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😷 | New Corona 1 dead in Hokkaido 11 newly infected


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New Corona 1 dead in Hokkaido 11 newly infected

 
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On the other hand, last month, the city of Sapporo declared the end of the call center in Sapporo where the cluster occurred.
 

The new coronavirus killed one new person in Hokkaido and confirmed 1 infections.The road is a man in his 11s ... → Continue reading

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Sapporo

Sapporo(Sapporo) isHokkaido OfCentral HokkaidoLocated inIshikari Promotion BureauBelongs toCity.LocationIt is also called "Dohto" because it is the location of the Ishikari Promotion Bureau and the location of the prefectural office.[1],Politics-Economy-cultureThe center.Has the largest population in Hokkaido (about 196 million people)Government-designated city.

Overview

JapanNorthernmostGovernment-designated cityAnd nationwideCityIn横 浜 市,Osaka,Nagoya cityIt has the fourth largest population after, and accounts for about 4% (about 4%) of the total population of Hokkaido. In HokkaidoPrimate CityAndSapporo metropolitan areaIs formed.AinuPeople were livingEzoIs 1869 (Meiji 2 Year)HokkaidoWas renamedPioneerWas set up and construction of Sapporo Honfu began[2].. First in 1875 (Meiji 8)Tun TianbingSettled. The construction plan for Sapporo was the pioneer judge at the timeYoshiyuki ShimaConceived by京都Town planning with reference toCreation bridgeBased on the eastern foot, the east-west axisSosei River, The north-south axis was set as Oshima Dori (currently Minami 1-jo Dori)[3][4][5](Currently the north-south axis isOdori Park[6]).For this reason, most of the cityscape is in the center.BoardIt is in the shape of[1].

After that, the surrounding towns and villages were incorporated and merged to expand the city area.

1972 years(Showa47 years)AsiaFirst timeWinter Olympics(Sapporo Olympics) Held[7]. Since thenInternational Ski FederationOf various international competitionsAsian Winter Games,International University Sports FederationSponsored winterUniversiadeCompetition,FIFA World Cup,FIBA Basketball World Cup,World Rally Championship,Rugby World CupMany international competitions are being held. Even Sapporo City attracts and holds various events and exhibitions, corporate meetings and reward trips (MICE) Are actively engaged in[8],International Conference Tourist CityHas been certified. About 1,300 million tourists visit every yearTourist cityHas become[9]It is a city that ranks high in the ranking of the municipality ranking survey every year.[10].. In 2013 (Heisei 25) UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Was founded byCreative city networkWas recognized as the second largest city in the world (first in Asia) in the "Media Arts City" field[11][12].

2026 Winter OlympicsAlthough he was conducting an invitation activity by announcing that he would run for the venue[13][14], Indicated that it intends to change its candidacy and attraction activities to the 2030 Games.

Origin of city name

Originally "Sapporo"Toyohira RiverThe name given to the Ainu people, is said to have been diverted to the place name of the area of ​​the flow path. OriginAinuof"Sat Polo"(Sat-poro, large, dry) ("The former Toyohira River was a river with extremely low water in the dry season," or "because it was a vast, dry area.")Sari Polo Pep"(Sari-poro-pet, the reed field is a vast river)[2].

Geography

Ishikari PlainLocated in the southwestern part of the city, with an area of ​​1,121.26 km2でHong KongAlmost the same asareahave[2].. Distance is east-west 42.30Kilometers(Km) The city area extends 45.40 km north and south[2]..The Toyohira River formed the flat centerFanIs[1].

The southwestern part of the city is a mountainous area, part of whichShikotsu-Toya National ParkIs specified in[15].

terrain

Mountain

Main mountain
canyon

River

Main river
mainwaterfall

Lake

Main lake
Main swamp
Main pond

coastal

Gulf

To the northwest of SapporoIshikari BayThere is, but the part facing hereOtaruMoney boxIs.Sapporo city areaEstuaryIt is about 400m inside from and very close, but it does not face the sea.

climate

The climate of Sapporo isSea of ​​Japan side climateIt is said that[2],Köppen climate classificationThen.Subarctic humid climateIt belongs to (Dfa). There are many sunny days from April to June,HonshuSeen inrainy seasonThere is no time for.Average daily temperature is 1 in summer℃The days that exceed will continue. In octoberAutumn leavesHas begun, and the snow that has fallen since early DecemberDeep snowOften becomes[2].. The winter season from December to February is characterized by cold snowfall, and the amount of snowfall in one winter reaches about 12 m.[2]. In March, the chills relaxed, and in the beginning of April, all-day snowfall began.[2]..It is rare in the world that a large city with a population of about 200 million is located in a heavy snowfall area.[16].

