Former US Secretary of State Colin Powell dies 84 years old with new corona complications
If you write the contents roughly
After giving a speech at the United Nations in 2003, the United States rushed into the Iraq War, but after retiring, he recalled that it was a stain on his life.
Colin Powell, 84, the first black Secretary of State in the United States, has died.Powell is the new Corona ... → Continue reading
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Iraq warWhat is (war)?The United States of AmericaIs the main body2003 May 3FromThe United Kingdom,AustraliaAnd dispatched an engineer unitポーランドEtc. are addedUnionByIraq disarmament problem OfWeapons of mass destructionIn the name of "Iraqi Freedom Operation" because of a breach of the obligation to progress in retention(I.e.It is a military intervention that began with the invasion of. (With the Second Gulf War)
The battle between regular armies ended in 2003, and in May of the same year.George W. BushIssued a "declaration of the end of a large-scale battle", but the United States pointed outWeapons of mass destructionThe fighting continued due to the worsening of security in Iraq.2010 May 8ToBarack ObamaDeclared the end of the "combat end declaration" and "Iraqi's free operation", and from the next day, the "new dawn operation" for maintaining security in Iraq alone after the withdrawal of the US military began.
Name of war
The name of the war is often the name of the country or place where the war took place.Balkan War,Korean War,Vietnam WarEtc.), the name "Iraq War" is common from this convention.However, there are opinions that the name Iraq War is a one-sided attitude toward Iraq from the standpoint of the United States, and considering the circumstances leading up to the war.Second Gulf WarIt may also be called.
In addition, US President Bush unilaterally declared the end of the large-scale battle in May 2003, but US President Barack Obama issued a declaration of termination in August 5, and he also declared the end in 2010. The declaration of the end of the Iraq War has been issued upon the complete withdrawal of US troops from Iraq, causing confusion in the definition of the Iraq War itself.Against this backgroundWikipedia English versionSo, the 2003 war2003 invasion of Iraq = 2003 invasion of IraqFrom the battle situation after the declaration of the end of the large-scale battle to the complete withdrawal of the U.S. military from Iraq by December 2011.Iraq war = Iraq warAnd
1991 OfGulf WarAfter the(I.e.Ceasefire resolution accepted byResolution 687) In IraqWeapons of mass destructionWas obliged to not hold.As a means of confirming this achievementUnited NationsIs "UNSCOM", which is mainly composed of Americans and British people.United Nations Special Commission on Weapons of Mass Destruction) Was set up to investigate Iraq's weapon possession status and manufacturing equipment.The Iraqi side also accepted this,1998 Until that time, there was no major confusion.However, UNSCOM changed the investigation method from the conventional method with advance notice to the unannounced method, and Iraq became uncooperative with UNSCOM's inspection and refused to accept it.
Also in AmericaUnited Nations Security Council resolution 688In northern Iraq on the basis ofNo-fly zoneSet and1992 ToFrance,The United KingdomIn cooperation with Iraq, a no-fly zone was set in southern Iraq.[Annotation 7]..Iraq, which rebelled against this,Surface-to-air missileAnd intentionally invaded the airspace with military aircraft.Therefore, as a sanction, the United States and Britain repeatedly attacked Iraqi military facilities.[Annotation 8].
In 1998 UNSCOM launched a missile in Iraqnuclear weaponsNotchemical weaponYou can think that there is almost noBiological weaponsMade a report that was in doubt. July of the same year,Air strikeUNSCOM's inspection activities have been suspended due to the non-cooperation of the Iraqi government.1999 In December, "UNMOVIC" (instead of UNSCOM)United Nations Surveillance Verification Inspection Committee) Will be installedUnited Nations Security Council resolution 1284Was adopted.In this adoptionロシア,France,ChugokuHas abstained, and Iraq refused to accept it.
Background to the start of the war
2001 President George W. Bush, who took office, has been concerned about Iraq's non-cooperation with inspections immediately after taking office.Around this time, hardliners' claims against Iraq began to rise in the United States and Britain.Behind the growing hard-line argument against Iraq was the observation that UN-led economic sanctions had loosened and Iraq, which had raised funds through smuggling, was strengthening its armaments... In February, US and British troops carried out air strikes to destroy the Iraqi air defense network that was being completed.
In June, the United States and the United Kingdom expire in November 6.Oil and food exchange planHe proposed the introduction of "smart sanctions," which is an economic sanctions bill against Iraq.However, strong opposition from Russia has led to continued sanctions (traditional sanctions).).
XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Simultaneous terrorist attacks in the United StatesThere has occurred.Commentators commented on the terrorist attack on the United States as the first report, while criticisms for terrorism and condolences for the United States were received in the world.cowboyIs the fruit of humanitarian crimes that have been committed so far. "..Although the report worsened the U.S.'s sentiment toward Iraq, the U.S. government had rather negatively commented on the Iraqi government's involvement for a month after the terrorist attack... On October 10thSaddam HusseinThe President Shows Condolences to American Citizens for the First Time..On September 9, the year after the United States began to suspect Iraq's involvement in terrorismNaji Sabri United Nations General AssemblyHe reiterated his condolences and blamed the US government's tone of linking Iraq and al-Qaeda.
Hardliners against Iraq say that the Iraqi administration's complete armed conquest is the best way to stabilize within the U.S. governmentPaul WolfowitzDeputy Secretary of Defense,Richard perleWith the voice of the Defense Policy Advisory Committee Chairman of the Ministry of Defense strengthened, there was often the view that military action aimed at overthrowing the government against Iraq should be taken. America in NovemberクウェートIncreased the number of people by 2000.
President Bush was in early 2002General textbook speechInAxis remarks of evilTo Iraq,(I.e.,north koreaPossess weapons of mass destructionTerrorism-supporting nationI accused him of being by name.In particular, Iraq was repeatedly requested to inspect government-related facilities in 2002, emphasizing the slow progress of disarmament that had been demanded for many years and the danger of the spread of weapons of mass destruction.
On the other hand, it has been in conflict with the Hussein administration for some time.イ ス ラ エ ルIn August 2002Benjamin NetanyahuFormer Prime Minister visited the United States and said, "President Husseinnuclear weaponsIs under development. ”In May of the same year, he complained of the threat.Simon PerezForeign MinisterCNN"Saddam Hussein is said to be the mastermind of the terrorist attacks in the United States."Bin LadenAs dangerous as. "Ariel SharonThe prime minister also called for an early attack on Iraq. Also,Hebrew University OfThe professor said,Los Angeles Times』Iraq war opposition1930 eraNazi GermanyToAppeasement policyPublished a treatise that was likened to criticism.The denial of the appeasement policy became a powerful claim of the supporters of the war.
On November 2002, 11, the United Nations will give Iraq a "last opportunity" to comply with disarmament.United Nations Security Council resolution 1441Was unanimously adopted.Iraq accused the "evil group" of "evil resolutions", Accepted UNMOVIC and responded to a full inspection for the first time in four years.The resolution also stipulated that it should be reported within 4 days, but Iraq offered to extend the deadline because it was an "evil resolution," but it was not accepted. On December 30, Iraq filed a huge amount of tax returns.
2003 January 1, UNMOVICHans BlixWith the chairmanIAEA OfMohamed ElbaradaiThe secretary generalSecurity CouncilMade an interim report of the survey results..Although no definitive evidence of weapons of mass destruction has been found, the Iraqi report made at the end of last year had "a great many questions" and the declaration had "contradictions". There was.In addition, the Iraqi side refused to inspect the no-fly zone by a UN helicopter, and non-cooperation in the inspection was revealed... On January 1th, UNMOVIC explained that the existence of 16 missiles capable of carrying chemical weapons was unknown, and the range of Iraq's non-long-range ballistic missiles was found to be a violation of the Security Council resolution. ,Anthrax,Tabun,SomanSuch asBiological weapons-chemical weaponIt was said that the contents declared by the Iraqi side were false, such as the disposal information was not confirmed...As a result, the United States and Britain began preparing for an attack as Iraq violated Security Council Resolution 1441.
From March 2th to April 14thCatholicIraq, who is also a religiousTariq AzizDeputy Prime Minister TheEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,イタリアAcrossPopeJohn Paul IIHe appealed to the international community about his stance of avoiding war by meeting with him.
On March 3, UNMOVIC made its second interim report.The United States tried to adopt a resolution on the attack, saying the inspection was inadequate, but France called for an extension of the inspection deadline.In addition to the United States and the United Kingdom, it is not a member of the Security Council at this time.JapanRooted in favor of the resolution in six non-executive directors whose attitudes are unclear, but failed.Because of this, FranceVetoIt is more likely that the resolution will be rejected without exercising, and the United States and Britain have decided to launch an attack without a resolution.
On March 2003, 3, President Bush delivered a national television speech, ordering President Saddam Hussein and his family to leave Iraq within 17 hours, resulting in a full-scale attack.UltimatumWas done.On the other hand, President Hussein had insisted on a thorough fight in his speech to his country, but by then he had sent two letters to President Bush, and one more after the ultimatum, for a total of three letters with the same content.The content was that "if the US government does not call for a change of power, it is ready to fully cooperate with all demands."The American side refused to accept all three letters, 2 days laterMay 3(Eastern Standard Time) As previously announced, along with the United Kingdom and othersIraqi Free Operation]StrategyIn accordance with, the invasion was started.
For Iraq attacksFrance,Germany,ロシア,Chugoku,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThere were voices saying that they should continue the inspection by the United Nations Weapons Inspection Team, but the war started in a way that pushed it through.Although public opinion in the United States gave high support for armed intervention, it was said that national opinion was not always in agreement with attacks without the support of the United Nations.
In addition, the United Kingdom, which actively supported the use of force in line with the United StatesBlairIn the administration, ministers announced their resignation one after another and opposed the government's policy. March 3Robin cookPrivy Council Chairman and House Leader, March 3Health officer,Both vice ministers in charge of internal affairs resigned (BBC News ArticlesFor a more detailed list).As a result, Prime Minister Blair was forced to urgently obtain parliamentary approval.
Reasons for the official announcement
The United States and Britain insistedReason for the outbreak of warIs as follows.
- Iraq has professed possession of weapons of mass destruction in the past, and the possibility of possession still threatens the world's security environment.
- Dictator Saddam Hussein in the countryKurdishIs doing a lot of oppression, such as cracking down on
- It is difficult to confirm the disposal of weapons of mass destruction due to repeated interference with UN inspections.
- A ceasefire resolution of the Gulf War due to repeated obstructions to inspectionsUN Security Council Resolution 687Is broken
- United Nations Security Council resolution 1154There was a resolution, or final warning, on the terms of the abolition of the Gulf War ceasefire agreement, saying that "any infringement would have the most serious consequences for Iraq."
- Despite the "last opportunity" given in resolution 1441, the Iraqi side has not actively cooperated with the inspection.
- Hussein and al-Qaeda may be in a cooperative relationship
In summary, the Iraq War (Second Gulf War) abolished the Armistice Agreement of the First Gulf War (Security Council Resolution 1154) based on UN Security Council Resolutions 1441 and 687, and the United States and BritainPreemptive self-defense rightAs an exercise of (Spokesman(Statement) It happened.
France, Germany, etc. insisted that a new Security Council resolution should be added in addition to resolution 1441 if the war started, but 1441 demanded unconditional inspection, but the Iraqi side has set conditions, so the United States, Britain and The allies have begun the war.In addition, France was a main warrior at the beginning of the debate, and the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier "Charles de Gaulle"ofPersian GulfIt was widely reported on TV news that preparations for dispatch were underway, but he later changed his attitude.
The Bush administration argues that the reason for the start of the war is that Iraq does not allow unconditional inspections, not the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, but before the start of the war, President Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney "Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction," repeatedly broadly stated through the media.As a result, criticism that the "reason" of this war was lost due to the lack of weapons of mass destruction after the war began.
Suspicion of information forgery by asylum Iraqis
Allegations have surfaced that asylum-seekers have forged information that they possess weapons of mass destruction to overthrow the Hussein administration and passed it on to US authorities.BritishGuardianAccording to the paper, an existing exiled Iraqi man has allowed forgery..
