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😷 | Establishing a new medical facility for the new Corona Facility for the elderly in need of long-term care Osaka City


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New medical facility for the new Corona installed Osaka City, a facility for the elderly in need of long-term care

 
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The maximum number of people that can be accepted is 40, and doctors and nurses are stationed there. If necessary, a physiotherapist can be assigned to receive corona treatment along with long-term care and rehabilitation.
 

Osaka Prefecture will set up a temporary medical facility for the new Corona for the elderly in need of long-term care.Established in Suminoe-ku, Osaka ... → Continue reading

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nurse

nurse(nurse,English: nurse) IsVictim OfNurseAnd medical treatmentTake care, who work as medical assistants for doctors,Comedy staffcertain statutoryQualifications/LicensesWho has[1][Annotation 1]..PatientsHealthcareFocus on theirHealthand生活 の 質Engaged in duties that can maintain or restore.The nursePatient care approachAnd its practical scope (Scope of practice,Training systemCan be distinguished from doctors in terms ofhealth care worker.

Various nursesDepartmentThe most common component in most medical environments is the nurse.[2][3]..However, there is also evidence that there is a shortage of qualified nurses in each country.[4]..Nurses generally provide nursing care within the scope of the doctor's instructions, and this traditional role has become the general image of nurses as nursing providers.However, overseasNurse PractitionerIs also allowed to independently perform a certain level of diagnosis and treatment, etc.[5]..Since the end of the war, nursing education has diversified towards advanced and professional qualifications, and many traditional regulations and roles as nursing providers are changing.[6][7].

Nurses focused on treating illness to improve quality of life (for the victim) in collaboration with doctors, therapists, patients and their families, and other colleagues.Nursing planTo create.In the United States and the United Kingdom, senior nurses such as nurse practitioners can diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and therapies (depending on state regulations).Nurses may also assist in coordinating patient care performed by fellow medical teams with multiple disciplines, such as therapists, clinicians, and dietitians.Nursing provides nursing care in an interdependent manner with doctors and provides care as a nursing specialist.

History

Before the 18th century

Nursing history researchers are divided over whether or not ancient care for the sick and injured is nursing care.[8]..For example, in the 5th century BCHippocratic Complete WorksHas a description of good care and observation of the patient by an attendant, who may be considered early nurses.[9]..Indian medical book around 600 BC "Sushruta Samhita"Various parts of the body, including the skin, cannot be explained accurately without familiarity with anatomy, so those who want to acquire a complete knowledge of anatomy should procure the body." By dissecting and dissecting, various parts should be carefully observed and examined. "

Before the foundation of modern nursing, nuns, monks, etc.MonkWas providing care similar to nursing[10]..Christianity[11]Besides islam[12] And Buddhism[13]There is such an example in the tradition of. "Letter to the Romans』Spelled in Chapter 16 (Phoebe (biblical figure)Is described as the "first visiting nurse" in many sources[14][15]..These traditions are of modern nursingEthosIt has influenced the development of the country, and traces of religious roots still remain in many countries.In the UK, for example, the former boss nurse is sometimes referred to by the historical title of "sister."[16].

16th centuryReformationIn the period,ProtestantReformers closed the monastery, hundreds of municipalities in ScandinaviahospiceTook over the operation.The nun, who played the role of a nurse, was told to receive a pension, get married and stay at home.[17]..With the removal of traditional caretakers rooted in the Roman Catholic Church, nursing was given to inexperienced people, and Western nurses were on the verge of a major stagnation of about 200 years.[18].

19st century

Crimean WarSometimesElena Pavlovna (Grand Duke of Russia)Called on women to join the Holy Cross (Krestodvizhenskaya obshchina) for annual service in a military hospital. A first group of 28 female members headed to Crimea in early November 1854.[20]

Florence NightingaleBox'sCrimean WarEstablished the foundation of vocational nursing through[21]..Her "Notes on Nursing (1859)" has become popular.The Nightingale model of vocational education is connected to continuously operated hospitals and medical schoolsFirst nursing schoolIt was founded and became widespread in Europe and North America after 1870.[22]..Nightingale was also a pioneer in leveraging statistical data.[23].

Nightingale's recommendations served on the same front lines of the Crimean WarMary seacole(Jamaican-born "female doctor" and nurse)[24]It was built on the results of.Seacol is to heal injured soldiers and sick people in 19th century Crimea, Central America and Jamaica.healthTo practiceHerbsWas used.Her ancestors are 18th century Jamaican colonies (Colony of JamaicaHas been a huge success as a psychic healer, including Seacor's mother, Grace Donne, the mistress and doctor of the wealthiest Jamaican colonial landowner Simon Taylor.[25].

Other important nurses in professional development are:

  • It is,ShropshireHe was the first orthopedic nurse from the country and made a significant contribution to the opening of the state's orthopedic hospital.
  • Was in 1865LiverpoolEstablished a nurse training system at the clinic.
  • Linda RichardsIs of high quality in the US and JapanNursing schoolThe person who founded the company and was the first officially trained nurse in the United States.
  • Clara BartonAre pioneering American teachers, patent clerk, nurses, humanitarians, andAmerican Red CrossFounder of.
  • HolyMarianne CopeIs a nun of St. Francis who opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, and her cleanliness standards influenced the development of the modern hospital system in the United States.[26].

1863 yearsRed Cross International CommitteeIt came to appear after the foundationRed CrossThe mark provided nurses with the opportunity to hire and professionalize (Florence Nightingale initially opposed this).[27].. ,,Franciscan Missionaries of MariaCatholic ordination, such as, built a hospital and provided nursing service during this period.[Source required]..Then, in 1836, the deaconess movement of modern churches began in Germany.[28]..In Europe, less than half a century later, there were more than 5000 women's charitable service corps in the church.[29].

Formal use of nurses in the modern army began in the late 19th century.First Boer War, Egypt Campaign (1882)[30],Sudan Campaign(1883)[31]It has been confirmed that nurses have been assigned to the battlefield.

20st century

Hospital-based training began in the early 1900s and emphasized work experience.Nightingale style schools are beginning to disappear.Hospitals and doctors regarded nursing women, or nurses, as a free or cheap source of labor.Exploitation of nurses by employers, doctors and educators was not uncommon at the time[32].

