ^ "New Coronavirus Brazil declares emergency". NHK News. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ Regarding the National Disaster Declaration by President Mutarika(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Malawi
- ^ New coronavirus (sanitary emergency, long-term stay, health consultation)(2020 March 3) Embassy of Japan in Morocco
- ^ Declaration of national emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Georgia
- ^ Declaration of national health emergency and implementation of inspections for Madagascar immigrants within 14 days(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Madagascar
- ^ a b c d Monthly situation report for 6 countries returning to the East Caribbean countries (March 2020) -Embassy of Japan in Trinidad and Tobago (read April 2020, 4)
- ^ Sierra Leone's New Coronavirus Measures (Part 6): National Emergency Situation (1 Year)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Ghana
- ^ Congo (People) Declaration of Emergency: Border closure, Kinshasa-Prohibition of traffic between states, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Senegal: Prohibition of movement between cities, restrictions on transportation, etc.(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Senegal
- ^ Coronavirus Response <Papua New Guinea> Latest Information(April 2020, 4) Nippon Express Pelican Travel Net
- ^ "NZ declares national emergency”(Japanese). Kobe Shimbun NEXT. October 2020th, 3Browse.
- ^ "Thailand, new corona to declare emergency situation Number of infected people ... (Photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. October 2020th, 3Browse.
- ^ Alert about the new coronavirus (Vanuatu government announced "Emergency Declaration")(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Vanuatu
- ^ Fiji alert for new coronavirus(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Fiji
- ^ New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases: Announcement of Presidential Decree on Declaration of Emergency(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Angola
- ^ Declaration of Emergency Situation in Guinea Due to Epidemic of New Coronavirus: Border Blockade, Regulations on Transportation, etc.(2020 3 年 月 日 26)
- ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Niger (Part 3))(2020 3 年 月 日 27)
- ^ East Timor Banned foreigners from entering the country (March 2020, 3 28:00 to April 00, 4:26)(March 2020, 3) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Announcement of hygiene emergency declaration (Mexico)(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Mexico
- ^ Equatorial Guinea: Prime Minister's Ordinance on Extension of Hygiene Emergency Declaration and New Measures(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Equatorial Guinea
- ^ New Corona virus protection-Botswana declared a state of emergency(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Botswana
- ^ Strengthening measures against the new coronavirus (Togo (Part 3))(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Ivory Coast
- ^ Declaration of emergency situation nationwide, prohibition of going out at night from 4 April, daytime, shops, banks are open(March 2020, 3) Embassy of Japan in Belize
- ^ The "actual situation" of the new corona that cannot be seen in numbers Africa where poverty is serious(March 2020, 4) Sankei Biz
- ^ Ukrainian new coronavirus countermeasures (addition of prohibitions, penalties, etc .: April 4)(2020 4 年 月 日 5)Embassy of Japan in Ukraine
- ^ Prime Minister Abe declared an emergency situation 7 prefectures Effectiveness Until May 5 -NHKNEWSWEB, delivered at 2020:4 on April 7, 18.
- ^ Declaration of emergency, spread all over the country Until next month, 6th month Corona infection explosion sense of crisis-Government(April 2020, 4) Jiji Press
- ^ Declaration of national emergency with new coronavirus countermeasures (Ethiopia)(March 2020, 4) JETRO
- ^ Liberia National Emergency Situation (April 2020, 4-)(March 2020, 4) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ Downtown only watched by mannequins(February 2020, 4) AFP
- ^ Temporary interruption of inter-city traffic in Mongolia(March 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Gabon
- ^ [Correction] New Coronavirus Measures (Health Emergency Declaration: Great Libreville Blockade)(April 2020, 4) Embassy of Japan in Mongolia
- ^ Is corona infected person outbreak in North Korea?(March 2020, 7) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ [Summary] Response to new coronavirus infections(January 2021, 1) WAVOC
- ^ 30 countries around the world are implementing the strictest measures such as emergency declarations and city blockades(March 2020, 3) Japanese version of People's Network
- ^ New virus, which country will reach the end in the world?(April 2020, 4) BBC NEWS JAPAN
- ^ Somalia declares emergency situation Kenya is the worst outbreak in the last 70 years(February 2020, 2) Japan Agricultural Newspaper
- ^ Fuel spill accident in Russia's Arctic, climate change-permafrost melts(June 2020, 6) bloomberg
- ^ "Ministry of Agriculture declares phytosanitary emergency for South American grasshopper hordes”(Japanese). JETRO. October 2020th, 7Browse.