Bush administration's war plan and information manipulation suspicion
Later originalTreasury Secretary OfPaul O'Neill"There was a plan for the Iraq war from the beginning of the administration," he said...Was the CIA director at the beginning of the warGeorge J. Tenet"There was no serious discussion within the Bush administration about the country's imminent threat before the start of the war in Iraq," he testified in his own book.Moreover,Joseph WilsonFormerly stationedガボンThe ambassador announced on July 2003, 7, "New York Times』Initiated from the article contributed to the paperPlame affairBy the Bush administration intentionally manipulating information about the threat of Iraq (Frame up) Is becoming more suspicious.
Also, in trials such as the Plame affair, President Bush under the Bush administrationDick CheneyInformation manipulation and its involvement by several government officials, including the Vice President, were discussed in the trial.
Speech before and after the start of the war by President Bush
President Bush cites the following reasons for the war in his speeches before and after the war.
- For armed sanctions against continuing to possess weapons of mass destruction, such as biological and chemical weapons, denying that fact, and not fully cooperating with the UN weapons inspection team (only partial cooperation).
- To free Iraqi civilians from the oppression of President Saddam Hussein.
- To transform Iraq, a country that supports terrorists, into a "democratic country" (War on terrorismPart of).
The course of the warIraq War ChronologySee.
Hypothesis of reasons for war other than official government announcement
IraqSaudi ArabiaSecured as an alternative to a military base in Saudi ArabiaU.S. military forcesBy relocatingMuslim(Muslim)ofAnti-AmericanSoothes emotions and prevents the outbreak of terrorism[Source required]..Bin Laden during the Gulf WarIslamSacred placeMeccaI was shocked by the presence of a pagan army (US military) in Saudi, and started an anti-US terrorist struggle with a request for the US military to withdraw from Saudi, eventually leading to the 911 terrorist attacks.[Source required]..However, the United States continued to station troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War in the name of protecting its allies from the threat of Hussein, so it decided to withdraw troops from Saudi Arabia without giving the impression that it had succumbed to terrorist demands. Had absolutely necessary to eliminate Hussein[Source required].
By making Iraq pro-American, the Middle East (Iran,(I.e., Other anti-American countries)"Democratization OfDomino defeat'(So-calledDomino theory).There is a view that this is the main purpose of the Iraq War[Source required]..Influential at the heart of the Bush administration and strongly supported the Iraq WarNeoconThe group believed that Hussein's support in the Arab world would lead to a crisis in Israel.Israel is a parentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt was one of the few countries whose support for the start of the war exceeded the opposition even at the national level because it saw the Hussein administration on the anti-Israeli route as a threat.[Annotation 9]..Israel on a moderate route to IraqJordan(Hassims) Has come up with a strategy to govern.for that reason,Israel LobbyHas been pointed out to have worked to start the war.
- Create war in the Middle East, one of the largest oil producing regions, raise oil prices and manipulate the flow of oil markets[Source required].
- There is a tendency that it is not desirable for the president to be replaced during the war as an American temperament, and it is part of President Bush's campaign aimed at reelection at the beginning of the war (Taboo in the press # Wartime President Taboo）[Source required].
- Iraq settles oil exportsDollarFrom tailoringEuroIt had decided to move to payment.When this is done, the world of US dollarsBase currencyAs the position as a swaying sway, the invasion was carried out as a defensive war to prevent it..
- Has not experienced any noticeable war since the Cold WarMunitions industryPressured the White House to provoke a war (so-called)Military industry complex）.
- To consume weapons and weapons in the war.Unless we consume overproduced weapons and weapons in a certain cycle, the balance between supply and demand in the military market will be lost.[Source required].
- The anti-American Hussein administration holds the oil fields in northern Iraq, which has the second largest reserves after Saudi Arabia (the third largest in the world), in the United States (especially).International oil capital) Not to be favorable, but to seize interests.However, after the war, development rights were taken by other countries by bidding..
- To secure oil rights in preparation for the expected depletion of crude oil in the next few decades.From the beginning of the war, the theory claims that it is a war for the US capital, Israel, to monopolize Iraq's oil.Israeli leftist newspaper "Haaretz』Insists.
Iraqi side speculation
President Hussein, who was later arrested, said he had made a bullish statement because he misunderstood President Bush's intentions and thought that it would fit in with an airstrike.It is also said that the aim was to increase its presence in Middle Eastern countries by implicitly suggesting the existence of weapons of mass destruction..
Interests of opposition countries and the United Nations in Iraq
France, Russia and China have good relations with Iraq over oil and development projects, which is whyUnited Nations Security Council MemberIt is said that there was a motive to protect the interests behind the fact that the three countries did not break their stance against the use of force.France, Russia and China also export weapons, and most of the weapons owned by the Iraqi army are made in Russia, France and China, and before the Gulf War, these three countries imported weapons from Iraq. 3% of..In addition, France, which canceled the dispatch of the aircraft carrier "Charles de Gaulle" to the Persian Gulf, has a large loan to Iraq, and the loan became uncollectible due to the collapse of the system due to the war. I was afraid to become..China acquired an interest in the Al-Adab oil field in 1997 during the Hussein administration, and Iraq signed an oil field development contract with a foreign company for the first time after the war.CNPCI kept this interest in.
In addition, the United Nations also has Iraq-related humanitarian assistance projects.Oil-for-Food Exchange ProgramCorruption related to the problem later became a problem.This was a UN project in which Iraq, which had been sanctioned, exchanged food and clothing for oil and was involved in the plan.Butros Butros-GariyuanSecretary-GeneralFamily businessDeputy Secretary-General(at that time),Coffey AnnanThe case was that Kojo, the eldest son of the former Secretary-General, was profiting from smuggling, bribes from the Iraqi government and related companies...Russia, France and China, which had military aid to Iraq, were the most profitable on this plan...The Hussein administration's fraudulent revenues from the plan are estimated to be $ 19 billion and are seen as a bribe for that...In addition, the Bush administration, which is skeptical of the United Nations, and Britain and Australia, which are pro-war nations, are supposed to be inviolable on the premises before the Iraq War.United Nations HeadquartersSuppose you were eavesdropping onAlso happened, and it is known that the wiretapping device was actually installed..
Reaction in each country
The reactions of each country immediately after the start of the war were as follows.
British Blairprime ministerIn a government statement, it supported the use of force by the United States and stated that it would participate in the war together.In the statement at the time of participation, onceWinston ChurchillThe phrase "from land, sea and air" issued by the former Prime Minister was used.[Source required].
JapaneseJunichiro Koizumiprime ministerAt a press conference, "I understand and support the use of force in the United States.".As it became clear later, Koizumi's statement wasMinistry of Foreign AffairsThe content is more in-depth than the document prepared by the office worker.The document included the expression "understand", but Koizumi used the in-depth word "support" at the press conference at the beginning of the war.He also urged the members of the Security Council to support the United States even before the start of the war.
- フィリピンSupports.China, russia,European Union,Arab LeagueIs blamed.
- Israel strongly supports the start of the war.Ready for immediate retaliation against a missile attack from Iraq.In Japan, he entered an emergency system and recommended carrying a gas mask (preparation for biological and chemical weapons).In February, before the start of the war, Foreign Minister Perez accused France, which opposes the start of the war, of doubting whether it was a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
- Iraqi government fights this battleHoly war(Jihad).
- United NationsSecretary-General Kofi Annan expressed strong regret.
- South KoreaAt an extraordinary cabinet meeting on March 3, it was decided to dispatch a construction engineer support team of up to 21 people and a medical support team of up to 600 people.However, after that, there was opposition in the parliament, and it became unclear whether the dispatch would be realized due to the division of the ruling party. In a speech at the Diet on April 100,Roh Moo-hyunThe president again asks Congress to approve the dispatch.
- Emergency supplies in the United States, and moreHandgun-rifle-shotgunSales increased for some reason.
After the start of the war, the international anti-war group UFPJ () And ANSWER (), A relay that goes around the world in 24 hoursAnti-war demonstrationIn some countries, skirmishes with police trying to regulate the situation have intensified to the extent that injuries and arrests have occurred.Well-known artists all blame the attack.At the same time, large-scale demonstrations in support of the start of the war were held in Washington.
3 month 27 dayUnited Nations Security CouncilAt the table, the US and British sides insisted on the legitimacy of the war.Russia, China, Iraq and others have made critical statements.
FrenchDe VillepinThe foreign minister strongly opposed the United States, which tried to force the war into Iraq.US Secretary of DefenseDonald RumsfeldFrom "France and Germany (against the start of the war)Old europeIronically, the UN Security Council said, "France is an old country, so I dare to oppose it."France remained opposed to the Iraq War until the end[Source required].
On April 4, the US government accused Syria.The reason was that it hid Iraqi government officials and possessed chemical weapons, but this caused a backlash from Syria, the French Foreign Minister, and the UN Secretary-General.[Source required].
Japanese debt waiver
The Japanese government suffered great damage in response to the waiver of debt to the Iraqi government.17 (Heisei XNUMX)2005 ) According to a press release from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on November 11, it was announced that if the deferred interest rate is not taken into account, the debt will be reduced by about 24 billion yen...Following the United States in the Iraq War, no weapons of mass destruction were found, and only a waiver of 7,100 billion yen in debt and a prolonged rise in crude oil prices were the result for Japan, and criticism arose from the Japanese people who had only disadvantages.[Source required]..The decrease in Iraqi crude oil exports due to the Iraq War was also one of the factors behind the rise in crude oil prices.[Source required]..It was pointed out that during the Gulf War, a total of $ 130 billion was provided and large criticisms arose from within the country, avoiding criticism from the public in the form of debt waiver rather than providing direct funding. rice field[Source required].
Japanese press response
In the morning of March 2003, 3 (Japan time), when the ultimatum that the United States struck expires, each station had a special reporting system.[Source required].
- NHK general TVHeld a special news program from 11:41.
- Commercial broadcastEach station stopped regular broadcasting from the news frame at noon and broadcasted nationwide until midnight.[Source required].
- Since the US military action was carried out within the news frame at noon, it shifted to the news special program as it was[Source required]..As an example at a local stationNNN News DashIn the local news frameNNN24There is a case where Iraq-related coverage was continued as it was by replacing it with the Iraq War coverage special program.[Source required].
- Fuji Television Network, IncThen.You can laugh!Was suspended, and each station continued to broadcast special news programs from the lunch information program to the evening news.[Source required].
- From March 3st, I returned to the normal organization, but "JNN News』(TBS), "Sankei Telenews FNN"(Fuji Television Network, Inc(Sunday)) Etc.ParticipationWas broadcast on[Source required].
After declaring the start of the war on March 2003, 3, the Ground Self-Defense Force began to advance on March 19, 3, with air superiority secured.).Um Qasr,Lumera oil fieldThe largest city in the southBasraAlthough it gets stuck in the offensive and defensive battle, it is suppressed.Head west along the railroad and road,NasiriyaでCoutoWith the troops going northSummerwaThroughEuphrates RiverAlongHillahDivided into units aiming forBaghdadI joined and rushed in, and captured this.At the time of this capture, he was in Baghdad city after issuing information that the U.S. advance unit was suffering from an ambush attack on the way.Republican Guard,Special Republican GuardMost of the tanks were destroyed by air strikes when they left the city to attack the advancing troops.It can be said that this is a tactic to successfully send tanks out of the city due to the difficulty of air strikes in the city.
Together with the northern partMosul,Tikrit,KirkukThe paratroopers captured the area, and the western desert area as well.It was an occupation at a tremendous speed of just over a month to capture the whole country.Its speed was that it was actively working on media before and after the start of the war.Minister of Information SapphireIt was enough to produce a video of a US military combat vehicle passing behind Baghdad's peacefulness.
Introducing small troops and high-tech weapons
The number of troops put in was 1991 (compared to 66 in the 26 Gulf War.US ArmyとUS Marine CorpsAbout 10,British Army3.Including the Navy, Air Force, Logistics, Intelligence, etc., the number is very small, about 21 for the US Army, 4 for the British Army, 4 for Australia, and 5 thousand for Poland). Efficiently destroy specific bases by effectively using high-performance weapons such as GPS-guided bombs and laser-guided bombs.doctrineAnd
This is after the Gulf WarColin PowellThis is in contrast to the style of war called "Powell Doctrine" advocated by (the one that puts in overwhelming force and aims for victory in a short period of time).Even among military experts in each country, attention was paid or worried about the effectiveness of US military tactics in the Iraq War.