Sapporo(Sapporo District Meteorological Observatory) Climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F)11.2
(52.2)
10.8
(51.4)
16.8
(62.2)
28.0
(82.4)
34.2
(93.6)
31.9
(89.4)
36.0
(96.8)
36.2
(97.2)
32.7
(90.9)
26.4
(79.5)
22.4
(72.3)
14.8
(58.6)
36.2
(97.2)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)−0.6
(30.9)
0.1
(32.2)
4.0
(39.2)
11.5
(52.7)
17.3
(63.1)
21.5
(70.7)
24.9
(76.8)
26.4
(79.5)
22.4
(72.3)
16.2
(61.2)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F)−3.6
(25.5)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.6
(33.1)
7.1
(44.8)
12.4
(54.3)
16.7
(62.1)
20.5
(68.9)
22.3
(72.1)
18.1
(64.6)
11.8
(53.2)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
8.9
(48)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)−7.0
(19.4)
−6.6
(20.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
3.2
(37.8)
8.3
(46.9)
12.9
(55.2)
17.3
(63.1)
19.1
(66.4)
14.2
(57.6)
7.5
(45.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.1
(24.6)
5.3
(41.5)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F)−27.0
(-16.6)
−28.5
(-19.3)
−22.6
(-8.7)
−14.6
(5.7)
−4.2
(24.4)
0.0
(32)
5.2
(41.4)
5.3
(41.5)
0.2
(32.4)
−5.8
(21.6)
−15.5
(4.1)
−23.9
(-11)
−28.5
(-19.3)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)113.6
(4.472)
94.0
(3.701)
77.8
(3.063)
56.8
(2.236)
53.1
(2.091)
46.8
(1.843)
81.0
(3.189)
123.8
(4.874)
135.2
(5.323)
108.7
(4.28)
104.1
(4.098)
111.7
(4.398)
1,106.5
(43.563)
Snowfall cm (inch)173
(68.1)
147
(57.9)
98
(38.6)
11
(4.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
32
(12.6)
132
(52)
597
(235)
Average days of precipitation (≥ 0.5 mm)21.819.018.511.710.28.39.79.511.113.917.519.2170.4
Average number of snowfall days (≥ 0 cm)28.825.423.56.40.100001.213.926.5125.8
(I.e.70696662667276757167676968
Average monthlyDaylight hours92.5104.0146.6176.5198.4187.8164.9171.0160.5152.3100.085.91,740.4
Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1981-2010, extreme value: 1876-present)[17][18]


Climate of Teine Ward and Teine Yamaguchi (1981-2010)
Month123456789101112Years
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)−0.8
(30.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
3.5
(38.3)
11.1
(52)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.7
(76.5)
26.3
(79.3)
22.4
(72.3)
16.2
(61.2)
8.5
(47.3)
1.9
(35.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F)−4.2
(24.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.3
(43.3)
11.6
(52.9)
15.7
(60.3)
19.7
(67.5)
21.5
(70.7)
17.2
(63)
11.0
(51.8)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
8.2
(46.8)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)−8.4
(16.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.4
(34.5)
6.4
(43.5)
11.1
(52)
15.7
(60.3)
17.3
(63.1)
12.2
(54)
5.7
(42.3)
0.2
(32.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.6
(38.5)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)98.6
(3.882)
76.4
(3.008)
53.9
(2.122)
47.4
(1.866)
50.2
(1.976)
41.4
(1.63)
72.2
(2.843)
111.6
(4.394)
122.7
(4.831)
105.0
(4.134)
107.0
(4.213)
99.1
(3.902)
985.4
(38.795)
Average monthlyDaylight hours75.692.1142.9172.8192.5170.3155.6168.3161.8143.191.673.91,640.6
Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency
Toyohira WardHokkaido Agricultural Research CenterClimate of weather observations (1981-2000)
Month123456789101112Years
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)−1.9
(28.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.4
(36.3)
10.1
(50.2)
16.0
(60.8)
19.8
(67.6)
23.6
(74.5)
24.9
(76.8)
21.0
(69.8)
14.8
(58.6)
7.3
(45.1)
1.1
(34)
11.49
(52.68)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)−11.1
(12)
−10.8
(12.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.8
(33.4)
5.4
(41.7)
10.3
(50.5)
15.2
(59.4)
17.1
(62.8)
11.8
(53.2)
5.0
(41)
−1.2
(29.8)
−7.3
(18.9)
2.41
(36.33)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)60.8
(2.394)
56.8
(2.236)
46.0
(1.811)
57.7
(2.272)
63.1
(2.484)
53.9
(2.122)
81.1
(3.193)
157.8
(6.213)
144.2
(5.677)
106.5
(4.193)
66.0
(2.598)
63.0
(2.48)
956.9
(37.673)
Snowfall cm (inch)64
(25.2)
89
(35)
75
(29.5)
27
(10.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
12
(4.7)
42
(16.5)
-
(121.9)
Average monthlyDaylight hours93.9110.9153.3155.2159.5148.2133.6142.9140.1135.979.373.61,526.4
Source: Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center

Winter heat island phenomenon

Recently in SapporoHeat islandPhenomenonJapan's three largest citiesAs remarkable as. In January, the lowest temperature in January in Sapporo has risen by 100 degrees, above +1 degrees in Nagoya and +6.5 degrees in Osaka, and close to +4.3 degrees in Tokyo.[19].Sapporo District Meteorological ObservatoryIs installed in SapporoCity centerHowever, due to the heat island phenomenon, the minimum temperature never fell to around -20 degrees during the severe cold season, and the temperature below -10 degrees was drastically reduced. In addition, it is less likely that the minimum temperature in January will be lower than the normal value (-1 degrees). In particular, the minimum temperature increase rate since 7.0 has exceeded that of Tokyo. Therefore, it was said that the climate was relatively mild in Hokkaido.DonanCoastal areas andTohoku regionThere are many days when the minimum temperature during the cold season is higher than in some areas in the inland area.

Region

Administrative district

CodesWard namepopulation
(Man)
area
(kilometer2)
The population density
(People/km2)
Installation dateReason for installation
01101-1Chuo-ku239,98246.425,169.81972/4/1Measures associated with the transition to an ordinance-designated city
01102-9Kita286,07163.574,500.09
01103-7Higashi Ward262,31056.974,604.35
01104-5Shiroishi Ward214,06234.476,210.1
01105-3Toyohira Ward224,44946.234,855.05
01106-1South ward135,752657.48206.47
01107-0Nishi-ward218,13975.102,904.65
01108-8Atsubetsu Ward126,27324.385,179.371989/11/6Partition from Shiroishi Ward
01109-6Teine Ward141,97656.772,500.9Partition from Nishi Ward
01110-0Kiyota Ward112,67659.871,882.011997/11/4Partition from Toyohira Ward

population

The population of Sapporo City exceeded 2008 million in August 20.[20]The male/female ratio was 10.0 for women and 9.0 for men. There are more males in their teens and females in their twenties.

