Portal field news

Portal field news


😷 | Characteristics of Omicron BA.2 strain in fashion Found to be similar to BA.1 strain

Photo Viral load in the respiratory tract 3 days after infection. Based on changes in the viral load of two different individuals infected with the BA.2 strain, it became clear that they have the same properties as the BA.2 strain.

Properties of Omicron BA.2 strain during epidemic found to be similar to BA.1 strain

If you write the contents roughly
It was revealed that the activity was lower than that for conventional strains and delta strains.

A research group led by Professor Yoshihiro Kawaoka (Virus Infection Division, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Tokyo) is a new coronavirus mutant strain, oh ... → Continue reading

 Todai newspaper online

All student newspapers written and edited by students of the University of Tokyo from their own perspective. Through research interviews with professors and scientific news, we open research at the University of Tokyo to the public, as well as disseminate information on university sports bulletins and student-sponsored events. In addition to delivering useful information for examinations and job hunting, we also delve deeply into issues that are deeply related to the University of Tokyo and ultimately society, such as gender issues in admissions reforms, university policies, and higher education. "Student's point of view" is a strength not found in other media.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

SARS Coronavirus 2-Delta Strain

SARS Coronavirus 2-Delta Strain(Thirds Coronavirus Two Delta Turnip,English: SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant,alias: Lineage B.1.617.2,VOC-21APR-02) IsNew coronavirus infection Cause of (COVID-19)ウ イ ル スIsSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)Mutant strainAndLineage B.1.617Is one of the sub-strains of[1].2020/In the second halfIndiaFirst detected in[2][3].whoOn the (WHO) label,Delta stockClassified as (Delta variant)[4].

Delta strain is SARS coronavirus 2Spike proteinCodegeneTo T478K,P681R,L452RCauses replacement ofMutationThere is.These amino acid mutations not only affect the infectivity of the virus, but also against previously circulating mutant strains of the virus.antibodyByneutralizeIt has been clarified that it affects whether or not it can be done[5].2021/In 5 month(English edition(PHE) has a secondary incidence of Delta strainsLineage B.1.1.7Showed 51-67% higher than (Alpha strain)[6] .

This stock is as of September 2021Europe,America,Australia,JapanIncludingAsiaIt has become a mainstream stock in a wide area of ​​the world, and WHO is at the same time.Variant of concernSpecified as (VOC)[4].


May 2021, 5, PHEUnited KingdomVariant of concern from the variant strain (VUI) under investigation for the classification of strain B.1.1.7 based on the assessment of infectivity corresponding to strain B.1.617.2 (alpha strain) first identified in. Changed to (VOC). On May 5, WHO also stated that the strain was classified as VOC and showed evidence of higher infectivity and reduced neutralization.This mutant strain started in February of the same year.Second wave of Indian pandemicIs believed to be part of the cause of.afterwards,Third wave in the UKIt has also spread to.

On May 5, WHO named this variant a Delta variant.[7](For Variant of Concern and Notable Mutant StrainsGreek scriptAccording to the policy of using).

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,(English edition(NCID) researchers found that patients with delta strains were more likely than those with conventional or alpha strains.pneumoniaMore likely to developoxygenI submitted a treatise suggesting that I am likely to need.

On July 7st, WHO announced not only the United Kingdom mentioned above, but alsoEuropeWarned that it could have similar effects elsewhere[8].


The Delta strain has a mutation in the gene that encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.D614GAnd cause substitution of T478K, P681R, L452R.this is(English editionIdentified as a 21A clade under a phylogenetic system.


In October 2020, this strain was first recorded in India and laterLineage B.1.617.2(lineage B.1.617.2)[4][9].. At the end of May 2021, WHOVariant of concern(VOC) and notable mutant strains (VOI)Greek lettersFor grid B.1.617.2 after introducing a new policy to usedeltaAssigned the label (δ: Delta)[4][7][9].

Other sub-strains of B.1.617

The B.1.617 strain has been classified into three sub-strains B.1.617.1 to 3 so far, of whichB.1.617.1And B.1.617.2 are WHO labels, respectivelyKappa stock(Kappa variant),Delta stockIt is classified as (Delta variant).