It is said that Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld actively advocated this plan.Powell Doctrine has always beenVietnam WarHe also expressed the view that it is a sub-stream of the "Weinberger Doctrine" formed as a lesson from, and is becoming obsolete.
In fact, in the Iraq War, the aircraft at the beginning of the warPinpoint bombingWith air strikes includingCruise missileThe Iraqi army's chain of command collapsed early due to the destruction of the nodal point.The Iraqi army, which had lost most of its systematic resistance shortly after the start of the war, had no choice but to resist sporadically in various parts of the country, and the US military took full control of the war.Betraying most expectations in advance, the US Ground Self-Defense Force also succeeded in quickly advancing to Baghdad.This has resulted in showing the overwhelming military power of the United States to the world, even if it is only a temporary image.Military powerIt was possible to further enhance the presence of the United States and show it to the Middle East and other countries around the world.Some researchers had predicted that the war would be swamped before the war began, but this early overwhelming victory completely rejected their claims.
In this warStingerArmed withMQ-1Is the Iraqi armyMiG 25Engage with each otherAnti-air weaponsWith a manned vehicle equipped withDroneFirst in historyAir battleIs also doneIn the subsequent conflict with the occupied armed groups, a remote-controlled unmanned self-propelled machine gun was put into action for the first time., On the battlefieldMech robotThe conversion progresses.
This military success further promoted C4ISR (IT and computerization of command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance).RMAThe idea of (military revolution) emerges.To the Iraqi armyType 69 tankChina, which supplied a large amount of weapons, was also shocked by the unilateral defeat of the Iraqi army.Chinese PLAEspecially with C4ISRUnmanned aerial vehicle(Drone) Is said to have been paying attention to.
Search for weapons of mass destruction
Regarding possession of weapons of mass destructionUNSCOMScott Ritter Chief Inspector[Annotation 10], IAEA Executive Director ElBaradei (both titles at that time) and others were negative from the beginning.
US troops entering Iraq searched for weapons of mass destruction.UNMOVIC also entered the site and searched.However, despite the search, no new weapons of mass destruction were discovered.2004 Secretary of State Powell announced on September 9 that he would not be found... Also in 1995Hussein Kamil HasanUnited Nations during the exile of former Iraqi Defense Minister,MI6Hasan stated that a three-party hearing was conducted by the CIA and destroyed all biological and chemical weapons and missiles after the Gulf War.However, the content has been tampered withIt was announced that Hasan had informed him that he was stealing the eyes of the inspection and proceeding with a military development plan, which was the reason for the change in UNSCOM's investigation method..
David Kaye (political scientist), who was commissioned by the CIA to lead the Weapons of Mass Destruction Research Team, announced on January 2004, 1.SenatePublic hearing"Everyone, including myself, was wrong. Now that about 85% of the research activities have been completed, there is no possibility that biological or chemical weapons will be discovered anymore."..In October of the same year, a research team dispatched by the United States submitted a final report stating that "weapons of mass destruction do not exist in Iraq."It became clear that the information on weapons of mass destruction was not credible.In this regard, Saddam Hussein, after detentionFBIIraq was uncooperative with the inspection because it "tried to restrain Iran and domestic rebels by implying possession of weapons of mass destruction", and a large amount of chemical weapons etc. Weapons of mass destruction testified that "there were none from the beginning because they were all destroyed by UN inspections after the Gulf War.".
The U.S. government blamed the CIA's information on weapons of mass destruction for being incorrect, and Congress was investigating it.
On the other hand, the discovery of weapons of mass destruction also upset allies who supported the war in Iraq.In Britain, the largest ally, Prime Minister Blair submitted a report before the war that "if the Hussein administration decides to use biochemical weapons, it can be deployed within 45 minutes," and the government over the truth of the information. Since he had even sent suicides to the staff, his approval rating plummeted as he "deceived the people" and he was forced to resign early after leaving his term.デンマーク OfThe Defense Minister was also forced to resign because he supported the Iraq War by submitting a "report on the issue of weapons of mass destruction" before the start of the war.Also in PolandKwasinievskiThe president criticized "I was deceived by the United States" and JapanKuruma AkioThe defense minister was also controversial, saying, "It was a mistake to conclude that there were weapons of mass destruction and start a war."Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which supported the United States from the beginning,2012 In December, we reported on the verification results for the response to the Iraq War.The report concludes that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not have the information to prove the absence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, and states that the actions taken by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were generally appropriate...オーストラリアのAustralianThe defense minister has been criticized for reopening, saying that "securing crude oil was the purpose of the invasion of Iraq.".
"The most regrettable thing during my administration was the failure of information activities on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction," Bush said in an interview shortly before his retirement, but he did not possess weapons of mass destruction. To the question that he would not have embarked on the invasion of Iraq if he knew in advance, he simply said that it was an "interesting question" and avoided a clear answer...I also agreed with the Iraq WarHillary ClintonIt is,2014 States that the invasion was wrong.
HEATIs in Iraq, and it is suggested that the US military may have looted at a former chemical weapons factory that could not be destroyed and took away 2500 chemical weapons including sarin.The former chemical weapons factory is located near Baghdad and was actually in operation in the 1980s and 1990s.In Iraq, it is said that the former chemical weapons factory lost control from around the summer due to attacks by armed groups and terrorist groups. .
Relationship between Hussein administration and al-Qaeda
In March 2008, the Pentagon officially compiled a report stating that "there is no conclusive evidence of Hussein's relationship with al-Qaeda, only the relationship with Palestinian militants."The full text of the report was originally planned to be published on the Internet, but just before that, it was suddenly switched to document distribution only.
Iraq WarMay 5With the "Declaration of End of Battle", the Allies formally ended the attack on Iraq in the form of an overwhelming victory.Iraq has been in the U.S. Army since the collapse of Hussein's administration due to the invasion of Baghdad.UN Security Council Resolution 1483Based on the US Department of Defense Humanitarian Reconstruction Assistance Office andCoalition Provisional AuthorityReconstruction work will be carried out under the control of (CPA).
The Bush administration thought that if the US military advanced to Baghdad, the citizens would raise their hands and welcome it, and together with the US military, it would take action to overthrow the Hussein regime, but that observation will be betrayed later.
Occupation policy stumbling block
The U.S. and British tactics of using only a small number of troops were very helpful in offensive operations, but are now believed to be terribly unsuitable for occupation policy.Unlike only a good military action if the exclusion army of the enemy, restoration of infrastructure at the time of the occupation, ensure security, but a variety of activities, such as food distribution is required, in any because the number of soldiers is not enough fully The failure to do so has resulted in a vicious cycle of opposition from the Iraqi people, further deterioration of public security, and the need for more soldiers.
At the time of the invasion, the former Iraqi army did not resist like resistance, but it quickly abandoned large-scale weapons, secretly concealed small weapons and ammunition, and made a constant resistance attack on the U.S. military, and it is still continuing. It is considered.Hussein himself testified and secured evidence from the presidential palace, but it was planned from the end of the Gulf War, and with the minimum amount of material under economic sanctions.bombThe method of manufacturing the occupant is also being researched by intelligence agencies and the military, and it is thought that while receiving the offensive, they went underground without resistance and attacked the occupying forces that stopped the offensive with a bomb.The U.S. and British occupation policies did not anticipate (or were considered to be very disrespectful) of this, apparently a rudimentary defeat in information analysis, and a large number after the "declaration of end of combat." It resulted in death.The flaws in information acquisition, control, and risk analysis, which are the most important on the battlefield in modern times, were a great pain to the US and British occupation forces.At present, not only former military personnel but also armed groups and militants are activating their activities, and attacks on US troops, civilian employees, civilians operating in Iraq, and media personnel are increasing.
Also, when occupying a big city such as Baghdad, citizens who felt freed from oppressionLootingRun to博物馆Exhibits and store items were looted.This is like thisAnarchyIt is also a sign that preparations were not made for (the measures to prevent looting were delayed, and according to a local report by photojournalist Takashi Morizumi, the U.S. and British troops left other ministries and scrutinized only the Ministry of Petroleum.securityWas.In addition, about 8% of the plunder was returned by the teachings of Islamic priests).In addition, some armed groups were targeting city halls and police stations due to the looting of civilians, and the US and British troops could not prevent this either.Later, when he moved to the occupation policy, it was found that the citizen's registration information, personal information, car registration number, etc. were uprooted or destroyed.For this reason,Car bomb,Suicide bombingEven if the number of the car used in is known, it does not lead to the arrest of the resistance organization because the owner is unknown.
2009 In January, President Bush admitted at a final press conference that the war on terror was justified, but the 1 "Declaration of End of Combat" was false.The official "Declaration of Termination" was issued on August 2003, 7, seven months later.Barack ObamaIt will finally be done by the new president.
Privatization of occupation policy
For reconstruction work, "HalliburtonCompany, "Bechtel InternationalA number of American private companies, including the company, participated.It was the first time that private companies had joined one after another immediately after the end of the battle, but it is said that these experimental policies were the heart of the Bush administration ministers such as Chainy.[Annotation 11].
The transportation operations that were originally carried out by the military will be privatized only in areas where safety is ensured, and private companies will use trailers to transport food, goods, and military supplies. It was to go and make a profit.From the perspective of the US Department of Defense, privatization of the transportation business, which occupies a large part of the war, was considered to be efficient because it was possible to devote that amount of troops and budget to operations.
However, in reality Iraq is in combat, and civilian trailers on transport missions, albeit with U.S. military escorts, soon became targets of armed groups, shooting, bombing, rocket artillery, and murder. , A series of kidnappings.The drivers include Americans, local Iraqis, and others.Nepalese,FilipinoThey hired low-wage foreigners, but they were also victims of many battles, and the security around the main roads deteriorated due to repeated attacks, leaving private companies out of reach.When the US military began to run out of troops due to deteriorating security, it began to outsource security operations to a company called a private military company.Due to their high income, a significant number of security guards belonging to private military companies have entered Iraq, but many have also been killed.Many died in battle with armed groups.However, since the guards are civilians until they get tired of it, even if they die, they are not counted as "killed in action".Most of the employees of private military companies are from the police and the military, and their nationalities are diverse.2007 In 9 monthBlackwater usaKills 17 Iraqi civilians and injures 24 () Occurred and was criticized.The US government has ruled that the shootings of at least 14 people are unjustified, but has extended its contract with Blackwater.
In this way, the transportation business is paralyzed, and it is known from e-mails sent by soldiers to their families that supplies have not reached the soldiers on the front line.Water shortages are particularly serious, and hydration is limited to the limit in the desert at 50 degrees Celsius.Also, the current US military is different from the time of the Vietnam War.ConscriptionDue to the situation in Iraq, it is difficult to secure the absolute number of soldiers because the number of applicants for enlistment is not gathered.For this reason, frontline soldiers are usually kept waiting for more than a year before they can return in a few months.This shortage of personnel is caused by the U.S. militaryNational GuardAlthough they are supplemented by (National Defense Corps), they are treated in the same way, and the treatment is worsening, such as repeatedly dispatching the same National Guard to Iraq (in 2006, they were injured and were resting as reserves. In the end, it was discovered that a document calling for the return to service had been sent to the deceased. Military officials have excused "mishandling based on the old list").Furthermore, the absence of the National Guard can have a profound effect on the occurrence and spread of disasters in the United States as a result.2005 OfHurricane KatrinaRevealed by.
On the other hand, oil developmentoilfieldFacilities andpipelineOil production is sluggish due to the attack on.Although it has the second largest reserves in the world, it cannot provide a stable supply, and President Bush's statement of "world democratization" isEthnic self-determinationContrary to this, the renewed oil crisis was feared as it increased the distrust of the royal government and tyranny of the Arab countries.As a result, oil resource purchases occurred mainly in oil majors, and crude oil prices rose rapidly after the declaration of the end of the battle.[Annotation 12].
