Photo Prefectural Countermeasures Headquarters Meeting discussing measures to be taken when the infection of the new corona spreads = 26th afternoon, prefectural office
[New Corona] Kanagawa Prefecture "Home recuperation without consultation" introduced on the 28th For applicants aged 6 to 49
If you write the contents roughly
The prefecture issues an "independent medical treatment report" as electronic data for submission to the workplace.
On the 26th, the medical institution that treats fever patients is tight in Kanagawa prefecture over the new coronavirus infection ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Data(British: date) Means individualfact,statistics, ま た は情报It is an item of..More precisely, data is about one or more people, things or events.Qualitative (in:English edition) orquantitative (in:English edition) A collection of values..SingularDatum(British: Datum) Is a single value for a variable.
"Data" and "information" are often used interchangeably, but these terms have a clear meaning.In common publications, it is sometimes said that data is converted into information when displayed or analyzed in context...However, in academic treatment, the subject data is just a set of information.The purpose of the data isScientific research, Business management (eg sales, revenue, profit,Stock price),金融, Governance (eg: ,Unemployment rate,Literacy rate), And virtually any form of human organizational activity (eg) NPObyホ ー ム レ スSurvey of the number of).
In general, data is a decision-making element and the smallest unit of factual information that can be used as the basis for reasoning, discussion, and calculation.Data ranges from abstract ideas to concrete measurements and even statistics.Data isMeasurement,collection,,analysisAnd graphs, tables, images, etc.Data visualizationUsed for.generalconceptThe data as is the existing情报,knowledgeHowever, in a form suitable for more appropriate use and processingPerformance-CodedRefers to being done.(raw data, Unprocessed data) is a collection of numbers and letters before being cleaned and modified by the researcher.OutliersRaw data needs to be modified to eliminate or obvious equipment or data entry errors (eg, thermometers installed outdoors in the Arctic are recording tropical temperatures).Data processing is generally done in stages, and one stage of "machining data" may be considered as the next stage of "raw data".Practical data(field data) Means uncontrolled on-site (),) Raw data collected in the environment.(experimental data) Is科学Data generated by observations and records within the activities of a survey.
Etymology and terms
For the first time in EnglishdateWas used in the 1640s. The word "data" was first used in 1946 to mean "communicable and storable computer information." "Data processing"(data processing) Was first used in 1954..
In Englishdate"Is"DatumThe plural form of "Latin / Italian" giveEtymology (Dare, "give")..In English, data is sometimes used as a plural noun in this sense, especially in many of the 20th and 21st centuries, where writers involved in the natural sciences, life sciences, and social sciences Datum In the singular date Is used in the plural (for example,APA styleStill in (7th edition) date Is required to be plural).But everyday conversation,Software Development,Computer ScienceIn the world ofdate Is most often used in the singular as an uncountable noun (like sand and rain).big data(big data) Is singular.
In Chinese, "Document"(Tuliao) or"dataAlso known as "Shoo Chi".
data,情报,knowledge,wisdomIs a closely related concept, but each has its own role and each term has its own meaning.The general view is that data is collected and analyzed.Data is only suitable for making decisions when it is analyzed in some way...That is, whether a set of data is useful to someone depends on how much they expected.The amount of information contained in the data stream is thatShannon entropyMay be characterized by.
Knowledge is a wealth of experience-based understanding that deals with information about a subject.for example,EverestThe height of is generally regarded as data.Its height isAltimeterCan be measured accurately and entered into the database.By posting this data in a book along with other data about Everest, you can explain the mountain to help those who want to decide the best way to climb Everest.A mountaineering experience-based understanding that can advise on how to reach the summit of Mount Everest may also be considered "knowledge."And the actual climbing to the summit of Mt. Everest based on this knowledge can be seen as "wisdom".In other words, wisdom is the practice of one's knowledge in situations where good results can be obtained.In this way, wisdom complements and completes a series of abstracted concepts of "data," "information," and "knowledge."