Municipalities that do not face the sea have the largest population in Japan.

The first in 1920 (Taisho 9)CensusSo the population is 102580,Hakodate-OtaruIt was the third in Hokkaido after[21].. After thatWorld War IDue to the later boom, the food processing industry, which was a key industry at that time,Textile industrySuch aslight industryDeveloped and the population grew steadily[21].. According to a survey conducted in 1941 (Showa 16), the population was 224729, exceeding 20 for the first time, surpassing Hakodate City to become No. 1 in Hokkaido.[21].Second World WarAfter that, in 1950 (Showa 25)Hokkaido Development LawEnactment ・ The Hokkaido development project led by the Japanese government, such as the enforcement of the first Hokkaido Comprehensive Development Plan in 1952, has begun in earnest, and the advancement of foreign capital into Hokkaido has also become active.As a result, the economic role of Sapporo City, where the government's local agencies are concentrated, has risen sharply, and new construction and relocation of companies and factories such as wholesalers, subcontractors, and subcontractors have continued.[21](In this regard, the influence of the Japanese government's controlled economic policy during and after the war is also significant.[22]).Postwar nationwide urban concentration trends and in HokkaidoPrimary industryDue to the slump in (agriculture, forestry and fisheries), the influx of population from each municipality in Hokkaido to Sapporo City, which was not so remarkable before the war, will become noticeable.[21].. According to a survey conducted in 1955 (Showa 30), the population exceeded 426620 with 40.[21].

The nationwide tendency of urban concentration was in the 30'sHigh economic growthIt went further in the period and appeared especially prominently in Sapporo, the central city of Hokkaido.[21]..HokkaidocoalDue to the decline of industryCoal mineDue to the influx of employees who left the company in Sapporo, the population rapidly increased at a pace of 4 people a year.[20]. After that, due to the expansion of living areas,Bed townAlthough the population is increasing, the population of Sapporo City is steadily increasing. In the 1965 (Showa 40) survey, the population was 794908, and in the 1970 (Showa 45) survey, the population was 1,010,123, which is 8 in Japan. Became the second city of 100 million people[20][21]. In 1972 (Showa 47)Kawasaki City-Fukuoka Cityと と も にGovernment-designated cityAnd the ward system was enforced[20][21]..Although the post-war urbanization of Sapporo City has stopped the outflow of population from within Hokkaido to the outside of Hokkaido, the business bases that receive employment are concentrated in Sapporo City and its surroundings. It also contributed to the depopulation of agricultural and fishery areas and former coal mine areas.[21]. It has been thought that the population of Sapporo City has been on a downward trend since peaking in 27, but even in 29, the population continues to increase. The only municipality in HokkaidoEstimated populationIs announced every month. As of August 2005, 17, the number of registered foreigners is 8.Total fertility rateIs 1.07 (FY20).

Demography01100.svg
Population distribution by age in Sapporo and Japan (2005)Sapporo City Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
■Purple-Sapporo
■Green-All over Japan
■Blue-male
■Red-female

Changes in the population of (the area equivalent to) Sapporo
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Adjacent municipalities

Ishikari Promotion Bureau
Shiribeshi Promotion Bureau
Iburi General Promotion Bureau

History

Edo Period,洪水ByToyohira RiverFlow changed to the east, and the original flow path wasFushigo RiverIt became (Fushikogawa). Also,Matsumae clanByAinuXNUMX Ishikari opened for controlPlaceFrom the mid to late 1780s (TenmeiからKanseiPeriod) established. Of which the hashab location (currentIbarado Riverleft bank,HakanagawaNear the confluence, in the current Kita Ward) ・ Shinoro location (currently on the left bank of the Barato River, near the confluence of the Shinoro River, in the current Kita Ward) ・ Naihou location (near the upper Fushiko River, in the current Higashi Ward) ・ Upper Sapporo The place (Toyohira River basin) and Shimo Sapporo place (Toyohira River basin) were opened in the area corresponding to the present Sapporo city.Matsumae Domain called these placesVassal OfChichi TheBakumatsuSurvived.

Ainu people who are closely related to the above placesKotan(Village) Was four in the early Meiji era.Upper Sapporo Kotan is near the current Kita 4 Johigashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, (Sakushi) Kotonikotan is the currentHokkaido UniversitycampusNear, Fukoshikotan is near the current Higashi Ward Kita 9 Johigashi 9-chome, Hassam Kotan is the current Nishi WardKotoniIt was around 4 of 1[1].

Boshin WarIt was the last battleHakodate WarWonMeiji governmentFull-scale development of Hokkaido.Development responsible for the construction of Sapporo, which is the center of thisJudge OfYoshiyuki Shima 1869(Meiji 2 Year)Old calendarJanuary,OtaruI entered Sapporo via.At that timeForestと湿 地Is mixedWildernesswas.Besides the above Ainu Kotan, there are about 100 housesJapanese peopleThere were even scattered settlers.The island began construction with the cooperation of hundreds of craftsmen and people, as well as the local Ainu, but due to lack of food, it was in a digging hut.dogIt was the start of the hardship of sleeping while hugging and overcoming the cold.In addition to the "Sapporo Construction Monument" at Minami 1 Johigashi 1-chome, Chuo-ku, the statue of the island is the lobby of Sapporo City Hall.Hokkaido ShrineIs built in[1].