Many nurses are assigned to the battlefieldWorld War IIt has been confirmed inSecond World WarDuring the period, he moved to a profession.British nurses in Army nursing services existed as part of every overseas campaign[33]..More nurses than any other profession volunteered to serve in the U.S. Army and Navy[34][35]..The Nazi army had over 40,000 own Brown Nurses[36].. More than 20 German Red Cross nurses blame heroes in the warIron crossWas honored[37].

During this period in universities and graduate schoolsNursing degreeDevelopment was seen.Advances in nursing research and demands on organizations and organizations have led to the formation of a wide variety of specialized institutions and journals.Raising awareness of nursing as a clear discipline is for practiceBasic theoryThere is also a need to define[38].

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, nursing was considered a female profession, just as doctors were a male profession. In the latter half of the 20th century, as the momentum for equal opportunity for men and women in the workplace increased, public nursing became available.Gender neutralHowever, the proportion of male nurses is actually much lower than the proportion of female doctors in the early 21st century.[39][40].

As a profession

Nursing practice authority demonstrates the mechanism of occupational rights and responsibilities as well as public accountabilitySocial contractIs based on.In almost every country, nursing practices are defined and governed by law, and the means of becoming a nurse are regulated at the national (or municipal) level.

The purpose of international nursing institutions is to maintain qualifications, ethical standards, standards and abilities for the profession, to continue education and to ensure quality care for all.[41]..The educational process for becoming a vocational nurse varies widely from country to country, all of which involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice as well as discipline of clinical skills.

Nurses provide comprehensive care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds with health and medical conditions, based on each individual's physical, emotional, psychological and other needs.Nurses combine natural sciences, social sciences, nursing theory, and science and technology in caring for these individuals.

In working in the nursing profession, every nurse has at least one qualification according to the scope of practice and education.For example in JapanRegular nurse and associate nurseHowever, there are differences in the care practice conditions and licenses between the two.While regular nurses provide various types of care "under the instructions of doctors", associate nurses provide the same care "under the instructions of doctors or nurses" (there is a difference in the scope of work). No, but I can't do nursing work at my own discretion)[42]..Regarding qualifications, nursesMinister of Health, Labour and WelfareLicensed from, but the associate nursePrefectural governorWill be licensed from[42].

This difference is also reflected in the qualification requirements of both parties and the time required to complete the course.To work as a nurse in Japan, after graduating from high school, receive "university or nursing education for 3 years or more" and become a nurse.National examanationMust pass.In pre-license education, in order to cultivate the abilities required in the practice of nurses, such as the ability to understand a wide range of human beings, the ability to systematically practice nursing based on grounds, and the ability to collaborate and collaborate with other occupations. Education is carried out[43]..On the other hand, the final educational background to become an associate nurse is a junior high school graduation or higher, and from there, after receiving "nursing education for two years or more",MunicipalitiesMust pass the Associate Nurse Examination conducted by (prefecture)[42].

Nurses are not doctors' assistants.Nurses often take care of patients or assist other nurses, as is the case in certain situations.[44]..Nurses also help doctors perform diagnostic tests.Nurses almost always work with other nurses.Nurses assist doctors in emergency and trauma treatment when requested[45].

Gender issues

Despite the Equal Employment Opportunity Act, nurses continue to be a women-centered profession in many countries.WHOAccording to the 2020 State of the World's Nursing, about 90% of the nursing workforce is women.[46]..For example, in Canada and the United States, the male-female ratio of nurses is about 1:19.[47][48], This ratio is found all over the world.A notable exception is the French-speaking African countries. (Francophone Africa[Annotation 2]So there are more male nurses than female nurses[49]..In Europe, more than 20% of nurses are male in countries such as Spain, Portugal, Czech Republic and Italy.[49]..The number of male nurses in the United States doubled between 1980 and 2000.[50]In Japan, the number of male nurses has doubled in the last 2008 years from 2018 to 10 (still, the male-female ratio is 7.8% for males and 92.8% for females).[51]..Female nurses are still common, but there is data that on average male nurses receive more salaries.[52].. As a professional association of male nurses in Japan in 2014National Male Nurses AssociationWas established.

Minority problem

According to statistics, 19.2% of nurses in the United StatesMinorityThe remaining 80.8% of people with an (ethnic minority) backgroundWhiteEspecially occupied by women[53]..Low racial diversity in the field of nursing can lead to difficulties in treating patients of diverse races.


Name lending problem

In particular, in welfare facilities where nurses do not always need to perform nursing work, there are a certain number of so-called "name lending" in which nurses are assigned only on documents, and there are quite a few cases of administrative sanctions.In addition, there are cases in which nurses rely on name lending to comply with the standards for setting up nurses even in medical / nursing facilities where nurses must always perform nursing work.

Scope of activity

Support for activities of daily living

Nurses manage and coordinate nursing careActivities of daily livingSupport (ADL).Often such care is providedAssistanceEntrusted to those who are involved in[Annotation 3]..This is in bedDecreased activity toleranceIt also includes assisting the patient's movement, such as the patient's transfer movement.

Medicine

MedicinePrescribing authority varies by country or region.In many parts of the United States, doctors andNurse PractitionerDrugs prescribed by specialists with prescribing authority such as (Senior Nursing, NP)Registered nurseIt is managed by (Registered Nurse, RP).in Japan,pharmacistThe nurse dispenses the drug based on the doctor's prescription, so the nurse asks the patient if any side effects have occurred after taking the drug.

Nurses are responsible for assessing patients throughout care, including before and after drug administration, and drug adjustments are often made through collaborative efforts between prescribers and nurses.In the United States, nurses, regardless of prescription, are responsible for the medications they administer, and it is legally expected that nurses will be aware of and report any mistakes in their prescriptions.It also has the right to refuse medications that may be harmful to the patient.[55]..In Japan, nurses are allowed to take medication based on doctor's instructions such as instruction books, but it is legally expected that the pharmacist who dispenses will refer to the doctor in advance for any doubts about the prescription. ing[56]..It is also possible to adjust the drug dose according to the patient's condition, if instructed by a doctor in advance.[57], The nurse cannot change the prescription by himself without the instruction of the doctor.There are additional professionally trained nurses in the UK who can prescribe any drug from their scope of practice.[58].

