Portal field news

Portal field news

in

😷 | New Corona XNUMX new people in Akita prefecture


写真 

New Corona XNUMX new people in Akita Prefecture

 
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, JR East Akita branch office announced the infection of a man in his twenties who belongs to the basketball club.
 

It was found that XNUMX new people were infected with the new coronavirus in the prefecture.Infected in Akita City by health center XNUMX ... → Continue reading

 AAB Akita Asahi Broadcasting

This is a news account of the AAB Akita Asahi TV station in Akita Prefecture.
Politics, economy, sports, events in the prefecture, etc.
We will tell you various information about Akita.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

East Japan Railway Company Akita Branch

East Japan Railway > East Japan Railway Company Akita Branch

East Japan Railway Company Akita Branch(Higashi nihonkoku tetsudo akitashisha) isAkitaAkita CityIt is inEast Japan Railway(JR East) regional office.AkitaAkita CityNakadori1-chome 1-XNUMX (Akita StationLocated in the west exit).

Overview

1950 (Showa25 years)May 8,Japan National RailwayAkita with the reorganization of (JNR)Railway Management BureauIs installed as.1958 The government building was rebuilt in 33,Privatization of the national railway divisionLater, there were many changes such as the transfer of jurisdiction.

Since the branch office buildings became noticeably obsolete, and the three buildings were dispersed and used for business, a new office building was constructed close to the old office building.2017 (Heisei19 years)May 3The inauguration ceremony was held in[1],same yearMay 4Business started in the new office building from[2].. In the former site of the old buildingABS Akita BroadcastingHas moved to a new building.

History

Jurisdiction line

Tohoku regionOf which, with AkitaYamagata内 のUetsu Main LinePart ofAomoriIt has jurisdiction mainly in the western part.It follows the flow of the former Japanese National Railways Akita Railway Administration Bureau. 2021May 3At that time, a total of 634.9kmConventional line, 143 stations have jurisdiction[30].

route

■ Branch boundaryApplicable when is matched with traffic lightsparking lot(station-Signal fieldEtc.) is treated as a boundary station, but when the branch office is on a closed section, the stop inside the boundary line is described. The lines marked with ◇ are all within the management section, and the lines marked with ● are only within the management section on other lines.

Route namesectionNumber of stationsRemarks
Ou Main LineHospital station[Note 2] - Shin-Aomori Station[Note 3](Except inside Shin-Aomori Station)58this houseOmagari Station - Akita StationBetweenAkita ShinkansenTrain also runs
Kitakami LineKurosawa Station[Note 4] - Yokote Station[*1]5 
Tazawako LineShidouchi signal field[Note 5] - Tazawako Station - Omagari Station[*2]10Akita Shinkansen trains also run over all sections
Uetsu Main LineMototetsu Station[Note 6] -Akita Station[*3]21 
◇Oga LineOiwake Station - Oga Station[*4]8 
◇Gonō senHigashi Noshiro Station - Kawabe Station[*5]41 
●Wreath line(Nagaki Bridge Todaikan)[Note 7] - Odate Station[*6]0 
Notes on the number of stations
  1. ^ Yokote Station, which connects to the Ou Main Line, is not included.
  2. ^ Omagari Station connected to the Ou Main Line is not included.
  3. ^ Akita Station, which connects to the Ou Main Line, is not included.
  4. ^ Oiwake Station connected to the Ou Main Line is not included.
  5. ^ Higashi-Noshiro Station and Kawabe Station, which are connected to the Ou Main Line, are not included.
  6. ^ Odate Station is counted as a station on the Ou Main Line.

*For snow removal work, the Ou Main Line isStationNorth, Tazawako LineDaichizawa signal fieldI am in charge of the west.

Old jurisdiction line

The Ou Main Line until the end of ShowaYonezawa Station --Other than between Shin-Aomori StationSazawa LineWhole line,Yonesaka LineYonezawa Station- Imaizumi Station(Old at this stationNagai LineTo join)Senzan Line OfUzen-Chitose StationA few hundred meters fromRikuu East Line OfShinjo Station - Minamishinjo Station(Because it runs alongside the Ou Line to this station)Rikuu Nishi Line(Amarume Station(Except)) was also in charge of each section. However,Yamagata ShinkansenWith the opening of business in mind, the management classification was reviewed,Sendai branch office(At that time, it was transferred to the Tohoku region headquarters). 20077In the futureTohoku ShinkansenWith the opening of the extension of Shin-Aomori Station, Shin-Aomori Station- Aomori StationMa was transferred to the Morioka branch.

On the contrary, the Kitakami Line is the whole line except for the Yokote StationMorioka Railway Management Bureau→Morioka BranchWas in the jurisdiction.

If these are deducted, it agrees with the jurisdiction of the former Akita Railway Management Bureau.

Incidentally,Wreath lineExcept for Odate Station, all lines including Akita Prefecture are in the so-called “Morioka Branch”EnclaveIt is a line" and is not under the jurisdiction of the Akita branch office (Morioka Station - Koma StationOld betweenTohoku Main Line IGR Iwate Galaxy RailwayBecause it was converted to).

Branch organization

Transportation Department

  • Planning Division
    • General Affairs/Contract Group
    • Crew group
    • Transportation Planning Group
  • Sales Section
    • Sales Planning Group
    • Service group
    • Sales planning group
    • (AkitaMarsCommand)
    • Advertising Development Group
    • Travel group
  • Business section
    • Business Development Group
    • Business management group
  • Transportation Division
    • Train planning group
    • Operation planning group
    • Command room (transportation command, passenger command, operation command, Shinkansen command)
  • Vehicle Section
    • Vehicle group
    • Inspection group

Remarks

  • The sales section is a section composed of a plurality of groups. Group leaders are assigned to each group as "sales section, deputy section manager" and direct each group.
  • Section managers include "sales section manager," "service section manager," "sales promotion section manager," and "travel agency section manager."
  • Regarding the position of general manager, in addition to the “General Manager”, “Equipment Manager”, and “Transport Manager”, there is no “Sales Department” in the Akita branch office, but there is a “Sales Manager” who oversees all sales activities.

Audit Office

  • Audit group

General Affairs Department

  • Administration Division
    • General Affairs & Legal Group
    • Planning group
    • Development group
    • Public relations group
  • Human Resources Department
    • Planning/Prize Group
    • Appointment/Education Group
    • Personnel/Employment Group
  • Accounting department
    • Preliminary settlement group
    • Material group
    • Cash group
    • Audit group
  • Safety measures room
    • Research Safety Group
  • Planning room

General training center

Equipment Department

  • Planning Division
    • Planning/Planning Group
    • Asset consultation/site group
  • Track maintenance section
    • Track maintenance technology and planning group
  • Equipment Civil Engineering Section
    • Civil Engineering Planning Group
    • Passenger equipment group
  • Electric power section
    • Power Planning Group
    • Power conservation group
    • Electric power command
  • Signal Communication Division
    • Planning group
    • Signal group
    • Communication group
    • Signal communication command

Division of district

Within the Akita branch office, the station is divided into four areas.