Chronological Table

"Sapporo timeline"[23], See "History of Road Construction"[24]

Meiji

Taisho

  • 1918(Taisho7 years): Hokkaido Imperial University (currentHokkaido University) Is installed in Sapporo Ward. Agriculture University transferred from Tohoku Imperial University. The 50th anniversary Hokkaido Expo was held. Converting the Sapporo Stone Wagon Railway into a train,Sapporo Electric OrbitOperation starts.Jozankei Railway LineOperation started (discontinued in 1969).
  • 1920(Taisho 9): The first national census. The population of Sapporo Ward was 1 (Otaru Ward had a population of 102,580 at that time, and Hakodate Ward had a population of 108,113). The Yusaku area of ​​Hosono moved to Kikusui, Shiraishi-ku.
  • 1922(Taisho 11th year): The municipal system came into effect.
  • 1924(Taisho 13): Toyohira Bridge became a permanent bridge, and the wooden block pavement was completed.

Showa (until the end of the war)

Showa (postwar)

Heisei

Reiwa

Transition of administrative divisions

  • 1869(Meiji 2):PioneerSettings.EzoTheHokkaidoIs renamed. 11 counties in 86 countriesIshikari countrySapporo-gunBecomes
  • 1871(Meiji 4): Centering on the location of the Hokkaidō Development Commission (currently near Kita 4 Johigashi 1-chome), 1in(Approximately 3.9 kilometers) The area on all sides is defined as the Sapporo city area.[49].. Also, from the policy of not creating a village in that area,Higashi Honganji Temple House50 residents of "Shinpiichi Village" in the eastMaruyama Village-Kotoni VillageRe-settled in[49].
  • 1872(5th year of Meiji): The pioneering ambassador's main government office building is installed at the present North 3rd Article West 6th Street. Centering on this new government building, 4 towns in the east and west and 5 towns in the north and south were designated as the main government office site, and the area of ​​1 sq. km was changed to the Sapporo city area. The scale was gradually reduced)[49][50].
  • 1876(Meiji 9):Large Ward Small Ward SystemEnforced,Sapporo-gunIs designated as the 6st Great Ward, with XNUMX subdistricts below it[51].
  • 1879(Meiji 12):County, town and village organization lawThe city area of ​​Sapporo became Sapporo Ward due to enforcement, leaving Sapporo[52].
  • 1880(Meiji 13): Sapporo-ku and Sapporo-gun will be under the jurisdiction of the Sapporo-ku government office[53].
  • 1884(17th year of Meiji): Sapporo-gun is under the jurisdiction of the Sapporo Gogo-gun government office, and the Sapporo-ku office is under the jurisdiction of Sapporo-ku only.[54].
  • 1886(Meiji 19):Yamahana VillageKaramokanakajima (currentNakajima Park) Transfer[55][56][57].. Around the same time, a part of Maruyama village was transferred.[55].
  • 1899(Meiji 32) March 10:Hokkaido ward systemEnforced and became Sapporo Ward. Hakodate Ward and Otaru Ward are established in Hokkaido other than Sapporo Ward.
  • 1910(Meiji 43) March 4:Sapporo VillagePart of (current part of Chuo-ku and Higashi-ku),Baishi VillageLarge printKamishiraishi Village (currentlyShiroishi WardPart (current part of the Kikusui district),Moiwa VillageLarge printYamahana VillageTonitamura area (currently part of Chuo-ku and Minami-ku),Toyohira TownMost of Toyohira Village (currently part of Toyohira Ward)Toyohira-Asahi-Water wheel town) Transfer. In addition, some areas in SapporoKotoni VillageTransferred to.
  • 1922(Taisho 11) August 8:Municipal systemEnforced and became Sapporo City. The city area at this time is each part of the current Chuo-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Shiroishi-ku, and Toyohira-ku.
  • 1941(Showa 16) April 4:Maruyama Town(Part of the current Chuo Ward (west of West 20th Street, Asahigaoka, etc.), part of Minami Ward (Along the river,Minamizawa,MoiwaEtc.) Transfer.
  • 1950(25)
    • April 4: Partial transfer of Sapporo village[58].
    • June 6: Shiraishi Village (part of the current Shiroishi Ward excluding part of the Kikusui Ward, which was already Sapporo City, the entire Atsubetsu Ward) was incorporated.
  • 1951(Showa 26) April 4:Hiroshima VillagePartial transfer[59].
  • 1955(Showa 30) April 3:Kotoni Town(Part of the current Chuo-ku (Miyanomori, Bankei), part of Kita-ku (Shinkotomi, Shinkawa,Tonda, North of Article 25 and north), part of Nishi Ward (former peace of Teine Town,(I.e., Area except Miyanosawa), part of Teine Ward (new cold)), Sapporo Village (most of Higashi Ward),Shinoji Village(Part of the current Kita Ward (Shinoji)) Transferred.
  • 1961(Showa 36) April 5:Toyohira Town(Part of the current Toyohira Ward, except for Toyohira, Asahi-cho, and Mizuma-cho, which were already Sapporo City, most of Kiyota-ku and Minami-ku).
  • 1967(Showa 42) April 3:Teine Town(Part of the current Nishi Ward (Heiwa, Nishimachi, Miyanosawa), part of Teine Ward excluding the new cold weather that was former Kotoni Town).
  • 1972(Showa 47) April 4:Government-designated cityThe administrative division system was enforced by the 7 wards of Chuo-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Shiroishi-ku, Toyohira-ku, Minami-ku and Nishi-ku.
  • 1973(48) February:OtaruPartial transfer[60].
  • 1989(First year of Heisei) November 11: Teine Ward from Nishi Ward and Atsubetsu Ward from Shiroishi Ward will be divided into 6 Wards.
  • 1997(9) November 11: Kiyota Ward is divided from Toyohira Ward to become 4 Wards.