Patient education

The patient's family is often involved in explaining the condition.Appropriate explanation of medical conditions to patients and their families (patient education) leads to reduction of complications and hospital visits.[59].

Specialized fields and practical situations

Nurses are the most diverse of all medical professions.Nurses practice in a wide range of situations, but are generally divided according to the demand for nursing.

The main fields are as follows.

  • Community and public places (in JapanPublic health nurseDo)
  • Lifelong family and individuals
  • Adult gerontology
  • Pediatrics
  • Newborn
  • Gynecology and gender related
  • mental health
  • Informatics (eHealth
  • Acute hospital
  • Outpatient settings (clinics, emergency nursing sites, camps, etc.)
  • Health room of miscellaneous schools

In addition, cardiovascular nursing, orthopedic nursing,Palliative care,PerioperativeNursing, obstetrics nursing, cancer nursing[60], Nursing informatics, remote nursing, radiation,Emergency nursingThere are also specialized fields such as.

Nurses practice in a wide range of situations such as hospitals, private homes, schools, and pharmaceutical companies.Nurses work in corporate health care rooms, clinics, doctor offices, long-term care facilities, etc.[61]..Others work on cruise ships and military service.Nurses are from each company[Annotation 4],[Annotation 5]He works in the department and supports a variety of clinical and administrative issues.InsideLawyerThose who also serve as a lawyer or work with a lawyer (Legal nurse consultantHe also reviews patient records to ensure that adequate care has been provided and to testify in court.Nurses can also work on a temporary basis, including shifting in various settings without signing a contract, "Nurse day labor dispatch"[64]Sometimes known as.Some nurses work as researchers in university laboratories and research institutes.Others have delved into the world of informatics, consulting on computerized chart programs and other software creation.Some nurses publish articles and books as writers and provide important reference materials.[65](As a nurse and writer in JapanYoko FujiokaIt has been known)[66].

Occupational danger

Internationally, the shortage of nurses is serious[67]..One of the reasons is said to be the work environment in which nurses practice.According to the American Nurses Association, 30% of nurses describe their work environment as a "poor working environment" and more than 40% of nurses are forced to work for more than 12 hours.[68]..Some countries and states have enacted laws on the ratio of acceptable nurses to patients. For example, Japan has a staffing standard of "30 patients: 1 nurse and XNUMX associate nurse" in the outpatient department of a general hospital. Is set[69].

Nurses are expensive due to the fast paced and unpredictable nature of medical careOccupational stressAre at risk of injury or illness, including.Nursing is a particularly stressful profession, and nurses constantly recognize stress as a major work-related concern.Has the highest level of occupational stress compared to other occupations[Source required]..This stress was associated with environmental, psychosocial stressors, nursing requirements (including new skills that must be learned), and nursing.Emotional laborCaused by manual labor, shift work, and high workload.This stress isSleeping disorder,depressionIt exposes nurses to both short-term and long-term health risk, including death, mental illness, and stress-related illnesses (including common illnesses).The nurseSecondary injuryAnd there is a risk of moral distress, which can worsen mental health.Also, of the nurseBurnout syndrome(40%) and (43.2%) are also high rates.In addition to the risk of illness, both of these areMedical errorAlso increases the risk of providing suboptimal care[70].

Nurses also have violence in the workplace andharassmentAre also exposed to the risk of[71]..Violence is usually carried out by non-employees (eg, patients and their families), while harassment is typically carried out by other hospital staff.It was reported in 57 that 17% of American nurses were threatened at work and 2011% were physically assaulted.[70].Japan Nursing AssociationIn a 2017 survey, 52.8% of nurses said they had been violent or harassed at work or at a place of visit, revealing that physical attacks from patients are particularly serious.[72].

prevention

There are many interventions that can reduce the occupational risk of nursing, and some are targeted at both individuals and organizations.For individual-focused interventionsStress managementThere are programs, etc., which can be adjusted to suit the individual.Stress management programs can reduce anxiety, sleep disorders, and signs of stress.Organized interventions focus on reducing stressful phases in the work environment by defining stressful phases and creating solutions to them.The combined use of organized and individual interventions is most effective in reducing stress for nurses.[70]..Powered suits (to reduce the physical burden of nursing) are used in some medical institutions and long-term care facilities in Japan.[73]..Support suits for limbs and lumbar spine are also being tried[74][75].

The world

Americas

The United States of America

In the United States, the scope of practice is determined by the state or region that authorizes the nurse.Each state has its own laws, rules and regulations that govern nursing care.The development of these rules and regulations is usually delegated to the Nursing Commission, which routinely manages these rules, performs licensing procedures for nurses and nursing assistants, and makes decisions on nursing issues.In some states, the term "nurse"Registered nurseAnd qualified associate nurses (Licensed practical nurseIt is used only for the combination of.

In hospitals, registered nurses are often qualified associate nurses and non-nationally qualified caregivers. (Unlicensed assistive personnelDelegate duties to.

Registered nurses are not limited to hiring as clinical nurses.In addition to doctors, they are hired by lawyers, insurance companies, government agencies, local agencies, public health agencies, private companies, school districts, outpatient surgical clinics, etc.Some registered nurses are self-employed, independent consultants, while others work for major manufacturers and chemical companies.Clinical trial coordinator(Research nurse)[76]Conducts and supports research and assessments (results and processes) in many areas, including biology, psychology, human development, and medical systems.

Many employers offer flexible work schedules, childcare benefits, education benefits and bonuses.Approximately 21% of registered nurses are eligible for membership or union contracts[77].

Nursing is the largest medical profession in the country. In 2017, there were over 400 million registered nurses and over 92 qualified associate nurses nationwide.[78]..Of the licensed registered nurses, 260 million (84.8%) are engaged in nursing.Nurses make up the largest single staff of hospital staff and are the leading providers of hospital patient care, providing most of the country's long-term care.The main course for becoming a vocational nurse is a four-year Bachelor of Science (BSN) in Nursing in the light of technical level practice.Registered Nurses Ready Through BSN Program, 4 Years of NursingJunior collegeNo. or a three-year hospital training program in the hospitalDiplomaTo receive.Everyone takes a qualification exam in the same state where they got these exam requirements, and if they pass, they get a nursing qualification.

