[Yamagata Prefecture] "Geoglyph" in a taro field
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Mr. Sato started drawing geoglyphs in the fields in 2017, but due to the influence of the new corona, the demand for taro could not be seen and the production was canceled.
Due to the spread of the new corona infection, the "Japan's No. XNUMX Imo-boiled Festival" has been cancelled.I hope it will be held next year ... → Continue reading
YBC Yamagata Broadcasting
This is Yamagata Broadcasting, a television and radio station in Yamagata Prefecture.
Daily news is provided with the catchphrase "Walk Together".
Wikipedia related words
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Ground painting(Chojoe),Geoglyph(English geoglyph）Is a pattern made by human hands on the ground.soilIt was drawn by a method of creating grooves and shadows by scraping off the surface layer ofstoneSome are made by collecting and stacking.Latin AmericaThen.PeruMany geoglyphs are concentrated in..As a typical example, it is thought that it was made from 200 BC to 650 AD.Nazca LinesCan be mentioned.. Discovered in the 1970sBrazilof"AcreGeoglyph "There are 410 types of iconography in 306 places, and the hypothesis that it was a social space for ceremonial and symbolic purposes is predominant...It is believed to have been made at least 2000 years ago(I.e.,Saudi Arabia Of Desert kites (Works of the Old Men) can also be considered a type of geoglyph.
- ^ News from the Museum No. 283, published on May 19, 5 Ishikawa Prefectural Museum of Art
- ^ Daniela Valenzuela, Persis B. Clarkson, "Geoglyphs" in Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, 2014, pp 3017-3029
- ^ Charles Stanish, Henry Tantaleán, Benjamin T. Nigra, and Laura Griffin, "A 2,300-year-old architectural and astronomical complex in the Chincha Valley, Peru", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2014, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.1406501111
- ^ a b Martin Sauerbier, "GIS-based management and analysis of the geoglyphs in the Nasca region (Peru)", ISPRS Technical Commission II Symposium, Vienna, 12 – 14 July 2006.
- ^ Information on the latest issue of Science 5 September 2008 Volume321 Number5894
- ^ Geoglyphs of Acre --UNESCO World Heritage Center
- ^ Owen Jarus, "Visible Only From Above, Mystifying'Nazca Lines' Discovered in Mideast", updated 9/15/2011 7:48:32 AM ET
SARS coronavirus 2
SARS coronavirus 2[Note 1](Thirds Coronavirus Two,English: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Abbreviation: COVID-2) IsNew Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) CausesSARS-related coronavirus Belongs to (SARSr-CoV)CoronavirusIs.Japan OfNational agencyAnd majorNews agencyIs "New coronavirusIs called,New coronaOr simply "コ ロ ナMay be abbreviated as.
January 2019People's Republic of ChinaHubei ProvinceWuhanOccurrence was confirmed for the first time in the vicinity,afterwards,COVID-19 pandemic(Pandemic) Is causing.There are different fashion images depending on the country.
This virus isSevere acute respiratory syndrome Not the causative virus of (SARS),SARSIs the causative virus of SARS, which was prevalent from 2002 to 2003.SARS coronavirus(SARS-CoV, orRetro NimThis is because it is the same species as SARS-CoV-1) and is considered to be one of the strains of SARS-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV)..
The international official name of this virus is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (abbreviation: SARS-CoV-2), and the official name of the disease is coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviation: COVID-19)..
2020 May 1,who (World Health Organization; WHO) is occurring in Wuhan, ChinadiseaseThe virus that is the cause of2019-Ncov(2019 novel coronav(Abbreviation for irus) tentatively named[Note 2]..This name isMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareBesides the official website of,National Institute of Infectious DiseasesCreated by `` Pathogen Detection Manual 2019-nCoV'', Also used in the "2019-nCoV genetic testing method" based on this..For this reason, it can be found in the names of in vitro drugs and websites created before the official name was decided.[Note 3].
July 2st of the same year,International Virus Classification Committee (ICTV) isCOVID-2(Sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavVirus 2 OfAcronym) Formally named..As this Japanese translationSARS coronavirus 2In addition,SARS Coronavirus-2,Third Coronavirus 2,Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2,Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus Type 2It may be called or written as such.As of the same year, Japanese national and major media outlets simplyNew coronavirusIs called.. On the same day, WHO reported the disease caused by this virus.COVID-19(Coronavirus disease 2019 Named).
Controversy over naming
The United States of AmericaIn such cases, give the name of the place of originWuhan virus (Wuhan Virus),China virus There is controversy such as the opinion that it should be called (Chinese Virus) etc..