Politics

Municipal

The city of Sapporo has a deputy mayor (former name, assistant) as an auxiliary organization for the mayor, and the mayor is appointed with the consent of the parliament. The term is 4 years, the same as the mayor. As of 2018 (Heisei 30), 3 people have been appointed[61]. The ward system was enforced after the government-designated city transition and is now divided into 10 wards. Each ward may assist the mayor's affairs and perform the affairs delegated by laws and regulations with his own authority and responsibility[61]. In addition, rooms and stations are established according to the purpose and nature of clerical work, and departments, locations, and rooms are established within the station, and are further divided into sections and sections. The number of employees is about 14,000[61].

As for medical care,イタリア OfBazaarian lawEnactment, etc. in the worldPsychiatricAbolition of wardisolationDetentionWhile the illegalization of[62], Sapporo has the largest number of psychiatric beds in municipalities nationwide, with 7200 beds. As for the number of psychiatric beds per 1 people, the world average is 1.5 beds, while Sapporo city has 38 beds, and Sapporo city has the most psychiatric patients in the world.Social hospitalizationIs a city where[63].

Mayor

Successive chiefs
代NameInaugurationRetirement date
Mayor (elected)
First generationTsushima KasaburoDecember 1899 (Meiji 32)December 1902 (Meiji 35)
2 feeKanrokuro KatoDecember 1902 (Meiji 35)December 1906 (Meiji 39)
3 feeAokiDecember 1906 (Meiji 39)November 1912 (Taisho first year)
4 feeAbe UnohachiAugust 1913 (Taisho 2)August 1919 (Taisho 8)
5 feeTomokuma SatoAugust 1919 (Taisho 8)August 1921 (Taisho 10)
Mayor (elected)
First generationNaoyoshi TakaokaAugust 1923 (Taisho 12)December, 1927 (Showa 2)
2 feeHashimotoDecember, 1927 (Showa 2) December, 1937 (Showa 12)
3 feeKanichi MisawaDecember, 1937 (Showa 12) December, 1945 (Showa 20)
4 feeRokuro UeharaDecember, 1945 (Showa 20) December, 1946 (Showa 21)
Mayor (publicly elected)
5 feeTomita TakadaDecember, 1947 (Showa 22) December, 1959 (Showa 34)
6 feeBy HaradaDecember, 1959 (Showa 34) December, 1971 (Showa 46)
7 feeItagaki TakeshiDecember, 1971 (Showa 46) May 1991
8 feeNobuo KatsuraMay 1991May 2003
9 feeFumio UedaMay 2003May 2015
10 feeAkimoto KatsuhiroMay 2015In office

Government office

  • Sapporo City Hall
    • Chuo Ward Office
    • Kita Ward Office
    • Higashi Ward Office
    • Shiroishi Ward Office
    • Toyohira Ward Office
    • Minami Ward Office
    • Nishi Ward Office
    • Atsubetsu Ward Office
    • Teine Ward Office
    • Kiyota Ward Office

Administrative organization

  • Accounting room
  • Crisis Management Office
  • Mayor Policy Office
  • General Affairs Bureau
  • Citizen Town Development Bureau
  • Finance Bureau
  • Health and Welfare Bureau
  • Children's Future Bureau
  • Environment Bureau
  • Economic Affairs Bureau
  • Tourism and Culture Bureau
  • Construction Bureau
  • City bureau
  • Traffic bureau
  • Waterworks
  • Hospital station (Municipal Sapporo Hospital)
  • Fire department
  • Board of education
  • Election Board Secretariat
  • Personnel Committee Secretariat
  • Audit office
  • Agricultural Committee Secretariat
  • Congress Secretariat

Information disclosure

In April 1989 (Heisei 4), in Sapporo City, "Sapporo City Information DisclosureOrdinance』Enforced. In April 2000, the revised Sapporo City Information Disclosure Ordinance came into effect. From January 12, we have started accepting requests for publication of official documents via the Internet.[64].

Government-designated cities Comprehensive information disclosure ranking[65]
年度199619981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014
Ranking of Sapporo City54411279121311
Number of target cities12889101012131314151719

Sapporo citizen charter

The Sapporo Citizen's Charter was established as the consensus of the citizens on November 1963, 38 (Showa 11).[66].

Sapporo citizen charter
Previous chapter: WeClock towerI am a citizen of Sapporo who will be the bell.
Chapter 1: Let's work hard and make a rich city.
Chapter 2: Let's clean the sky, roads, plants and water.
Chapter 3: Observe the rules well and make a comfortable city.
Chapter 4: Let's be a happy city for children to create the future.
Chapter 5: Let's be a city of high culture and the world.

Parliament

City council

Sapporo City announced the city council ahead of the whole country in April 1953 (Showa 28)[67].. The city council has regular meetings that are held four times a year (usually March, May, September, and December) and extraordinary meetings that are held as needed, and the mayor convenes them.

  • Constant number: 68 people
  • Term: May 2015, 27 (May 5, 2) to May 2019, 5
  • Chair: Takeo Suzuki (Sapporo City Assembly Liberal Democratic Party Assembly)
  • Vice-chairman: Ichiro Onmura (Sapporo City Assembly Democratic Party/Citizens' Union Assembly)
Committee
  • Standing Committee
    • General Affairs Committee
    • Finance Citizen Committee
    • Education Committee
    • Welfare Committee
    • Construction committee
    • Economic Commission
  • Congress Steering Committee
  • Special committee
Parliamentary structure

The composition of the parliamentary group as of July 2019, 7 is as follows.

