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😷 | The secret of a doctor whose 3-year-old son survived negatively even in Corona "I gave up on isolation" "Adults do not inhale droplets"


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Doctor's secret that 3-year-old son survived negative even in Corona ``I gave up isolation'' ``Adults do not inhale droplets''

 
If you write the contents roughly
And when they slept together, the adults slept with their medical masks on.
 

"Until now, I've been explaining to patients what to do in a textbook, but..." Kazu Tashiro of Hinata Home Clinic Sanno... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

MASKS

health-Medical-Medical scienceUsed mainly in fields such asMASKS(British: mask, Respirator)human bodyOut offaceTo cover or cover part or all of[1][2][3][4][5][6].HeadIt may include one that covers up to the part. In a broad sense, something that covers other parts of the body may be referred to as such.

Hygiene mask

Classification by use

Masks are divided into industrial, medical, and household types according to their use.[7].

Dust mask

Dust mask(Bow mask,Notation : Dust mask) IsDust mask,Dustproof maskAlso called.

A mask originally used to prevent workers from inhaling fine particles suspended in the air[8][9].. Its shape isSilicon rubberReplaceable with the main body (full-faced or half-faced)filterMarked with or the wholeElectrificationmanufacturedNon-wovenIs a disposable dust mask by[8].. There are positive pressure masks and negative pressure masks, and negative pressure masks have exhaust valves.[9].. It is for work only and not suitable for long-time wearing[9].

米 国Accredited by the National Institute of Occupational Safety (NIOSH)N95 maskThere is a certification number on the product[9].. This N95 mask is often used in medical institutions to prevent infection.[9].

In EuropeEuropean Standards CommissionThere is a European standard (EN) 149 "FFP2 mask" certified by the company, which is equivalent to the N95 mask.

JapanThen,Industrial Safety and Health ActA product that has passed the type certification based on the “Ministry dust mask standard” announced by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, and that has the passing mark attached.[8].. Masks that have similar shapes but do not have a certification mark cannot be sold as dust masks.Home centerEtc. are sold for citizen's life[8].

Medical mask

Medical maskMainly targets airborne droplets (*small water droplets that scatter)infectionIt is a mask for the purpose of prevention[8].EnglishThen "surgical mask"Good,JapaneseBut thatSound recordingform"surgical mask"Is valid as an alias. In English, as its name suggests, surgical (surgicalof,手術Mask), but in a broad senseMedicalRefers to a mask for on-site or medical use.

Target particle size is generally larger than 5 μm[8].SARS virus(0.1uMInfectious pathogens such asウ イ ル スIf it is fine particles and is floating in the air, a medical mask cannot be used, so a dust mask of N95 or DS2 class or higher is used.[8].

BFE (as an indicator of mask performanceBacteriaDroplet collection efficiency, Bacterial Filtration Efficiency) and VFE (ウ イ ル スViral Filtration Efficiency)[10]..This depends on the mask, the former is Staphylococcus aureus, the latter is(English edition)Percentage (%) of suspension particles containing (average particle size 3.0 ± 0.3 micrometers) are removed.US Food and Drug Administration(FDA) stipulates that the standard for surgical masks is BFE 95% or higher.[10].

AmericaThen infectivityaerosolThe surgical mask is a medical mask for FDA and the registration system is displayed on the product.[8].. Even if a mask that has passed the NIOSH certification as a disposable dust mask for industrial use is used as a surgical mask, it is necessary to register it again as an N95 surgical mask with the FDA. )[8].. There was once a standard for the shape of surgical masks in the US, but it is now abolished.[8].

JapanThen, there is no legal provision regarding the name "surgical mask" and its performance.[8], During epidemics of infectious respiratory diseases (new influenza, etc.)政府Has published guidelines,[8], Performance test in AmericaASTM InternationalThe ASTM F 2100 specified by the company and the proprietary standards of private inspection companies were used.[10].. September 2021, 6Kaken Test CenterDeveloped based on ASTM regulationsWith the test methodPerformanceJapanese Industrial StandardAdopted as "JIS T 9001"[10][11].