Attack of anti-American insurgents
Allied forces with IraqpeaceEven soArmistice agreementIt ’s not that the United States has tiedCoup d'etatHe helped (and didn't even show signs of happening) to overthrow the old regime and unilaterally declare it to end (early).Nouri al-MalikiThe administration is in the United States and BritainPuppet governmentThis is because, as mentioned above, the Iraqi army and the Iraqi government have gone underground.In addition, when the battle was over, it had a strong political implication that it would be possible to embark on a reconstruction project and to make it easier for countries that could not participate in the battle to send troops.
The Iraqi army had a low fighting spirit, with 2000 responding to the call for surrender before the start of the war (the US military initially announced that it was 8000), and it seemed extremely vulnerable as it could hardly counterattack during the advance.The death toll of American soldiers was 136, even lower than the Gulf War, showing the world that the Iraq War was a great success.However, the Saddam clan and government officials fled, and in fact, sporadic battles continued even after the declaration of the end of the battle, and attacks targeting the US military and the coalition of the willing began to occur frequently.OctoberBlow up the UN officeThe special representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations was killed (the moment of the explosion was photographed by the NHK crew who happened to be interviewed), leading to the withdrawal of the UN team.
The attacks at that time were believed to have been primarily due to the remnants of the Iraqi army and secret police, and were believed to have been directed by former President Saddam Hussein, his two sons and senior government officials.However, the arrest of a senior government official who fled due to the hunting of remnants by the U.S. military proceeded, and in July his two sons (Uday,Juncus tenuis) Was killed in action, and Saddam was finally arrested in December of this year, although the number of attacks increased temporarily, but the situation seemed to be settled.However, the attack by the remnants caused more casualties than the death toll of American soldiers in the fighting until May.
However, in 2004, the target of the attack expanded, and a new one set up by the Coalition Provisional AuthorityPolicemenAnd the number of incidents targeting the new Iraqi army has increased.Most of the victims of these are Iraqi, and it is believed that the remnants aimed to destroy the symbol of the new regime in addition to attacking the US military.In addition, kidnapping cases targeting private foreigners frequently occur, andJapaneseCivilians were also damaged.These were believed to be due to armed groups within Iraq, and the trick was to demand that the troops be withdrawn in exchange for the kidnapped hostages.However, they often responded to the calls of religious leaders.
Outbreak of large-scale battle
In October 2004FallujaThe first major battle after the occupation took place between anti-American militants and the U.S. military (Falluja battle).Also, from around this time, even in the southShiiteMore Islamic protests against the United States have been launched, and some militants have attacked.Furthermore, when the abuse of Iraqi POWs by US soldiers came to light in May, the anti-American movement became widespread nationwide. In JuneProvisional governmentWas launched, and as the system was built, attacks were also carried out in response.From around this time, the indiscriminateness of the attacks became conspicuous, and terrorist attacks that seemed to target the general public in the centers of big cities began to occur one after another.It has been whispered since then that it is unlikely that the remnants are trying to target the unprotected so-called "soft target".Also, from around this time, it was reported that a large number of al-Qaeda armed groups had entered Iraq through Syria and Iran.
In addition, a large number of Shiite militias in the south were armed uprising in August and fought with the US and British troops centered on Basra, the largest city in the south.Shiite militiaMuqtada al-SaddleLed by the Iraqi Shiite leader, who fought a systematic battle, but suffered considerable sacrifices on the part of the militia.Ali al-SistaniIn response to the ceasefire call, it went to calm down in about a month.
In the following November, al-Qaeda militants (which the US military thought at the time) became active in Fallujah, and the US military attacked in a strategy named "Dawn" (details in Fallujah's battle).However, it is the purpose because it was widely reported in advance.ZarqaweeAl-Qaeda terrorists had already fled and the armed groups had dissipated.The US military is directly controlling it, but it is said that the armed groups recovered in 12% of the areas in the latter half of December.There are also suspicions that Zarqawee was truly a leader of the armed groups.It is now increasingly believed that most of the alleged al-Qaeda crimes were due to the remnants of the Hussein administration.In carrying out this operation "dawn", the United States will run out of security personnel in Baghdad, so the British government will transfer a part of the British army that was active in southeastern Iraq centered on Basra to Baghdad. rice field.
One of Fallujah's battles was the U.S. military, but the other cannot be determined to be "anti-American insurgents."[Who?].
Inauguration of administration and reduction of troops
In response to this relentless attack and terrorism, the countries that had formed the coalition of the willing declared their withdrawal one after another.Especially from the beginning of the war, he expressed his supportスペイン2004 in JapanMay 3ToTrain bombing terrorismThe occurrence of this has caused considerable upset in the troop dispatching nations.The Bush administration has announced that it will increase the number of troops dispatched from 13 to 15 because of the deteriorating security in Iraq.Furthermore, after the end of the US presidential election in November 2004, there was a move to increase the number to 11, but in reality it was suppressed by increasing the number to 20. New in April 14ConstitutionAdopt the planTransitional governmentWas launched, and the US reconstruction work in Iraq has entered the next stage.
However,2005 Happened in the summerHurricane"KatrinaAt the time of the invasion, many national guards who should work in the disaster area were dispatched to Iraq, and nearly 2 people were criticized for being killed due to the delay in rescue operations.As a result, the Bush administration returned some troops to the mainland, bringing the number of troops stationed in Iraq to 13. The number increased to 8 during the December parliamentary elections, but the following day2006 In February, it was quickly reduced to 2, and in March it was 13.In addition, since a formal democratic government was scheduled to be inaugurated in February, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan announced the reduction and withdrawal of troops one after another, following Poland, South Korea, and Italy.But with ShiitesSunnahThe construction of the administration was difficult due to the conflict (or Kurds over oil resources), and on the 22nd of the same month.Developed into a denominational conflict.As a result, the withdrawal plans of the three countries, Japan, Britain and Australia, became unclear.
Intensifying armed conflict
The clash between Shiites and Sunnis, which has been a retaliation battle since the bombing of the Askari Mausoleum, has subsided since the beginning of March, but it was reported that some civil wars were at stake, but the multinational forces denied this. did.However, on the other hand, US media and others have reported that Iran's armed groups are invading and terrorist operations, and senior US government officials and the military have also accused Iran (in connection with the issue of nuclear development).There are several Iraqi Shiite, Sunni, and Kurdish groups in the armed groups, and it is said that the Shiites are supported by Iran and the Sunni are supported by Syria.However, Syria is a minority Sia sectAlawitesIs a form of state that dominates the Sunnis, and has been in conflict with the Sunni regime in Iraq for many years, so some believe that it is not actively supporting it.Also, the former with an overseas base in FranceBa'ath PartyThe remnants are also believed to continue to work in collaboration with other Sunni forces (substantially dominating the Dora and Azamiya districts of Baghdad), even from abroad.IslamismIt was whispered immediately after the "declaration of the end of the battle" that the forces were invading.
Inauguration of official government
Birth of the Maliki administration
2006 In AprilEgyptAnd Saudi Arabian dignitaries said, "Iraq内 戦", In response to thisIraqi Transitional GovernmentRepelled strongly.However, in the country, the conflict between Shiites and Sunnis intensified, and terrorism and murder occurred every day.The Sunni repulsion was due to the transitional government prime minister being a Shiite extremistBecause it was intimate. April 4, Shia Parliamentary Union "(UIA) has espoused Nouri al-Maliki as prime minister.The Sunnis and Kurds were also tolerated, and the federal parliament resumed. As early as April 4, with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld from the U.S. governmentCondoleezza RiceThe Secretary of State entered Iraq one after another and welcomed it.
The decision on ministers was tentative, with Maliki taking the lead in coordinating each sect and agreeing to assign ministers to the seats of each sect. Maliki reads aloud the ministerial list on May 5, and Congress approves and approves it.Formal governmentLauncheddid.Three years have passed since the collapse of Hussein's administration.The US military said it would increase its 3 Iraqi security forces to 25 at the time of its inauguration, reaching 4000 percent by December.However, regarding the withdrawal of US troops, Rumsfeld said, "I wish I could reduce it, but I can't promise."
On June 6, shortly after the inauguration of the administration, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and the U.S. military jointly announced that they had killed Zarqawee, who was alleged to have triggered terrorism in Iraq, in an air bombing operation.The achievement was emphasized as an appeal immediately after its inauguration, and President Bush visited Mariki on June 7 to congratulate Mariki, but while Zarqawee is said to have about 6 people, there are more than 13 armed groups throughout Iraq. It is speculated that Al-Qaeda also announced a successor shortly afterwards, so it seems to be less effective politically and strategically.In fact, after that, bomb terrorism targeting the general public, abductions, killings, and shootings by armed groups continued, and the death toll of the Iraqi people in 1,000 was more than 20,000.The situation has not changed significantly since the inauguration of the administration, and it is said that the US government and the Maliki administration are falling into mutual distrust.
The Iraqi government has announced that it will hold an international conference in Baghdad on March 3 to seek stability in the country.In addition to neighboring countries including Iran and Syria, the United States and other five permanent members of the UN Security Council, the Arab League,Islamic State Council(OIC) was invited. It is scheduled to be held in April, and countries participating in the summit such as Japan will join.The U.S. side is at a press conference of a spokesman for the State DepartmentRoadside bombHe expressed his desire to address the issue of attacks on US soldiers.
Execution of Saddam Hussein
On December 2006, 12, Saddam Hussein was executed.
Conflict between Sunni Iraqi residents and al-Qaeda
Attacks on the US military are active in the Sunni towns of Iraq, but armed clashes have also occurred against al-Qaeda forces invading from abroad, saying that they are foreign armed forces.On the other hand, al-Qaeda, which has excellent financial power, and some Sunni armed groups have formed a cooperative relationship in an attack on the United States, and the penetration of al-Qaeda into the Sunni region has also progressed.
Therefore, the U.S. military emphasized the threat of Zarqawee, an executive of Iraqi al-Qaeda-affiliated organizations, and repeated radical attacks in the Sunni area, such as air strikes aimed at eradicating the Zarqawe faction (as a result, even after the killing of Zarqawi in June 2006). There was not much impact on the situation in Iraq).At this time, among the Sunnis, there was a growing movement to expel Zarqawee due to the magnitude of the collateral damage caused by the attack.
2007 Even Sunni citizens who rebelled against al-Qaeda's radical activities were targeted for terrorism, causing a large number of victims of terrorism using chlorine gas, and the gap between the two surfaced. In April, one of the major Sunni armed groups, "Iraqi Islamic ArmyHas issued a statement of condemnation against bin Laden for the murder of 30 members by al-Qaeda.
In the midst of this conflict between "anti-Al-Qaeda Sunnis" and "Al-Qaeda Sunnis," the situation is further complicated by the US military's cooperation with anti-Al-Qaeda Sunnis. Six Sunni tribal leaders who helped fight al-Qaeda militants were killed in a suicide bombing in the lobby of the Mansour Hotel in central Baghdad on June 6..
Restoration of security by increasing the number of people
2007年1月10日、ジョージ・ブッシュ米大統領は「イラクの混乱の原因はすべて私にある」とテレビ演説し、陸軍5個師団・1万7500人、海兵隊2個大隊・4000人から成る、最大で米兵2万2000人のイラクへの一時増派を明らかにした。兵力増強をブッシュに進言したのはJohn McCainAllegedly a senator. In February, became commander of the U.S. military stationed in IraqDavid PetraeusWas inaugurated.Specifically, more than 1 people were to maintain security in Baghdad, and about 7000 people were dispatched to the western states where security was severely deteriorated to wipe out guerrillas.Also, due to this war and occupation, the United StatesarmyとMarinesDue to the shortage of personnel, the number of employees increased by tens of thousands.
In addition, it has increased the degree of military threat to Iraq, Iran, and Syria, such as by deploying two carrier strike groups in the Persian Gulf.By March of the same yearmilitary policeAnd helicopter units were increased, and the scale of the increase eventually reached 3.However, since the effects of the increase in the number of people over the past few times have been weak, there are deep-rooted voices questioning the effect of this increase in the number of people. On the 1th of the following month, a resolution against the increase in the number of people was passed at the plenary session of the House of Representatives with 24 vs. 17, and 246 people from the Republican Party turned to support.However, although the Senate submitted it to the plenary session, it did not reach the 182 votes required to discontinue the deliberation, and the proposal was abolished...Opposition to the increase was as high as 61% (March 2007, 3, CNN poll).Senator McCain, mentioned above, visited Baghdad in April of the same year with several aides to inspect the security situation, but at that time, more than 18 escorts were attached, and the security situation was steadily deteriorating..