Parliamentary nameNumber of seatsCertified/Recommended Parties at the time of election
Sapporo City Assembly Liberal Democratic Party Membership27LDP27 certified
Sapporo City Council Democratic Citizens' Union20Constitutional Democratic Party19 officially recognized, 1 without independent constitutional Democratic Party recommendation
Sapporo City Assembly Komeito Party10Komeito10 certified
Japanese Communist Party Sapporo City Council10Japan Communist Party10 certified
Sapporo City Council Citizen Network Hokkaido1Citizen network Hokkaido1 certified

Prefectural assembly

Member of Hokkaido Assembly (elected by Sapporo City)
  • Constant number: 28 people
  • Term: May 2019, 5 (Reiwa 13st year) to May 2023, 5 (Reiwa 5th year) May 12
ConstituencyNameParliamentary name
Chuo-ku (3)Chiba HidemoriLDP・Citizens' meeting
Naoko HigakiLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Fujikawa MasashiDemocratic/Dominant Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Kita (4)Yamane NorihiroDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Takayoshi YoshikawaLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Yasunori MichimiLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Shiho NakanoHokkaido AssemblyKomeitoLegislature
Higashi Ward (4)Yasushi WatanabeLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Hiromi AraHokkaido National Assembly Komei Party Parliamentary Group
Ayako FuchigamiDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Miyagawa JunJapan Communist PartyHokkaido Parliamentary Assembly
Shiroishi Ward (3)Jouichi ItoLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Mayumi HirotaDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Mori ShigeyukiHokkaido National Assembly Komei Party Parliamentary Group
Atsubetsu Ward (2)Hanasaki MasaruLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Kazutada SugawaraDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Toyohira Ward (3)Yuki YoshidaLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Takeshi MatsuyamaDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Noko OgoshiLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Kiyota Ward (2)Tadashi KajiyaDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Junichi MiyashitaLDP/Citizens' Meeting
South ward (2)Koji MaruiwaLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Hatakeyama MinoriDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Nishi-ward (3)Hiromitsu TakedaDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)
Takahiro KatoLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Kei WadaLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Teine Ward (2)Takashi SumiyaLDP/Citizens' Meeting
Yasuko SudaDemocratic/Democratic Union (Constitutional Democratic Party)

House of Representatives

Member of the House of Representatives
ConstituencyRepresentative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
Hokkaido 1th Ward(Chuo-ku,South ward,Nishi-ward)Taichi MichishitaConstitutional Democratic Party1Constituency
Toshimi FunabashiLDP2Proportional revival
Hokkaido 2th Ward(Kita,Higashi Ward)(vacancy)
Hokkaido 3th Ward(Shiroishi Ward,Toyohira Ward,Kiyota Ward)Satoshi AraiConstitutional Democratic Party8Constituency
Hokkaido 4th Ward(Teine WardSuch)Hiroyuki NakamuraLDP3Constituency
Honda TairaConstitutional Democratic Party3Proportional revival
Hokkaido 5th Ward(Atsubetsu WardSuch)Yoshiaki WadaLDP2Constituency
Maki IkedaConstitutional Democratic Party1Proportional revival

National agency

Refer to "List of administrative agency locations"[68]

Government office

Cabinet Secretariat
  • Ainu General Policy Office Hokkaido Branch Office
National Personnel Authority
  • Secretariat Office Hokkaido Office
Cabinet Office
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  • Hokkaido Welfare Bureau
  • Hokkaido Labor Bureau
    • Labor Standards Department Labor Accident Compensation Section Branch Office
    • Employment Security Division, Occupational Measures Section
    • Sapporo CentralLabor Standards Inspection Office
    • Sapporo East Labor Standards Inspection Office
    • SapporoPublic Employment Security Office(Hello Work Sapporo)
      • Mothers Hello Work Sapporo, Sapporo Wakamono Hello Work, Hello Work Plaza Sapporo, Sapporo New Graduate Support Hello Work
    • Sapporo East Public Employment Security Office (Hello Work Sapporo East)
    • Sapporo Kita Public Employment Security Office (Hello Work Sapporo Kita)
      • Hello Work Plaza North 24
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
Ministry of the Environment
Ministry of Defense

裁判 所

Independent administrative agencies, special corporations, etc.

Refer to "List of locations of independent administrative corporations" and "List of locations of special corporations" (as of July 30, 7)[69][70]

Independent administrative agency
Special corporationWait

Road agency

Facility

Archives/Library

Archives
library

Museums

Cultural facility

Exercise facility

Multipurpose facility

park

Foreign relations

Number of registered foreigners by country

February 2009 Sapporo City Foreign Public Awareness Survey Report (digest version)[72]According to Sapporo, the total number of registered foreigners in Sapporo is 9,126.

Breakdown
Nationality (top)of people
Chugoku3,255 (about 35.7%)
South Korea·Korea(north korea)2,714 (about 29.7%)
The United States of America522 (about 5.7%)
フィリピン316 (about 3.5%)
ロシア267 (about 2.9%)
カナダ166 (about 1.8%)
英国163 (about 1.8%)
Australia150 (about 1.6%)
ネ パ ー ル122 (about 1.3%)
Indonesia108 (about 1.2%)
Other1343 (about 15.0%)

Sister city/affiliated city

"sister city"[73]And "City of exchange agreements"[74]reference

Overseas

sister city
Partner city

Domestic

Partner city
Other

International organization

Refer to "Foreign House in Sapporo, etc."[75]

Consulate

Consulate General
Honorary Consulate
  • Irish flagHonorary Consulate of Ireland
  • Indonesian flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Indonesia
  • Austrian flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Austria
  • Canadian flagHonorary Consulate of Canada
  • Guatemala flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish flagHonorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Spain
  • Chilean flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Chile
  • Danish flagHonorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Denmark
  • German flagHonorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany
  • Philippines flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of the Philippines
  • Finnish flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Finland
  • Brazilian flagHonorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Brazil
  • French flagHonorary Consulate of the French Republic
  • Mongolia flagHonorary Consulate of Mongolia
  • Lithuanian flagHonorary Consulate of the Republic of Lithuania

Foreign government related organizations

  • Canadian Government Sapporo Trade Office
  • In SapporoSakhalinPermanent mission
  • Sapporo
  • Sapporo Alliance Francaise
  • Sapporo Korean Education Institute

Other related organizations

Economy

In the central city of the Hokkaido economy, the gross domestic product (nominal) in 2009 (Heisei 21) is about 6.2 trillion yen, but it has decreased since the peak in 1995 (Heisei 7).[76].. In reality, with price fluctuations removed, the peak was in 2004 (16).[76].. The economy of Sapporo is such as service services for civic services and business establishments associated with population growth.Tertiary industryIs the most developed, and has been developed centering on domestic demand type industry corresponding to the demand formed locally.[76].

