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😷 | Fukushima XNUMX new infected people for XNUMX consecutive days


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Fukushima No new infections for XNUMX consecutive days

 
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The prefecture continues to call for thorough implementation of basic infection control measures, as the movement of people will become more active during the year-end and New Year holidays, such as when returning home or traveling.
 

No one was confirmed to be infected with the new coronavirus in the prefecture for one day. For XNUMX consecutive days, the new coronavirus ... → Continue reading

 Fukushima Central Television News

Deliver the latest news in Fukushima prefecture faster than anywhere else!In addition to information on incidents and disasters that occur in Fukushima Prefecture, we will deliver daily information on new coronavirus infections, the latest information on infection prevention measures, and local gourmet and tourist information. (* Fukushima Central Television is a local television station affiliated with Nippon Television.)


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New Year's Holiday

2022/ 1(Yuzuki)
DayMonthTueWedThuFriSat
1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031
365 days
Each month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2022/12(Teacher)
DayMonthTueWedThuFriSat
123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
365 days
Each month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

New Year's Holiday(Nenmatsu Nenshi) is not a strict definition, but 1YearsIt is a general term for the period from the end of the period to the beginning of the following year. (The specific period depends on the situation in which it is used).

This item explains the year-end and New Year holidays in Japan as the theme.

Overview

Every yearMay 12から31 daysUp toYear-end-End of the yearOrTwilight-Year-end[Annotation 1],May 1からEarly 1 monthUntil that timeNew year-New Year,new Year,Beginning of the yearMay be said.How to spend the year-end and New Year holidays differs depending on the cultural area.

in Japan's case,New YearFor several days before and afterDays Off(Consecutive holidays).災害避難所になっている場合など一部を除いて、学校はExcept in some cases, such as when it is a disaster shelter, the schoolWinter vacation, CountryMunicipalities OfGovernment officeAccording to the laws and regulations described belowMay 12からMay 1It will be 6 consecutive holidays.[Annotation 2]

1873/(Meiji6 years)May 1ProclamationBy the second issue, "Determining your vacation days,"May 1From to January 1 (New year three day),May 6からMay 6Until(Summer exorcism), From December 12thMay 12Until(New Year's Eve) Was a consecutive holiday.このうち、夏越の大祓の連休が実施直前のOf these, the consecutive holidays of Natsukoshi's Otome are just before the implementationMay 6Since it was canceled after that, the remaining six consecutive holidays during the year-end and New Year holidays will take root.

This decree1947/(Showa22 years) has expired, but after that it became a custom,1988/(63)May 12According to Law No. 91, "Act on Holidays of Administrative Organizations," the legal basis has been obtained again, although it is limited to government offices.

Transportation

Golden week,ObonAlong with, you can go home with your childTraveling(Timely pattern,HawaiiThere are many families who live in warm resort areas near Japan, such as in the early and late stages of the period.Terminal station,空港Is crowdedhighwaySome sections of the road are congested.Also, during the year-end and New Year holidaysSki,skate such asWinter sportsMany families go out to those winter sports because it is also the season of.

TravelingIn recent years[When?]Young people such as couples and students are the mainstream, and children are in 2001American terrorist attacksLater, especially2004/Since then, it has been on a downward trend.[Annotation 3].

JRSome of the limited express tickets, etc.Special plan ticketWill be a busy season when will be unavailable.ただし、日本に観光However, sightseeing in JapanvisaEnter the country withForeign travelersDedicatedJapan Rail PassAnd some specially planned tickets are available.多くのmanyPublic transportThen.May 12からMay 1In betweenDays OffTreatedDiamondBecome[Annotation 4]..初詣の利便のため、大晦日から元日はFrom New Year's Eve to New Year's Day for the convenience of the first visitOvernight drivingBusinesses that doLast trainCarrying downFirst trainThere are many businesses that carry out[Annotation 5].

In addition, during the year-end and New Year holidays, it may be operated with a special timetable different from the normal timetable.About the year-end and New Year holidaysPublic transportation periodThe correspondence of weekdays and holidays is different depending on the business operator.[Annotation 6]on the other hand,Aomori City BusOnly available on Saturdays and holidaysOne day ticketSome businesses do not allow use on weekdays, which are operated on Saturdays and holidays.[4].

freight trainAs for, the number of trains in operation will decrease at the end of the year,May 12Many trains will be suspended from January 1rd[5].

However, on New Year's Day, the flow of long-distance passengers as well as cargo will decrease.[6]..Depending on this day, construction and adjustments that involve train suspension may be performed.[Annotation 7].

ETC discount systemEven during the year-end and New Year holidays, weekdays and holidays are classified according to the days of the week in the calendar (2008-2009 results).Holiday discounts are not applicable on the 2021rd day of 2022-XNUMX.[11].

Monday-Friday and Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays are dividedCoin parkingIn the case of January 1stNew Year OfTransfer holidayExcept for the year-end and New Year holidays, the classification of Monday-Friday and Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays may be according to the day of the week of the calendar (except when the signboard or sticker in the parking lot has a note on the year-end and New Year holidays).for example,bankIn the case of affiliated coin parking, the parking fee is increased during the daytime (mainly 8: 00-15: 00 and 8:45-15:00) on Monday-Friday according to the business hours of the bank counter. In some cases.For this reason, if you park your car during the year-end and New Year holidays other than January 1st and New Year's Day, which includes 1: 8-00: 15 on Friday, you may be charged a large amount.

