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😷 | Omicron strains spreading around the world Doctors analyze the current situation from "transmissive", "pathogenicity" and "antigenic escape"


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Omicron strains spreading around the world Doctors analyze the current situation from "transmissive", "pathogenicity", and "antigenic escape"

 
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On top of that, regarding the Omicron strain, "Looking at the data from South Africa, we know that the speed at which it spreads about two to four times faster than the Delta strain is fast.
 

On the 6th, it was announced that the third infected person in Japan of the mutant strain "Omicron strain" of the new coronavirus was confirmed.Each world ... → Continue reading

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SARS Coronavirus 2-Delta Strain

SARS Coronavirus 2-Delta Strain(Thirds Coronavirus Two Delta Turnip,English: SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant,alias: Lineage B.1.617.2,VOC-21APR-02) IsNew coronavirus infection Cause of (COVID-19)ウ イ ル スIsSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)Mutant strainAndLineage B.1.617Is one of the sub-strains of[1].2020/In the second halfIndiaFirst detected in[2][3].whoOn the (WHO) label,Delta stockClassified as (Delta variant)[4].

Delta strain is SARS coronavirus 2Spike proteinCodegeneTo T478K,P681R,L452RCauses replacement ofMutationThere is.These amino acid mutations not only affect the infectivity of the virus, but also against previously circulating mutant strains of the virus.antibodyByneutralizeIt has been clarified that it affects whether or not it can be done[5].2021/In 5 month(English edition(PHE) has a secondary incidence of Delta strainsLineage B.1.1.7Showed 51-67% higher than (Alpha strain)[6] .

This stock is as of September 2021Europe,America,Australia,JapanIncludingAsiaIt has become a mainstream stock in a wide area of ​​the world, and WHO is at the same time.Variant of concernSpecified as (VOC)[4].

History

May 2021, 5, PHEUnited KingdomVariant of concern from the variant strain (VUI) under investigation for the classification of strain B.1.1.7 based on the assessment of infectivity corresponding to strain B.1.617.2 (alpha strain) first identified in. Changed to (VOC). On May 5, WHO also stated that the strain was classified as VOC and showed evidence of higher infectivity and reduced neutralization.This mutant strain started in February of the same year.Second wave of Indian pandemicIs believed to be part of the cause of.afterwards,Third wave in the UKIt has also spread to.

On May 5, WHO named this variant a Delta variant.[7](For Variant of Concern and Notable Mutant StrainsGreek scriptAccording to the policy of using).

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,(English edition(NCID) researchers found that patients with delta strains were more likely than those with conventional or alpha strains.pneumoniaMore likely to developoxygenI submitted a treatise suggesting that I am likely to need.

On July 7st, WHO announced not only the United Kingdom mentioned above, but alsoEuropeWarned that it could have similar effects elsewhere[8].

Sort

The Delta strain has a mutation in the gene that encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.D614GAnd cause substitution of T478K, P681R, L452R.this is(English editionIdentified as a 21A clade under a phylogenetic system.

name

In October 2020, this strain was first recorded in India and laterLineage B.1.617.2(lineage B.1.617.2)[4][9].. At the end of May 2021, WHOVariant of concern(VOC) and notable mutant strains (VOI)Greek lettersFor grid B.1.617.2 after introducing a new policy to usedeltaAssigned the label (δ: Delta)[4][7][9].

Other sub-strains of B.1.617

The B.1.617 strain has been classified into three sub-strains B.1.617.1 to 3 so far, of whichB.1.617.1And B.1.617.2 are WHO labels, respectivelyKappa stock(Kappa variant),Delta stockIt is classified as (Delta variant).

The B.1.617 strain has the L452R, D614G, and P681R mutations in common in peplomers.Also, B.1.617.3 was discovered in B.1.617.1E484QAlthough it shares a mutation, B1.617.2 does not have the E484Q mutation.On the other hand, B.1.617.2 has a T478K mutation, but B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.3 do not.[10][11].

2021年4月、B.1.617.1(VUI-21APR-01)がPHEによって調査中の変異株(VUI)に指定された。4月後半には、他の2つの変異株であるB.1.617.2(VUI-21APR-02)とB.1.617.3(VUI-21APR-03)が調査中の変異株(VUI)として指定された。European Center for Disease Control and Prevention(ECDC) has released an overview of maintaining all three sub-strains of B.1.617 as notable mutant strains (VOIs), saying, "Before considering changes to current measures, these B.3 strains We need a deeper understanding of the risks involved. "[12].