Primary industry

From the beginning of the Meiji eraTun Tianbing Paddy field-field OfClearingIn 1876 (Meiji 9), it became the predecessor of Hokkaido University.Sapporo agricultural schoolHas been played as a technological base for northern agriculture.[77].Pacific WarAfter that, with the rapid development of Sapporo City, for urban infrastructure developmentFarmlandWas diverted, and the number of farmland and farm households decreased.[77].. In 2006 (18), agricultural output was about 38.4 billion yen, cultivated was 30.7 billion yen, and livestock was 7.8 million yen.[77]..The main product isonion(Sapporo Huang),Pumpkin,watermelon,SpinachAs for onions, Sapporo is the birthplace of cultivation.

Secondary industry

The composition ratio of construction costs (work volume basis) in Hokkaido was 2010% for the public and 22% for the private sector in fiscal 56.4, accounting for more than half of the public and the highest ratio in the whole country.[77].. Both the number of establishments and employees in the construction industry are decreasing in Sapporo City due to the decreasing trend of public works.[77].. In the manufacturing industry, the shipment value of manufactured goods in Sapporo City was 2010 billion yen in 22 (4696).Tomakomai-MuroranRanked 3rd after[77].. In the manufacturing industry, both the number of business establishments and the number of employees are decreasing.[77].. The main industries are food manufacturing, printing/related industries, and metal/machine manufacturing.[77].

As "Sapporo-type manufacturing industry" in SapporoITThe industry, biotechnology industry, and content industry are developing as new industrial promotion, and in 1986 (Showa 61)Sapporo Techno ParkStarted to sell, and in the 1990s, IT-related companies concentrated around the north exit of Sapporo Station[77].. The IT industry in Sapporo is larger than the major manufacturing industries, accounting for about 8% of the entire Hokkaido market.[77]..Also, in December 2011, Sapporo CityGeneral Special Area Law"Sapporo Content Special Zone" (released in 2016)[78], Some municipalities in Hokkaido, including Sapporo, are designated as "Hokkaido Food Complex International Strategic Comprehensive Special Zone". In the special food zone, we aim to improve the added value of agricultural and marine resources and processed products from Hokkaido, and expand sales channels. ing[79].

Tertiary industry

It is the most developed industry in Sapporo. Regarding the retail industry, the number of establishments is decreasing, but the number of employees is increasing mainly in the food and beverage retailing industry.[77].. The ratio of the number of real estate business establishments is nationwide, Hokkaido,Regional center city(Sendai city-Hiroshima city-Fukuoka CityThe ratio of Sapporo City is higher than any of[77].. The average office rent in the central part of Sapporo City (Ekimae-dori area) was 2011 yen/tsubo as of the end of December 23, which is one-third of the rent in the Marunouchi area of ​​Tokyo.[77].. Sapporo city from 2000 (12)Call centerAnd is one of the nation's leading call center clusters such as financial industry, insurance industry, and retail industry.[77].. Regarding the service industry, the composition ratio of the number of business offices for academic research and specialized technology services is higher than that of all over Japan and Hokkaido.[77].. Looking at the composition ratio of the number of employees in the service industry by industry, medical and welfare industries account for the largest number, followed by accommodation and restaurant industries, and life-related service and entertainment industries.[77].

Companies based in Sapporo

Agriculture and forestry

Construction industry

Manufacturing industry

Food
machine
Oil and coal products

transportation

Public transportation
Other transportation

Wholesale trade

Retail trade

Department store/Supermarket
convenience store
Home center
Drug store
Insurance dispensing pharmacy
  • Medical system network
Automobile/industrial machinery retail
Fuel/gas retail
Restaurant industry
Other retail

Finance/Insurance

Financial institution
Life insurance
  • AXA Life(Two head office system with Tokyo)
Securities industry
Stock exchange
Other finance/insurance

real estate business

Service industry

Tourism
amusement
Medical and welfare services
Advertising agency
Consultant
Recruitment
Learning support
Other Services

Cooperative association with a secretariat in Sapporo

Other associations/organizations

List of industrial parks

See "Sapporo Industry Portal"[80]

Kita
  • Shinkawa Industrial Park
Higashi Ward
  • Higashi Naeko Industrial Park
  • Okadama Ironworks
  • Okadama District Industrial Park
  • Sapporo city recycling complex
Shiroishi Ward
South ward
  • Sapporo Art Village
Nishi-ward
  • Hakan Iron Works
  • Hakan Ironworks-related complex
  • Hakka Wood Park
  • Hakka District 2nd Industrial Park
  • Hakka District 3nd Industrial Park
  • Hakka District 4nd Industrial Park
Atsubetsu Ward
  • Atsubetsu District Light Industrial Park
  • Atsetsu District No. 2 Light Industrial Park
  • Sapporo Techno Park
Teine Ward
  • Teine Industrial Park
  • Teine Yamaguchi District Light Industrial Park
Kiyota Ward

Major companies founded in Sapporo

A company that used to be in Sapporo

Telecommunications

Mass media

TV/FM transmittersTeineyama, AM radio transmitterEbetsu(Ebetsu Radio Broadcasting Station) Is installed. As of June 2015, Sapporo cityBasic municipality) Is broadcast by the most 8 stations.