  • As of April 2021, 3 (4nd year of Reiwa)
地区Management stationManned station under the control of management station
Prefectural South District Cooperation Office
(Omagari station management)
Yokote Station○Yuzawa Station,Yokobori Station, ○Jumonji Station,Iizume Station,Ainono Station
Omagari Station(○ Omagari Station Shinkansen transfer gate),Jinguji Station,Kariwano Station,Mineyoshigawa Station,Ugosakai Station, ○Tazawako Station, ○Kakunodate Station,Ugo Nagano Station
Central District Cooperation Office
(Akita Station management)
Akita StationWada Station, (○ Akita Station Shinkansen transfer gate/Shinkansen central ticket gate), ○Shinya Station, ○Ugoushijima Station
Tsuchizaki Station○Oiwake Station,Okubo Station,Ugo Iizuka Station,Ikawa Sakura Station, ○Hachirogata Station,Nita Station, ○Funakoshi Station, ○Oga Station
Ugohonjo StationYusa Station, ○Kisakata Station,Gimpo Station,Nigaho Station,Nishime Station,Ugoiwatani Station,Ugo Kameda Station,Iwaki Minato Station
Prefecture North District Cooperation Office
(Higashi Noshiro Station Supervisor)
Higashi Noshiro StationShikato Station,Moridake Station,Futatsui Station, ○Takanosu Station,Hayaguchi Station, ○Odate Station, ○Noshiro Station,Mukaishiro Station,Akita Shirakami Station
Tsugaru District Cooperation Office
(Hirosaki station supervisor)
Hirosaki StationIkariseki Station,Owani Onsen Station, ○Kawabe Station,Kita-Tokiwa Station, ○Namioka Station
Goshogawara Station○Fukaura Station, ○Ajigasawa Station,Mutsu Morita Station,Wooden station

Depot

  • Akita General Vehicle Center --Former Tsuchizaki Factory. In addition to modifying and inspecting vehicles within the JR East jurisdiction, we also manufacture station equipment used at major stations. In JR East2004 (16)5As a counter-terrorism measure, about 2,300 trash cans whose sides can be seen through are installed in sequence from the main stations, all of which were built at the Akita Comprehensive Vehicle Center.
    • South Akita Center(Akita Aki) --Former Minami Akita Driver's Office → Former Akita Vehicle Center.The conventional line department of the former Akita Vehicle Center was established due to organizational reform.[31] .
  • Akita Shinkansen Vehicle Center-The Shinkansen vehicle division of the former Akita Vehicle CenterShinkansen headquartersEstablished with the transfer to[32] .

Crew ward office

Driver/conductor

Facility maintenance area

Track related ward offices

  • AkitaTrack maintenanceTechnology center
  • Omagari Track Maintenance Center
    • Yokote Area Center
  • Higashi Noshiro Line Technical Center
    • Odate dispatch
  • Ugohonjoho Line Technical Center
  • Hirosaki Line Technical Center

Electrical ward office

  • Akita Electric Power Technology Center
    • Hirosaki Electric Power Maintenance Center
  • Akita Signal and Communication Technology Center
    • Hirosaki Signal Maintenance Center

Other ward offices

  • Akita Civil Engineering Center
    • Hirosaki dispatch
  • Akita Building Technology Center
  • Akita Machinery Technology Center

Introduction of automatic ticket gate

10 best passengers (2019)

Rankingstation nameDaily average
Boarding personnel
1Akita Station10,390
2Hirosaki Station4,503
3Tsuchizaki Station2,032
4Omagari Station1,957
5Oiwake Station1,618
6Yokote Station1,194
7Ugohonjo Station1,064
8Shinya Station942
9Namioka Station909
10Odate Station874

Mascot character

From the days of the National Railways Akita Railway Administration BureauAcky A mascot character called (Acky) was set.

1985 (60), the Akitetsu Bureau is considering promoting with a mascot character for sales promotion, and this proposal was decided by the project team's idea without being deliberated at a meeting in the station. did.The image character is initiallyAkitaHowever, since the stations of Yamagata and Aomori prefectures are also included in the jurisdiction of the Akitetsu Bureau, it was decided to make a rare animal a character.LeopardWas chosen. The character, which expresses that the employees touch with heart by making the nose a heart shape, was named "Acqui" in the open call for participants.

"Akki" became popular mainly with children, and several types of character goods were released, and it was a great success as it was frequently visited by other railway management stations.In addition, the train nickname of the special train to Akita Hiroshi '86 was changed to "Akki", and the nickname of the Western-style diesel train wasElegance ackieIn addition, after the privatization, the name of the directly managed hamburger store was also called "Panaderia Acqui".

But,1989 In (XNUMX), an instruction was given by the upper management of the company to "eliminate the heritage of the JNR era", and "Akki" was also included in the target.Character goods are no longer sold, and "Akki" is used in vehicles.Door stickerIt became only.

Cooperation with Japan Post Co., Ltd.

2018May 6ToJapan Post Co., Ltd.And East Japan Railway Company have signed an "Agreement on Revitalization of the Community and Society of JR East with Japan Post".

2019 (First year of Reiwa)May 12-12 daysBased on the agreement, Japan Post Co., Ltd. Tohoku branch office and East Japan Railway Company Akita branch office and Co., Ltd.JR East LogisticsUtilizes the network of each company to produce fresh agricultural products from Akita prefecture.Akita Central Post OfficeBy postal car to Akita Station, from Akita Station to Akita Shinkansen (Komachi) AtTokyo StationUntil then, JR East Logistics Co., Ltd. will carry out a logistics trial to transport by truck from Tokyo Station to Omiya Station, where "Akita Sangyo City" is open.[33]..Third case after Miyagi and Nagano prefectures[33]..In the future, he wants to establish a route to sell on the same day to the metropolitan area.[33]..Transportation of goods by passenger train is "Mixed passenger currency"reference.

Related Companies

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Since he was originally from Akita City and his brother was working as a managing conductor at the Japanese National Railways at that time, it was realized by negotiating with Sun Music, to which the Akita Bureau belongs.
  2. ^ StationNear the entrance of Shinjokata of the in-house tunnel betweenSendai branch officeThere is a boundary with.
  3. ^ Shin-Aomori Station premises are under the jurisdiction of the Morioka branch office. The traffic signal inside the station is the branch office.
  4. ^ Yudakogen StationBetween Akita Prefecture andIwateThere is a border with the Morioka branch near the prefectural border.
  5. ^ Daichizawa signal fieldAcross the prefectural border between Iwate and AkitaSenwa tunnelThere is a boundary with the Morioka branch office inside.
  6. ^ Sakata StationBetweenSea of ​​Japan Tohoku ExpresswayFrom the intersection with the first of the Akita sideRailroad crossingの 間 にNiigata branchThere is a boundary with.
  7. ^ Todaikan StationThere is a boundary with the Morioka branch between the Nagakigawa bridge and the second Katayama railroad crossing (the first railroad crossing on the Odate side).