Although it is basically disposable,OutbreakIn case of supply shortage due to serious problems, it may be sterilized and reused.[12].. It became such a situationJapan during the 2020 pandemic of coronavirus infectionThen, even hospitals had to deal with adverse conditions such as one per person per week.

Household mask

Cold protection,hay feverMeasures,coldMeasures,ウ イ ル スA mask for the general public for countermeasures, dustproofing, etc. is called a household mask.[9]..Floating or floating in the airinfectionSex virus particles (aerosol) Is for people infected with the virus会話OrBreatheOrcough,sneezeAnd so onsymptomIt is released even for people who do not have it.Another person can inhale these aerosols and become infected with the virus.For example, aerosolizedコ ロ ナThe virus can stay in the air for up to 3 hours.Household masks help prevent its spread[13].

You may not wear a mask while exercising, as it can reduce your ability to breathe comfortably.When you sweat, the mask gets wet quickly, making it difficult to breathe and promoting the growth of microorganisms.An important precaution during exercise is to maintain a physical distance of at least 1 meter from others.[14].

Also, recently, there are masks that emphasize not only functionality but also design, and masks have become a part of fashion.[15].

Classification by material

Masks are classified by material,gauzeWith types that use cloth such asNon-wovenCan be divided into types that use[7].FuyueAccording to the results of the simulation, the amount of droplets sucked in was about 20% for the non-woven mask, 55-65% for the cloth mask, and 60-70% for the urethane mask. rice field[16][17]..In addition, the amount of splashes discharged was 20% for non-woven masks, 18-34% for cloth masks, and 50% for urethane masks, all of which showed the highest effect.[16][17].

Gauze type

Cloth mask(Nunosei Mask) orGauze typeMasks are mainlyCotton fabricIt has been used widely since ancient times because it is a stack of[7].. Also called "cloth mask".

Since it can be washed and reused, it is economical and has a certain effect in preventing the spread of pathogens, but it is inferior in performance to the non-woven fabric type described later,whoDoes not recommend use by healthcare professionals[18][19][20].

Nonwoven type

Non-woven mask(Fushokufu Mask) is a mask made of non-woven fabric, which was not generally used in the past due to its price and appearance, but it is easy to add functions and there is no resistance to disposables. There was a rapid spread[7]..Non-woven masks have been shown to have higher mask collection efficiency than cloth masks and urethane masks.[21].Cabinet SecretariatRecommends wearing a non-woven mask when wearing a mask[21].

Classification by shape

Masks can be divided into flat masks, pleated masks, three-dimensional masks, and diamond masks according to shape.[7].

Flat mask

The flat mask mainly uses cotton fabric and has high heat retention and moisture retention.[7]..Gauze type is the mainstream.

Pleated mask

The front of the pleated mask is pleated (Folds) Shape, it fits on the front of the face and does not give a feeling of oppression[7]..Non-woven fabric type is the mainstream.

Three-dimensional mask

The three-dimensional mask is designed to fit the human face and fits tightly on the face.[7]..Non-woven fabric type is the mainstream.

Diamond mask

The diamond type mask uses non-woven fabric, and compared to the pleated type and three-dimensional type, the distance between the mask and the mouth is wider, which makes it easier to breathe.It is also popular with women because it makes it difficult for lipstick to adhere to the mask.

wearing a mask

When wearing a household mask, it is important to make it as close to the face as possible.Check the back and front, align the nose piece with the shape of the nose, open the folded folds up and down, and make sure to cover the lower chin.

Improper wearing (nose mask, chin mask)

Masks cannot provide adequate protection unless they are worn correctly.As a representative incorrect wearing method,nose mask (nose mask)とchin maskThere isThe former means that the nose is exposed, and the latter means that both the nose and mouth are exposed.Since such an incorrect wearing method does not provide a protective effect, the administrators of facilities such as stations are encouraging the correct wearing, but there are cases where it develops into incidents such as being assaulted by a frenzied opponent, which is a problem. is becoming[22]. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfareand medical institutions are enlightening how to wear masks correctly[23]

mask effect

On August 2021, 8, Harvard Medical School argued that avoiding exposure to air pollution is as good for health maintenance as regular exercise.Air quality indexis in the unhealthy zone, when you go outN95It is also effective to wear a mask such as[24].