Company/Store

Many companies, stores, and tourist facilities also have holidays during the year-end and New Year holidays, but during the year-end and New Year holidays,Christmas,New Year OfNew Year's gift,First saleThere are also companies that focus on such things as the year-end and New Year sales season.

HomecomingU turn rushAt workplaces where the year-end and New Year holidays are the time of entry, such as transportation facilities that are responsible for shopping and holidaymakers, restaurants, hotels, and inns, people take turns taking holidays from before New Year to the beginning of the New Year, and congestion and fees are at their peak. Sometimes I travel around the New Year holidays.

Main Event

12

1

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ The word "years"Edo PeriodIt is difficult for the common people to go over the years, and if this is not over, it is likened to the fast-flowing "se" of the river waiting for death.
  2. ^ May 12as well as the May 1 SaturdayIf you hit, from December 12thMay 1Until,SundayIf it hitsMay 12It will be 1 consecutive holidays from to January 4th.
  3. ^ Narita International Airport CorporationAccording to, from December 2006, 12 to January 22, 2007Narita International AirportThe forecast for the number of immigrants using the system is reported to be a record high of about 138 million.[1].
  4. ^ Until the 2000s, on JR linesShikoku Passenger Railway(JR Shikoku) andWest Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan)Yonago branchFor routes within the jurisdiction, weekdays and holiday schedules were classified according to the days of the week and holidays on the calendar.That is,May 1(andTransfer holidayBecomeMay 1) Except for Monday-Friday, it was operated on weekday schedule[2].
  5. ^ From 2020 to 2021New coronavirus infectionDue to the spread of the infection, almost all railway companies did not operate overnight, move down the last train, or move up the first train.[3].
  6. ^ Shinki BusIn the case of general routes, December 12-30 will be a holiday timetable, and January 31-1 will be a special timetable.In addition, it will be suspended on some routes.
  7. ^ 2006/January 1 night[7]and2007/January 1st at nightHakata StationExample of large-scale construction in[8]And2016/March 1Hokkaido ShinkansenTo confirm equipment switchingSeikan TunnelExample of suspension of all passenger and freight trains passing through[9][10]etc.

Source

  1. ^ "Overseas travel record high, Narita year-end and New Year holidays 138 million people". Nikkan Sotsupo Shimbun.As of August 2007, 1original[Broken link]More archives.2006/12/30Browse.
  2. ^ "JR Timetable" (edited and published Kotsu Shimbun) In the December 2007 issue, there is no note of "December 12-January 12 will be operated at holiday time" for the route of the relevant district.
  3. ^ About the cancellation of New Year's Eve operation --Tokyo Metro, released on December 2020, 12
  4. ^ About the use of bus cards, etc. --Aomori City Transportation Department (Last updated April 2015, 4) ・ "Question 15" has a description about the use of trays and the year-end and New Year holidays.
  5. ^ "About the operation of freight trains during the year-end and New Year holidays (PDF)". Japan Freight Railway(JR Freight) (December 2016, 12). As of January 13, 2017originalMore archives.2016/12/30Browse.
  6. ^ "Usage status during the year-end and New Year holidays in 2020 [flash report] (PDF)”. East Japan Railway Company Sendai Branch (January 2021, 1). As of January 6, 2021originalMore archives.2021/1/23Browse.
  7. ^ "JR Timetable" (edited and published Kotsu Shimbun) January 2006 issue JR News page 1
  8. ^ "Railway Pictorial" (edited and published by Denkisha Kenkyukai), February 2007 issue, p. 2 "January Notepad"
  9. ^ "JR Timetable" (edited and published by Kotsu Shimbunsha) January 2016 issue JR News page 1
  10. ^ "Railway Journal" (edited and published by Railway Journal), March 2016, p. 3
  11. ^ Holiday discounts do not apply from January 2022st to January 1rd, 1

Related item

Infection control

Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.

Infection control can be roughly divided into two.

  • Preventive activity
  • Trend measures
    • Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.

Infection control in medical institutions

Occurrence monitoring

Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.

actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventable[1]Infection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.

Preventing the spread of infection

Nosocomial infectionOf each pathogen to prevent transmission and protect health care workers themselves from infectionTransmission routeAccording to(I.e.Stand upprocedureTheWell-knownThere is a need to.

Standard precautions centered on hand washing

Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847/) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843/), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to[2].Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing".[3].

Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United States[4]Requires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.

In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control Council[5]And other guidelines were formulated in 2002.

  • It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
  • Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
  • When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
  • Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.

Isolation precautions

In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.

Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation

  • Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
  • In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
  • Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.

Isolation of droplet infection

  • A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
  • When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
  • Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.

Contact infection isolation

  • Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
  • Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
  • Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.

Cleaning/disinfection/sterilization

The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.

Personal protective equipment

(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.

In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.[6]

Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.[7]

Vaccination of medical staff

Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.[8]

Survey during an epidemic

When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.

Infection control and medical epidemiology training system

There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.

In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.

In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).

Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee

  • The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).

Infection control profession

footnote

  1. ^ Weinstein et al
  2. ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
  3. ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
  4. ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
  5. ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
  6. ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
  7. ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
  8. ^ CDC Vaccine Site
  9. ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.

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