SARS coronavirus 2 was confirmed to occur in Wuhan, China in November 2019, and was first reported to WHO on December 11, 12...Then it occurred from 2019 to 2020Outbreak in Wuhan, ChinaInpneumoniapatient'sNucleic acid testWith a positive patient samplegenomeThe sequence was determined.
August 2020, 1,PathogenIs investigatingChugoku-National Hygiene and Health Commission (NHC) ExpertZhong NanshanThe group leader isGuangdongAnnounced that human-to-human transmission (human-human transmission) was confirmed in..There is no specific cure for the new coronavirus, but existingAntiviral drugCan be diverted.
However, March 2019Spain OfUniversity of BarcelonaResearch teamBarcelonaAnnounced that a new type of coronavirus was detected in the wastewater sample collected in..Also, September 2019Italy OfMilanAccording to a study by the National Cancer Center in Tokyo, antibodies to the new coronavirus were detected in blood samples in September 2019 at the earliest..
Classification and lineage
SARS coronavirus 2genomeAsPositive-strand plus RNAhave,CoronavirusBelongs to.This companion includes a large number of species that infect mammals and birds, but even those that cause infectious diseases in humans are serious.pneumoniaCause ofSARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), seasonalcoldcauseHuman coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229)HCoV-OC43,HCoV-NL63,HCoV-HKU1and so on. SARS Coronavirus 2 will be available in 2019Human capitalAgainstPathogenicityIt appeared as the 7th coronavirus with.
This virusInternational Virus Classification Committee (ICTV) considers it to be the same species (sister line) as the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and belongs to the genus.SARS-related coronavirus It belongs to the species (SARSr-CoV)..However, it is not a direct descendant of the SARS coronavirus.. originallyBatSuch asWild animalsIt is believed that the carriers of humans independently transmitted to humans and acquired the ability to infect humans..
On January 2020, 3,Sunda pangolinCoronaviruses with 85-92% of the genome have been found in SARS-CoV-2, which are considered to be closer to the ancestors of SARS-CoV-XNUMX... In July 2020, SARS coronavirus 7 belongsSalvecovirusBat virus in evolutionary history analysis by Maciej Boni et al. Using subgenus genomic dataRaTG13Is the most closely related virus that shares a single ancestral lineage, and SARS-CoV-2 was estimated to have genetically diverged from the bat salvecovirus in 1948, 1969, and 1982..
Thisウ イ ル スFull ofGenome sequenceIs the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center,Wuhan City Central Clinic,Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan City Disease Prevention Control Center,China sickness deposit control centerInfectious Disease Control and Prevention Center, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention,University of SydneyDeciphered in collaboration with the University of Sydney, with the cooperation of Professor Edward C. Holmes of the University of Sydney, by Professor Zhang Yongshin of the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center on January 2020, 1.Virological.orgPublished above..Then, on January 1, the International Nucleic Acid Sequence DatabaseGenBankOfficially published at.
China compared to other coronavirusesZhejiang ProvinceZhoushan City OfBatFound fromSARS virusClosest to, bat SARS virus, human SARS virus,CivetHaving a similarity of nearly 80% with the SARS virus,Hong Kong universityReported by Professor Yuen Kwokoku, who specializes in infectious diseases in the Department of Microbiology.
The estimated annual base substitution rate is 1 (base substitution / base / year), which is about 0.00084/1 to 6/1 times the base substitution rate of influenza..
Virus particles (Virion) Is 50-200 nm (nanometer)Is about the size..Similar to common coronaviruses, S (peplomer) protein, N (Nucleocapsid) Protein, M (membrane) protein, E (envelope) Four proteins known as proteins andRNAIt is composed of.Of these, the N protein binds to RNA to form nucleocapsid, and the S, E, and M proteins bound to lipids surround it to form an envelope.The outermost S protein in the envelope is on the cell surfaceACE2Bind to the receptor細胞Allows infection to..The point of using the ACE2 receptor for infecting humansSARS coronavirus Same as (SARS-CoV),DPP-4Utilize receptorsMERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Different from human coronavirus 229E using (APN)..The viral genome is 29,903 baseso,Single-stranded plus-strand RNA virusIs.
The primary structure of the protein and the homology of the RNA sequence with SARS coronavirus are 76.0% for S protein, 90.6% for N protein, 90.1% for M protein, and 94.7% for E protein., RNA is 80%..On the other hand, another species in the same beta coronavirusMERS coronavirus is 4.6%, 7.6%, 6.3%, 30.5%, respectively., 50%Only match.