Shortage of manpower
Registered nurses are the largest group of health care workers in the United States, with approximately 2011 million employees employed in 270.[79]..Still, the number of new graduates and trained nurses abroad is reported to be insufficient to meet the demand for registered nurses.[By whom?]..There is data to support the view that nursing deficiencies are voluntary deficiencies.[80]In other words, nurses leave nursing at their own will. It is estimated that in 2006, about 180 million nurses chose not to work as nurses.

Reported that about 2011 medical jobs were created in 29.7.These would have been mostly filled by nurses, as registered nurses make up the majority of health care workers.The agency also states that by 2020, 120 million nurse jobs will be created due to the increase and replacement of the workforce.[81]

Continuing education
As medical knowledge grows steadily, nurses can stay on the front lines of medical care through ongoing education.An ongoing education program allows nurses to provide patients with the best possible care, advance their nursing careers, and maintain the requirements of the nursing committee.American Nurses Association (American Nurses AssociationAnd the US Nursing Qualification Center (American Nurses Credentialing CenterHowever, we strive to ensure that nurses receive quality and ongoing education.Ongoing training is coordinated to provide reinforcement learning for nurses of all levels.Many states also provide for ongoing nursing education (CNE).Nursing License Authorization Committees, which require a CNE as a condition for initial licenses and license renewals, accept educational courses offered by authorization committees in other states and the U.S. Nursing Qualification Center (and its designated organization).[82]..National Healthcare Institute[83]Has created a list to assist nurses in determining CNE credit time requirements.This list is not comprehensive, but provides details on how to contact the Nursing License Certification Board directly.[84][85].
Qualification
Occupational nursing organizations conduct volunteer-based accreditation exams through accreditation committees to demonstrate their clinical abilities in specific disciplines.Upon completion of the prerequisite work experience, the registered nurse qualifies for the exam, and passing it grants the registered nurse permission to use the professional title after her name.For example, after passing a professional exam by the American Association of Emergency Nurses, nurses are allowed to use the "CCRN" initials after their name.Other organizations / associations have similar procedures.
The Nursing Qualification Center, a qualification branch of the American Nursing Association, is the country's largest nursing qualification organization and manages more than 30 specialized exams.[86].
刑 務 所
TorturedDue to the large number of nurses in the United States, nurses work in criminal detention centers so that prisoners can receive appropriate health care such as mental health therapy for prisoners with psychological problems. (Correctional nursingNeed a lot.

Canada

History
Canadian Nursing in 1639QuebecDating back to the Order of Saint Augustine[87]..The nuns there were trying to hold a mission to give alms to the patient's spiritual and physical needs.The establishment of this mission created the first nursing apprenticeship training system in North America. In the 19th century, several Nursing Catholic Orders sought to spread their message throughout Canada.Most of the nurses were women, and they only occasionally saw a doctor. Hospital nursing and medical services were improved and expanded towards the end of the 19th century.Most of this is due to the influence of Nightingale. In 1874, the first official nursing training program was launched at the General and Marine Hospital in Ontario.[87].
Education
All Canadian Nurses and Nursing Candidates Can Continue Education Until Bachelor's Degree (Canadian Nurses AssociationHighly recommended by.This degree may have a great prognosis for the patient[Source required].Yukon TerritoryAll states and regions in Canada, with the exception of Quebec, require all nurses to have a bachelor's degree.[87]..The time normally required to obtain this degree is four years.However, some universities offer a condensed two-year program.[87].
Nursing professional qualifications are available in 22 areas of practice through the Canadian Association of Nursing.Nursing professional qualifications are generally practice, experience and exams (of the particular medical or surgical department in which nursing care is provided).CompetencyMust pass).Certifications for care for the elderly are provided not only to registered nurses and nurse practitioners, but also to qualified associate nurses.

Latin America

Latin American Nursing has three stages of training[88]..For nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean,Universal healthcarePrimary health carePrinciples and values ​​are included.These principles underpin the evolution of critical and complex thinking, problem-solving, evidence-based clinical decision-making, and lifelong learning.[89]..The Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are based on the right of each person to enjoy the highest standards of health, through nursing interventions, health outcomes and basic health without people suffering financial difficulties. Proposing a Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage to improve the goals of the health care system[90].

Europe

European Union

European UnionIn the (EU), the profession of nurses is regulated.Occupations are said to be regulated (within the EU) when certain professional qualifications are required for the process or activity to get a job.The regulated vocational database includes nursing staff in EU member states.[91]In addition,European Economic AreaNursing positions in (EEA) countries and Switzerland are also included.

United Kingdom

To legally engage as a registered nurse in the UK, practitioners must be a Nursing and Midwifery Council (Nursing and Midwifery CouncilMust currently have a valid registration.The title of Registered Nurse will only be granted if this registration is made.This protected title is listed in the 1997 Act (Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors Act).[92].. Since April 2016, UK nurses have been able to renew their qualifications every three years by submitting evidence of active practice to continue nursing.[93][94].