Cold virusInfluenza virusIs a virus aloneAirborneIt is not infected by the virus contained in bodily fluids.Splash infectionBecause it is spread by contact infection, the use of masks can reduce the risk.However, using the wrong mask can actually spread the infection.[25].A possible solution is to make hand sanitizing part of the mask-wearing routine.Use hand sanitizer before putting on, removing, or adjusting the mask.[26].

WHO Influenza Pandemic Guidelines[25]

When wearing a mask, it is essential to use and dispose of it correctly to prevent the spread of infection due to incorrect use.

  • Cover your mouth and nose without gaps.
  • Do not touch the mask while in use. If you touch a used mask, such as when removing it, wash your hands with soap or disinfect it with alcohol.
  • If the mask becomes wet, replace it with a new clean mask immediately.
  • Disposable masks should not be reused and should be disposed of immediately after use.

Information on the effectiveness of non-medical mask protection (eg, cloth masks, scarves, paper masks, etc.) is inadequate.If such materials are used, they should be thoroughly cleaned with household detergents after each use.Hands should be washed immediately after removing the mask.

Not all masks are the same.High quality KN95, KF94, N95 masks are the best fit and excellent filtration performance[27].

In addition, surgical maskIs also effective in preventing small virus particles[27]..Surgical masks prevent viral infections in non-aerosol environmentsN95 maskThe US guidelines state that they are not inferior to the masks, and compared the protective effects of masks in the laboratory.Meta-analysisNo significant difference was found in[28]..Techniques that create an aerosol environment (egTracheal intubationN95 mask is still recommended when doing[28].Wearing a cloth mask on top of the surgical mask will give you a better fit.Also,"knot & tuck maskYou can also adjust the fit of the surgical mask by a method called "(details will be described later)[27].

Center for Disease Control and PreventionAccording to you, you need to make sure that the mask fits snugly on your face and has layers.For this reason, you need to shave your beard[29]..This means that the mask should have no gaps on the edges, completely cover the nose and mouth, and fit tightly on the sides of the face.[27][30]..Wearing a multi-layer cloth mask over a surgical mask, or a tightly fitted surgical mask, greatly improves the level of protection for both the mask wearer and others.In short, wear a fit mask made of two or more layers of washable, breathable cloth.[31]..However, there is no point in combining two disposable masks in terms of design.[32].

Wearing a general-purpose mask is more effective in preventing the spread of the virus than it is in reducing the amount of virus inhaled.[33]..Studies have shown that when both you and the other person wear a mask at a distance of 50 cm, virus inhalation is reduced by 75% with a non-woven mask and 70% with a cloth mask.N95 mask, Surgical mask, non-woven mask, cloth mask, urethane mask in that order.[31].For this reason, the use of cloth masks alone should be avoided.[27]..Cabinet Secretariat recommends wearing a mask during conversations during meals[34].

The chances of an outdoor infection are fairly low, and in most cases a mask is not needed in an outdoor environment if the person-to-person distance is kept at least 2 meters.[27].Sweating makes the mask wet faster, making it harder to breathe, and promotes the growth of microorganisms.An important precaution during exercise is maintaining a physical distance of at least 2 meters from other people[35].

The mask is for the wearerAirborne bacteriaand virus particles cannot be completely prevented.respiratornot as effective as[36],Kansai Medical UniversityAnd Unicharm's research group have confirmed that there is a significant difference in the incidence of influenza with and without masks, and it exerts a certain preventive effect.[37].

Wear a double maskDouble maskCan be seen at home and abroad[38].Super computer,FuyueIn the simulation, the effect of the double mask on preventing droplet diffusion is limited, and it is more important to wear it accurately.[39].CoronaBecause of this, more people are wearing double masks than ever before. Harvard Medical SchoolAccording to this, this is a very rational and useful corona countermeasure.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAccording to the double mask, the level of protection for both the mask wearer and others has improved significantly.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends wearing a snug cloth mask over the surgical mask.[40]..But it doesn't make sense to combine two disposable masks[41].