The B.1.617 strain has the L452R, D614G, and P681R mutations in common in peplomers.Also, B.1.617.3 was discovered in B.1.617.1E484QAlthough it shares a mutation, B1.617.2 does not have the E484Q mutation.On the other hand, B.1.617.2 has a T478K mutation, but B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.3 do not.[10][11].

2021年4月、B.1.617.1(VUI-21APR-01)がPHEによって調査中の変異株(VUI)に指定された。4月後半には、他の2つの変異株であるB.1.617.2(VUI-21APR-02)とB.1.617.3(VUI-21APR-03)が調査中の変異株(VUI)として指定された。European Center for Disease Control and Prevention(ECDC) has released an overview of maintaining all three sub-strains of B.1.617 as notable mutant strains (VOIs), saying, "Before considering changes to current measures, these B.3 strains We need a deeper understanding of the risks involved. "[12].

On May 2021, 5, PHE evaluated that it was at least as infectious and transmissible as B.6, and from a mutant strain (VUI) investigating the B.1.1.7 strain.Variant of concernRaised to (VOC) and positioned as "VOC-21APR-02"[13]..On May 5, the same year, WHO lifted the entire B.11 strain from the notable mutant (VOI) and classified it as a Variant of Concern (VOC), but in Junepublic healthOnly the B.1.617.2 strains with the higher risk above are classified as VOCs (the other two sub-strains are downgraded).[14]..This mutant strain started in February 2021Second wave of infection spread in IndiaIs considered to be one of the factors of[15][16][17].


Delta strain / B.1.617.2 genome, it encodesprotein OfAmino acid sequenceThere are 13 mutations (15 or 17 depending on whether more common mutations are included, according to some sources) that cause changes in.Of these, four of them, which are contained in the peplomer code of all viruses, are of particular concern.

  • D614G-Amino acid 614residue OfAspartic acidからglycineSubstitution toalpha,beta,gammaShared with other highly infectious mutants such as[18].
  • T478K-of the 478th amino acid residueThreonineからlysineIs a replacement for[19].
  • L452R-of the 452nd amino acid residueLeucineからArginineIs a replacement forACE2It results in a stronger affinity for peplomers for receptors and a decrease in the cognitive ability of the immune system.
  • P681R-The 681th amino acid residueProlineIs a substitution from arginine and, according to William A. Hazeltin, may increase cell-level infectivity of the mutant strain "by promoting cleavage of the S precursor protein into the active S1 / S2 composition".[20].

The E1.617Q mutation found in other substrains of strain B.484 is not present in the B.1.617.2 genome.[20].

AY system

(English editionThere is an AY system as a more detailed classification of system B.1.617.2 by, and as of August 2021, it is classified from AY.8 to AY.1, but these areBiologyAll included in Delta strains, not related to changes in characteristics[21].

Lineages AY.1 and AY.2 are "Delta plus" or "Delta plus"ネ パ ー ルAlso called "stock",Beta stockK417N mutation also present in (The change at sequence 417 is from lysineAsparagineReplacement with[22])have[23][24]..In addition, system AY.3AmericaFound inORFHas an I1V mutation at site 3731a[25].

On June 2021, 6, the above-mentioned strain AY.22 (B.1.617.2), which is said to have stronger infectivity due to the addition of the K417N mutation to B.1.[26][Note 1]Has been designated as a Variant of Concern (VOC) by Indian health officials[27]..Infected peoplevaccineOf the inoculatorImmunology(antibody),Monoclonal antibodyMay also show resistance to treatment[28][29][30]On the other hand, there are experts' opinions that the data that it is more dangerous than the mutant strains so far, such as high infectivity and risk of aggravation, is not sufficient at this time, and it should be judged carefully.[30].


It has been suggested that the most common symptoms may have changed from the most common symptoms associated with previous standard COVID-19.Infected people may mistake their symptoms for a bad cold and be unaware that they need to be quarantined.Common reported symptoms are headache, sore throat, runny nose, or fever.[31][32]..In the United Kingdom, where Delta strains account for 91% of new cases, one study found that the most reported symptoms were headache, sore throat, and runny nose.[33].