However, on May 5, the same year, a bill worth 25 billion dollars against Iraq, which did not specify a withdrawal deadline, passed both the House and Senate (1000 to 280 in the House of Representatives and 142 to 80 in the Senate), and the increase in the number of people after the summer is constant. As a result, the number of U.S. soldiers killed in 14 reached a record low of 2007 in the year, but peaked at 901 in May and has been declining since September, with 5 U.S. soldiers killed in October. The number decreased to 126 in November and 9 in December.The US military is still not optimistic about the situation, but it was at the lowest level after 10 in February 39.This includes Petraeus' new security strategy.
Petraeus strategy is "Police box operationThe predecessor who developed activities centered on a small number of large-scale garrison that strengthened the defense.George CaseyUnlike the commander, the focus was on expanding widely to the region and establishing a continuous presence.At the same time, it also emphasizes strengthening humanitarian reconstruction activities and establishing a psychological presence for local residents, and represents the Sunni tribes and tribes that oppose al-Qaeda mentioned above.Sons of IraqIn 2007, due to the proper use of hard and soft, which led to the strengthening of cooperation with (Majlis al-Sahwa).October OfBaqubahIn battle inIraqi Holy War Al Qaeda OrganizationAccording to Commander Petraeus, he made a big offensive and hit 6-7% of the Holy War Organization. In October 2007, a declaration of victory over the Holy War Organization was considered within the military, but at that time, cautious debate dominated.
In January 2008, oil production was 1 million, the same level as before the war.barrelRecovered to.He is also known for commanding Hussein's restraint.Raymond OdiernoThe deputy commander said that by August 2008, the size of US troops stationed could be reduced by 8. On April 2, 3, Commander Petraeu testified in the Senate, announcing the reduction of troops to the level before the increase, but since the offense and defense with the armed groups is still in a state of progress and retreat, further additions He denied the withdrawal.By July 2008, the same year, the troops that had been increased had completed their withdrawal.
In April of the same year, the number of U.S. soldiers killed in action reached 4 due to the temporary deterioration of security due to the conflict between Shiites, which will be described later. 52 people,Multinational forcesThere were only 21 people in total.Furthermore, in July of the same year, only 7 people were killed in the war, and the tendency to restore security became more pronounced.In response, President Bush announced that he would reduce the length of time the dispatched soldiers were stationed from 11 months to 15 months.also,CBSAccording to the survey, the number of civilian deaths, which was 2007 in August 8, decreased to 2000 in June 2008, and the number of attacks on multinational forces dropped sharply from 6 to 490.In addition, the death toll of US soldiers in September of the same year decreased to eight, and in October it decreased to seven.The number of Iraqi deaths in the same month was 1500, the lowest since the beginning of the war.
Petraeus has been credited with regaining security and Dick CheneyVice PresidentFrom the conflict withCommander of the United States Central CommandResigned from the jobAdmiralHe succeeded him on October 10st.In response to these, Senator Barack Obama, who has taken a stand against the war and the increase in the number of people, said on September 31th.Fox broadcast(Obama is one of the 14 lawmakers who voted against the aforementioned warfare bill). As of December 2008, 12 US soldiers are stationed in Iraq.
Delegation of security authority
Security control authority has been returned to the Iraqi government for provinces that the multinational forces admit have been restored to the point where they can be controlled by the Iraqi armed forces and police.This is called Transfer of Security Responsibility / control. Under British Army control in September 2006Muthanna GovernorStarting from, the Sunni sect occupies the majority for the first time in September 2008 as the 9thAmbarSecurity control returned to Iraqi government.
|1||2006/9||Muthanna Governor||Under British Army control|
|2||Geekar County||Under British Army control|
|3||Najaf Governorate||Under Polish military control|
|4||Maysan Governorate||Under British Army control|
|5||Erbil||Kurdistan Region under US military control|
|6||Sulaymaniyah Province||Kurdistan Region under US military control|
|7||Dohawk||Kurdistan Region under US military control|
|8||Karbala Governorate||Under Polish military control|
|9||2007/12||Basra Governorate||Under British Army control|
|11||2008/9||Ambar||Sunni under US military control|
|12||2008/10||Jurf Sakhar||Sunni under US military control|
Sunni-Shiite conflict, Shiite internal conflict
Under the Hussein administration, a minority of 2% of the populationSunniWas in control.Islam, which had been under control after the collapse of Hussein's administrationShiiteThe power jumped to the center of the administration, but it remained dissatisfied with the Sunnis..
Furthermore, in March 5, five years after the Iraq War, an internal conflict broke out within the Shiites.A hardliner of the same hawkMuqtada al-SaddleThe confrontation between the faction and the government has surfaced.Starting with a clash between government and Mahdi troops in Basra on the 25th of the same month, Couto,Hillah,BaghdadExpanded to.A total of 25 people were killed in the battle at Basra on the 31th, spearheaded by Prime Minister Maliki himself. On the 26th, Prime Minister Maliki demanded disarmament of the Muffy army by the 28th, while the saddle was also the day before.NajafIn the statement in, he is ready for a thorough fight. On the 27th, the oil pipeline near Basra was blown up in the battle between the two.Also on the same day, US President George BushOhioThe speech at the government clarified the support of the government army.In addition, a stay-at-home order was issued in Baghdad at midnight on the same day.The following day, on the 28th, he was in tune with the government army.U.S. ArmyBombed the Mahdi military facility in Basra, the south.On the same day, Prime Minister Maliki announced that he would extend the disarmament deadline for the Muffy Army until April 4. On the 8th, Saddle himself called on the Mahdi army to stop the fighting, and on the 30st, the ban on going out of Baghdad was lifted.
Kurdistan Region Issues
Cities in northern IraqKirkukDue to the huge oil fields in Saddam Hussein, the Turks and Kurds have been expelled under the Saddam Hussein administration. Around the second week of April 2003, the Iraqis left the town as the US troops advanced to Kirkuk, and Kurds from neighboring cities began to visit and plunder repeatedly.トルコIs concerned about the possibility of Kurds in their own country trying to establish an independent state, and opposes Kirkuk becoming a Kurdish Autonomous Region (and thus the funding of oil-related businesses in the hands of Kurds). rice field.The U.S. government also agreed with the Turkish government's policy,Kurdish Autonomous RegionWas almost in the form of maintaining the status quo.
However, as a matter of course, the Kurdish independence orientation did not stop there, and in Kirkuk and Mosul, Peshmerga against Arabs, Turkmens, and Assyrians.Ethnic cleansingIn addition to many reports, in September 2006Kurdistan Democratic PartyLeader and chairman of the autonomous regionMasoud BarzaniHas abolished the use of the Iraqi flag in the autonomous region and is accelerating the movement toward de facto independence, such as issuing a chairman's decree ordering the raising of the Kurdistan flag.
Under these circumstances, at the end of March 2007, Prime Minister Maliki signed a law promoting the return of Kurds to Kirkuk and the return of settled Arabs.
However, the Kurdish side, which regards the bill as the complete finish of the Kurdistan region of Kirkuk and the purification of the Arab people, strongly opposes that the return of the settled Arabs was voluntary rather than forced expulsion. Also, the Arabs are showing strong resistance, such as the rapid progress of the Mahdi army in the Shiite-dominated city.
There were also reports that Al-Qaeda and other Sunni armed groups were cooperating with the Mahdi army in the city's ethnic conflict.As a result of such tug of war between ethnic groups and denominations, as of 2008, no vote has been held regarding the attribution of Kirkuk.
In addition, together with the tension with Turkey, which will be described later, both the PKK and PUK parties have consistently continued to expand Peshmerga as "to prepare for the threat of the entire autonomous region" including the Iraqi government, and their total troop strength is only nominal. But it has exceeded 20.
On the other hand, the influx of internally displaced Arabs from outside the Kurdistan Region in search of safety and employment in the Kurdistan Region, which stabilizes security and economy by increasing ethnic unity and accepts a large amount of foreign investment on its own. There are also situations full of contradictions.However, it is also a fact that Arab refugees are rarely given a decent job due to their persistent anti-Arab sentiment in addition to their original small economy.
Tension with Turkey
Turkey has many Kurds in the country and is wary of terrorism and separatist movements of the Kurds.There is also a cross-border terrorist attack by Kurdish forces from Iraq, and they are calling for a response from the United States and Iraq, but they have not been actively responding for fear of deteriorating security.Under these circumstances, Turkey deployed troops in the border area, but conversely in the border area.Kurdistan Workers Party(PKK) intensified the attack on Turkey. In June 2007, it was reported that Turkish troops carried out a large-scale cross-border attack on the Kurdistan Autonomous Region in northern Iraq, where PKK is based, but the Turkish side denied that it was a limited operation. did.
After that, October 10th (Armed clashes in Hakkâri (2007)) Was attacked by the PKK, which killed 13 Turkish soldiers, and Turkey passed a bill allowing a year of cross-border military operations in northern Iraq.However, on the 1st, 21 Turkish soldiers were killed by the PKK attack again, and 17 PKK people were killed in the fight, and tension increased..
Tensions across the Iraqi border persisted after several cross-border attacks by both the PKK and Turkish aviation forces, and on February 2008, 2, Turkish troops finally sent two brigades of thousands to northern Iraq. I proceeded to cross the border.
In response, the PKK violently resisted, and the Kurdistan Region also ordered Peshmerga to respond in the event of an encounter with the Turkish army, and the situation progressed to a rush.However, the Turkish army was eventually forced to withdraw under strong pressure from the U.S. government without fulfilling its initial purpose, and the Iraqi government confirmed the withdrawal of Turkish cross-border troops by March 3, and the crisis was settled. Was welcomed.Also, regarding the cross-border attack of the same armyRecep Tayyip ErdoganThe prime minister is said to have been reluctant,Kemal AtaturkSincenational policyIsSeparation of politics and religionTry to protectMilitaryAnd in the political party to which the prime minister belongsIslamismAdvocateFair development partyThere is also a side that is pushed up from the inside of the and is a board scissors with both.
Offense and defense with ISIL
In 2011Arab springOutbreak, even around IraqSyrian Civil WarThe instability became remarkable, such as the outbreak of.HEATIs oldBa'ath PartyAbsorb members and expand power in Iraq and Syria while taking advantage of Sunni Shiite conflictThe Iraqi army, which had been weakened by internal division, was in 2014MosulWas robbed.Battle of MosulDeclared the elimination of ISIL from Iraq in December 2017 after fierce offensive and defensive battles including.
Countries dispatching troops to Iraq and neighboring countries
Since the number of personnel varies depending on the time, the approximate number of the maximum time is shown.Besides Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,バーレーンAlso stationed there.Eastern Europe-Former Soviet UnionWhile there were dispatches from countries, the Arab League countries that participated in the Gulf War did not dispatch.
In December 2007, the UN Security Council stipulated that the Iraqi government's consent was required to be stationed in 12.Resolution 1546Based on the above, a resolution was adopted to limit the presence of multinational forces to the end of 2008.Due to this resolution, the troops stationed in each country other than the US and British troops withdrew in 2008.