Others adjust surgical masks using a method called a "knot and tuck mask," where the ear loops of a surgical mask or triple-layer face mask are tied together over the edge of the mask, and the excess material is folded and tucked under the edge. The protective effect of the mask can be improved by making it fit snugly.[40][42].

A study in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratory found that a double mask or "knot and tuck" mask, compared to no mask,aerosolReduced both permeation and exposure by about 95%[40].


Other masks and masks equivalent

Functional mask

In Japan, it was applied to the surface of the mask by 2019PhotocatalystでpollenMasks that advertise the function of breaking down viruses and viruses were on sale. But in July of the same year,Consumer Affairs AgencyFor each company that manufactures masks, saying that the effect is not seen,Unfair gifts and unfair display prevention lawAs a result, we issued an order to take recurrence prevention measures and measures. On the contraryTaisho PharmaceuticalAre competing against each other by requesting examination because the display is different from other companies[43][44].

By incorporating a filter into a gauze type mask, products with performance close to that of a non-woven fabric type have also appeared.[45].

Urethane mask

A popular mask for its fit when worn[46].PolyurethaneThe feature is that you can wash and use it repeatedly, and you can choose multiple colors.[47][48].However, the performance to prevent aerosol is significantly inferior to non-woven fabric masks, and it is almost ineffective against particles with a small particle size.Therefore, urethane masks are not suitable for use in preventing infectious diseases, and doctors and ministers of state have called for urethane masks not to be used.[49][50].

face shield, mouth shield

By attaching transparent plastic to the entire face or the front of the mouth, it prevents exposure to and scattering of pathogens and harmful substances.These are originally auxiliary equipment for the mask and cannot replace the mask, but they are abused as a substitute for the mask because the mouth can be seen and the feeling of oppression is light.The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare calls for caution not to use these shields as a substitute for masks, as they are significantly less effective when used alone.[51].

The reality of wearing a mask

Coronavirus infection in 2020Until the epidemic, it was in Japan and elsewhere that people generally had no hesitation in wearing masks in their daily lives.AsiaIt was a country.In Europe and the United States, wearing a mask in the town was sometimes regarded as a sick person or a suspicious person.[52][53]..In the United States, there were a certain number of people who refused to wear masks due to human rights and discrimination, even though the use of masks was recommended due to infections.[52].

Southeast Asia,East AsiaIn the urban areas ofExhaust gasDo not inhale dust contained in and dirt on unpaved roads,オ ー ト バ イIt is common to wear a mask when riding. "Vietnammask"[54] The mask made of cloth, commonly known as, is famous, and is larger in size than the masks used in Japan, and is shaped to cover almost the lower half of the face. In addition, various patterns and colorscharacterThere is a thing[55]There are quite a few tourists who purchase as souvenirs.

In dry areasPollutionIt functions as a dust mask in some areas and as a cold mask in cold regions.

Mask situation in Japan

Spanish coldWas used in the case of[56]..Before the war, there was a myth that "when bamboo flowers bloom, the flu becomes popular", and when such rumors came out, mask users appeared.Torahiko TeradaStates that there are masked and non-masked races in the city.[57]..After the war,Air pollution,School lunch,badThrough culture, especially after the 1980shay feverMasks became widespread due to the increase in patients[56].

Also in JapancoughThere is a habit of using masks to prevent one's infection rather than etiquette.Central TokyoDepartment (* Survey area:Tokyo Station前[58],Shibuya Station前[59]), This practice became common after the 2000s, and before that, at least in central Tokyo.[58][59], Few people were wearing masks[58][59].. It is around 2018 (Heisei 30), and there is data that over 4% of people were wearing masks in the winter[59].

It was from time to time that this custom became commonplace in the city.hay feverIn addition to increasing the number of patients2002(14)Severe acute respiratory syndromeIt has been pointed out that the (SARS) epidemic has the effect of increasing awareness of prevention.[59].2009 pandemic influenza pandemicSince the sales of household masks have increased sharply and the masks have been sold out, it is thought that the use of masks for prevention was established by this time.[60][58][Note 1].