Cleavage activation of peplomer
コロナウイルスのSタンパク質は、大きく分けてS1、S2という2つのサブユニットでできており、S1はACE2受容体との結合を、S2は宿主細胞膜と融合を担っている。Sタンパク質は宿主細胞内で合成された直後は1つの連続したタンパク質であるが、次の宿主細胞に感染するためには、どこかのタイミングで、S1サブユニットとS2サブユニットの境界であるS1/S2部位と、S2内部にあるS2'という2箇所の部位が、宿主の持つProteaseIt is believed that it needs to be cleaved by.
Unlike SARS coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 enhances infectivity and pathogenicity to S protein.FoorinThere is a cutting site..This is unique among salvecoviruses, but it is not uncommon in the entire coronaviridae family, and many (MHV-JHM, MHV-A59) and human coronaviruses (MHV-JHM, MHV-AXNUMX) and human coronavirus (MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43) Etc. have similar parts.
One of the distinguishing features of SARS-CoV-2 is the insertion of four amino acid sequences [PRRA] not found in the closely related coronavirus at the S1 / S2 site.As a result, the amino acid sequence at the boundary site is S [PRRA] R ↓ SVAS, and it is thought that immediately after the S protein is synthesized in the host cell, the "↓" part is cleaved by the host cell's furin. Has been done.
In viruses with S protein that have undergone S1 / S2 cleavage by furin, when the S protein binds to the ACE2 receptor of the next host cell, the TMPRSS2 protease of the host cell on the cell membrane near the receptor causes the S2'site. It is cleaved and the infection is established as it is.
In contrast, in normal coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV with S protein that has not undergone S1 / S2 cleavage, the virus itself binds to the ACE2 receptor of the next host cell after the S protein binds to the ACEXNUMX receptor in the next host cell.EndocytosisIs taken up into the host cellEndosomesThe cathepsin L protease in the cell cleaves the two border sites and fuses with the cell membrane of the endosome to infect.    
In 2020, riceUniversity of TexasA research team led by the Faculty of Medicine to verify how much the amino acid sequence [PRRA] contributes to S2 / S1 cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 and, as a result, enhances the infectivity of the virus. , SARS-CoV-2 Wild type Synthesized a variant named ΔPRRA in which only the genetic information corresponding to [PRRA] of S protein was deleted from the original RNA sequence.Calu-3Using cells (human lung hematoma cells cultured for experiments), infection experiments with three types of viruses, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 wild type, and SARS-CoV-2ΔPRRA mutant strain, were conducted and comparative studies were conducted. bottom. 
According to this study, the S1 / S2 cleavage rate of daughter virus released from infected cells was 1.4% for SARS-CoV, 2% for SARS-CoV-87.3 wild type, 33.1% for ΔPRRA mutants, and ΔPRRA. In the mutant strain, it was considered that there is a mechanism to promote S1 / S2 cleavage other than [PRRA].Virus titerA comparison of infectivity based on the wild type showed that the infectivity was about 10 times higher than that of the ΔPRRA mutant strain.
Report "THE ORIGIN OF COVID-2021: An Investigation of the Wuhan Institute of Virology" by the House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee and Republican Party, released on August 8, 1.  So, citing this University of Texas-centered study and showing further circumstantial evidence, SARS-CoV-2 is from China.Wuhan Institute of VaseIt claims to be an artificially created virus by inserting [PRRA] and other genetic modifications using the bat-hosted coronavirus RaTG13 as a source.
Basic reproduction number
SARS-CoV-2Basic reproduction number (R0Many unpeer-reviewed studies on estimates in) have different numbers and different ratings, but R0Is estimated to be 1.4 to 3.9..This means that in the unprotected state, SARS-CoV-2 usually gives rise to 1 to 1.4 newly infected individuals per infected person.This confirms that SARS-CoV-3.9 infects at least 2 people in a chain reaction..
Ability to infect immune cells
Healthy humanIn in vitro experiments usingCD4PositiveT cellsWas suggested to be infected with a virus.No viral replication has been identified, the receptor is unknown, and the effects have not been evaluated...No other types of immune cells were found to be infected in this report.There was a similar report using a cell line, but this paper was withdrawn due to a defect in the method..
Secondary lymphoid tissue of the deceased patient (Lymph node-spleen)ofMacrophageExpresses the ACE2 receptor and is viralNuclear proteinThere are reports that the antigen was detected.It is unclear whether this is due to viral infection or uptake of infected cells...In this report, T cells andB cellsNo nucleoprotein antigen was identified.
Infection of animals
Cats are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and in some cases, droplet infections can cause cat-to-cat transmission, according to a report by a Chinese research team.Besides catsferretAlso sensitive, but dogs andDream Pork,Chicken,duckDid not multiply..Being a virologistYoshihiro KawaokaIt is,mousethanhamsterThe result is that the symptoms of infection to.