Level 1 and Level 2
First-level nurses make up the majority of UK registered nurses. Training of Second-level nurses is no longer in place.But they can still be legally engaged in the UK as registered nurses.Many are now switching courses to retire or become first-class nurses.Although they have the right to call themselves registered nurses because they are registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council, most people call themselves Enrolled Nurses.
Senior position
  • Nurse Practitioner-Most of these nurses have a minimum master's degree and hopeGraduate school training certificateIs getting.They are often doctorsPhysician AssistantPlays the same role as.They can also prescribe drugs as independent prescribing or prescribing assistants (although there are still legislation), unlike physical assistants.Most nurse practitioners have referral and admission to the hospital's specialty.They are generallyPrimary care(So-calledGeneral medical department), I work in the emergency department and pediatrics, but the number of cases seen in other departments is increasing.The title "Nurse Practitioner" is legally protected in the United Kingdom.
  • Specialist community public health nurse-traditional (district nurses , (health visitorThese people oversee research and publishing activities.
  • Lecturer Practitioner[Annotation 6] ――This nurseNational Health ServiceWork at both the (NHS) and the university.They usually work 2-3 days a week with each other.Universities train pre-registered nursing students, and specialized courses often teach registered nurses.
  • Lecturer-This nurse is not hired by the National Health Service.Instead, they work all day in college, doing both education and research.
Nursing education
To become a registered nurse, you must complete a program accredited by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).Currently, this includes completing a degree that can be obtained from a range of courses offered by the university, resulting in both a degree conferral as a first-class registered nurse and vocational registration in the specialized course of choice.[Annotation 7]..These courses are divided into half for theoretical learning and half for practical exercises at the university.
The course is 3 or 4 years.The first year is commonly known as the Common Basic Program (CFP) and teaches all nurses the basic knowledge and skills needed. Technologies included in the CFP include communication conversations, observations, medications, and personalized care for patients.The rest of the program is specific training in the nursing department of the student's choice (pediatric nursing, mental health nursing, learning disability nursing).
As of 2013, the Nursing and Midwifery Council requires all qualified new graduate nurses in the UK to have a bachelor's degree.[97]. However,DiplomaNurses who hold or hold a nursing certificate (although it is possible to take a partial university lecture and obtain a sufficient degree to supplement) can still legally engage in the UK.
After registration
It is expected that all qualified nurses will continue to update their skills and knowledge since the time of initial registration.The Nursing and Midwifery Council offers a minimum of 3 hours of education every three years as part of post-registration education and practice requirements (PREP).[98]..In addition, it is an opportunity for many nurses to acquire further clinical skills after obtaining the qualification.Intubation,Blood sampling,Intravenous injectionDrug therapy, for menUrethral catheterEtc. are the most common.Various other things (Secondary life supportEtc.), but this is experienced by some nurses.
Many diploma-qualified nurses choose to increase their degree qualifications by studying once.Many nurses choose this option over the first degree because they have more opportunities to study in their area of ​​expertise as part of this buildup.
To become a specialist nurse (nurse consultant, nurse practitioner, etc.) or a nursing teacher, some nurses also experience training beyond a bachelor's degree.Master's programs exist on a variety of medical topics, and some nurses choose to study for a PhD or other higher degree.District nurses and traveling nurses are also considered specialist nurses and must undergo specialized training to become this.
All newly qualified district nurses and traveling health nurses are trained to prescribe from Nurse Prescribers' Formulary.Many of these nurses were also trained in independent prescribing and prescribing assistance, which (as of May 2006) gave themBritish National Medicines CollectionAllows the prescription of almost any drug in.

Asia / Oceania

Japan

If you go back to the history of nursing in Japan,Prince Shotoku ShitennojiIt is said that Saida-in was a welfare facility for the sick and the elderly, and the pharmacy and medical treatment hospital were pharmacies and hospitals, among the "four-hospital system" adopted when the company was built (593).[99]..Kamakura period monkRyochu(1199-1287)'s "Nursing Care" describes in detail how to care for the sick.[100]..However, even in the Edo era, it was common for doctors to visit sick people at home to prescribe medicines, and there were no hospital facilities where patients were hospitalized and treated. It was about to do (1722)Koishikawa YojoshoIs an exception)[101]..Transition from the end of the Edo period to the Meiji eraBoshin WarTemporary wartime hospitals were set up in various places in Japan, and a British doctor who worked at the Yokohama Military Hospital in 1868.William willisHowever, it is said that Japan's first professional nurse hired a woman to care for the sick and injured.[102].

Hakuaisha in 1877 (laterJapanese Red Cross Society) Was established in 1885, the first nursing education institution in Japan, Volunteer Kyoritsu Tokyo Hospital Nurse Education Center (currently:Jikei Nursing College) Was launched.After that, nurse training institutions were established in various places, but legislation was still behind.Regarding uniform laws and regulations nationwide, the "Midwifery Regulations" were first promulgated in 1899.MidwifeLicense system has been established[103]..A similar qualification system was introduced for nurses when the "Nurse Regulations" were promulgated in 1915.[104], The legal system for this profession was established in the Taisho era.

Entering the Showa eraSecond World WarAt the end of the war, the Japanese government decided to improve the bad hygiene and poor medical standards since the war.GhqUnder the guidance, "" to regulate the duties and licenses of nurses involved in patient care or prevention of illness.Health Woman Midwifery Nurse LawWas enacted in 1948[105]..Since then, this law has been revised many times to regulate nursing duties and systems in line with modern medical care.[106], For example in 2001Gender equality societyToward the realization, the name was unified to "nurse" for both men and women, and the law was changed to "Public Health Nurse, Midwifery and Nurse Law".

Efforts to improve the nursing profession are ongoing in Japan, and in 1992Law Concerning Promotion of Securing Human Resources such as NursesWas established.The law created a new university program for nurse training, which led to a rapid shift in educational settings from training centers to universities and graduate schools.The program has improved the education level of Japanese nurses and possesses a high level of expertise and skills.Professional nurse(1996)Certified nurse(1997) etc. are also born[107].