Such a habit South KoreaAtcoldUse masks for preventionVietnamExcept for its use to prevent dust in Japan, it was rare in the world to use a mask even in a clean environment, which is not seen outside Japan.[61].

New coronavirus infectionDue to the rapid spread of used non-woven masks, the problem of illegal dumping of used non-woven masks has become apparent in each country.[62].

World production and supply

In the late 2010s worldPeople's Republic of China(China) was the largest producer. According to China Spinning Goods Commerce Association, in 2019, it will produce about 5 billion pieces, which accounts for about 50% of the world's total production.2019 Acute respiratory disease due to new coronavirus OfPandemicIn 2020, when the supply and demand balance of medical masks was greatly disrupted byPandemicChina, which was the birthplace of, quickly succeeded in suppressing the city to the level at which it can resume economic activity,OutbreakWith a great demand outside the country, which has been delayed, with economic and political speculation[63]China embarked on a major increase in production from February[64], Different industries such as automobile manufacturers have entered one after another[64][65][66][67][68].. As of early March, the production was increased to about 3 million pieces per day, and has been increasing since then.[68][69].Chinese Communist PartyThe organization paper ofRing and ball newsAccording to an article dated April 2020, 4, is the main material for masks(English edition)Manufacturing methodNon-wovenWas about 1 million yen per ton, about 1060 times more than half a year ago, but the number of new entrants increased, and in some cases only two of the 40 sample products met the medical standards.[70].

Problems with masks

Hearing impaired people such as deaf people and hearing-impaired people

It has become a necessity as a countermeasure against the new coronavirus, and it is a mask that has become widespread in almost all cases, but some people are in trouble.Deaf personSuch asDeaf person,DeafnessPeople[71]..Their usual communication issign language,HearingWho still remainshearing aidWith the help ofOralismYou can also use it, but it is inconvenient to wear a mask and cover your mouth.

Sign language is not just about hand movements, but about mouth movements数字,Proper nounUse your mouth to tell whether your chin is affirmative or negative.expressionIs also important, but if the lower half of the face is almost covered, the facial expression cannot be read.[71].

People who use oralism are hard to grasp by sound alone, soaiueo(So-calledvowel) Also read the shape of the mouthLip readingMake up for the missing information and speak.Again, hiding your mouth with a mask will hinder you.[71].

Respiratory protection/face protection

The following is based on the classification from the perspective of respiratory protection/face protection (respiratory protection is used in a wide range of fields such as various work, evacuation at the time of disaster, prevention of infectious diseases and hay fever, etc.[72], Part of which corresponds to a sanitary mask, but here we will describe the classification by the structure and function of the mask, not by the application).

Respiratory protection

Respiratory protection includes filtration type and inhalation type[73].

Filtered respiratory protection

Respiratory protection of the type that removes harmful substances from the air in the work environment and supplies inhalation[72].. It is necessary to select mask performance, etc. according to the type and effect of harmful substances in the ambient air, work content, etc.[72].. Respiratory protection with a face piece must fit the face-contact part, which is especially important for dust masks and gas masks where the pressure inside the face becomes negative.[72].

  • Dust Mask-Dust masks are used in environments with dust and harmful mist[74].. Used when the oxygen concentration in the work environment is always 18% or more and the type of dust is clear and low (if not, use air-supplied respirator)[74].. There are a disposable type and a replaceable type depending on the filter material.[73].
  • Gas Mask-Gas masks are used in environments where toxic gases are generated, where the working environment has a constant oxygen concentration of 18% or more, the type of gas is clear, and the gas concentration is low (otherwise Is an air-supplied respirator)[74].

Air-supplied breathing protection

Respiratory protection of the type that supplies safe air as inspiration from a source independent of the air in the work environment[72].

  • Insufflation Mask-Insufflation MaskoxygenLess than 18% concentrationLack of oxygenUsed in an environment or environment where there is a risk of oxygen deficiency, away from sources remote from airhoseWhat to send through[72][74].. There are airline mask and hose mask[73].
  • Self-contained breathing apparatus-Carrying an air cylinder or the like and sending air from its source[72].. There are air and oxygen respirators[73].