On May 2021, 5, PHE evaluated that it was at least as infectious and transmissible as B.6, and from a mutant strain (VUI) investigating the B.1.1.7 strain.Variant of concernRaised to (VOC) and positioned as "VOC-21APR-02"[13]..On May 5, the same year, WHO lifted the entire B.11 strain from the notable mutant (VOI) and classified it as a Variant of Concern (VOC), but in Junepublic healthOnly the B.1.617.2 strains with the higher risk above are classified as VOCs (the other two sub-strains are downgraded).[14]..This mutant strain started in February 2021Second wave of infection spread in IndiaIs considered to be one of the factors of[15][16][17].

Mutation

Delta strain / B.1.617.2 genome, it encodesprotein OfAmino acid sequenceThere are 13 mutations (15 or 17 depending on whether more common mutations are included, according to some sources) that cause changes in.Of these, four of them, which are contained in the peplomer code of all viruses, are of particular concern.

  • D614G-Amino acid 614residue OfAspartic acidからglycineSubstitution toalpha,beta,gammaShared with other highly infectious mutants such as[18].
  • T478K-of the 478th amino acid residueThreonineからlysineIs a replacement for[19].
  • L452R-of the 452nd amino acid residueLeucineからArginineIs a replacement forACE2It results in a stronger affinity for peplomers for receptors and a decrease in the cognitive ability of the immune system.
  • P681R-The 681th amino acid residueProlineIs a substitution from arginine and, according to William A. Hazeltin, may increase cell-level infectivity of the mutant strain "by promoting cleavage of the S precursor protein into the active S1 / S2 composition".[20].

The E1.617Q mutation found in other substrains of strain B.484 is not present in the B.1.617.2 genome.[20].

AY system

(English editionThere is an AY system as a more detailed classification of system B.1.617.2 by, and as of August 2021, it is classified from AY.8 to AY.1, but these areBiologyAll included in Delta strains, not related to changes in characteristics[21].

Lineages AY.1 and AY.2 are "Delta plus" or "Delta plus"ネ パ ー ルAlso called "stock",Beta stockK417N mutation also present in (The change at sequence 417 is from lysineAsparagineReplacement with[22])have[23][24]..In addition, system AY.3AmericaFound inORFHas an I1V mutation at site 3731a[25].

On June 2021, 6, the above-mentioned strain AY.22 (B.1.617.2), which is said to have stronger infectivity due to the addition of the K417N mutation to B.1.[26][Note 1]Has been designated as a Variant of Concern (VOC) by Indian health officials[27]..Infected peoplevaccineOf the inoculatorImmunology(antibody),Monoclonal antibodyMay also show resistance to treatment[28][29][30]On the other hand, there are experts' opinions that the data that it is more dangerous than the mutant strains so far, such as high infectivity and risk of aggravation, is not sufficient at this time, and it should be judged carefully.[30].

symptom

It has been suggested that the most common symptoms may have changed from the most common symptoms associated with previous standard COVID-19.Infected people may mistake their symptoms for a bad cold and be unaware that they need to be quarantined.Common reported symptoms are headache, sore throat, runny nose, or fever.[31][32]..In the United Kingdom, where Delta strains account for 91% of new cases, one study found that the most reported symptoms were headache, sore throat, and runny nose.[33].

It is as if the infected person emits a large amount of virus.AirborneIt is characterized by being observed as if it were (strictly speaking, it corresponds to an aerosol infection).[34].

治療

Treatment for people infected with the Delta strain is the same as for other COVID-19-infected individuals.

Vaccine effect

Indian Medical Research Council (ICMR) convalescent period for COVID-19 casesserumWhen,(English edition OfCovaxine(BBV152) recipient, although less effective, B.1.617neutralizeI found out what I can do[35].

Anurag Agrawal, director of the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), an Indian scientific research institute, said in a study on the efficacy of vaccines available in strain B.1.617.Infection after vaccinationSaid suggesting that is milder[36].