Types
in Japan,nurse,Assistant nurse,Public health nurse,Midwife4 types are certified as nursing staff.
  • Nurse-Passed the national qualification nurse examMinister of Health, Labour and WelfareA person who has been issued a driver's license.It is equivalent to a Western registered nurse and is also called a "regular nurse".To become a nurse, it is necessary to pass the national examination for nurses after receiving education for 4 years at university or 3 years or more at a training school.[108].. As of 2018, about 121 million people are working[109].
  • Associate Nurse-Passed the Associate Nurse ExamPrefectural governorA person who has been issued a driver's license.Although the patient is cared for in the same way as a nurse, he / she cannot perform nursing at his / her own discretion and will perform the work "under the instructions of a doctor / dentist or nurse".It is possible to obtain qualifications in two years, which is shorter than that of nurses, and as of the end of 2, about 2016 people are working.[42].
  • Public health nurse - Health centerA person who works in a company, school, or hospital, and whose main business is health counseling and health guidance, focusing on "prevention" and "measures" to support the health of the entire community.In order to work as a public health nurse, you need to obtain two national qualifications, a public health nurse license as well as a nurse license.[110].. As of 2018, about 5.3 million people are working[109].
  • Midwife- 妊娠After giving birth, after giving birthNewbornA person whose livelihood is to carry out a series of management and guidance activities to protect the health of mother and child up to care.normalchildbirthIf so, it is also a feature that midwifery assistance can be provided at your own discretion without the need for doctor's instructions.[111]..To become a midwife, you need to obtain a midwifery license as well as a nurse's license, and in Japan, the acquisition of midwifery qualifications is restricted to women only (Article 3 of the Nursing Care Act).[112].. As of 2018, about 3.6 million people are working[109]
Education
Regarding the nurse training institution, the Japanese Red Cross Society announced in 1886 Hakuaisha Hospital (later the Japanese Red Cross Hospital, now:Japanese Red Cross Medical Center) Was established and training began in 1890. The Japanese Red Cross has been a pioneer in training nurses since the Meiji era, such as compiling a nurse training textbook in 1895.[113]..However, most of the nursing education at that time was conducted in "miscellaneous schools", and the first nursing education in Japan was in 1952.Kochi Women's UniversityIt was when the Nursing Department was established in[114].. In 1956Bachelor (Nursing)However, the number of nursing colleges did not increase so much, and as of 1991, there were only 11 schools.The following year, in 92, "Law Concerning Promotion of Securing Human Resources such as NursesWas enacted, and assistance was provided to public universities and junior colleges that set up nurse training facilities, so there was a rush to establish new public nursing universities, and as of 2019, the number of nursing universities Increased sharply to over 250 schools[114]..Now even moreGraduate SchoolsBy advancing to the Department of Nursing inMaster (Nursing),Ph.D. (Nursing)It is also possible to aim for a bachelor's degree[115].
In Japan, there are four main ways for an individual to become a nurse. 4) After graduating from high school, go on to a 1-year nursing college, 4) After graduating from high school, go on to a 2-year nursing junior college, 3) After graduating from high school, go on to a training institution such as a 3-year nursing vocational school, 3) Graduate from junior high school Later, I went on to a nurse training school for 4 years.[108]..After receiving the necessary education in any of these, it is necessary to pass the national examination for nurses.To become a midwife or a public health nurse, you must be educated for at least one year and pass the national midwifery exam and national exam for public health nurses, as well as the national exam for nurses.[108]..Those who go on to a nursing college have a slight advantage over those who go on to other training schools, and they also qualify for the exam to become a public health nurse or midwife along with the qualifications to become a nurse. You can (if you have taken the prescribed courses at the university).Nursing colleges are the best route for anyone who wants to become a nurse in Japan[87]..It offers a wider range of general liberal arts courses and can also provide stricter educational styles of nursing.These nursing colleges train students to make important and educated decisions when attending clinical training.In addition, there are conditions such as "a person who has been engaged in work for 5 years or more as a nurse (a public health nurse or a midwife is also acceptable)" for a nursing teacher.[116]Securing human resources on the side of teaching students is also one of the educational issues.
Students attending nursing junior colleges and nursing training schools get the same degree as students who graduate from nursing college, but their educational backgrounds are not the same.Classes offered at nursing junior colleges and training schools focus on more practical aspects of nursing.These institutions do not offer so many general liberal arts classes, so students attending the school concentrate solely on nursing education while still in school.Students attending nursing junior colleges and training schools also have the opportunity to become midwives and public health nurses.Junior college graduates will take another year of junior college majors, and training school graduates will be eligible to take national exams for midwives and public health nurses by receiving another year of education at a training school in their desired field. Can be obtained[108]..Japanese nurses do not need to renew their licenses.If they pass the exam, they will be issued a whole life license.[87].
Current status
Like the United States, Japan needs more nurses.The country is the driving force behind this demand.AgingAnd there is a fact that more medical care is needed for the people.Law Concerning Promotion of Securing Human Resources such as NursesThe number of working nurses has steadily increased from 90 in 2008 to 87.7 million in 2018, partly due to the rapid increase in the number of nursing colleges due to efforts since the 121s.[109]..In addition, the law is improving the treatment of nurses working in hospitals, etc. in 2019.Laws related to work style reformThen, the upper limit regulation of overtime work was also set.[117]..In terms of wages, the average annual salary of Japanese nurses is 450-500 million yen, which is relatively high for a profession with many women (including night shift allowance).[118]..However, doctors earn about twice as much as nurses.[119]..According to the opinion poll of the Cabinet Office, the image of nurses is generally good, with more than half of them saying "gentle / warm (64.0%), kind (61.5%), reliable (50.4%)".[120]..Regarding nursing work, negative answers such as "work with irregular life due to night shifts (62.3%), busy and tight work (58.5%)" were conspicuous, but the highest answer was "precious work related to human life". It ’s a positive thing, “work (72.5%)”.[120]..Nursing3KAlthough it may be ridiculed as a working environment, a small number of respondents answered "dangerous work (16.4%), dirty work (14.4%)".[120].
Japan Nursing AssociationThere are organizations like (JNA) that unite Japanese nurses. JNAProfessional organizationIt is not a labor union. A nationwide organization that works in collaboration with 47 prefectures' nursing associations (corporate members), and is making efforts to develop nursing care by solving problems surrounding nursing that cannot be solved by individual power alone.[121].. According to the JNA website, we are developing various activities under the three basic principles of "improving the quality of nursing," "creating an environment where nurses can continue working," and "development and development of the nursing field."[121]..There are other organizations that work by classifying nurses according to their specialty, such as emergency nursing and disaster nursing.One of the oldest nursing unions was founded in 1957Japan Medical Labor Union Federation(Medical Labor Union)[122]..It is a union that includes not only nurses but also doctors.This organization was involved in the enactment of the "Act on Promotion of Securing Human Resources for Nurses, etc."[87].