In addition, the mask connected to the equipment for the purpose of oxygen supplyOxygen maskIt is called not only for medical purposes but also for TakayamaClimbingIt is also used whenACCIDENTIn preparation foraircraft(Passenger plane) Is also provided. AlsoFighterAnd someAircraft pilotAlways wear an oxygen mask. Not oxygenCompressed airThere is also a work mask (protective mask) that blows air into a mask that closes the air.

Face protection

Face protectors include a disaster prevention surface to protect the entire face from flying objects and splashes, and a heat shield surface to protect the face at hot work sites.[75].

Other various masks

The masks other than the above will be described below.

Diving mask

Diving mask(British: diving mask, dive mask) Is also used for simple water playUnderwater glasses/Underwater glasses(æ°´ æ³³For underwater activitiesgoggles.British: underwater glasses) It has a slightly more complicated structure, and in addition to the functions of the underwater glasses that protect the eyes and correct the vision underwater,RespiratorIt has the function of preventing water from entering the system.JapaneseThen "Underwater maskOrForeign wordsso"Diving mask".

単 にdivingIf you just do it, you do not need to breathe with your mouth, you will only be active as long as you continue to breathe, and if you just want to secure a field of view in the water, you will need a pair of spectacles.DivingFishingIt seems that even in modern times, they use water glasses.SportsUnderwater masks are often used in the converted elementary dives. You can breathe by capturing the atmosphere above the water even when divingSnorkelYou can extend the dive time by using together. Also,RegulatorThroughScuba tankIf you use a scuba (scuba, submerged lungs, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) that connects your mouth, the diver can perform advanced diving activities that snorkeling (snorkeling) cannot achieve, but it is stable only with an underwater mask Can be used for any purpose. A full-face underwater mask that covers not only the eyes and nose but also the mouth.Diving full face mask(British: diving full face mask)”, but this type requires a snorkel integrated with a mask or a scuba. The traditional type that does not cover the mouth is not full face typeDiving half mask(British: diving half mask)” is called.

Sports masks, etc.

Sports mask

Winter sportsFor athletes and enthusiasts, cold protection is a real problem. Also, if you are left unprotected, you will expose your skin to the wind.オ ー ト バ イ,BicycleCompetitors and lovers ofrunningAthletes training injoggingEven for lovers, the above-mentioned meaning of wind and cold protectionFace mask for cold weatherExpect supplies like, but at the same time outdoordust-pollen-Exhaust gas-Bacteria-ウ イ ル スPreventHygiene maskFunctions ofUVYou can also expect a cut function and a function to protect your face from physical troubles such as falls. First and foremost, it is important to have a secure fit that does not shift during intense exercise. As a product focusing on some or all of the demands of such exercise workers,Sports maskThe mask collectively called "[Note 2] It became popular in the 2010s. Hypoxic training can be performed by operating the breath control valve attached to the maskFitnessVarious types have been developed, such as for protection, a thing that protects the nose from the bottom with a hard material, and a cold protection type and an ultraviolet blocking type that can be completely covered from the neck to the head.[Note 2].

In 2020 after the spread of the new coronavirus infectionア ン ダ ー ア ー マ ーHas also developed new sports masks, such as the development of UA sports masks.[76].

protector

Dangerous as a completely different sport maskSports,martial artsThe person who does the physicaldefenseTools that are almost exclusively forFace guardFor the faceprotector) May also be referred to as a "mask". Both of them are used for the purpose of preventing tools and other unexpected flying objects on the face and head due to competition, etc. and direct hits of others, and keeping the applied impact light.