Source

  1. ^ a b "Completion of the new JR Akita office building, celebrating the people involved in Nakadori, Akita City" "Akita Kaishin Shimpo] November 2017, 3
  2. ^ "Akita) New JR branch office building completed as a pioneer in urban revitalization". Asahi Shimbun digital(July 2017, 3). http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASK3T43CYK3TUBUB002.html October 2017th, 4Browse. 
  3. ^ 8th year of TaishoRailway InstituteNotification No. 20 (May 8, 5 "Official gazette』Published in No. 2021)
  4. ^ 11 Railway Institute Notification No. 265 (published in "Government Bulletin" No. 11 dated September 9, 1)
  5. ^ Notification No. 17 of the Ministry of Railways in 203 (published in "Government Bulletin" No. 17 dated September 9, 9)
  6. ^ a b "Akita Station-Higashi Noshiro Station 100th Anniversary Magazine" p.154
  7. ^ a b "Akita Station-Higashi Noshiro Station 100th Anniversary Magazine" p.181
  8. ^ a b "Akita Station-Higashi Noshiro Station 100th Anniversary Magazine" p.182
  9. ^ "Akita Railway 100 Episodes" p.239
  10. ^ "Akita Railway 100 Episodes" p.240
  11. ^ "Akita's 60th Anniversary of Railways and the Akita Shinkansen" p.XNUMX
  12. ^ "Akita Railway 100 Episodes" pp.194-195
  13. ^ "Akita's 46th Anniversary of Railways and the Akita Shinkansen" p.XNUMX
  14. ^ a b "Akita Station-Higashi Noshiro Station 100th Anniversary Magazine" p.184
  15. ^ "Akita's 53th Anniversary of Railways and the Akita Shinkansen" p.XNUMX
  16. ^ "Akita's 61th Anniversary of Railways and the Akita Shinkansen" p.XNUMX
  17. ^ "Akita's 62th Anniversary of Railways and the Akita Shinkansen" p.1991 and "Akita Station View Plaza Tomorrow Open" "Akita Sakigake Shinpo" December 12, 19 morning edition
  18. ^ "Akita Station-Higashi Noshiro Station 100th Anniversary Magazine" p.185
  19. ^ "Kitakami, Tazawako Line branch office boundary review JR East". Traffic newspaper (Kotsu Shimbunsha): p. 1. (July 1996, 9) 
  20. ^ “JR Akita branch homepage opened to provide information on various areas within the jurisdiction”. Traffic newspaper (Kotsu Shimbunsha): p. 3. (July 1997, 3) 
  21. ^ "JR East Akita branch office, cooperation agreement with 4 local railway companies"Nihon Keizai ShimbunNews site (July 2018, 7) Browsed October 30, 2018 and ``Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun] August 2018, 8 (Food, daily necessities, service side)
  22. ^ "Tripartite cooperation agreement approach" Opening of stay-type accommodation facilities JR East Akita Branch Press Release (June 2019, 6) Viewed June 19, 2019
  23. ^ “<JR Higashi> Akita's first student condominium construction with meals open in spring 20”. ""Kahoku Shimpo』. (August 2017, 12). http://www.kahoku.co.jp/tohokunews/201712/20171216_42030.html October 2017th, 12Browse. [Broken link]
  24. ^ “Proceed with planning for a student apartment and camp with meals at the Northern Station Gate Akita Akita Station East Exit”. JR Akita branch office. (December 2017, 12). http://www.jreast.co.jp/akita/press/pdf/20171215-2.pdf October 2017th, 12Browse. 
  25. ^ “Old private house hotel in Kakunodate, Akita, opened in March 20 JR East”"Nikkei". (October 2019, 11). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO52173040U9A111C1L01000/ October 2020th, 2Browse. 
  26. ^ Yukito Munakata "Gono Line New Electric Train GV-E400 Series Operation Start" "Akita Sakigake Shinpo" December 2020, 12
  27. ^ Moe Nara "New station in the prefecture for the first time in 20 years Izumi-Sotoasa Station opened" "Akita Sakigake Shinpo" March 2021, 3 Page 14
  28. ^ Full-page advertisement "Opening at JR Akita Station on Wednesday, March 3! Station Tabi Concierge" "Akita Sakigake Shinpo" March 24, 2021 3 pages
  29. ^ About the opening of the "Akita 4 Combined Railway Expo" WEB page JR East Akita Branch Press Release (June 2021, 7) Viewed June 1, 2021
  30. ^ Notice of Convocation of the 34th Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders --Business Report (PDF) p.43 --East Japan Railway Company Retrieved June 2021, 6.
  31. ^ "East Japan Railway Company Akita General Vehicle Center South Akita Center AutumnAki"JR Train Organization Table 2021 Summer" Hiromichi Ota, Publisher Yuji Yokoyama, Kotsu Shimbunsha <JRR Edition>, May 2021, 5, p. 24.ISBN 978-4-330-02521-6.
  32. ^ "East Japan Railway Company Akita Shinkansen Vehicle Center TrunkAki"JR Train Organization Table 2021 Summer" Hiromichi Ota, Publisher Yuji Yokoyama, Kotsu Shimbunsha <JRR Edition>, May 2021, 5, p. 24.ISBN 978-4-330-02521-6.
  33. ^ a b c Tomoe Kawamura "Vegetables from the prefecture, moved to Tokyo in Komachi JR East Post test to establish sales route" "Akita Sakigake Shinpo" December 2019, 12 7st page

References

  • Toshio Tamiya "Akita Railway 100 Episodes"Mumeisha Publishing,Year 1983
  • Toshio Tamiya, Akita's 2th Anniversary of Railways and the Akita Shinkansen, R1997 Associates, XNUMX
  • "Akita Station-Higashi Noshiro Station 100th Anniversary Magazine" East Japan Railway Company Akita Branch, 2003

Related item

外部 リンク

basketball

basketball(basketballEn-us-basketball.ogg voice[HELP/File]) Is1891 ToAmericaInternational YMCA PE Teacher,NaismithTwo teams of 5 to 5 in a sport devised byballHandle by hand, rectangularCoatsRing-shaped with a height of 305 cm (10 ft) and a diameter of 45 cm (18 in) installed at both ends aboveバ ス ケ ッ トPassing the ball from above (goal) Compete for pointsBall skillsIs.The official game is played as an indoor competition.In a narrow sense, it refers to a dedicated ball used in this competition.Basket ballAlso translated as (rokyu).Local rules apply depending on the country / region, age and gender of the event.Also known as a sport where height is closely related to superiority[1].

Outline of the competition

basketballBecome the goal ofバ ス ケ ッ トIt is,FIBAOfficial rules[2]Then, the inner diameter of 305 cm installed horizontally at a height of 45 cmringIt consists of a (rim) and a net of about 45 cm that allows the ball to pass downward, woven with a white string attached to it.Various dimensions such as installation height vary depending on the competition age and equipment environment.

ThisBasket (ring)By passing the ball from top to bottom in the regular waygoalIs established and the score is recorded.Attacker (Offense) The team is a playerdribbleCarry the ball with or between playerspathWithin a certain period of time while doingshotAim for points (scores) by achieving goals.In addition, the ball once carried to the front courtBack coatIt cannot be returned to.Defensive side without attack right (defense) The team will play a defensive play that blocks the goal and deprives the player of the right to attack in a prescribed manner.Ball possession (right to attack)If there is a score,Violation(Violation in game operation) orfoulIf there isQuarter(Break during the match) Move between teams at the start.During the matchField goalIs two points (1 points) or two points with one success, depending on the position where the shot was shot.Three points(3 points) is recorded.Given by fouls or penalties for violationsFree throwThen, depending on the case, the number of throws is decided between one throw and three throws (1 to 3 throws), and one point is recorded for each successful throw.At the end of the match time, the team with the most points wins.Basically there is no draw, usually about half the time of a quarterOver timeRepeat (OT) until the victory or defeat is decided.

Features of the competition

The feature of the basketball game is

  • Basically, you cannot move while holding the ball
  • Bounce the ball on the floor when moving continuouslydribble(Ball carrying), this dribble is allowed only once in the player's series of plays
  • Do not use the lower body for the ball
  • There are relatively many provisions regarding interpersonal contact, and intentional contact and grasping the other person's body and clothes are prohibited.
  • The goal is that the score differs depending on the position where the shot was shot.
  • The offensive and defensive flow is fluid and can occur in many situations during the match.
  • Most plays have a time limit to keep the game going

A lot of exercise and physical ability is required to play at a high level

And so on.

As in history, the rules were created by one inventor,NBADue to the fact that it has developed along with professional sports, it also has an aspect as a sport to show, so it is one of the sports with complicated rules.On the other hand, in terms of sports to enjoy, if you have a goal ring and a ball, you can enjoy playing from one person, and you can play the game in earnest with 1 on 1 (1 to 1) or 1 on 3 (3 to 3). You can also do it.In the United States, rings are installed in public places such as parks, and the common name for goal rings has changed to "hopeIt is also called.