India

Nursing education in India is governed by the Indian Nursing Council, a central institution, whose norms are enforced through the Nursing Councils of each state.India's first official nursing educationMadras Medical CollegeIt was carried out in. In 1947, a law was enacted to establish the Indian Nursing Council, which included nurses and midwives. (health visitorEstablished a unified standard of training to become.Nursing professionBritish colonial eraWas monopolized by women.HoweverMadras PresidencyThen, the man was actively engaged in the nursing profession.

Israel

Israeli nurses are responsible for hospital care, patient education, injury care, prenatal monitoring, midwifery, infant care and much more.

Nursing in Israeli culture is said to have started with two Jewish midwives (Shifra and Puah) who helped Jewish women give birth in ancient Egypt.

Modern nursing was founded through a nurse sent to Israel by an organization called Hadassah and a nursing school founded by Henrietta Zold in 1918.Meanwhile, Britain stipulated midwifery in Israel, but the regulatory decree did not mention nurses.

Today, nurses and midwives are stipulated through the Israeli Ministry of Health.

Australia

CatholicReligious institutions influenced the development of nursing in Australia and established many hospitals in Australia. The Sisters of Mercy arrived in 1838 (Sisters of Charity of AustraliaFounded a free hospital for the poor (St Vincent's Hospital) in 1857 in Sydney.Other merciful nuns and the Nun Relief for the Elderly have established hospitals, hospice, research institutes, and geriatric care facilities throughout Australia.[123][124].

A census in the 1800s found hundreds of nurses working in Western Australia during the colonial era, which took care of the debilitated.AboriginalWas included in the female servant[125].

The state nursing qualification body merged domestically in 2011 under the federal agency AHPRA (Australia's Healthcare Worker Registration Authority).[126]..Some nursing licenses are still valid and recognized throughout the country.

  • Associate nurses may begin handling oral medications as long as they have the specific skills included in the national certification, but applications vary by institution.
  • Registered nurses have a college degree (associate nurses can be promoted to registered nurse status and earn credits in previous studies).
  • Nurse practitioners have been able to take office from the master's program at the graduate school and work in private clinics and public hospitals and clinics.
  • Mental health nurses need to complete further training as advanced mental health practitioners to manage referrals under the Mental Health Act.

Australia isTechnology / continuation education(TAFE) Establishes an extensive national curriculum for specialist nurses trained at universities or privately registered training institutions (RTOs).Associate nurses and registered nurses have been identified by the Immigration Department as necessary professions, and registered nurses are always undersupplied, which increases as they go to their specialty.

In 1986, a series of industrial disputes broke out across the country, with 5000 nurses in Victoria for 18 days.strikeIt culminated when I went.The hospital was able to maintain its function by hiring part-time staff from those on strike, but the increased costs resulted in a favorable settlement for nurses.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In Japan, nursesPublic Health Nurse Midwife Nursing LawWith national qualifications based onMinister of Health, Labour and Welfare OflicenseThose who received.Detail isJapanese nurseSee.
  2. ^ In particular,(I.e.,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,カ メ ル ー ン,チャド,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,コ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル,ジブチ,(I.e.,ガボン,(I.e.,モ ー タ ニ ニ,ニ ジ ェ ー ル,Rwanda,セネガル,ト ー ゴCountries such as.
  3. ^ In the United States, UAPs that do not have national qualifications (en: Unlicensed assistive personnel) Is in charge of ADL support.In Japan, private qualification[54]Is equivalent to this (it is easy to be confused, but Japancare workerIs a national qualification).
  4. ^ Activities to win political commitments and support, acceptance from social organizations and institutional support for specific health projects and purposes.[62].
  5. ^ Activities that act as a "patient consultation desk" that protects the rights of patients.Some hospitals have set up a patient advocacy room (patient counseling room), which leads to workplace improvement by communicating the patient's worries, etc., to the relevant departments.[63].
  6. ^ The fixed translation is unknown.It is written in English in the bulletin of Chiba University.[95]..Another "practice education facilitator"Facilitator) Is also called.
  7. ^ There are no national exams to become a nurse in the UK, and you can qualify to register as a nurse with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) after completing the prescribed nursing education.[96].

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physical therapist

physical therapist(Rigakuryohoshi, English: physical therapist or physiotherapist, PT for short) is a national qualification based on the Physical Therapist and Occupational Therapist Law.Rehabilitation teamHealthcare professionals (Co-medicalIt is a member of the staff).Occupational therapist(OT),Speech therapist(ST),OrthoptistWith (CO)リ ハ ビ リ テ ー シ ョ ンOne of what is called a job.

Definition

Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare OflicenseIn response to this, using this name,DoctorUnder the direction of "理学 療法A person whose business is to do.

In this law理学 療法"" Is mainly for the purpose of recovering the basic movement ability of persons with physical disabilities.治療gymnasticsHave them do other exercises andElectricalStimulation,Massage,HeatAdding other physical means. — Physical Therapist and Occupational Therapist Law June 40, 6 Law No. 29 Article 137

Business

Physical therapy as an aid to medical care[1]Is the main business, but in general, the condition requiring long-term care, aging, etc.ACCIDENTFor the purpose of recovery from physical dysfunction caused byTrainingOr let them dostrokePeople with residual sequelae, delayed motor developmentNewborn,Cardiovascular system-Respirator-Internal medicine-Intractable diseaseFor people with physical disabilities such as illness, the purpose is to restore their basic movement ability under the direction of a doctor.Exercise therapy,Physical therapyThe person who makes you do.

Unlike doctors and nurses, physiotherapists are different.Exclusive qualificationTherefore, even if you are not a physiotherapist, you may be able to practice physiotherapy as a business.For example, in the Japanese Society of Musculoskeletal Science (formerly the Japanese Society of Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation), the Japanese Orthopedic Society (from April 23, 4)Public interest group corporation corporation(Musculoskeletal rehabilitation worker) working at a medical institution to which a specialist belongs (nurse,Assistant nurse,Anma Massage Shiatsu,Judo reduction teacherWe will conduct a musculoskeletal rehabilitation therapist certification test for (such as), and if certified, we will be a musculoskeletal rehabilitation therapist (commonly known as a deemed PT) at a facility with established standards under the direction and supervision of a doctor and a physical therapist. , Can be in a position related to some insurance points[2]..He is also regarded as a physical therapist in the exercise therapy function training skill class sponsored by the National Hospital Physical Therapy Association.