President of the United StatesChief Medical AdvisorAnthony FauciAlso shows confidence in the preliminary results. In an interview on April 2021, 4, he said:

This is where we are still getting data every day.However, the latest data examined convalescent sera from COVID-19 cases and people who received the vaccine Covaxin used in India.It was found to neutralize the B.1.617 mutant strain[37].

In another study by the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad,Oxford-AstraZeneca(Covishield) vaccinated serum was found to protect against strain B.1.617[38].

WHO states that the current vaccine remains effective against mutant strains.According to a study conducted by the British Public Health Agency (PHE)Pfizer-BioNTechBoth the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine were found to protect 33% of the symptomatological disease caused by the mutant strain after the first vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine was 2% effective in protecting against symptomatic disease from the Delta strain, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was 2% effective.[39][40].

LancetHumans who have completed Pfizer-Biontech vaccination may have more than five-fold lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to delta strains than conventional strains, according to a study by a group of researchers at the Francis Crick Institute published in Was there[41].

In June 2021, PHE released findings that after two doses of the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine and the AstraZeneca vaccine, it was 6% and 2% effective in preventing hospitalization with Delta strains, respectively.[42][43].

In a study at the University of Srijay Waldenpra in July 2021,China National Pharmaceutical BIBP VaccineWas found to cause seroconversion in 95% of the study subjects who received the vaccine.The percentage was higher in the 20-39 age group (98.9%), but slightly lower in the 60+ age group (93.3%).Neutralizing antibodies were present in 81.25% of the vaccinated individuals studied[44][45].

On June 2021, 6, Dennis Lognov, director of the Gamalaya Institute, said:Sputnik VSaid that it was about 90% effective against Delta strains[46].

On August 8, several experts expressed concern that mass immunity may not be achieved because the Delta strain is infected among people immunized with the current vaccine.[47].

A study published on August 8 showed that complete vaccination rates were inversely correlated with delta strain mutation frequency in 10 countries (R).2= 0.878).Data strongly indicate that complete vaccination against COVID-19 may slow the evolution of the virus.[48].

Epidemiology

Infectivity

British scientists say the Delta strain is 40% to 60% more contagious than the previously predominant alpha strain (as the Kent mutant), which was first identified in the United Kingdom.If the Alpha strain is already 2019% more contagious than the original SARS-CoV-2 strain that emerged in late 150 and the Delta strain is 150% more contagious than the original SARS-CoV-225 strain, then the Delta strain is 2 more contagious than the original strain. % May be contagious. BBC is the first SARS-CoV-XNUMX detected(Basic reproduction number) Is 2.4 --2.6, but the basic reproduction number of alpha strains is 4-5, and the basic reproduction number of delta strains is 5-9.

Delta stocks are increasing about four-fold every two weeks compared to Alpha stocks, according to US, German and Dutch surveillance data.[49][50][51].

In India, United Kingdom, Portugal, Russia, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Germany, Luxembourg, the United States, the Netherlands, Denmark, France, and perhaps many other countries, Delta shares dominate by July 2021. It became.There is usually a three-week delay between the case and the reporting of the mutant strain. As of July 7, the mutant had spread to 3 countries, and WHO showed that it was becoming the dominant, if not one, strain.[52].

PreprintAccording to the report, the viral load on the first positive test for mutant infections was on average about 2020 times higher than when compared to the 1,000 infection.[53][54]..Preliminary data from a study by 2021 volunteers in the United Kingdom from May to July 5, when the Delta strain was rapidly spreading, show vaccinated individuals with a positive COVID-7 response, including asymptomatic cases. Indicates that the amount of virus is low on average.According to data from the United States, United Kingdom, and Singapore, vaccinated people infected with the Delta strain may have as high viral load as unvaccinated infected people, but the duration of infection is shorter. Is said to be[55].

Infected age group

Indian government(English editionの監視データによると、30歳未満の入院中と病院外の双方の患者は、第1波の31%に対して第2波では約32%であり、30~40歳の感染率は21%にとどまった。20~39歳での範囲の入院率は23.7%から25.5%に増加し、0~19歳の範囲は4.2%から5.8%に増加した。データはまた、第2波の間に入院したより高い割合の無症候性の患者が、息切れを訴えたことを示している[56].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It was first detected in Europe in March of the same year, and was subsequently detected in Asia and the United States.[26].. A further mutant of B.1.617.2 (Delta strain).

Source

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