- USA: 168,000 President Barack Obama decides to withdraw by 2011 (withdrawal in December 2011)
- United Kingdom: 9,000 (withdrawn in July 400, leaving 2009 security forces advisory team)
- South Korea: 3,600 (increased after the declaration of the end of the battle) → Reference:Zaitoon Corps(Withdrawn in 2007)
- Italy: 3,000 (withdrawn in December 2006)
- Poland: 2,400 (withdrawn in October 2008)
- ウクライナ: 1,600 people (withdrawn in December 2005)
- Spain: 1,400 (withdrawn in May 2004)
- Netherlands: 1,350 people (withdrawn in December 2005)
- Australia: 920 (2000 invaded at the beginning of the war withdrawn in June 2008)
- Japan: 800 people (dispatched after the declaration of the end of the battle, 600 people of the Ground Self-Defense Force withdrew at the end of July 2006 Japan Air Self-Defense ForceWithdrew at the end of 2008 based on the aforementioned UN resolution) → See:SDF Iraq dispatch
- ルーマニア: 850 people (withdrawn in 2006)
- Denmark: 540 people (withdrawn in August 2007)
- ブルガリア: 462 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Thailand: 450 people (withdrawn in December 2004)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 380 people (withdrawn in 2008)
- ホンジュラス: 370 people (withdrawn in December 2004)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 300 people (withdrawn in December 2004)
- ハンガリー: 300 people (withdrawn in December 2004)
- Singapore: 180 people (withdrawn in 2005)
- グ ル ジ ア: 160 people (withdrawn in December 2009)
- アゼルバイジャン: 150 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Fiji: 134 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 130 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Portugal: 127 people (withdrawn in December 2005)
- ラトビア: 120 people (withdrawn in December 2007)
- リトアニア: 120 people (withdrawn in 2007)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 120 people (withdrawn in December 2004)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 102 people (withdrawn in December 2007)
- Philippines: 100 people (withdrawn in July 2004)
- チ ェ コ: 98 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- アルバニア: 71 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- トンガ: 44 people (withdrawn in 2004)
- エストニア: 34 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 33 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 27 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu: 24 people (withdrawn in December 2010)
- ノルウェー: 10 people (Headquarters personnel withdrawn in 2006)
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) also dispatched Iraqi military training personnel (withdrawn in December 2011).
Victims after President Bush's declaration of the end of the battle
The period from the start of the war to the issuance of the "end of battle declaration" by President Bush was very short, but as of March 2008, Iraqi soldiers, police officers, civilians, and multinational soldiers including the US military However, the number of victims continues to increase.At least 3 to 8,000 Iraqi security forces (new Iraqi army and new Iraqi police) have been killed in action by the Iraqi police alone.
The number of victims of U.S. soldiers exceeded 4,000, and in addition to this, contract personnel of a private military company engaged in the military (engaged in security and transportation operations as a private consignment field from the U.S. military, and participated in security operations As a matter of factmercenaryHowever, it has been reported that at least 1,000 people have died so far (including one Japanese contractor with military experience).
As of October 2007, Iraq had a total of 10 people operating in various private security companies, surpassing the US regular army.Its activities are not controlled by the government, so no matter who is killed or who is killed, it does not matter.Massacres and assaults by security guards of private security companies have also been reported, and on September 18, 2007, security guards of Blackwater USA shot and killed 9 civilians by shooting, "perjury against armed groups. The case of perjury has surfacedHowever, it became a problem in Iraq and America.
In addition, 170 deaths from the British Army and 132 deaths from other military forces will bring the total death toll of the Allied Forces to more than 4,000 (excluding contract personnel of private military companies).
Also, in the United States, although not injured externallyInstant explosive deviceDue to the influence of (IED)Traumatic brain injury(Higher brain dysfunction) Increasing number of veterans suffering from社会 問題It became.The U.S. government has compiled data that about 2009 people were injured between 2001 and October 2009 (including fighting in Afghanistan) as a result of changing the diagnostic criteria for traumatic brain injury in 10..
Human damage situation of multinational forces
Joined the U.S. Army for the purpose of acquiring U.S. nationalityGreen cardAcquirers are not counted in the number of deaths.
|United States Army|
|年度||War dead||Wounded person|
- A total of 1770 people were killed by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in all participating armed forces.Of these, 1687 were in the U.S. military (about 40% were killed by IED).
* Aggregation up to April 2008
|Other multinational forces|
|Country||War dead||Country||War dead|
|The United Kingdom||176||ラトビア||3|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||5||Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||1|
|Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||4||South Korea||1|
|ジ ョ ー ジ ジ||4||チ ェ コ||1|
* Only for those who died in the war until April 2008
Self-Defense Forces dead
Dispatched to IraqSDFHas been officially announced that no one was killed in action.However, 1 of the 9700 SDF personnel on overseas dispatch missions, including Iraq, died for some reason during their tenure.The breakdown is 35 Maritime Self-Defense Force members, 20 Ground Self-Defense Force members, and 14 Air Self-Defense Force member. Are.. "During employment" includes those after returning from the mission and died in Iraq.SDFThe number of is unknown.
Estimates of the total number of civilian casualties after the end of the battle vary widely, and exact figures are unknown.The U.S. military has not disclosed the number of Iraqi civilians who died in battle or due to mistakes (misidentification, misfire, misfiring) of U.S. soldiers. It is out).In addition, the site that aggregates these based on the news "Iraq Body CountAccording to the data dated November 2007, 11, the number of direct killings is estimated to be about 30-80,000. It is hoped that security will be restored as soon as possible.
According to an estimate in October 2004 by the Lancet Study, the total number of soldiers and civilians is estimated to be about 10.However, the 98,000% confidence interval is 95 to 8,000, which is a rough estimate.A study based on a study of increased mortality, according to The Lancet, estimated that as of June 194,000, there were about 2006 deaths in the Iraq War.However, since it is an estimate based on the increase in mortality rate, it is not directly linked to the direct death in the war.According to the "6 American Human Rights Record" released by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, the number of Iraqi civilian deaths since 655,000 is more than 2007. British polling company on September 2003, 66Reported that the death toll could exceed 120 million..whoReleased a survey in January 2008 that estimated the number of people to be 1.2013 In October by researchers from the United States and CanadaPeer reviewIt is said to be the most prestigious medical journalAnnounced that approximately 500,000 civilians were killed in.
Impact on anti-colonial countries
(I.e.Was the Supreme Leader in December 2003GaddafiThe commander declared the abandonment of weapons of mass destruction, and in 2006 the Bush administrationTerrorism-supporting nationCanceled the designation..An editorial interpreting this action as a possible target for his country after the Iraq War, and Commander KadafiAfrican UnionThere is an editorial that it just happened to coincide with the decrease in the need for weapons of mass destruction due to the shift of the main activity to[Who?].
In return for abandonment, the United States possessed weapons of mass destruction to support anti-US armed struggles (neither of the Hussein administrations was running), and was once more hostile than Iraq, even attempting to assassinate Commander Kadafi. Libya has been removed from the list of state sponsors of terrorism and economic sanctions have been lifted.
Meanwhile, in North KoreaKim Jong IlThe general secretary disappeared from the front of the TV for about 60 days just before the start of the war.It seems that this was an analysis of what American precision guided weapons look like through overseas satellite television.People's Republic of ChinaEmbarked on mediation from the shock of the start of the Iraq WarSix-party talksIs said to have begun, Abandonment of nuclear weapons agreed in six-party talksNyongbyon Nuclear FacilityThe Bush administration has lifted its designation as a state sponsor of terrorism due to the bombing of the country and the declaration of a nuclear development plan.(After the change to the Obama administration2009 On April 4, the North Korean side announced the resumption of nuclear weapons development and withdrawal from the six-party talks).
Involvement of the Air Self-Defense Force
Nagoya High CourtOn April 2008, 4, the Self-Defense Forces Iraqi troops were dispatched.The Constitution of JapanIn a proceeding (Self-Defense Forces Iraq troop dispatch injunction) seeking confirmation of violationJapan Air Self-Defense ForceIn IraqAir freightRecognizing that the activity "used force itself" and arguing that it was unconstitutionalSide noteIssued a ruling including.Although the plaintiff's defeat was decided in the main text, the plaintiff did not appeal as a substantial victory, so the decision was finalized on May 5, the following month..
This trial and the "Obiter dictum" description were controversial and at the timeChief of Flight StaffTamogami Toshio"Some of the innocent members may have been hurt, but if I speak for them, the majority will not have that kind of relationship."Is a kind of remarkTongue disaster caseWas reported as.Including Tamogami's remarks in the DietQuestion formWas submitted, but the government added a ruling and explanation of the national victory, and thenArticle 9 of the Constitution of JapanThe part of the dictum that violates (Section 1. Abandon the war and do not use force to participate in international conflicts) is "only a dictum that is not necessary to draw the conclusion of the judgment, and the government follows it. "I don't think there will be a problem of non-compliance," and Tamogami's remark "is not necessarily an accurate expression based on the same recognition as the government. I know that I did. Also, regarding defense administration,Civilian controlUnder the law, it is properly carried out in accordance with the law. I'm answering(See also the Self-Defense Forces dispatch to Iraq).Ministry of Defense Information disclosure lawAccording to an internal document called "Weekly Air Transport Results" disclosed based on the above, it was found on October 28,000, 7 that the total number of transport personnel during the dispatch period was 2009, of which 10% were US soldiers. is doing.
Early January before the start of the war,AnnouncedpollAccording to the results, 44% of Americans who responded to the survey were on September 2001, 9.Terrorist attacksI thought some or most of the hijackers in Iraq were Iraqi.In fact, most were reportedly Saudis and none Iraqis.
According to one Iraqi newspaper, it has been scattered all over the country since the U.S. military occupied Iraq.prison,Concentration campMany Iraqi women are said to have been detained.Most have been sexually assaulted by government personnel and occupying troops, resulting inAIDSEtc. are widespread.In addition, women who have been victims of rape have been killed by family members as a shame for the family, and the exact number of victims (despite the claim that most have been victimized). Is not known..In addition, an Iraqi private organization, the Iraqi POWs and Prisoners of War, claims that the U.S. military is an innocent Iraqi female POW as a pressure card to demoralize Iraqi resistance. He accuses him of intentional and systematic sexual assault, torture, and shame..
Also, during this war and in a series of battles after the Bush administration declared the end of a large-scale battle, the U.S. military was involved in the Gulf War andBosnian conflict,Kosovo conflictMore than timeDepleted uranium bulletIs said to have been used.Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceWas dispatched and stationed for humanitarian assistance and postwar reconstruction assistance in southern Iraq.SummerwaDepleted uranium ammunition, which is believed to have been used by the US military in this war, has also been found in the suburbs.The increase in cancer patients and malformed children due to radiation leaking from these large amounts of depleted uranium ammunition has become a problem...These were criticized at a relatively early stage by countries other than the Warring States, but are currently largely unknown to the less educated middle class and below in the United States.
On January 2010, 1, the Independent Investigation Commission, which examines the issue of Britain's participation in the Iraq War,Michael woodAt a hearing that summoned a former chief legal adviser of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he said, "The use of force against Iraq in March 2003International lawI thought it was a violation. "In this document, "Use of force isUnited Nations Security CouncilIt was not recognized by the law and had no other legal basis, "said the legal adviser, calling on Iraq to disarmament.Security Council resolution 1441I rejected the allegation that was the basis for the use of force.The legal adviser gave his view in January 2003, before the start of the war.Jack strawWhen I told the Foreign Minister, he testified that he was dismissed as "arbitrary.".
2010 May 1Former Prime Minister Blair, who decided to invade Iraq in 2003, testified at a hearing of an independent investigative commission examining the issue of Britain's participation in the war in Iraq.Among the investigators, Chilcott and five members summoned for six hours.He emphasized "the threat of Saddam Hussein" and justified the overthrow of the Hussein administration by the invasion of Iraq, saying "I have no regrets."He also said that under the same conditions as at that time, he would invade Iraq again.He also evaded the occupying forces' liability, saying that "it was the terrorists, not the Allied forces, who killed them," with a total figure of 5 regarding the increase in Iraqi civilian deaths by 6.And he testified that Iraq was increasing its ability to manufacture weapons..
At the beginning of the war, he expressed his support for the invasion of Iraq despite the opposition of the parliament. NetherlandsThen, an investigation by the Independent Investigation Commission was conducted on the foreign policy of the government. In the 2010 survey reportJaap de Hoop ScheffelForeign Minister takes control of policy decisions,Jan Peter BalkenendeThe prime minister pointed out that he was excluded from policy making.In addition, UN Security Council Resolution 1441 concludes that it cannot be interpreted as allowing an armed attack, the Iraq War is a violation of international law, and the government attaches great importance to the alliance with the United States and Britain, so it closes its eyes on the illegality of the invasion. Concluded.
- ^ 2003 dead in 260, 2004-2009 deaths 15,196 (except May 2004 and March 5), 2009 dead in March 3, 2010 dead 1,100, The total of the above counts 16,623 deaths.