History

Birth

Naismith's idea

Basketball is one of the few competitions devised and popularized by a single person.The inventorAmerica,MassachusettsSpring fieldInternationalYMCAI was an instructor in the physical education department of a training school (currently Springfield College).カナダperson'sJames Naismithso,1891 The rules he came up with are the prototype of today's basketball.[3][4][5][6]

In the summer of 1891, the International YMCA Training School held a training course for physical education and sports instructors, but at that time, YMCA in each state of the United States was dissatisfied with the existing program because students were less motivated about indoor gymnastics-centered programs in winter. There was a need for a program that was recreational and had a competitive element.[7][4][8]..In the fall of the same year, LH Gulick, the director of the physical education department, gathered five physical education instructors and examined them several times, and concluded that there was no choice but to create a new sport.[7][9]..Naismith, who was a physical education instructorAmerican Football,サ ッ カ ー,LacrosseI tried to incorporate such as as an indoor game, but it ended in failure[7][10][11]..Therefore, Naismith decided to take out the elements of each game, use the ball, and do not run while holding the ball in order to eliminate the tackle because it is necessary to remove rough play.[7][10]..It was also considered to reduce physical contact between competitors to improve safety during the game, which was done in Canada, where Naismith spent his childhood.OntarioInspired by the target play of Duck on the Rock, we decided to set the goal horizontally above the player's head.[7][10][12].

The 13 rules that Naismith first devised are now around 250, but the format of the game is basically almost unchanged.[13].

First match

1891 May 12, The first match was held at the International YMCA Training School, where 18 students were divided into 9 students each.[14][15]..For the ball of the first gamesoccer ballWas used[16]..Naismith envisioned a 45 cm square box for the goal, but he couldn't prepare it, so insteadpeachA basket to put ingymnasiumWill be installed on the balcony of[14][16][17]..The height of the goal at this time, 10 feet (3.05 m), has not changed since then and continues to the present.[14]..In addition, the size of the floor was about 11m x 15m.[16]..Among the 18 players in this world's first match are JapaneseGenzaburo IshikawaWas included[14][15]..In the first game, about an hour after the toss-up, the shot of the first grader WR Chase was decided and a point was scored and the game ended.[18]..The name of the sport was named "basketball" because it became a hot topic between Naismith and student Frank Mann prior to the first match and used a peach basket.[17].

After that, it was introduced in the YMCA training school public relations magazine "The Triangle" (January 1892, 1 issue).[8],1892 It was officially named "basketball" in January.[14]..Also, at the beginning, the notation in English was "Basket ball" in two words,1921 Officially became "Basketball" in one word[19].

Number of players

Naismith did not specify the number of teams in the rules of Article 13 because he thought that both teams could have the same number of people.[20].Cornell UniversityThen, the match was played between 50 people and 50 people, but it is an anecdote that E. Hitchcock, the homeroom teacher, said that the gymnasium could be destroyed.[21]..The number of players will be gradually limited thereafter,1894 The number of players will be 5, 7, and 9 according to the floor area.[14]..The size of the court and the number of players have been confirmed as they are now1897 It was after becoming[22]..Players on the court can be replaced at a limited time, and even if there is a vacancy due to a foul or injury, it can be replenished as a replacement.There is no limit to the number of changes, so one player can change many times.

Goal shape

At the beginning of the idea, the goal was taken out using a ladder or a stick every time a shot was decided.[22]..The peach basket in the goal was fragile and was soon replaced by a metal cylindrical goal.[22][23]..The shape of the goal changed little by little after that, and according to one theory, it became the shape of the goal as it is now, which is net-like and has a cut bottom.1912 From 1913 to XNUMX[22][24]..The inner diameter of the ring, 45 cm, has not changed at all since the first match.[25].

Backboard

Basketball became enthusiastic and popular, but it was often blocked by spectators reaching out from the railings and railings on the gymnasium.[26]..This was a later backboard, initially a wire mesh, but since 1904 wood boards of 1.8 cm or more have been used.[26]..However, since it became invisible to the audience, transparent plastic plates were later used.[26]..The position of the backboard was initially on the end line, but when the goal moves to the inside of the 61 cm court, the backboard will be integrated with the goal and placed inside the end line. Became[27].

development

Formation of FIBA

Basketball has been popular from the beginning,Smith collegeBy Sender Berenson, who was a PE teacher atWomen's basketballDuring the year, it began to compete in various parts of the United States, and rapidly spread to countries around the world through the International YMCA Training School.Against this background,1904 OfSt. Louis OlympicsWas held as a demonstration sport[5](1904 から1924 UntilOlympicConducted as an open competition).1932 In 6 monthInternational Basketball Federation (FIBA)Was formed,1936 OfBerlin olympicWas adopted as an official event for the men's Olympics[5]. Also,1976 OfMontreal olympicWas also adopted for the official women's event[5].

Creation and development of professional league

In the United States1946 The Men's Professional Basketball League BAA was founded in Japan and merged with NBL three years later.NBAWas born.1967 To the opposing leagueABAWas established and threatened its position,1976 The ABA has disappeared, and the NBA continues to reign as the world's premier league.

Dream team era

The NBAGeorge Maikan,Bill Russell,Wilt Chamberlain,Oscar Robertson,Kareem Abdul-Jabbar,Magic Johnson,Larry Bird,Michael JordanStar players such as belong to1992 OfBarcelona OlympicThen "Dream teamWas formed[5], Won the championship with overwhelming strength.

In addition,1996 Women's Professional Basketball LeagueWNBAWas established,Sheryl Swoopes,Lisa leslie,Lauren JacksonStar players such as have emerged.

Internationalization

With the revitalization of the NBA and the Olympics, the internationalization of basketball has progressed rapidly in recent years, and the FIBA ​​announcement announced.1998 At that time, the world's competitive population was about 4 million, and the countries and regions that joined FIBA2006 It increased to 8 as of August.

History in Japan

JapanBasketball was transmitted to1908 So I graduated from YMCA training schoolHyozo OmoriIs the current dogma that was introduced for the first time at Tokyo YMCA.[14]. And1913 FH Brown, the YMCA physical education director, came to Japan and worked hard to teach competitions in the Kanto and Kansai regions.

There is also a disagreement that it may have been brought about by Genzaburo Ishikawa, who participated in the world's first match held at YMCA's training school in Springfield in 1891.[28]..However, in Japan in the 1910s, it is said that there were still few sports facilities and poor competition equipment, so there was no saucer to accept in earnest, and no record of Ishikawa introducing and teaching basketball in Japan has been found.[29].

1924 IsWaseda University,Rikkyo University,Tokyo University of CommerceFormed the All Japan Student Basket Ball Union.Competitive battles were held all over the country.And1930 ToJapan Basketball Association (JABBA)Has been established and is working to popularize and develop and improve the level of competition.

1975 ToWomen's Basketball World ChampionshipXNUMXnd place.

2005 Japan's first professional leaguebj leagueWas launched, but the development and strengthening of Japanese basketball as a whole was slow,AsiaWe are forced to struggle in each tournament.[30]The representative of Japan is a girl2004 OfAthens OlympicsHowever, the boys have been cut off at the end of the 3 Montreal Olympics.

August 2014, 11,Japan Basketball Association (JBA) isFIBAThe problems of "Integration of domestic men's top leagues", "Reform of JBA lacking governance ability", and "Long-term strengthening measures for Japan national team", which were recommended by (International Basketball Federation), were not solved and qualified by FIBA. Suspended[31].

August 2015, 6,FIBA(International Basketball Federation) held a managing board meeting in Switzerland and decided to lift the indefinite suspension of participation in international games imposed on the Japan Association on November 2014, 11.[32].

In September 2016, a new league "NBL and bj league integrated"Japan Professional Basketball League(B League) ”has begun.

In modern Japan, many schools and companies have club activities and club activities, each of which holds a national competition every year.Many schools and parks have simple basketball goals, but there are not many places where you can play games.

In addition, most sporting goods stores sell basketball goods, and the sport is well known to the public.

However, Japan's recognition is still low at world competitions such as the Olympic Games and the NBA, which is said to be the highest level in the world.