It is as if the infected person emits a large amount of virus.AirborneIt is characterized by being observed as if it were (strictly speaking, it corresponds to an aerosol infection).[34].


Treatment for people infected with the Delta strain is the same as for other COVID-19-infected individuals.

Vaccine effect

Indian Medical Research Council (ICMR) convalescent period for COVID-19 casesserumWhen,(English edition OfCovaxine(BBV152) recipient, although less effective, B.1.617neutralizeI found out what I can do[35].

Anurag Agrawal, director of the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), an Indian scientific research institute, said in a study on the efficacy of vaccines available in strain B.1.617.Infection after vaccinationSaid suggesting that is milder[36].

President of the United StatesChief Medical AdvisorAnthony FauciAlso shows confidence in the preliminary results. In an interview on April 2021, 4, he said:

This is where we are still getting data every day.However, the latest data examined convalescent sera from COVID-19 cases and people who received the vaccine Covaxin used in India.It was found to neutralize the B.1.617 mutant strain[37].

In another study by the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad,Oxford-AstraZeneca(Covishield) vaccinated serum was found to protect against strain B.1.617[38].

WHO states that the current vaccine remains effective against mutant strains.According to a study conducted by the British Public Health Agency (PHE)Pfizer-BioNTechBoth the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine were found to protect 33% of the symptomatological disease caused by the mutant strain after the first vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine was 2% effective in protecting against symptomatic disease from the Delta strain, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was 2% effective.[39][40].

LancetHumans who have completed Pfizer-Biontech vaccination may have more than five-fold lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to delta strains than conventional strains, according to a study by a group of researchers at the Francis Crick Institute published in Was there[41].

In June 2021, PHE released findings that after two doses of the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine and the AstraZeneca vaccine, it was 6% and 2% effective in preventing hospitalization with Delta strains, respectively.[42][43].

In a study at the University of Srijay Waldenpra in July 2021,China National Pharmaceutical BIBP VaccineWas found to cause seroconversion in 95% of the study subjects who received the vaccine.The percentage was higher in the 20-39 age group (98.9%), but slightly lower in the 60+ age group (93.3%).Neutralizing antibodies were present in 81.25% of the vaccinated individuals studied[44][45].

On June 2021, 6, Dennis Lognov, director of the Gamalaya Institute, said:Sputnik VSaid that it was about 90% effective against Delta strains[46].

On August 8, several experts expressed concern that mass immunity may not be achieved because the Delta strain is infected among people immunized with the current vaccine.[47].

A study published on August 8 showed that complete vaccination rates were inversely correlated with delta strain mutation frequency in 10 countries (R).2= 0.878).Data strongly indicate that complete vaccination against COVID-19 may slow the evolution of the virus.[48].



British scientists say the Delta strain is 40% to 60% more contagious than the previously predominant alpha strain (as the Kent mutant), which was first identified in the United Kingdom.If the Alpha strain is already 2019% more contagious than the original SARS-CoV-2 strain that emerged in late 150 and the Delta strain is 150% more contagious than the original SARS-CoV-225 strain, then the Delta strain is 2 more contagious than the original strain. % May be contagious. BBC is the first SARS-CoV-XNUMX detected(Basic reproduction number) Is 2.4 --2.6, but the basic reproduction number of alpha strains is 4-5, and the basic reproduction number of delta strains is 5-9.

Delta stocks are increasing about four-fold every two weeks compared to Alpha stocks, according to US, German and Dutch surveillance data.[49][50][51].

In India, United Kingdom, Portugal, Russia, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Germany, Luxembourg, the United States, the Netherlands, Denmark, France, and perhaps many other countries, Delta shares dominate by July 2021. It became.There is usually a three-week delay between the case and the reporting of the mutant strain. As of July 7, the mutant had spread to 3 countries, and WHO showed that it was becoming the dominant, if not one, strain.[52].