Medical field (physical therapy /Occupational therapy-Speech and hearing therapyEspecially in hospitals that focus on treatmentリ ハ ビ リ テ ー シ ョ ンIn rehabilitation in hospitals), he is involved as one of the rehabilitation professions, but in the field of long-term care and care such as athletes, he has a similar qualification as a Judo rehabilitation teacher.Health exercise instructor,Masseur,Athletic trainerVarious occupations are involved, and the occupational area is not always established.

Differences from occupational therapists in Japan

Physical therapists and occupational therapists are professionals and their contents are clearly different, but they are in a relationship that fills each other's shortcomings.

The differences between physical therapists and occupational therapists according to Japan's national qualifications are as follows, but the scope of work differs from country to country because the laws differ from country to country. 

  • The target of physiotherapy is a person who has a physical disability and who mainly recognizes a decrease in basic movement ability, and who is judged by a doctor to be effective in physiotherapy based on medical grounds.
  • Occupational therapy was judged by a doctor to be effective based on medical grounds among those who have physical or mental disabilities and who mainly recognize a decrease in their applied movement ability or social adaptability. person.
  • The means of physiotherapyPhysical therapy,Exercise therapy, Basic movement training.
  • Occupational therapy means are work, activities of daily living training, training in activities of daily living, training in vocational activities, and training in adapting to the living environment.
  • The purpose of physiotherapy is mainly to restore basic movement ability.
  • The purpose of occupational therapy is mainly to restore its applied movement ability or social adaptability.

The applied movements mentioned here are wide-ranging, such as eating movements, toilet movements, bathing movements, changing clothes, cooking, washing, and cleaning.・ Refers to "stand-up / movement".

Number of qualified personnel and organization rate

Super-aging societyProgresses,社会 保障Is an urgent need to train qualified personnel, and a training school is opened.DeregulationWas done.Along with this, the number of training schools has increased rapidly since 12.Due to the abnormal increase, which is also called a turbulence, the number of qualified personnel has increased dramatically in just a few years, and as of 24, it has exceeded 10.[3]ing.

In addition, Professional organizationIsJapanese Physical Therapy AssociationThe membership rate is as high as about 80%, which is the highest among the member organizations of the World Physical Therapy Federation.[4].

Current situation in Japan

With a rehabilitation professionCerebrovascular diseaseSuch asCentral nervous systemDiseases and childrenDevelopmental disorders,Orthopedicsdisease,Respiratory disease,Cardiovascular disease,Intractable diseasesThe importance itself is being widely recognized in a wide range of fields, and it can be said that the increase in "rehabilitation hospitals" nationwide reflects the needs for modern medical care.Japanese Physical Therapy AssociationWith the inauguration of the physiotherapist and the birth of a physiotherapist in the Diet (the 2009 House of Representatives election), we are making progress toward solving the problem, but there are still many issues to be solved, such as the establishment of occupational areas and issues related to social security.

  1. Care preventionActivities in the workplace
    Approximately 1 people are being trained through training for certified physiotherapists for care prevention, which includes preventive projects that divide community support projects for the elderly and care prevention for support 2 and 2,000 (certified).・ With the revision of the specialized physical therapist system, the total number of certified physical therapists for preventive care as of 2013 is 59.[5]).Furthermore, on the other handSpecific medical examination, specific health guidanceWas septumedLifestyle-related diseasesFrom a preventive point of view, especiallyDiabetes mellitusParticipation in exercise therapy is an important issue, and unlike conventional occupations, the position of the work of qualified personnel and the setting of remuneration are insufficient, and presenting an activity model is a clue to solving the issue. Can be.
  2. Activities in the industrial field
    in JapanIndustrial physicianIn Europe and the United States, various activities corresponding to the working environment such as environmental improvement and implementation of exercise therapy are carried out in order to improve the working work situation.In Japan as well, it is hoped that qualified persons will participate in this field and effectively utilize their motion analysis ability and motion guidance.
  3. Education
    The number of training schools increased from 2000 schools (enrollment capacity 132) in 4,230 to 2012 schools (enrollment capacity 249) in 13,224, producing more than 10,000 new qualified personnel annually. Saturation is obvious.Therefore, there is an urgent need to further expand the profession, and improvement of expertise and quality is an important issue in order to suppress the decline in employment treatment that is already becoming serious.
Number of physiotherapist employees (full-time equivalent)[6]
Heisei 14Heisei 17Heisei 20Heisei 23Heisei 26
Long-term care service facility8,77212,10115,29219,56227,789
hospital22,02928,50938,67551,80066,151
General clinic3,4584,4716,6839,82110,988
Total34,25845,08060,65081,183104,928

認知 度

Although the degree of recognition and status in Japan is still not high, it is widely recognized and secured in advanced rehabilitation countries such as Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Australia, with the United States and Germany, which can be said to be the birthplace of physical therapy, at the top. ing.

Training facility

To qualifyNational examanationHowever, in order to take the exam, you must acquire the knowledge and skills required as a physical therapist for at least 3 years at a school designated by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or a physical therapist training facility designated by the prefectural governor. is required.

In Japan, the beginning of training education for this occupation was in vocational school education, and the number of training schools, which was initially small, has increased rapidly in recent years.[7].

For training schoolsUniversity(82 schools),Junior college(5 schools), 4-year systemVocational schools(82 schools), 3-year vocational school (80 schools),Special school(For visually impaired people) If you want to acquire more specialized knowledge or aim for a research job, etc.Graduate SchoolsThere is also (MasterCourse ・DoctorCourse).Total number of schools is 249 (239 recruiting schools, capacity 13,224)[8].

Other

Qualified personEducation staff certificationBySpecial schoolIndependent subject assistant teacherTemporary licenseThere is a system that is given[9], You can transfer to a regular license by acquiring the prescribed experience and credits.

Besides,primary schoolTeacherOrJunior high schoolTeacher OfordinaryLicenseMandatory at the time of acquisition,Experience such as nursing careBasically if you are a qualified personExempt.

The average annual salary is 400 million, which is lower than the average annual salary of office workers.

Prominent physiotherapist

Japan

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