- ^ 33 Ukrainian soldiers, Over 31 Italian soldiers , 30 Bulgarian soldiers, 20 El Salvador soldiers, 19 Georgian soldiers , 18 Estonian soldiers, More than 16 Polish soldiers, 15 Spanish soldiers, Romanian soldiers 10, 6 Australian soldiers, 5 Albanian soldiers, 4 Kazakh soldiers, 3 Filipino soldiers, 2 Thai soldiers , A total of more than 212 people.
- ^ From March to May 2007Diyala Governorate185 people, Abu Risha4 at the time of assassination, 2007 on November 11, 12, 2008 people in 528, 2009 people on January 1, 2, 2009 people from April 4th to 6th, 12, 2009 people on January 11, 16, 2009 people in December 12, Over 2010 people from April to June 4 , 2010 people on January 6, 18, A total of more than 1,002 people died.
- ^ 2003 people died in 597, Died 2004 from 2009 to 23,984 (but does not include May 2004 and March 5), 2004 people died in May 5, 2009 people died in May 3, 2010 died in 676, 2011 deaths in 451 (excluding February), 26,405 people died due to the above total.
- ^ However, this survey is a compilation of only what was reported and is different from the real number.
- ^ Reported on September 2009, 10
- ^ However, many have pointed out that the setting of the no-fly zone itself is not in accordance with the UN resolution and is clearly a violation under international law..
- ^ The U.S. and British airstrikes targeted military facilities, but there were also accidental bombings on civilians, and the United Nations reported that 1999 victims were suffered annually in 44..
- ^ The other was invaded by Iraq in the Gulf Warクウェート.
- ^ However, Scott Ritter has been suspected of receiving $ 40 in cash from a businessman close to the Iraqi government, and the U.S. Congress believes it was bought by Iraq..
- ^ Many of the companies that entered the market had a time when the Bush administration's ministers were on the board of directors, and are commonly referred to as "revolving doors."
- ^ However, the rise in oil prices is not one cause because it is related to the inflow of investment funds into the oil market and the rapid growth of the Chinese economy.
- ^ “Last US troops leave Iraq, ending war” (English). USA Today(July 2011, 12) NovemberBrowse.
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- ^ International Institute for Strategic StudiesHackett, James (ed.) (3 February 2010). The Military Balance 2010... London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5
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- ^ "The Kurdish peshmerga forces will not be integrated into the Iraqi army: Mahmoud Sangawi — Interview”(English). Ekurd.net (January 2010, 1). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "(PDF)" (English). The brookings institution (February 2007, 10). As of February 1, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Ricks, Thomas E .; Ann Scott Tyson (January 2007, 1). “Intensified Combat on Streets Likely” (English). The Washington Post. p. A01
- ^ Pincus, Walter. "Violence in Iraq Called Increasingly Complex". (English)Washington Post, November 17, 2006.
- ^ “260 Iraqi police killed in attacks: official” (English). ABC(July 2003, 12)
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- ^ SIPRI Database Indicates that of $ 29,079 million of arms exported to Iraq from 1980 to 1988 the Soviet Union accounted for $ 16,808 million, France $ 4,591 million, and China $ 5,004 million (Info must be entered)
- ^ “Q Why each country responds differently A. Interests and speculations over huge oil resources are intertwined”. Hokkaido Shimbun(July 2002, 10) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “China agrees with Iraq to develop Al-Adab oil field for $ 30 billion”. AFPBB(July 2008, 8) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Suspected support for the United Nations and Iraq spread to the former Secretary-General”. asahi.com (Asahi Shimbun). (November 2005, 2) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Durfer Report Vol.1,'Regime Finance and Procurement' p.31 figure 16,
- ^ Yoshikazu Shirakawa (January 2007, 1). "US Prosecutor's Office accuses former UN Under-Secretary-General ... bribery under Hussein's administration". YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 1. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Mark Forbes (June 2004, 6). “Australia'party to bugging of UN'”. The Age (Melbourne) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "New bugging device found in UN offices”. CBC News. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Technical analysis of the bug”. As of May 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Bugging device found at UN offices, Brian Whitaker, 18 December 2004, The Guardian
- ^ "Press conference of Prime Minister Koizumi Regarding the response to the Iraq issue". Prime Minister Koizumi's speech, press conference, etc.. Prime minister's residence (September 2003, 3). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Debt Relief Measures for the Republic of Iraq” (Press release), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (March 2005, 11) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ News | Program guide search result details | NHK Chronicle
- ^ Krane, Jim. "Pilotless Warriors Soar To Success." CBS News, 25 April 2003.
- ^ Paul J. Springer, Military Robots and Drones: A Reference Handbook (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2013), p.23
- ^ First deployment in Iraq, a weapon robot equipped with a machine gun WIRED October 2007, 8
- ^ Yang Jun, “Yilake jiujing shi shui de zhanchang” (Whose Battlefield is Iraq in the End? ”Renmin Ribao (People's Daily), August 10, 2007
- ^ "Acquired a former inspector criticizing the United States or $ XNUMX from an Iraqi businessman"Kyodo News. 47NEWS(July 2002, 11) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Weapons of mass destruction will not be found" US Secretary of State gives up ". asahi.com (Asahi Shimbun). (December 2004, 9) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ John Barry (March 2003, 3). “The Defector's Secrets” (English). Newsweek. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2003, 3. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Toshiyuki Maesaka"The truth of the Iraq war ... Weapons of mass destruction did not exist(PDF)Japan Newspaper Association, August 2004, 2.National bibliographic number:00061131.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ CBS 60 Minutes "Saddam Hussein's Confession"
- ^ "(PDF)". IraqMinistry of Foreign Affairs (December 2012). NovemberBrowse.
- ^ July 2007, 07 Kudus Arabie
- ^ "US President Bush, Iraq's intelligence failure is" the biggest grief "". AFP. AFPBB News NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Former Secretary of State Bill Clinton" The US invasion of Iraq was wrong. "". Interfax. VOICE OF RUSSIA(July 2014, 6) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ . http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2793731/will-rusting-chemical-weapons-cache-ignored-americans-fall-isis-hands-iraq-claims-2-500-rockets-containing-deadly-sarin-hands-terrorists.html
- ^ Mark Tran (June 2007, 6). “Al-Qaida linked to Baghdad hotel bombing” (English). The Guardian NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “US Senate blocks vote on Iraq war” (English). BBC. (December 2007, 2) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “McCain defends Iraq war support” (English). BBC. (December 2007, 4) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Masato Kimura (September 2009, 3). "More than XNUMX% of Iraqi people have improved their security." A joint survey of three US, British and Japanese broadcasting stations.. MSN Sankei News. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 1. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Joint Statement --Transfer of Security Responsibility for Anbar Province" (English). Multi-National Force – Iraq (February 2008, 9). As of February 1, 2010オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ AFPBB News September 2008, 9 "Iraqi Anbar, transfer of security authority from US military'
- ^ "US troops stationed in Iraq transfer security authority to the state of Babil in southern Iraq, XNUMXth state" (Japanese). CNN. (December 2008, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 10. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b High school reporter asks international political scientist Keiko Sakai (Part XNUMX) | High School Newspaper Online | News and information site to support high school students
- ^ “Turkish soldiers killed by rebels” (English). BBC. (December 2007, 10) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “US urges restraint after Turkish soldiers killed in clashes with PKK” (English). CNN. (September 2007, 10) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ The Battle of "Islamic State" is the Third Iraq War | Asian Countries | Toyo Keizai Online | New Standards for Economic News
- ^ ISIS Remnants Attack Iraq | World | Latest Articles | Newsweek Japan Official Site
- ^ Iraq completely wipes out "Islamic State" and "declares victory" TV Asahi
- ^ "US Army Completes Withdrawal from Iraq XNUMX Years and XNUMX Months End of War"Kyodo News. 47news. (December 2011, 12) NovemberBrowse. [Broken link]
- ^ "Investigation results of blackwater problem, "firing without good reason"". French communication. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "The chairman argued over the black water issue," personnel were being shot. "". AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2007, 10) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Black Watergate, FBI investigation without justification for firing”. AFP. AFPBB News. (August 2007, 11) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ U.S. soldier brain injury problem: 2010% of Afghan-Iraq dispatched to 2 people (February 3, XNUMX Mainichi Shimbun)[Broken link]
- ^ "Land warfare research(From the August 2008 issue of the Ground Warfare Society)
- ^ "Mr. Kantoku Teruya, a member of the House of Representatives, submitted an answer to a question about the suicide of a SDF member returning to Iraq.". House of Representatives (February 2007, 11). As of February 13, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Tina Susman (September 2007, 9). “Poll: Civilian toll in Iraq may top 1M” (English). Los Angeles Times NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Courtney Subramanian (October 2013, 10). “New Study Estimates Nearly 500,000 Died in Iraq War” (English). Aljazeera (TEAM) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ “Libya Is Off US Terrorist List”. ABC(July 2006, 5)
- ^ Yusuke Terabayashi "(PDF) '
- ^ Discourse by Foreign Minister Nakasone on the cancellation of the designation of North Korea as a state sponsor of terrorism by the United States, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, October 20, 10
- ^ “Chairman's Statement on Nagoya High Court Unconstitutional Decision” (Press release), Aichi Bar Association, (March 2014, 6) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Unconstitutional decision? "No such relationship"[Broken link] Daily SportsAugust 2008, 4)
- ^ Kiyomi Tsujimoto (October 2012, 4). “Questionnaire regarding the Chief of Staff's remark "No such relationship" and the Chief Cabinet Secretary's remark "Civil aircraft cannot fly in the battle area"”. House of Representatives. As of July 2013, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Sexual assaults occur frequently in Iraqi women's camps, AIDS and scabies spread Daily Berita July 2007, 7
- ^ Occupied U.S. forces assault and torture Iraqi female POWs "Political POWs and Prisoners Union" accused Daily Berita July 2007, 10
- ^ Mark Townsend; Toby Helm; Rajeev Syal (June 2014, 6). “Iraq war was illegal, top lawyer will tell Chilcot inquiry” (English). The Guardian NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Shocked by the testimony of former British Prime Minister Blair, British newspapers commented on Iraqi participation investigation committee hearing January 2010, 01 Origin: London / UK AFP
- ^ “The Iraq War is a violation of international law and the Dutch Investigation Commission reports”Kyodo News. 47news. (December 2010, 1) NovemberBrowse.
- Niger suspicion --Plame affair (Iraq suspects Nigerニ ジ ェ ー ルからuraniumSuspicion of trying to buy.As a resultFalse informationIt was confirmed that it was.The Plame affair is allegedly related to the case where the wife of a diplomat who criticized the Bush administration, which leads the weapons of mass destruction propaganda in the Iraq War, was revealed to be a CIA agent. Convicted March 2007, 3).
- WikiScanner -RiceRepublican PartyIP user connected from Iraq rewrote Iraq's description of "occupying army" to "liberation army"
- Yoshihito Echizenya --A Japanese who participated in this war as a soldier of the US Marine Corps.
- en: Curveball (informant)(Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi)
- Saito Takao"Golgo 13"Last Great Game"
- Naoki Urasawa"PLUTO-In this work, a war called "39th Central Asian Conflict", which is modeled on the Iraq War, appears.
- B'z"BIG MACHINE-The song "Hajimari of Love and Hate" knew the beginning of this war.Hiroshi InabaThe lyrics are what I felt.
- “Special Feature: Situation in Iraq”. asahi.com (Asahi Shimbun) NovemberBrowse.
- “The situation in Iraq that can be understood from the basics”. YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (October 2014, 7) NovemberBrowse.
- Iraqi relations --Ministry of Foreign Affairs website
- UNMOVIC Official Website - Wayback machine(Archive on February 2015, 2) (English)
- Cost of War Iraq from the beginning of the war to today
- Iraq Body Count: Total number of victims of the Iraq War based on media reports
- Iraq Coalition Casualties - Wayback machine(Archive on February 2010, 2): Total damage to the multinational forces in the Iraq War based on media reports
- Baghdad Burning-River Bend's Diary - Wayback machine(Archive on March 2019, 3) An Iraqi woman who lived in BaghdadRiver bendVolunteer Japanese translation of the current status report byBlog
- Iraq War Hussein regime collapsed - NHK Broadcast History(Japan Broadcasting Corporation）
This item describes 2003 from an international perspective.