baseball,soft ballIncatchermask of(Catcher mask,British: catcher's mask, catcher mask ■ AboveimageYes) And mask integratedhelmet(British: catcher's mask and helmet, catcher mask and helmet ■ Image above), alsoBall refereemask of(Umpire mask,British: empty mask ■ Image above) And a mask-integrated helmet,fencingWire mesh mask (Fencing face mask,Fencing gear mask,British: fencing face mask, fencing mask, fencing gear mask ■ Image above),1927から1977OverIce hockeyWidely used inmask"(British: goaltender mask. cf. en ■ On the rightimageSee also)",Off-roadSystemMotorcycle competitionPlayers such ashelmetWear as a setgogglesIntegrated face mask (■ Image above) Etc. can be mentioned as a typical example. The ice hockey goaltender mask disappeared,cageCombined type face guard and helmetCage helmet collaboration mask(British: cage helmet combo mask ■ On the rightimageYes)Butthe 1970sIt was developed by and gradually spread. The latter, which has several names, also has a name of "mask" in this example. However, the cage part is also called "face mask".Para ice hockeyHowever, the same helmet-integrated type used in ice hockey is used.

Not called a "mask",kendo-NaginataInsurface,American FootballThe purpose of helmets is the same.boxingAnd variousFighting sportsUsed when practicingheadgearThere is also a full-face type that protects the face, which is also a mask.

Baseball masks from the early 21st century are generallyChrome molybdenum steelAlthough a metal guard is used,BaseballInPolycarbonateHard such asPlasticThe product is also officially approved. Also,InfielderThere is also a safety mask (defense mask) for defensive practice. Even for masks for ball trialsTitaniumThere are also frame masks (mainly hard masks).

Restraint mask

In the police and the army, to the target caughtSpitting・ As a preventive measure against biting and infectious diseasesgag,(English edition)May be attached[77].

Special mask

  • Honeycomb Mask-A special nose mask to prevent dry nose when boarding an aircraft.It is made to easily adsorb the water contained in the exhaled breath, and by inhaling through the filter, it prevents excessive drying of the nasal mucosa.It may be prepared for passengers by airlines, and it is also marketed as travel goods.
  • electricFansMask with ―― A mask with an electric fan for exhaust is also manufactured and sold to eliminate stuffiness, stuffiness, and foul odor when worn.[78].
  • Fashionable Masks-The masks are mostly plain and white, but there are also colorful patterns and masks with characters drawn on them. Often worn by Chinese youth,Personality It is called.
  • Date mask -To always wear a mask for purposes other than its original hygiene reasons, or to someone who wears a mask in that way.
  • Nose mask-a mask for the nose that is inserted into the nasal cavity[79].Doctor NakamatsuAs a "nose filter"PatentApplying[79].