Tools, utensils, facilities

ball

皮革 皮革,合成 皮革,rubberBalls made of such as are used.A test ball is used as the official ball.Ball No. 7 (round 75-78 cm, weight 600-650 g) for general (boys) and junior high school students (boys), and ball No. 6 (round 72-) for general (girls) and junior high school students (girls) 74cm, weight 500-540g), but for elementary school students, No. 5 ball (circumference 69-71cm, weight 470-500g) is used.[33]..When the lower end of the ball is dropped from a height of 1.8m, the air pressure is adjusted so that the upper end bounces within the range of 1.2-1.4m.

Also, 2004 FIBA ​​(International Basketball Federation), A total of 8 panels of brown and cream colors have been approved from the conventional 2 panels of brown, and the visibility of the trajectory and rotation of the balls has been improved for players and spectators.OverseasSpalding,ア デ ィ ダ ス,Nike,WilsonBut in Japan,Molten, Spalding,Mikasa,TachikaraEtc. are manufactured and sold.

NBAThen, the association officially certified, the commissioner's certification, the name of the home team to be used, etc. were engraved.SpaldingThe company's natural leather balls are used. In the 2006-2007 season, it was once changed to a unique ball with two sides made of synthetic leather.[34]However, the evaluation among the players is bad and it has been restored.

Coats

A 28m long and 15m wide coat is used, and a white line with a width of 5cm sets the section.[2][33]..The long side is called the side line and the short side is called the end line.The area separated by the end line and the side lineInbounds(Inside the court), on the side line and end line and on the outsideOut of bounds(Outside the court).Various lines such as a center line that divides the court into two in the center, a center circle, a free throw lane, a free throw circle, a 2-point line, and a no-charge semicircle are marked on the court.Half of the court with the attacking basket is called the front court, and half of the court with the other basket is called the back court. FIBA and NBA have different coat sizes and compartments[35]However, in FIBA, there was a change in 2010, the free throw lane (paint area) changed from trapezoidal to rectangular, a no-charge semicircle was added, and the 3-point line was expanded.NBAIs approaching the specifications of.

The principle is that the boundary line in the basket is the same as crossing the line on the line.For example, a shot that steps on the 3-point line is 3 points even if it is considered to have crossed the 2-point boundary and the goal is reached.However, advancing the ball to the front court is established when the ball and both feet of the player holding the ball enter the front court.

Also, when playing in the air, the part of the court that was touched last is applied, so if you jump from inside the court of the line, you can continue playing until you land even if the landing point is off the court, and you can shoot. If you do, the score at the jumped part will be applied.

Most of the flooring materials used in official games are wood flooring with wax coating, but there are also hard acrylic boards.Asphalt and concrete are mainly used outdoors, and sand and soil are often used in park facilities.However, since it is a ball game, flatness is particularly required so that the bounce of the ball does not change.Therefore, turf and carpet are unsuitable.

The size may vary depending on the circumstances of the court installation location, and it is often designed to be smaller than the above regulations.In addition, some lines may be omitted in parks and the like.

When setting up audience seats, it is also a feature that the court and the audience seats are closer than in other sports.For example, in the NBA, the distance between the sideline and the front row of seats is only about 1 meter, and the end line is about a few meters.

goal

BasketballgoalIt is,FIBAAccording to the official rules, the inner diameter is 305 cm, which is installed horizontally at a height of 45 cm.ringIt consists of a (rim) and a net of about 45 cm that allows the ball to pass downward, woven with a white string attached to it.A rectangular flat with a width of 120 cm and a height of 180 cm installed in parallel, perpendicular to the court surface and 105 cm inside and above the end line.BackboardThe ring is attached via a 15.1 cm flange[2].

  • NBAThen, the inner diameter of 305 cm (10 in) installed horizontally at a height of 45.72 cm (18 ft)NBACertificationring(ダンクショットの際に安全なように可動式となっている)とそれに取り付けられた白い紐で編まれた下方へボールが通過可能な38〜45cm(15〜18in)のネットで構成される。コート面に垂直、エンドラインから122cm(4ft)内側の上方に、平行に設置された幅183cm(6ft)高さ 107cm(3.5ft)の長方形で平らなBackboardThe ring is attached via a 15.24 cm (6 in) flange.[35].
  • In FIBA, the basket on the front court is called the opponent's basket, but in the NBA, the basket on the front court is the basket of your team, and the basket on the back court is the opponent's basket.In either case, the score is the same when the ball is placed in the basket on the front court. In the NBA, shots are put into their baskets, so goals are sometimes expressed as money, and banks of bank shots are sometimes expressed as banks.

The height of a Japanese mini basket (elementary school student) is 260 cm.[33]Various dimensions vary depending on the age of the athlete and the equipment environment.

Game wear

Uniform (team jersey)

uniform TheshirtとPantsSay.The shirtNo sleeveI mainly wear short sleeves, running, etc.All team members wear shirts and pants of the same design color and shape[Note 1], Front and back must be the same color[Note 2]..The pants do not necessarily have to be the same color as the shirt.One team wears a dark color and the other wears a light color (preferably white).The team listed earlier or the home team in the match table wears a light uniform, and the team or visitor (away) team listed later wears a dark uniform.It may be exchanged in discussions between both teams.Number the uniforms on the chest and back.In principle, this number should be up to 4-15, or up to 2 digits by the tournament organizer. It is possible to use the numbers "0" and "00" according to the rules of the tournament, but it is not allowed to use "0" and "00" at the same time in the same team, and numbers such as "07" are allowed. Is not recognized.Uniform numberSee also.As with other ball games, team logos, emblems, advertisements, etc. may be attached with the permission of the tournament organizer, but the distance from the number is strictly set.The shape has changed with the times, and in particular, pants, which were as short as athletics in the past, are now stretched to near knee length.Under the uniform, undershirt, to the extent permittedspatsIt is also possible to wear such as.Others include headbands, arm sleeves, wristbands, shin pads,SupporterMay also be worn.

Shoes, socks

Since strenuous movements are required to play basketball, shoes that are not slippery and have high cushioning properties that cushion shocks when jumping or landing are required, and are prepared exclusively for this purpose.Although the weight has been reduced with the progress of synthetic resin technology, until around the 1960s, it was heavy as a sports shoe with a thick rubber sole.Also, socks were sometimes worn with thick wool socks for mountaineering.Also in the 1970sNBAUnder the influence ofHigh socksWas popular, but nowNBABut it's only worn by some players and in games in reprint jerseys.

NBAIn the case of warm-up wear during the game,Team jerseyFrom uniforms called uniforms to supporters, socks, and headbands, only the NBA-designated manufacturer logo, NBA logo, and team logo are allowed, and the only player can choose and wear them.Basketball shoesOnly.Therefore, athletes have contracts with their respective shoe makers.For star players, the player modelBasketball shoesWill be provided, and commercial products of the same type will be made and sold.

Rules

Transition of main rules

The main rule revisions are summarized below.