Data is often the least abstract concept, information is the next most abstract, and knowledge is often the least abstract concept...In this view, data is transformed into information by adding interpretation.For example, the height of Everest is generally referred to as "data", books on the geological features of Everest are referred to as "information", and mountaineering guidebooks containing practical information on the best way to reach the summit of Mount Everest. Considered "knowledge". "Information" has various meanings from daily use to professional use.However, this view can be said to be an assertion that "data" is created as "information" and "knowledge" is created from "information"...Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to the concepts of constraints, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, psychological stimuli, patterns, perceptions, and expressions.To distinguish between data and informationsymbolThe concept of is used.Data is a series of symbols, but information is created when the symbol is used to refer to something..
Before the development of arithmetic units and machines, people had to manually collect data and apply patterns to it.However, with the development of computing devices and machines, these devices have become able to collect data. In the 2010s,MarketingAnd by the citizenssocial welfareComputers are widely used to collect, classify, and process data in a variety of fields, from analysis of usage to scientific research.These patterns on the data are considered information to enhance knowledge.These patterns are "truth(However, "truth" can be a subjective concept) and may be accepted as an aesthetic and ethical standard in some disciplines and cultures.Events that leave perceptible physical or virtual signs can be traced back through the data.When the relationship between the sign and the observation is broken, the sign is no longer considered data..
Analog calculatorRepresents data as a voltage, distance, position, or other physical quantity.Digital computer is fixedThe alphabetThe data is expressed as a sequence of symbols taken from.Most commonDigital computerUses the binary alphabet, that is, the two-letter alphabet, usually represented by "0" and "1".Next, familiar expressions such as numbers and letters are constructed from this binary alphabet.Some of the data has a special format to distinguish it.Computer programIs a collection of data and can be interpreted as an instruction.Most computer languages distinguish between a program and other data that the program manipulates,LispIn or similar languages, programs are essentially indistinguishable from other data.again,MetadataThat is, it is also useful to distinguish the explanations of other data.A former term similar to metadata is ancillary data.An example of a prototype of metadata is a library catalog that describes the contents of a book.
Whenever you need to register data, a data document (data documents) There is data in the format.There are the following types of data documents.
Some of these data documents (data repositories, data studies, datasets, software) are dataCitation indexIn addition, the data paper is a traditional bibliographic database, for exampleScience Citation IndexIndexed to.
Data collection and analysis
Data collection is through primary sources (researchers obtain data first) or secondary sources (researchers obtain data already collected by other sources, such as data published in scientific journals). It can be carried out.Data analysis methodologies vary, including data triangulation and data percolation...The former includes qualitative and quantitative methods, literature reviews (including academic papers), expert interviews, and computer simulations to maximize the objectivity of the study and to understand the phenomenon under investigation as completely as possible. It clarifies how to collect, classify, and analyze data from one analysis angle (at least three).The latter then "penetrates" the data in a predetermined set of steps to extract the most relevant information.
In the computing field
International Standards Organization"ISO / IEC 2382-1" andJapanese Industrial StandardIn "X0001 Information Processing Term-Basic Term", the term definition of "data" is "A reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing." Or it is formalized to be suitable for processing and can be interpreted as information again. "
electronic dataIt is,ComputerIt is data that is inside or can be imported into a computer.For example, distinguishing it from simple character data on printed matter,Character codeCharacter data converted to, distinguishing from simple image data on printed matter,bitmapData andJPEGIt refers to image data converted into a method image.In the case of information processing inside a computer, it is rarely called electronic data.
In Japan, the legal term "" used in criminal law articles, etc.Electromagnetic recording"" Has almost the same meaning as electronic data and magnetic data.
Over the networkCPUWith a wide range of different variability, speeds, and quantities of organized and unorganized data flowing into hard disks, etc., companies translate it into business advice..