PreprintAccording to the report, the viral load on the first positive test for mutant infections was on average about 2020 times higher than when compared to the 1,000 infection.[53][54]..Preliminary data from a study by 2021 volunteers in the United Kingdom from May to July 5, when the Delta strain was rapidly spreading, show vaccinated individuals with a positive COVID-7 response, including asymptomatic cases. Indicates that the amount of virus is low on average.According to data from the United States, United Kingdom, and Singapore, vaccinated people infected with the Delta strain may have as high viral load as unvaccinated infected people, but the duration of infection is shorter. Is said to be[55].

Infected age group

Indian government(English editionの監視データによると、30歳未満の入院中と病院外の双方の患者は、第1波の31%に対して第2波では約32%であり、30~40歳の感染率は21%にとどまった。20~39歳での範囲の入院率は23.7%から25.5%に増加し、0~19歳の範囲は4.2%から5.8%に増加した。データはまた、第2波の間に入院したより高い割合の無症候性の患者が、息切れを訴えたことを示している[56].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It was first detected in Europe in March of the same year, and was subsequently detected in Asia and the United States.[26].. A further mutant of B.1.617.2 (Delta strain).


  1. ^ “Confirmed cases of COVID-19 variants identified in UK”(July 2021, 4). https://www.gov.uk/government/news/confirmed-cases-of-covid-19-variants-identified-in-uk 2021/4/20Browse. 
  2. ^ "Tracking of Variants". gisaid.org. GISAID (September 2021, 4). 2021/7/2Browse.
  3. ^ "Expert reaction to cases of variant B.1.617 (the'Indian variant') being investigated in the UK”. Science Media Center. 2021/4/20Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants" (English). who.int. World Health Organization. As of October 2021, 6originalMore archives.2021/9/1Browse.
  5. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021/6/15Browse.
  6. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England”(May 2021, 5). 2021/6/18Browse.
  7. ^ a b “Covid: WHO renames UK and other variants with Greek letters”. BBC News. (April 2021, 5). https://www.bbc.com/news/world-57308592 2021/6/8Browse. 
  8. ^ Ellyatt, Holly (July 2021, 7). “New Covid wave could be imminent as delta variant sweeps Europe, WHO says" (English). CNBC. 2021/7/2Browse.
  9. ^ a b “World status report on new coronavirus infections”Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (February 2021, 6). https://www.forth.go.jp/topics/20210611.html 2021/10/2Browse. 
  10. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/16Browse.
  11. ^ Di Giacomo, Simone; Mercatelli, Daniele; Rakhimov, Amir; Giorgi, Federico M. (2021). “Preliminary report on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike mutation T478K”. Journal of Medical Virology. two:10.1002 / jmv.27062. PMC 8242375. PMID 33951211. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242375/. 
  12. ^ "Threat Assessment Brief: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 variants in India and situation in the EU / EEA". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/17Browse.
  13. ^ "expert reaction to VUI-21APR-02 / B.1.617.2 being classified by PHE as a variant of concern". Science Media Center (September 2021, 5). 2021/5/15Browse.
  14. ^ WHO Aims at "Delta Strain" Mutant Confirmed in India --AFPBB News (June 2021, 6)
  15. ^ WHO labels a Covid strain in India as a'variant of concern' — here's what we know, CNBC, 11 May 2021.
  16. ^ WHO says India Covid variant of'global concern', BBC News, 11 May 2021.
  17. ^ India's second COVID-19 wave, The Wire Science, 22 April 2021.
  18. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern as of 24 May 2021". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. 2021/5/29Browse.
  19. ^ Greenwood, Michael (March 2021, 3). “SARS-CoV-2 mutation T478K spreading at alarming speed in Mexico”. Medical News. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210330/SARS-CoV-2-mutation-T478K-spreading-at-alarming-speed-in-Mexico.aspx 2021/6/15Browse. 
  20. ^ a b Haseltine, William. “An Indian SARS-CoV-2 Variant Lands In California. More Danger Ahead?” (English). Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamhaseltine/2021/04/12/an-indian-sars-cov-2-variant-lands-in-california-more-danger-ahead/?sh=1ff3056b3b29 2021/4/20Browse. 