culture

History of sanitary masks in Japan
In the Meiji eraSpanish coldHygiene masks became widespread among the general public in the wake of the epidemic.In the Meiji era it was called the respiratory system[80]..Before that, at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, the miners of Iwami Ginzan were given a fukumen with the effect of the acid of plums by Miyata Pillar, a doctor in Kasaoka, Btsutyuu, to prevent dust in the mine.[81].
History in the world of sanitary masks
"The Great Pliny of Ancient Rome"Natural history]cinnabarIt is written that the craftsman who handles the mask is wearing a mask[82].
In Europe, it appeared in the 17th centuryBlack deathOf measuresPlague doctorWith the characteristic beak-like mask that was worn by(English edition)Is famous.The mask was filled with herbs and minerals such as roses, lavender, peppermint, and vinegar that were thought to have been effective against black death at the time.It was effective by reducing contact with animals that are irrelevant to herbs and spread throughout Europe from the invention in Paris.
1897, German bacteriology doctor(English edition) Splash infectionIt laid the foundation for research.In response to this, various doctors invented the mask.[83].
Religious
Cover the faceVeil,HijabAppears frequently in religion.ExodusIn Chapter 34モ ー セIt is written that he unveils and wears himself[84]..It was also suffered in various ceremonies.In ancient Rome, the god of sakeBucksWearing a mask called ora horrenda at the ceremony[85].
As a reminder of the individualdeath maskWas sometimes created.Ancient EgyptianMiiLa was covered with a mommy mask[86].
National costume
In entertainment worldwidemaskMay wear.
In West Africa, people protect themselves from dust, dust, heat and cold.(English edition)And so on[87]..The cloth that hides the mouth in the Kanji area is called (noodle).[88]..The encyclopedia "Encyclopedia" compiled in the middle of the Edo periodJapanese and Chinese three-year-old drawing society], And also described as a "face cap" (the structure is curtain-like and hung on a string, so it does not come into close contact with the lower jaw).
In Japan, as a mask for cold weatherRecord of Ancient MattersIt is known that there is a ratio (Osui, attack) in.During the Heian period, monk soldiers wore heads[89]. Also,TowelUsedCheek cover (cheek crown, cheek crown, cheek cover), Otakaso hood is known.
To hide your identity etc.
Criminals and demonstrators cover their cheeks to hide their identities,Balaclava, Masked hood, hoodGuy Fawkes MaskEtc. are used.
Witness protection programSo, witnesses who are at risk from witnessing in court may be allowed a balaclava.
In the play, I used a black Kameya hood (Takeda hood) to hide myself.
Ban
Many cultures have banned them from hiding their faces with bad guys and government demonstrations.But protests from religion and tradition ((English edition)), There are conflicts in terms of disease control, and the law may be withdrawn.
In Japan, bans have been issued many times since the promulgation of the New Year in Keicho 14 (1609) in the early Edo period (collection of laws and regulations) because the physiognomy of the bad guys is unknown.[90]..However, due to the rebellion against the government, it sometimes became popular by changing the name such as masked hood and eye-catching hood.[91].
In Hong Kong in October 2019, the government will not pass the parliament against demonstrations wearing masks due to rebellion against the government.zh: Prohibition on Face Regulations) Was announced.However, on November 2019, 11, the High Court ruled unconstitutional and it is invalid.[92].
In England during 1723-1823(English edition)Was issued to critics of the government who acted to hide their faces, and it was also stated that they would be sentenced to death in some cases.
Mask as a season word
Season wordsAsMASKSIs a winter season commonly used by modern peopleCold protection-Epidemic preventionFor mask[93].. Even if the mask has exactly the same shapehay feverMeasuresDust proofWhen used as a countermeasure, it cannot be treated as a seasonal word, and only the mask used in winter for the purpose of protection against cold and epidemics is applicable.[93].. That is, the mask isWinter:It is a season word of (early winter, midwinter, late winter)[93].. Classification is personnel/event/life[Note 3].. There are no parent or child season words[93].
  • Example phrase: mask I(I)とThou(What time)It is[94] ──Kyoko Takahama"Five hundred and fifty phrases" (1943/Showa18 years)[95].. Proposed on January 1937, 12[94].
  • Example phrase: Mask and meet the masked person ── Keiji Hosoi (early Showa period) [96]
  • Phrase: Mask it, maybe it's the wife of Shiroginu's mourning ──Iida scepter"Chunlan" (published in 1947/Showa 22) [96]
  • Example phrase: New gauze mask Old lady ──KyogokuThe second volume of "Kukutachi" (1947/Showa 22) [96]
  • Example: Deep white maskExamination(Jukenkou) ──Kishifu Sanro"Traffic" (published in 1949/Showa 24) [96]
  • Example phrase: Mask and catch the north wind ──Shinohara"Ame" (1953/Showa 28) collection [96]
  • Example phrase: Read the eyes of the person wearing the mask ──Yasushi Ueno"Spring tide" (1955/Showa 30) collection [96]

Animal mask

  • Narrow the view of racehorsesBlinker(Blinder, eye patch, eye patch, caps) are used to concentrate on running forward.
  • (English edition) —— Attached to prevent dogs and horses from barking and biting.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It should be noted that all of the sources shown here are in such a tone that the changes can be taken as if they had occurred throughout Japan.statisticsIt should not be overlooked that all the reasoning and the "confirmed by video" are data of a specific place in central Tokyo. What happened in TokyosubjectSince it is customary to replace "what happened in Japan" when reporting in the form of lacking, the term "central Tokyo" was used in this section to avoid misunderstandings.
  2. ^ a b Keyword search [Sports mask]
  3. ^ eachYearbookDepending on the term, the term varies, but in short, it means "what to do in the life of a person."

Source

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