[36][37]

From creation
  • 1932 Backpass rule setting.Against shooting foulsFree throwIs the current number.
  • Players who take turns and retire from the court in 1933 can now participate in play up to two more times.The uniform number isArithmetic figuresEncourage to use.
  • 1935 3 second ruleIs closer to the present.
  • After a successful field goal in 1938Center jumpThere is no provision to restart with, and from outside the end lineSlow inTo
  • 1946 Moved the backboard to its current position inside the court.There is no limit to the number of shifts. You will be sent off with 5 fouls.He was given the right to abandon free throws and choose throw-in from out.
  • 1954 NBAShot clock(24-second rule) Introduced.
  • 1956 Shot clock (30 seconds rule) introduced and backpass rule abolished.
  • 1957 Free throwCan no longer be abandoned.
Since it became a rule in line with international rules after the Rome Olympics.
  • 1965 The match between general men and women and high school boys is halved for 20 minutes, and the ball used is No. 7.
  • 1973 Backpass rule, 10-second rule revival.
  • 1974 The basket count one throw is back.
  • 1979 "Three for two rules" setting that gives one more when even one of the two free throws does not fit.
  • 1985 3 pointsAdoption of rules, team foul penalties reduced to 7 fouls Three fortwo abolished.
  • 1991 The "right of choice" to choose a throw-in from the out of the center line without a free throw is abolished.The uniform number is from 4.
  • 1995 Alley-oop expands to legal play Shooting foul expands by the time the shooter hits the floor.Intentional foul renamed to "Unsportsman-like foul".
  • At the end of the second half of 1999 and the last two minutes of each extension period, the game clock is stopped when the field goal is successful.
  • 2000 20-minute half changed to 10-minute quarter system.
  • 2001 Change from 30-second rule to 24-second rule.
  • 2010 Restricted area expanded from trapezoidal to rectangular, 3-point line expanded.No charge area setting.Introduced a 14-second reset of the shot clock.
  • The shot clock is reset to 2012 seconds during the 14 offense rebound.
  • 2014 Player's technical foul was disqualified and sent off twice.One free throw for technical foul penalties.
  • In 2018, the foot that was attached at the same time as holding the ball was set to 0 steps.

Current main rules

The following are mainlyInternational Basketball Federation(FIBA)[2] as well as the Japan Basketball Association(JBA) Official Rules[38]by.

Japan Professional Basketball League[39]And the North American professional leagueNBAEach has its own rules[40]Is stipulated.Also, elementary school students doMini basketballAlso its own rules[33]Is stipulated.

  • A match is played between 5 players and 5 players. There is also a 3 to 3 3 x 3 (15 x 12).The number of substitutes varies depending on the match, and may be set more on the home team side.For example, in the bj league, there are XNUMX home teams and XNUMX away teams.
  • Perform 10 4-minute periods.The first and second periods are called the first half, and the third and fourth periods are called the second half.
  • If both teams score the same at the end of the 4th period, the 1 minute extension period will be extended as many times as necessary.
  • The ball must be handled by hand.Violation of violations of rules other than physical contact and non-athletic behavior, such as walking three or more steps while holding the ball (traveling), intentionally kicking or stopping with the foot or thigh, or hitting with a fist (For detailsViolationSee section).
  • Unjustified physical contact with the player of the opponent team or an act that is not like a sportsman is called a foul (detailsfoulSee section).
  • Pass the live ball through the opponent team's basket from above or stay in the basket (shoot, Shot) will be the goal, and the prescribed score will be recognized. Two points are allowed for field goals from the 2-point area (area within the 3-point line on the attacking basket side), and 2 points are allowed for field goals outside the 3-point line (3-point area).[Note 3]..The free throw goal is one point.
  • A free throw will be given if a foul is received from the defensive side during the shooting operation.If the shot is successful, the score will be recognized (basket count) and one free throw will be awarded.If the shot fails, 1 free throws will be given for shots from the 2-point area and 2 free throws for shots from the 3-point area.
  • If a player controls a live ball on the court, the team must make a shot within 24 seconds of the start of control (24-second rule).
  • The game is in the center circle by players from both teamsJump ballCan be started with[Note 4]..In the first half, attack the opponent team's basket on the bench side of the opponent team, and in the second half, replace the attacking basket.The extended time period attacks the same basket as the second half.
  • From the second period (see match time)Alternate possession rulesTherefore, it starts with a throw-in from the outside of the center line farther from the officials table.

The captain of each team must participate in the first period.

Referees and Table Officials

The referees (officials) will be two or three people.This is selected by the organizer.

In addition to this, he assists the referee and performs tasks such as recording the score.Table officialsThere are 4 (TO) people.

Game time

1 minutes for 1 quarter[Note 5]It will be held in 1 quarters from the 4st quarter to the 4th quarter, for a total of 48 minutes.[41]Match time is the remaining timeElectronic bulletin boardIs displayed on the scoreboard.[Note 6] In the following situations, the match time (game clock) is paused.[Note 7]

  • From the moment of foul or violation judgment until the player on the court touches the ball after a free throw or throw-in
  • time outFrom the start of the game until the player on the court touches the ball after a free throw or throw-in
  • From the situation the referee deems necessary, after a free throw or throw-in, until the player on the court touches the ball
  • After less than 4 minutes after the end of the 2th period and the extended period (the game clock shows 2:00), after all field goals are successful, after throw-in, until the player on the court touches the ball.

Each period ends with 0.0 seconds remaining,サ ッ カ ー,rugbyInLoss timeThere is no concept of.[Note 8]

Between each period, there is a 1-minute interval between the 2st and 3nd and 4rd and 2th periods, and a 2-minute interval (both intervals) during the half-time between the 3nd and 10rd periods, respectively. Given.However, this is often changed by the organizer of the tournament.Previously, it was the first half and the second half (half) of 20 minutes, and the half time was 10 minutes.afterwardsNBAIt became a 4-period system like the rule of.There is no so-called draw, and if there is a tie, an extended period of 5 minutes will be repeated until it is settled.The extended period is considered an extension of the 4th period and team fouls are counted together with the 4th period.

In junior high school games, there are four 8-minute periods.The extension will be 4 minutes.

小学生の試合では、5 - 6分のピリオドを4回行い、前半10人の選手を1人5 - 6分出場させ、第1ピリオドから1人の選手が3ピリオド連続で出場できない。延長は3分となる。

Violation

Violations of rules other than non-athletic or non-athletic behavior.Both violation and violation.It will be a restart from the throw-in by the opponent team.

Basketball clip.svg

foul

Of the violations that violate the rules, unjustified contact with the body and acts that are not like sportsmen are called fouls or fouls.

There are types of personal fouls, technical fouls, unsportsman-like fouls, and disc-orienting fouls.

Most fouls are imposed on individual players, but there are also fouls imposed on coaches, assistant coaches, and teams (fouls imposed on teams are recorded as coach fouls).

1 times in total for all fouls in one playerNBAIf 6) player fouls are declared, the referee will tell you the fact and you must be replaced immediately (both foul out and profanely sent off), and you will not be able to participate in the game thereafter (below).Player changeSee also).サ ッ カ ーUnlike, even if you leave, you can sit on your team's bench and put a substitute on the court, and there is usually no penalty for participating in subsequent games.

However, if you are disqualified or sent off due to two unsportsman-like fouls or two technical fouls, or if you are disqualified or sent off due to a disc-orienting foul, your team's changing room (locker) Must be in the room, waiting room) or outside the building with the court[Note 9].

For personal fouls, a throw-in is given to the opposite team of the team that was sentenced to the foul.Fouls are often declared mainly to the defensive player, but if the offensive player interferes with the action of the defensive player, the offensive player is declared a foul.A foul (other than a technical foul) against a player who is in motion on a shot will be awarded a score of 2 to 3 points if the shot is successful, and an additional free throw will be given.If the shot is unsuccessful, two or three free throws will be awarded, depending on the shot.In the case of unsportsman-like fouls and disqualifying fouls, two free throws are given even when the shot is not in motion, and in the case of technical fouls, one free throw is given.

Basketball clip.svg

Player fouls are recorded as team fouls for each period.After four fouls have been recorded for the team, the following team foul penalties will apply:If you commit a foul when your team is not in control of the ball, the opponent team will be given two free throws, and if you commit a foul while your team is in control of the ball, the opponent team will be given two free throws. A throw-in is given.

If a foul occurs 10 minutes before the start of the game or between each period, it will be treated as if it occurred during the next period.Fouls during the extended period will be treated as fouls in the 4th period and will continue to be counted as team fouls.

time out

Each team can take a timeout.The timeout is 1 minute.During this time, each team is changing the flow of the game by devising strategies and resting players.A coach or assistant coach can claim a time-out.However, it is not approved immediately after requesting it, but it is approved when the game clock stops.You can take up to 2 times in the first two periods and up to 2 times in the second two periods.Therefore, one team can use a total of five timeouts in one game.Timeouts not used in the first two periods cannot be carried over to the second half.When entering overtime (overtime), you can take one for each overtime (2 minutes).