- ^ Lebanon Declaration of Emergency Situation, Beirut Explosion Receives 135 Dead(August 2020, 8) Reuters
- ^ MOL's ship aground, Mauritius “environmental emergency declaration”... Request for heavy oil recovery cooperation(So-net, August 2020, 8)
- ^ California wildfire declares "emergency"(ParsToday, August 2020, 8)
- ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(ASC, September 2020, 9)
- ^ Liberia declares state of emergency for sex crimes(AFP, September 2020, 9)
- ^ Hygiene emergency declaration reissued throughout France(March 2020, 10) JETRO
- ^ Spain declares state of emergency again Italy also restricts food and beverage business(March 2020, 10) Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ Extension of the Portuguese State of Emergency (until December 2020, 12)(March 2020, 12) Nihombashi Yumeya
- ^ "State of emergency in the Kyrgyz capital spreads political unrest-Livedoor News”(Japanese). news.livedoor.com. October 2020th, 10Browse.
- ^ "Thailand's big blow, anti-government demonstration continued, state of emergency, capital outflow and tourism reconstruction fear of retreat"SankeiBiz" Sankei Digital, October 2020, 10.October 2020th, 11Browse.
- ^ "Tochigi Prefecture Declaration Cancellation Relaxation is step by step". NHK News. October 2021th, 2Browse.
- ^ "State of emergency Canceled today in 6 prefectures excluding the Greater Tokyo Area". NHK News. October 2021th, 3Browse.
- ^ Announced tomorrow's state of emergency, to announce restaurants that do not respond to time saving requests at XNUMX:XNUMX pm(January 2021, 1) TBS NEWS
- ^ "Declaration of emergency Expanded to 11 prefectures Government refrains from going out unnecessarily during the day". NHK News. October 2020th, 1Browse.
- ^ Malaysia declares state of emergency in Corona Possibility of prolonging administration(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 1)
- ^ "Declaration of emergency, announced in Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo ... XNUMX days from XNUMXth to May XNUMXth". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head Office (September 2021, 4). October 2021th, 4Browse.
- ^ "Government decides to extend state of emergency in 4 prefectures Aichi and Fukuoka until 31st". Mainichi Newspapers. Mainichi Shimbun (September 2021, 5). October 2021th, 5Browse.
- ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Declaration of emergency in Hokkaido, Okayama, Hiroshima Government policy change subcommittee approval". NHK News. October 2021th, 5Browse.
- ^ "Declaration of emergency in Okinawa Prefecture Government officially decided until June 6". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 5). October 2021th, 5Browse.
- ^ "Declaration of emergency in 9 prefectures Decided to extend until 20th next month Government". NHK NEWS WEB. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (September 2021, 5). October 2021th, 5Browse.
- ^ a b "Handing over the cooperation money to the restaurant ... The fourth "declaration" was announced in Tokyo, Okinawa was extended". Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Head Office (September 2021, 7). October 2021th, 7Browse.
- ^ "Texas Retreats Economic Resumption-Houston Declares State of Emergency”(Japanese). Bloomberg.com. October 2020th, 6Browse.
- ^ London UK declares serious incident, corona infection "out of control"(REUTERS, January 2021, 1)
- ^ Jakarta declares emergency in new Corona request to stop using office -Nihon Keizai Shimbun
- ^ "Foot-and-mouth disease, culling of more than 11 heads, Chief Cabinet Secretary, considering all heads" Asahi Shimbun, May 2010, 5 evening edition (Tokyo head office version), page 18.
- ^ "Yahoo! search". search.yahoo.co.jp. October 2021th, 1Browse.
- ^ Dear citizens, New Coronavirus emergency declaration - Hokkaido GovernmentOfficial homepage, viewed on February 2020, 2.
- ^ Emergency Declaration (Corona) - Hokkaido GovernmentOfficial homepage, viewed on February 2020, 3.
- ^ "Aichi prefecture's own "emergency declaration" seeks refrain from going out and moving”. NHKNEWSWEB. October 2020th, 4Browse.
- ^ Aichi Prefecture issues emergency declaration(Chunichi Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
- ^ a b “Municipal movements one after another The government is cautious about adding more Emergency declaration one week” (jp). Mainichi Daily News(July 2020, 4) October 2020th, 11Browse.
- ^ Gifu Prefecture declares a second state of emergency(Chunichi Shimbun, August 2020, 7)
- ^ Governor of Mie Prefecture "One step before an emergency" New virus infections one after another Emergency alert declaration(Ise Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
- ^ "3 Municipalities to "declare a joint emergency" Nasu Shiobara, Otawara, Nasu | Local topics, society | Shimotsuke Shinbun "SOON" News | New pneumonia-COVID19- | Shimotsuke Shinbun SOON”(Japanese). Shimotsuke Newspaper SOON. October 2020th, 5Browse.