  21. ^ New mutant strain of new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which is concerned about increased infectivity / transmission and changes in antigenicity (13th report)/PDF version (PDF) - National Institute of Infectious Diseases (August 2021, 8), Retrieved September 28, 2021.
  22. ^ Tang, Julian W .; Oliver, TR (2021). “Introduction of the South African SARS-CoV-2 variant 501Y.V2 into the UK”. The Journal of Infection 82 (4): e8–e10. two:10.1016 / j.jinf.2021.01.007. PMC 7813514. PMID 33472093. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813514/. 
  23. ^ Sample, Ian (October 2021, 6). “Nepal Covid variant: does it exist and should we be concerned?”. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jun/03/nepal-covid-variant-does-it-exist-should-concerned 2021/6/23Browse. 
  24. ^ What is the risk of Corona "Delta Plus" stocks?What I know now/Yahoo! News version - National geographicJapanese version (July 2021, 7)
  25. ^ New mutant strain of new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which is concerned about increased infectivity / transmission and changes in antigenicity (10th report)/PDF version (PDF) --National Institute of Infectious Diseases (July 2021, 7), accessed September 6, 2021.
  26. ^ a b “Delta plus: New Covid variant identified, experts say no cause of concern for now”. .. (January 2021, 6). https://indianexpress.com/article/india/delta-plus-new-covid-variant-identified-experts-say-no-cause-of-concern-7358752/ 2021/6/23Browse. 
  27. ^ India Concerns New Mutant "Delta Plus" Infectivity Stronger - Reuters (December 2021, 6)
  28. ^ Indian Corona "Delta Plus" recognized as "a variant of concern" Infection, immunity with vaccine has no effect - SputnikJapanese version (June 2021, 6)
  29. ^ Found in XNUMX countries including Delta Plus, Japan, US and China, which are stronger than Delta stocks - JoongAng Daily NewsJapanese version (June 2021, 6)
  30. ^ a b New mutant "Delta Plus" How much attention should be paid - BBC News (December 2021, 6)
  31. ^ Grover, Natalie (June 2021, 6). “Delta variant Covid symptoms'include headaches, sore throat and runny nose'”. The Guardian (London). https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jun/14/delta-variant-covid-symptoms-include-headaches-sore-throat-and-runny-nose 2021/6/30Browse. 
  32. ^ Roberts, Michelle (February 2021, 6). “Headache and runny nose linked to Delta variant”. BBC News (London). https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-57467051 2021/7/2Browse. 
  33. ^ Radcliffe, Shawn (June 2021, 6). “The COVID-19 Delta Variant: Here's Everything You Need to Know”. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/the-covid-19-delta-variant-heres-everything-you-need-to-know#What-symptoms-does-the-Delta-variant-cause? 2021/7/2Browse. 
  34. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “New Corona Delta strain "airborne" ?! What we know now". NHK News. 2021/9/14Browse.
  35. ^ Yadav, PD; Sapkal, GN; Abraham, P; Ella, R; Deshpande, G; Patil, DY et al. (7 May 2021). “Neutralization of variant under investigation B.1.617 with sera of BBV152 vaccinees.”. Clinical Infectious Diseases. two:10.1093 / cid / ciab411. PMID 33961693. 
  36. ^ "Covishield Covaxin effective against'Indian strain' of coronavirus study suggests" (English). The Week. 2021/4/27Browse.
  37. ^ “Covaxin found to neutralise 617 variant of COVID-19, says Dr. Fauci” (English). The Hindu(July 2021, 4). https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/covaxin-found-to-neutralise-617-variant-of-covid-19-says-dr-fauci/article34428175.ece 
  38. ^ “Covishield, Covaxin effective against'Indian strain'of coronavirus, study suggests --ET HealthWorld” (English). ETHealthworld.com (The Economic Times). (April 2021, 4). https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/covishield-covaxin-effective-against-indian-strain-of-coronavirus-study-suggests/82283901 
  39. ^ Ellyatt, Holly (May 2021, 5). “Two doses of Covid vaccines provide effective protection against variant found in India: Study” (English). CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/05/24/two-doses-of-covid-vaccines-provide-protection-against-india-variant.html 