Due to the 2010 rule revision, if the team controlling the ball times out after 4:2 remaining in 00 periods, when throwing in from the back court, it will be thrown in from the slow inline out of the front court.

Elementary school students can change both teams in the 4th quarter and overtime.

NBAYou can take 1 minute 1 times per game (however, you can use up to 6 times in the 4th quarter), and 3 seconds once per 2 quarters (1 half) in the first half or the second half (20 times in total per game).Also, you can take 1 minute 1 times for each overtime (2 minutes).Time-out claims can be made not only by coaches, but also by players on the attacking team.

Japan Professional Basketball LeagueIn addition to the normal time-out, the (B-League) time-out includes a 2-second official time-out that occurs at the time of the first dead ball with less than 4 minutes remaining in the 5nd and 90th quarters.

Player change

Players on the court are distinguished as players, and players on the bench as substitutes. In FIBA-managed tournaments, each team can have up to 12 players on the bench, 5 players and up to 7 substitutes.In domestic competitions, the organizer stipulates in the competition guidelines, and 12 or 15 people are common.

Player changes are allowed when the game clock is stopped.A free throw is allowed before the first ball of the free throw is handed over or when the last free throw is successful.Substitutions are allowed for both teams, but the teams that scored for two minutes before the end of the fourth period cannot be replaced when the shot is successful.However, when the scored team is replaced, the scored team can also be replaced.

The substitute can return to the game as a player as many times as he wants.However, if you commit 5 fouls or if you are disqualified or sent off due to a malicious foul (disc orientation foul), you will not be able to return to the game as a player again.

Player position name

Guard (G)

Point guard(PG)
Of the team that carries the ball, passes and gives instructionsCommand tower,Game maker.
Shooting guard(SG)
Earn points by shooting and penetrating from long distances.It also assists point guards and attacks like a small forward.

Forward (F)

Small forward(SCIENCE FICTION)
A versatile position that requires flexible play.There are various play styles from shooter type to inside type.
Power forward(PF)
Rebound, screen, shoot from near the goal and defend against Big Man.

Center (C)

セ ン タ ー(C)
High height and power are required.Pull the team with rebounds, screens, scoring under goals and defense.

Supplemental

The position is a combination of two guardsBack coat, Together with the two forwards and the centerFront courtAlso called[42]..By number

  1. No. 1 (PG)
  2. No. 2 (SG)
  3. No. 3 (SF)
  4. No. 4 (PF)
  5. No. 5 (C)

It is also called.

In basketball, positions are not strictly defined as there are no rules such as soccer goalkeepers and baseball pitchers.The point guard player may play under the goal, or the center may carry the ball or act as a playmaker.Ideally, each player should play many roles.so that,Utility playerThere are many players who can serve as both point guards and shooting guards.Combo guard, "Guard forward (GF)" and "Guard forward (GF)"Swingman, And a player who can double as a forward and a centerForward center(FC) ".Power forward and centerPost playIt is also called a post player because it does. In the NBA, there are many players who act as point guards even though their original position is forward.Such players are rare, but "Point forwardIs called.For point forward players,Magic Johnson(Especially after returning to active duty),Anthony Mason,Lebron james,Lamar OdomThere is [43].. In the NBA player,FranceAlso a representativeBoris DiawIs a rare player who can cover guards, forwards, centers and all positions.

Basic play

path

path(Pass) is a play in which the player holding the ball throws the ball to another player.There are no restrictions on the throwing method or direction.

dribble

In basketball, the act of moving while holding the ball in the hand is prohibited, so the player hits the ball from above with his palm to make it bounce, and this is done continuously to move the player with the ball.It is a foul if it is considered to have moved while holding.

Basketball clip.svg

shot

Passing the ball from the top of the basket for the team to score, or the action for that, and the sequence of steps from the ball to the basket.Often referred to as a shoot, this is a common name, and all are referred to as shots in the Japanese basketball competition rules.

rebound

Taking a missed ball, regardless of enemy or ally, is called rebound.Take action to take an advantageous position to take a reboundScreen outorBox outThat.

Basketball clip.svg

Block shot

A play that blocks the shot shot by the opponent while the ball is rising before reaching the backboard.When the shot ball is descending toward the ring or hitting the back boat and touching it while heading toward the ringGoaltendingOr become a basket interference turn nover.

Basketball clip.svg

Steel

The other party's passInterceptPlays to steal the ball controlled by pivoting, dribbling, etc.

Basketball clip.svg

screen

Stand in a position that restricts the movement of the opponent player in a place where there is no ball.Tackle-like movements are foul due to physical contact and must be stopped there.

Basketball clip.svg

Post play

A play that secures a position that serves as a base point and a relay point for an attack, functions as a screen, gives a pass for deploying the attack, and brings it to a penetrate or shot.Depending on the position, the area near the backboard is called the low post, the area near the free throw circle is called the high post, and the middle between them is called the middle post.

Slow in

In order to return the dead ball to the live and restart the game, the player of the team with the right to attackOut of bounds To pass to Inbounds from.There is a time limit, and the match time is stopped during the throw-in act.The game will not resume until the referee holds the ball and is instructed to do so.

Basketball clip.svg

Free throw

One teamfoul, Or specificViolationThis is one of the bonuses given to the opponent team when you do.You can shoot a shot from just before the free throw line in the free throw circle without being protected by any player.Depending on the type of penalty, one throw is thrown in a row between one and three throws, and one goal is given if one free throw is scored.When shooting, you cannot enter ahead of the free throw line until the ball touches the ring.If the ball does not touch the ring, it becomes the opponent's ball as an air ball.In addition, the player to shoot must hit within 1 seconds of being handed over to the referee.There are several ways to resume play after the final throw has been thrown.or,1996 と1997 The national free throw competition was held in both years.

Basketball clip.svg

footwork

footworkIs the footsteps of the player.Basketball is an important basic movement for all plays, as it requires quick movements back and forth and left and right.Offenses require accurate and agile footsteps because there is a limit on the number of steps and it is also necessary to jump afterwards.Also, sadon stop from the dashpivotIs also an important offense footwork.Normally, for running shots, the left foot railroad crossing with the right hand.The left hand is a right foot railroad crossing.In defense, it is necessary to react quickly to the movement of the player to mark and move so as not to be shaken off, so movement in various directions is required.You must be able to handle various foot steps such as side step, back step, and cross step.

Steps when catching a ball
  • Catch with both feet landing: You are allowed to freely decide the pivot foot and step.Then move on to the next play.
  • If you catch the ball in the air.
  • Landing one foot at a time: The foot that touches the ground first becomes the pivot foot, and the foot that touches the ground later can step freely using the pivot.
  • After stepping with one foot, jump and land on the next step: It is not allowed to touch the floating foot.Dribbling from this state is also not allowed.It is not allowed except to hold or release the ball as it is, or to release the ball (shot, pass) after jumping at the railroad crossing in the second step.
  • First step Jump with one foot Next land with both feet at the same time: No further steps are allowed.It is permissible to start dribbling as it is or to jump and release the ball (shot, pass).

pivot

pivotIs a step used when performing ball keeping while landing.With one foot as the pivot foot, touch the ground at the same place on the court, step the other foot back and forth and left and right to move the axis of the body, toss and upset the opponent, break the rhythm, your pass, Facilitates the next play such as shots and dribbles.It is not possible to move to the grounding location, but it is allowed to rotate at that location.

  • If you get the ball with both feet on the ground, you can use any foot as the pivot foot.
  • When landing one foot at a time, only the foot that landed first can be used as an axle foot.
  • If you land the first step with one foot and the second step with both feet, you cannot pivot and you must either jump and release the ball or start dribbling with both feet landed.
If you step in violation of theseTravelingBecomes

There are no step restrictions for players who do not hold the ball.