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture's original "emergency declaration" Call for refraining from going out without unnecessary urgency(NHK, July 2020, 7)
- ^ Okinawa Prefecture's original warning level "Infestation spread" to be extended to the declaration(NHK, July 2020, 8)
- ^ Okinawa extends its own state of emergency again until September 9th Be wary of spreading infection in the old tray(Ryukyu Shimpo, August 2020, 8)
- ^ Fukuoka Prefecture Official Home Page "Fukuoka Prefecture Corona Warning" Activation and Future Responses (August 8)
- ^ "Fukuoka Corona Warning" cancellation is also decided to partially review the trigger index ". West Japan Newspaper (Nishi-Nippon Shimbun). (March 2020, 10) October 2020th, 10Browse.
- ^ "Fukuoka Prefecture to activate its own" corona warning "... the second time since August". Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomiuri Shimbun). (October 2020, 12) October 2020th, 12Browse.
- ^ Okayama Prefecture Medical Emergency Declaration “Even if infected, it is not always possible to be hospitalized”(NHK, July 2020, 12)
- ^ Governor Miyagi Murai issues his own state of emergency due to a rapid increase in infected people(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 3)
- ^ Unique emergency declaration for Yamagata City The number of people infected with the new corona is increasing rapidly(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 3)
- ^ Declaration of emergency in Sagae City New Corona(Yamagata News Online, March 2021, 3)
- ^ Fukui Prefecture's own "state of emergency" spread of new corona infection(Nikkei, viewed May 2021, 5)
- ^ <Breaking news> Ishikawa Prefecture declares its own emergency situation Requests to refrain from going out unnecessarily after XNUMX:XNUMX pm Until the end of May(Hokkoku Shimbun DIGITAL, May 2021, 5)
- ^ Yemen and cholera continue to grow, killing 1 in a month Asahi Shimbun Digital (June 2017, 6) Read June 3, 2017
- National emergency right
- Lockdown (blockade)
- Emergency law
- Severe disaster
- Emergency basic law
- Exceptional state
- New influenza measures special measures law
- Emergency declaration (avoid ambiguity)
- Priority measures such as prevention of spread
Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.
Infection control can be roughly divided into two.
- Preventive activity
- Trend measures
- Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.
Infection control in medical institutions
Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.
actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventableInfection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.
Preventing the spread of infection
Nosocomial infectionOf each pathogen to prevent transmission and protect health care workers themselves from infectionTransmission routeAccording to(I.e.Stand upprocedureTheWell-knownThere is a need to.
Standard precautions centered on hand washing
Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847 ) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843 ), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to.Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing"..
Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United StatesRequires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.
In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control CouncilAnd other guidelines were formulated in 2002.
- It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
- Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
- When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
- Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.
In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.
Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation
- Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
- In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.
Isolation of droplet infection
- A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
- When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.
Contact infection isolation
- Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
- Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
- Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.
The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.
Personal protective equipment
(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.
In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.
Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.
Vaccination of medical staff
Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.
Survey during an epidemic
When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.
Infection control and medical epidemiology training system
There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.
In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.
In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).
Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee
- The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).
Infection control profession
- Infectious disease specialist
- Infection control doctor(ICD)
- Infection control nurse(Infectious disease control nurse) (ICN)
- Infection control pharmacist(ICPH)
- Infection control certified clinical microbiological technologist(ICMT)
- (Type XNUMX/Type XNUMX)
- Medical environment manager
- ^ Weinstein et al
- ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
- ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
- ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
- ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
- ^ CDC Vaccine Site
- ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.
- Infection control
- Infection/Epidemic/Zoonosis/Infection control clothing/quarantine
- Nosocomial infection/Community infection(Ichii infection)
- Japan Society for Environmental Infections/Japanese Society of Infectious Diseases/Japanese Society for Oral Infections
- Public health/Epidemiology/Pharmacy
- Medical science/Dentistry/Pharmacy/Veterinary medicine/Bacteriology(Oral bacteriology)/Virology/Myciology/Microbiology
- Infection control doctor(Infection control doctor)
- Infection control team/Infection Control Committee
- American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)/National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- Biosafety level
- Avoid hospital,,Cordon sanitaire (medicine)
- Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, APIC Is a group of infection control activists led by nurses and medical technicians.
- The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, SHEAIs mainly conducted by doctors and doctoral level epidemiologists.