- Zodiac signs : Guiwei(Mizuno and sheep)
- Japan(The date matches)
- South Korea(The date matches)
- Republic of China(The date matches)
- DPR Korea(The date matches)
- Buddhist era: 2545-2546
- Islamic calendar: April 1423, 10-April 27, 1424
- Jewish calendar: April 5763, 4-April 27, 5764
- Unix Time: 1041379200-1072915199
- Modified Julian Day(MJD): 52640-53004
- Lily day(LD): 153481-153845
- May 2 - US Aerospace Agency,space shuttle-ColombiaFor returnAtmosphereAfter the rush,TexasAerial decomposition and crash in the air. All 7 astronauts died (Colombia aerial disassembly accident).
- August 2- Nice TreatyComes into effect.
- May 2 -Eastern EuropeanFederal Republic of Yugoslavia Serbia and MontenegroRenamed to.
- May 2 - South KoreaでsubwayArson incident (Daegu Subway Arson Case). 192 people died.
- May 2 - Nora JonesThe 45thGrammy AwardAwards in 4 categories including 8 major categories (local time isMay 2).
- August 2- north koreaA surface-to-ship missileSea of JapanFired at.
- May 3 - America-The United Kingdom-Australia-ポーランド-Peshmergaby(I.e.Invasion operation started (Iraq warStart of the war).
- From around March- ChugokuWith new pneumoniaSARSIs a pandemic.
- May 4 -ActorLeslie CheungJumps and commits suicide.
- May 4 - SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) was designated as a new infectious disease, and 7 patients died in 32 countries by the declaration of termination in July.
- May 4 -InternationalHuman Genome ProjectByHuman genomeComplete all decryption work.
- May 4 -In the United StatesiTunes Music StoreIs started. 20 songs are prepared, and the price of each song is $1 per song.
- May 5~11 days - リトアニアでReferendum on European Union membershipCarried out. 91.1% of votersEuropean UnionSupporting membership.
- May 6 - Windows Server 2003Will be released.
- May 6 - Roh Moo-hyun(No Mu-hyun) President of South Korea visited Japan as a state guest and met with the emperor (~ 9th).
- May 7 - Hong Kong50 demonstrators march, protest against the 23 basic law, say "XNUMX trips".
- May 7 - Prague115th Opened inIOCAt the general meeting2010 OfWinter OlympicsIs held inVancouverDecided on.
- May 7 - Hong Kong新界Tsuen Wan DistrictTumon HighwayA bus crash that occurred at Ting Kau Bridge.21 dead and 20 injured.
- May 7 -U.S. nuclear carrierRonald ReaganIs commissioned. For the first time in history, the name of the surviving former US president is named after the aircraft carrier.
- May 7 - (I.e.As the interim governing body ofIraqi CouncilIs installed.
- May 7 - AOL Time WarnerWithin the companyNetscapeDismantling the department on the same dayMIs established.
- May 7 - World swimming championship.
- May 7 - Iraq Reconstruction Support Special Measures ActIs established.
- May 7 -In Mexico factoryVolkswagen Type 1Production ends and the curtain goes down to the history of 65 years.
- May 8 -North KoreanUnderground broadcast"Voice of the rescue countryIs canceled.
- May 8 - Pirates of the Caribbean: The Cursed PiratesRelease.
- May 8 - Shanghai Cooperation OrganizationFive member countries (Chugoku-ロシア-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-キ ル ギ ス タ ン-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu)ButterrorismConducted joint military exercises for the purpose of countermeasures. (May 8Until)
- May 8 - America-カナダWith a large scale in the eastpower failure(2003 North American blackout, BLACKOUT 2003).
- May 8-Pizza delivery person bomb death caseHappens.
- May 8 - FranceRecord all over the countryIntense heatIt is announced that more than 11000 people have been killed.
- May 9 -RiceTokyo Disneylandでroller coaster(Big Thunder Mountain) Derailment. 1 person was killed and 10 were injured.
- May 9 -G7 Finance Ministers Conference held.
- May 9 - イタリアLarge inpower failure.
- May 10- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA is born.
- May 10 - CaliforniaGovernorToAn actor-Arnold SchwarzeneggerIs elected.
- May 10 - ChugokuIs the first manned spacecraft "Kamifune No. 5Was successfully launched.
- May 10 - Mother Teresa Catholic church OfBlessed personLined up.
- May 10 - Mac OS X v10.3 PantherWill be released.
- May 10 - Malaysian Prime MinisterMahathir Bin MohammadRetired.
- May 11 -United Statessinger-Michael jacksonIs arrested on suspicion of sexual abuse.2005 May 6, Acquitted of all charges of sexual abuse.
- May 11 - グ ル ジ アPolitical change.Eduardo ShewarnazePresident resigns. (So-called"Rose revolution")
- May 11 - コロンビアで2001 OctoberToKidnappingAndColombian Revolutionary Army RansomVice president of a Japanese corporation that had requestedColombian Japanese Vice President Kidnapping Case).
- May 11 - (I.e.In the northJapanese EmbassyOfficial car was attacked, JapaneseDiplomatTwo people and Iraqi driver died (Iraqi Japanese diplomat shooting case).
- May 12 -Southeast Asian sports competition held.
- May 12 - Paul MartinIs the 21thPrime Minister of CanadaAppointed to.
- May 12 - U.S. Forces Saddam HusseinDetained Iraqi former president.
- May 12 - (I.e.Announced the destruction of weapons of mass destruction.
- May 12 --Kyuhiro Nishitetsu (Port ironNishitetsu Line) Passing.
- May 12 - Bam earthquakeOccurs.
- "Panama Historical Center and Summon Bolivar"Panama Viejo and Historic Center of PanamaAsUNESCOworld HeritageIs enlarged and registered.
- YenversusDollar Exchange rate
- Open price-1 dollar = 119 yen
- Highest price-1 dollar = 121 yen (March?? Sun)
- Minimum value-1 dollar = 106 yen (Dec.??)
- Closing price-1 dollar = 107 yen
Weather, natural disasters, observations, etc.
- Europeでheat wave.FranceとアイルランドThen there are more than 3 deaths, mainly in the elderly.
- May 9 -LargeHurricane isabelleIn the United StatesNorth carolinaLanded on.
- Old boy
- Kill Bill Vol.1
- Recollection of murder
- School of rock
- Terminator 3
- Father, go home
- Pirates of the Caribbean: The Cursed Pirates
- Big fish
- Finding Nemo
- Belleville Rendezvous
- Matrix Reloaded
- Matrix Revolutions
- Mystic River
- Last Samurai
- Love actuary
- Lord of the Rings: Return of the King
- Lost in translation
- Movie version Pokemon Advance Generation Tanabashi no Wishing Star Jirachi
- April 4th in the USiTunes Music StoreStarted. We have achieved great success as a music download sales service.
- In masterpieceFF serieshaveSquareSame asDorakue serieshaveEnix May 4Merged withニ ッ ク ス ク ウ ェ ア ス · エBecomes
- AmericaLed byIraq warSupport it inThe United Kingdom,Japan,AustraliaAnd so onFrance,Germany,ロシアAnd so on, the world's major powers were divided into two.
- May 1 - Greta Toonberg, Environmental activist
- May 1 - Jaeden Martell, Actor
- May 2 - Olivia Rodrigo, Actress, singer
- May 3 - Yuzuna Shibata,Nogizaka46・OriginalA child
- May 5 - Kagiyama Yuma,Figure skatingplayer
- May 6 - Kaisho Gomee,An actor
- May 6 - Raul,Idol(Snow Man）
- May 6 - Jude Bellingham,England national football team
- May 7 - Wyatt Olef, Actor
- May 7 - Originally dream of pine,actress
- May 8 - Rei Kiyomiya,Nogizaka46
- May 8 - Tang Jun Sang, Actor
- May 8 - Max Charles,A child
- May 8 - Gabriel de Belgic,BelgiumThe royal family
- May 8 - Aryona Kostrunaya, Figure skater
- May 8 - Quvenzhané Wallis, Child role
- May 9 - Jack Dylan Grazer, Actor
- May 11 - Louise Windsor,The United KingdomThe royal family
- May 12 - Catalina-Amalia van Oranje-Nassau, NetherlandsThe royal family
- Physics Award - Alexei Abrikosov,Vitaly Ginzburg,Anthony Legget
- Chemistry Award - Peter Agure,Roderick McKinnon
- Physiology/Medical Award - Paul Lauterbar,Peter Mansfield
- Literature Award - John Kutsey
- Peace award - Celine Everday
- Economic Award - Robert Engle,Clive Granger
The event of fiction
- 2 month - Albert WeskerReceived information on the new BOW development that was flowed byUmbrellaロシアPrivate anti-biohazard units infiltrated the Caucasus Research Center in the branchChris Redfield,Jill ValentineSucceeded in defeating the new BOW "TA.LOS". At the same time, Umbrella collapsed because the Umbrella completely lost the case. (game"Resident Evil Umbrella Chronicles])
- June-New model of Japan Space Development Corporationspace shuttleThe "spirits"Satellite orbitContacted with the Sonder "EI-01" above. EI-01 fell into the metropolitan area, and astronaut Shio Wang Kai, who was on board the Spirits, was seriously injured after being dying.cyborgWill be remodeled into. (Anime"King of Braves Gaogaigar])
- November-At the Earth Integration Army Apollo Base,Macross classSecond ship "SDF-2" (laterMega Road-01) Construction begins. (Anime"Macross series])
- December? - NASA OfJet Propulsion LaboratoryLaunchedMars probe"Beagle 2'[Annotation 1]But from MarsDecepticonWill be destroyed after sending the video. (movies"Transformers])
- Summer (detailed date unknown)-suffered a great deal of damage from falling asteroid UlyssesEusia continentHad deepened conflicts with other continental countries in refugee issues, etc.Republic of ElsiaTries to resolve the situation and invades the neighboring neutral country of San Salvation.Continental waroutbreak. (game"Ace Combat 04 Shattered Sky])
- Unknown-One of the control bases is under construction as the plans for an artificial sun that melts the ice in both poles progresses.TunguskaA metal cylinder containing a coil is excavated from the underground of the region. After that, the "report" recorded on the coil was decrypted, and the cylinder was onceCrashed in Tunguska officialVenus OfUnmanned spacecraftTurned out to be the origin. In response, the spacecraft "Cosmocrater" will be dispatched to Venus. (novel"])
- Unknown- ChugokuとEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBetweenNansha IslandsDispute over the outbreak. With this, the Strategic Self-Defense Force is established. (Anime"Neon Genesis EVANGELION])
- Unknown- US National Security AgencyWill establish a special unit called "Third Echelon" to prevent digital cryptographic systems and leaks of secrets that pose a threat to the United States. (game"Sprinter cell])
- Unknown- Beijing UniversityLee Yang of the iceIsotopeDegenerate material that is "Ice secondIs successfully crystallized. (Anime"Aim for the top!])
- Stages of the following works
- ^ Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO)Ministry of Foreign Affairs June 2006
- ^ Betterman chronology -"The King of Braves Gaogaigar" official website. Retrieved March 2018, 3.
- ^ Lion King Kai -"The King of Braves Gaogaigar" official website. Retrieved March 2018, 3.
- ^ Yuichiro Takeda"The King of Braves Gaogaigar FINAL1 Reincarnation of the Brave King!media Factory, 2003, 12-14, 256 pages.ISBN 978-4-8401-0764-8.
- ^ "MACROSS PERFECT MEMORY"Minori Shobo, 1984, 55 pages.
- ^ Alan Dean Foster"Transformers"Hayakawa Publishing, 2007, pp. 299-302.ISBN 978-4-15-011622-4.
- ^ Mars Express - JAXASpace Information Center. Retrieved September 2016, 9.
- ^ Stanislaw Rem"No Venus Response" Hayakawa Publishing, 1981, 21-73.ISBN 978-4-15-010417-7.
- ^ "Aim for the top! ]Bandai visual, 2012, 138 pages.ISBN 978-4-04-899247-3.