Team play

Offense spray

  • Classification by tempo

  • Classification by method

Defense spray


  • Classification by method

Mixed type

Zone press = Zone + Press
Zone one-to-one = zone + one-to-one
  • Classification by formation

The numbers indicate the number of defenses, listed in order from the side closer to the front court to the side closer to the back court. The four formations below 2-2-1 are usually used only for zone presses. 4-1-3 and 1-1-2 are used in both normal zone defense and zone press.

Classification by range

Range of defense

Basic terms

Offense term

Section TOC(A line Ka line Sa line Line Na line Ha line Ma line Ya line La line Wa line)


Defense term

Section TOC(A line Ka line Sa line Line Na line Ha line Ma line Ya line La line Wa line)


Terminology related to recording


Other terms


Professional league

Basketball group

Major basketball tournaments

Derived competition

Related works

1990 からWeekly Shonen JumpA cartoon dealing with basketball inSlam dunk』Started serialization,1996 Even after the end of the serialization, it continued to sell and became a big hit with over 1 million copies, boosting the basketball competition population, and in 2005, the number of registered members of the Japan Basketball Association alone exceeded 600 million.[44]It has a great influence on the Japanese basketball world.[45]..Also, from that achievement, the original authorTakehiko InoueHas been specially commended by the Japan Basketball Association[46][47]..Basketball was considered a taboo (not a hit) among manga editors,[48]After the slam dunk,Duck sky''Kuroko's Basketball''Row Kyubu!] And various hit works have come out.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ FC BarcelonaThere are exceptions, such as the basketball team.
  2. ^ Stripes are allowed as long as they comply with the regulations
  3. ^ Whether it is 3 points or 2 points is determined by the position where the shot was made. Even if you jump from the 3-point area and land on the 2-point area after shooting, you will still get a 3-point shot.
  4. ^ In a jump ball situation, the game is restarted with a throw-in according to the alternate possession rules, so the jump ball is played only once at the start of the game.
  5. ^ In the NBA and B League, it is represented by a quarter, not a period. (Example) 1st period = 1st quarter
  6. ^ 電光掲示板の場合、試合時間は、残り1分までは10:00、9:59、と秒単位で表示され、残り1分以後では59.9、59.8、と10分の1秒単位で表示される。得点板の場合9、8と1分ごとに残り時間を表示し、残り1分以後では1/2と1/4と30秒単位、15秒単位で表示するものが多い。
  7. ^ Make good use of this rule in the game and make effective use of the remaining time.At the end of the fourth period, especially in close quarters, the use of offensive fouls, defensive fouls, and time-out suspensions can have a significant impact on the game.This will shape the climax of the match
  8. ^ The referee will judge the score after 0.0 seconds remaining.If it is determined that the ball is out of the hand of the player who shot before 0.0 seconds remaining, a score will be scored.However, if a throw-in is made when the remaining time is 0.3 seconds or more, a shot after catching the ball is allowed, but if it is less than 0.3 seconds, a score is given only when a direct dunk shot or a direct tap shot is made.
  9. ^ Fighting is declared to the team bench personel (bench member).For acts that are significantly lacking in sportsmanship, the tournament organizer or the federation may be ordered to suspend participation in subsequent games at the discretion of the tournament organizer or the federation.
  10. ^ Until the 2000-2001 season, the NBA banned zone defense itself, and in the event of a breach, it was violated as illegal defense.The current NBA violates defenders who aren't on the offensive player as Markman, and must not stay in the paint zone below the goal for more than three seconds.

Source

  1. ^ "The road to the history-changing Tokyo Olympics women's basketball "Proud Silver Medal"”. FNN Prime Online (August 2021, 8). As of September 17, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.October 2021th, 9Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d "Official Basketball Rules". FIBA.com (June 2017, 1). 201170-01-26Browse.
  3. ^ "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" p.126 1984
  4. ^ a b "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.2 1982
  5. ^ a b c d e "JOC-Competition Introduction: Basketball". October 2014th, 10Browse.
  6. ^ "Special feature: The secret of basketball". October 2021th, 9Browse.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" p.127 1984
  8. ^ a b Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.33 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  9. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.34-35 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  10. ^ a b c "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.3 1982
  11. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.37 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  12. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.39 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  13. ^ "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.3-4 1982
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" p.128 1984
  15. ^ a b Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.9 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  16. ^ a b c Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.10 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  17. ^ a b Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.44 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  18. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.11 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  19. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.45 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  20. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.70 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  21. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.71 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  22. ^ a b c d "Modern Sports Coach Practical Course (5) Basketball" p.4 1982
  23. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.82 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  24. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.83 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  25. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.83-84 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  26. ^ a b c Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.85 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  27. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.85-86 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  28. ^ "Modern Physical Education / Sports System (26) Volleyball, Basketball, Handball" 1984 (p.128) introduces it as a different theory to the established theory.
  29. ^ Yutaka Mizutani "Basketball Story" p.14-18 2011 Taishukan Shoten
  30. ^ On page 84 of "English Encyclopedia for Working People" (supervised by Yasuteru Otani and Katsuaki Horiuchi), a young African-American is described as "a level that far surpasses all Japanese players among the playgrounds around here." It is argued that there is an extremely large difference in the level of basketball when comparing Japan and the United States.
  31. ^ "JBA and FIBA ​​suspend qualifications Acting Chairman Maruo "Early sanctions lifted mission"". Yahoo.com (June 2014, 11). October 2015th, 5Browse.
  32. ^ International Basketball Federation evaluates Japan's disposition cancellation and reform results
  33. ^ a b c d Mini basketball rules at a glance (PDF) (Japan Mini Basketball Federation)
  34. ^ NBA Introduces New Game Ball --NBA.com
  35. ^ a b "Official Rules of the National Basketball Association". NBA.com (June 2008, 9). October 2012th, 3Browse.
  36. ^ Transition of basketball rules Ⅰ NPO Japan Basketball Promotion Association
  37. ^ Transition of basketball rules Ⅱ NPO Japan Basketball Promotion Association
  38. ^ JBA Official Goods
  39. ^ bj league / competition rules
  40. ^ Official Rules of the NBA Latest Edition
  41. ^ In the case of the NBA, the match time is 12 minutes and 4 quarters, for a total of 48 minutes. NCAA is 20 minutes each in the first and second half.
  42. ^ Chris Sasaki. "[Column] Chris Sasaki talks about'League No. 1 back coat combination !?'". NBA Japan. http://www.nba.co.jp/nba/%E3%82%B3%E3%83%A9%E3%83%A0-%E4%BD%90%E3%80%85%E6%9C%A8%E3%82%AF%E3%83%AA%E3%82%B9%E3%81%8C%E8%AA%9E%E3%82%8B%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B0no1%E3%81%AE%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%82%B3%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88%E3%82%B3%E3%83%B3%E3%83%93%E3%81%AF/trwzablnrky51e0qbk72ndl34 October 2015th, 1Browse. 
  43. ^ DID YOU KNOW about NBA? Game Edition (Explanation of Positions on NBA Official Website)
  44. ^ Changes in the number of registered members of the Japan Basketball Association
  45. ^ "Power of Manga (1) Slam Dunk Scholarship (above)”. Asahi Shimbun (April 2007, 11). As of April 8, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.October 2019th, 11Browse.
  46. ^ Special Award for Slam Dunk Author = Basket Association, Jiji Press, June 2010, 9.[Broken link]
  47. ^ "Takehiko Inoue of "Slam Dunk", Japan Association to special award". Asahi Shimbun digital (February 2010, 6). As of February 10, 2010オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2019th, 6Browse.
  48. ^ From Takehiko Inoue's "Slam Dunk" Vol. 31 Postscript.

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close