Magnetic dataIt is,Magnetic recordingIt is the data that has been done.Magnetic tape,Magnetic diskMedia for computers such asvideo tape, Commuter pass, etc.Magnetic stripeIt is stored in.If there is a strong magnet nearby, it may be affected and change.
Data is often organized and stored, with related things grouped together.This is called.A collection of data stored thereFileCall.
A set of data to be processedDatabaseCall it.
ComputerIn the case of, the data isProgramIt refers to something other than, and its form is various such as document, video, and audio.In some cases, it is written directly to the memory using a switch, etc., but in most cases it is output by a program and read and used by other programs.In processing such as compiler, programInterpreter,compilerIt may be treated as data of.It is also possible to include a program in the data.x86In such cases, the program and data are placed in the same memory space and distinguished by the designer's intention.
The use of data is advancing in other fields as well, but it has been pointed out that its highly descriptive nature may conflict with the ethics of making data "given."To distinguish between a huge amount of possible data and a subset of them that we are paying attention to.captures(Latin capere, Derived from "take").As the humanities assert that the production of knowledge is "positional, partial, and constructive",date It is argued that the use of can spread the counter-intuitive speculation that the phenomenon is discrete or independent of the observer, for example...For visual expression in the humanities date As an alternative to, emphasize the act of observation as constructive captures The term has been proposed.
- ^ a b "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms"OECD, 2008, p. 119.ISBN 978-92-64-025561.
- ^ "Statistical Language --What are Data?". Australian Bureau of Statistics (February 2013, 7). As of February 13, 2019originalMore archives.2020/3/9Browse.
- ^ "Data vs Information --Difference and Comparison | Diffen" (English). www.diffen.com. 2018/12/11Browse.
- ^ Yonego, Joris Toonders (July 23, 2014). “Data Is the New Oil of the Digital Economy”. Wired .
- ^ "Data is the new oil”(October 2018, 7). As of October 16, 2021originalMore archives.2022/4/3Browse.
- ^ a b "data | Origin and meaning of data by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. 2022/4/3Browse.
- ^ American Psychological Association (2020). “6.11”. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: the official guide to APA style.American Psychological Association. ISBN 9781433832161
- ^ "Joint Publication 2-0, Joint Intelligence". Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Doctrine Publications. Department of Defense. Pp. I-1 (October 2013, 10). 2018/7/17Browse.
- ^ Akash Mitra (2011). “Classifying data for successful modeling”. As of May 2017, 11originalMore archives.2017/11/5Browse.
- ^ Tuomi, Ilkka (2000). “Data is more than knowledge”. Journal of Management Information Systems 6 (3): 103–117. two:10.1080/07421222.1999.11518258.
- ^ P. Beynon-Davies (2002). Information Systems: An introduction to informatics in organisations. Basingstoke, UK: .. ISBN 0-333-96390-3
- ^ P. Beynon-Davies (2009). Business information systems. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave. ISBN +978-0-230-20368-6
- ^ Sharon Daniel. The Database: An Aesthetics of Dignity
- ^ Schöpfel et al. 2020. "Data Documents". ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization https://www.isko.org/cyclo/data_documents
- ^ Mesly, Olivier (2015). Creating Models in Psychological Research. États-Unis: Springer Psychology: 126 pages.+978-3-319-15752-8
- ^ Stallings, William (2016). Foundations of modern networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and CloudFlorence Agboma, Sofiene Jelassi. Indianapolis, Indiana. ISBN +978-0-13-417547-8. OCLC 927715441
- ^ P. Checkland and S. Holwell (1998). Information, Systems, and Information Systems: Making Sense of the Field.. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 86–89. ISBN 0-471-95820-4
- ^ Johanna Drucker (2011). “Humanities Approaches to Graphical Display”. Digital Humanities Quarterly 005 (1) .
- Information processing terminology standard
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- Data is a singular noun --Detailed evaluation(English)