Existence of multiple types
In March 2020, this virus (3 cases in China and abroad) was released.Beijing UniversityChinese research teamgeneAs a result of analysisBatIt is called S type (S subtype), which is close to the virus of origin and accounts for 3% of the total, and L type (L subtype), whose toxicity is unknown but seems to be frequent.Nucleotide sequenceIt turns out that it can be classified into two different types of..28,144th and XNUMXth of viral RNAbaseThe amino acids specified by the difference inSerine(S type)LeucineDistinguished by (L type).
It has been confirmed that many patients are infected with only one type but both types, and it is reported that once infected with the virus and the symptoms are cured, the other type is "re-infected". There is also, The possibility and cause of reinfection are debated and require further research and verification.
- S type
- It is evolutionarily old and is considered to be pre-mutated (ancestral).Since the aggression is low, the selection pressure is weak, and it seems that the ratio has increased relatively..
- L type
- L-type is dominant in the early epidemic in Wuhan, China..Initial reports stated that the L-type was more aggressive and spread more rapidly.[Note 4]..Therefore, it is thought that the selection pressure was applied and the proportion decreased due to human intervention by epidemic countermeasures...However, the point that "strong infectivity" was later corrected, and the expression was changed to "high frequency"..
- Type K
- S-type mutated virus.Although it was not detected and spread by infectious disease surveillance in China, the influx of K-virus was observed due to the large lack of the influenza epidemic curve in Japan.
- G type
- A type that is thought to have caused an explosive infection in the United States and Italy after many deaths in Wuhan, China...Strong infectivity and toxicity.
- 2020 Year of 4 MonthBritishEngland-Cambridge UniversityAccording to reports such as, this virus can be classified into three types, A, B, and C. A is close to a virus derived from Chinese bats and was found in infected people in China and Japan, but in the United States andAustraliaThere were many infected people. B, which was mutated from A, seems to have increased explosively in China and neighboring countries, centering on Wuhan City, and there were few cases of fire in Europe and the United States. C mutated from B was common in Europe such as Italy, France, and the United Kingdom..
- In the pre-reviewed paper by Nippon Biodata Co., Ltd., we focused on the 8,782th, 28,144th, 29,095th, and 3th,XNUMXth bases of the virus's RNA sequence, and classified this virus into three types: TCC, TCT, and CTC... TCC and TCT correspond to type S indicated by the Chinese group and type A indicated by the British group.CTC corresponds to the L type shown by the Chinese group and the B type and C type shown by the British group.
- ^ In Japanese nameNotationThere is no fixed.An example of notation is#nameSee.
- ^ As will be described later, it is officially named "SARS-CoV-2" by ICTV, but to avoid confusion, the WHO materials released before that will remain "2019-nCoV".In addition, the name "SARS" became popular in 2003 in Asia and other countries.Severe acute respiratory syndromeFor the sake of convenience, WHO also uses the name "COVID-19 virus" or "COVID-19 virus"..
- ^ In addition, a small number of "2019-nCoV" notations remain on the English notation page of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare official website, and previously used 2019-nCoV as the official name...The National Institute of Infectious Diseases is referred to by the "2019-nCoV Genetic Testing Method" created by the Institute., Also described as "New Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2)" in the official text...Miyagi Prefecture wrote "New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" in the guidance for opening a general telephone consultation service regarding this virus...Similarly, Aomori Prefecture described the number of infected people as "new coronavirus (2019-nCoV): XX people" in the "Weekly Aomori Prefecture Infected Persons Outbreak Information"...The Tokyo Metropolitan Government links the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" in the "New Coronavirus Infectious Disease FAQ"., Aichi Prefecture's "New Coronavirus Infectious Disease Control Site" has a similar link...However, as of August 2020, the linked page has been renamed to "New Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-8) Related Information Page".In addition, some in-vitro drugs are labeled only as 19-nCoV on the main body..
- ^ "L type, which might be more aggressive and spread more quickly." From "ABSTRACT" in doi: 10.1093 / nsr / nwaa036.
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- ^ a b c d (PDF) --ICTV (February 11, 20)
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- Variant of SARS coronavirus 2
- New coronavirus infection (COVID-19)
- Global pandemic of new coronavirus infections
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- Human coronavirus OC43 --Pandemic at the end of the 19th centuryRussian cold) The virus that may have caused it.
- the sameCoronavirus familySerious illness caused by the virus
- Wuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale Market --The market that is the source.
- National International Medical Research Center
- 2020 stock price crash(Corona shock)
- Social Stigma #Case of Social Stigma
- Cluster 5 --A mutant strain of the new coronavirus via mink in a fur factory.The coronavirus vaccine under development may not be effective against this mutant strain.
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