  40. ^ Bernal, Jamie Lopez; Andrews, Nick; Gower, Charlotte; Gallagher, Eileen; Simmons, Ruth; Thelwall, Simon et al. (2021-05-24). “Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 variant” (English). medRxiv. two:10.1101/2021.05.22.21257658. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.22.21257658v1. 
  41. ^ “COVID-19 vaccine: Pfizer jabs not the best for Delta variant, says Lancet study”. The New Indian Express(July 2021, 6). https://www.newindianexpress.com/lifestyle/health/2021/jun/05/covid-19-vaccine-pfizer-jabs-not-the-best-for-delta-variant-says-lancet-study-2312005.html 
  42. ^ “Vaccines highly effective against hospitalisation from Delta variant” (English). www.gov.uk (Public Health England). (June 2021, 6). https://www.gov.uk/government/news/vaccines-highly-effective-against-hospitalisation-from-delta-variant 
  43. ^ “UK study finds vaccines offer high protection against hospitalisation from Delta variant” (English). to Reuters(July 2021, 6). https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/uk-study-finds-vaccines-offer-high-protection-against-hospitalisation-delta-2021-06-14/ 2021/6/15Browse. 
  44. ^ "Over 95% individuals developed antibodies against the Sinopharm vaccine --USJ Researchers" (English). USJ-University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka (September 2021, 7). 2021/7/20Browse.
  45. ^ Jeewandara, Chandima; Aberathna, Inoka Sepali; Pushpakumara, Pradeep Dharshana; Kamaladasa, Achala; Guruge, Dinuka; Jayathilaka, Deshni; Gunesekara, Banuri; Tanussiya, Shyrar et al. (2021-07-19). “Antibody and T cell responses to Sinopharm / BBIBP-CorV in naive and previously infected individuals in Sri Lanka” (English). medRxiv: 2021.07.15.21260621. two:10.1101/2021.07.15.21260621. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.15.21260621v1. 
  46. ^ "Russia's Sputnik V shot around 90% effective against Delta variant, developers say". to Reuters (September 2021, 6). 2021/8/11Browse.
  47. ^ Dyer, Owen (2021-08-02). “Covid-19: Delta infections threaten herd immunity vaccine strategy”. BMJ 374: n1933. two:10.1136 / bmj.n1933. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 34340962. https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1933. 
  48. ^ “Full vaccination suppresses SARS-CoV-2 delta variant mutation frequency”. medRxiv. (2021-08-10). (XNUMX-XNUMX-XNUMX). two:10.1101/2021.08.08.21261768. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.08.21261768v2. 
  49. ^ "CDC covid variant tracker”(May 2020, 3). 2021/7/13Browse.
  50. ^ "RIVM Covid variant tracker". 2021/7/13Browse.
  51. ^ "RKI --Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 --Berichte zu Virusvarianten von SARS-CoV-2 in Deutschland". www.rki.de. 2021/6/19Browse.
  52. ^ "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the 8th meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on COVID-19 --14 July 2021”. WHO (July 2021, 7). As of July 14, 2021originalMore archives.2021/7/15Browse. “The Delta variant is now in more than 111 countries and we expect it to soon be the dominant COVID-19 strain circulating worldwide, if it isn't already.”
  53. ^ Reardon, Sara (July 2021, 7). “How the Delta variant achieves its ultrafast spread” (English). Nature. two:10.1038 / d41586-021-01986-w. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01986-w 2021/8/13Browse. 
  54. ^ Li, Baisheng et al. (23 July 2021). “Viral infection and transmission in a large, well-traced outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant” (English). medRxiv: 2021.07.07.21260122. two:10.1101/2021.07.07.21260122. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.07.21260122v2 2021/8/13Browse.. 
  55. ^ Subbaraman, Nidhi (2021-08-12). “How do vaccinated people spread Delta? What the science says”. Nature 596 (7872): 327–328. bibcode2021Natur.596..327S. two:10.1038 / d41586-021-02187-1. PMID 34385613. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-02187-1. 
  56. ^ Dey, Sushmi. “Covid second wave in India: Percentage of young infected in second wave same, but more serious” (English). The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/covid-19-percentage-of-young-infected-in-second-wave-same-but-more-serious/articleshow/82153956.cms 2021/4/27Browse. 

Related item

外部 リンク

Conventional stock


Back to Top