Newspaper company

Infomation

Broadcaster

TV broadcast
Area broadcasting
  • Especially TV Kotoni Shopping Street (Nishi Ward)
Radio station
Community broadcasting station
Internet radio stations
Cable television operators

communication

Information processing/data center
Telecommunications
software
Other

Life base

life line

gas

electricity

Heat supply

Education

National university
Public university
private university
Private junior college

Transportation

The IC boarding card introduced by JR HokkaidoKitaca"Sapporo City Transportation BureauIntroduced by "SAPICAHowever, since Kitaca is a service that can be used only in the SAPICA area (excluding some areas), please be careful.[81][82].. In addition, in order to promote social participation of the elderly,Respect for the elderly ride, And "Welfare boarding certificate" etc. are issued as a transportation expense subsidy for people with disabilities.[83][84].

空港

Train

In addition to JR Hokkaido, the current railway lines are Sapporo City Subway and Sapporo City Tram operated by the Sapporo City Transportation Bureau. JR is the main stationSapporo StationAnd subwayOdori StationIs (both stationsUnderground walking spaceIt is directly connected via).For private railways, Jotetsu Kei Railway Co., Ltd. (currentlyJotetsu) Operated byJozankei Railway LineExisted, but the whole line was abolished in 1969.

Hokkaido passenger railway(JR Hokkaido)
Nippon Freight Railway Hokkaido Branch(JR Freight)
Sapporo City Transportation Bureau
Sapporo City Transportation Business Promotion Corporation
  • One line
  • Yamahana West Line
  • Yamahana Line
  • Toshin Line

Cableway/steel rope railway

bus

Long time agoTransit BusでSapporo City BusWas in operation,Hokkaido Central Bus,JR Hokkaido Bus, Transferred to Jotetsu 3 companies and abolished.Intercity busesSapporo StationFrom the surrounding area to each city in HokkaidoExpress Bus,New Chitose AirportandSapporo Okadama AirportContact bus to,(I.e.ToShuttle busIs arriving and departing.

Transit Bus

Bus terminal

Taxi

Hokkaido Transportation BureauAccording to the total at the end of 2013 in the Sapporo transportation areaTaxiThe number of vehicles is 4,874 (appropriate number of vehicles is 4728). The actual actual vehicle rate in 2013 was 30.4% (2001Degree ratio minus 14.1%). The total actual vehicle kilometer in 2013 was 1 km (up 1,773% from the previous year). The daily vehicle revenue and the actual vehicle kilometer in 5,777 were 1.2 yen and 2013 km, respectively (the daily vehicle revenue was minus 28,800% and the actual vehicle kilometer was minus 74.8% compared to 2001).In response to this fact2015May 10According to the Transport Council, "In the Sapporo area, unless the taxi supply and transportation capacity is reduced, the taxi business cannot maintain sound management and function as public transportation."Taxi optimization and activation methodBased on Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX, Sapporo transportation area[Annotation 2]It was judged appropriate to specify as a "specific area" in which the total number of vehicles can be limited. The expiration date of the specified period in a specific area2018May 10Is[85].

The maximum fare for the first ride of a regular car by a member company of the Hokkaido Higher Association is 1.6 yen for the distance system (670 km) and 30 yen for the time system (2,830 minutes).[86].

道路

The roads in downtown Sapporo arePioneerIt started in 1869 (Meiji 2) and started to be made in earnest in 1871 (Meiji 4) based on the city planning ofBoardIt is characterized by running like the eyes of[87].. Judge of the pioneering ambassador who planned the construction of SapporoYoshiyuki ShimaThe ChineseChang'anAnd Japan京都I wanted to make it windy, but I was dismissed from the construction due to the difficulty of construction, and in 1870 (Meiji 3), the vice minister of developmentKiyotaka KurodaIt is said that this was the result of inviting many American engineers to develop a new city and carry out American-style town development instead.[87].. Initially, street names in Sapporo were named in the American style such as "Sapporo-dori" and "Ishikari-dori", but from the middle of the Meiji era, the east-west road was "South 1". , North-south road was given a Kyoto-style name, such as "West 1-chome."[87].

highway

National road

Tourism

Cultural property

Refer to "Designated Cultural Properties in Sapporo City (Countries/Roads/Cities)"[88]

Country designation

Road designation

City designation

Country registration

Refer to "Registered Cultural Property in Sapporo City"[90]

Nearby Tourist Spots

Chuo-ku
Kita
Higashi Ward
Shiroishi Ward
Toyohira Ward
South ward
Nishi-ward
Atsubetsu Ward
Teine Ward
Kiyota Ward

Culture/Specialty

Festivals and events

Music event
Sports competition
Major sports competitions ever held in Sapporo

Music

  • Sapporo Symphony Orchestra
  • Sapporo Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Hokkaido Symphony Orchestra
  • Nord Symphonica
  • Sapporo Chamber Orchestra
  • Sapporo 100 Symphony Orchestra
  • orchestraHARUKA
  • Sapporo Nishi Ward Orchestra
  • Sapporo citizen orchestra
  • Sapporo Broadcasting Chorus

Sports

Specialty

"Miso Ramen"Or"Soup CurryIt is said to be the birthplace[91][92], Various food cultures that make use of fresh ingredients from Hokkaido are developing. The "Sweets Kingdom Sapporo Promotion Council" was established in 2005, andWestern confectioneryFrom Sapporo where production is active, through various sweets, efforts are being made in various fields to create new vitality in the Hokkaido economy.[93].. In 2009, the city of Sapporo declared "Sapporo, a city that loves Hokkaido food," advocating the need not only to disseminate food inside and outside Hokkaido, but also to consume Hokkaido food.[94].

Specialty
Special product
  • Sapporo Huang(East WardOkadama districtProduced inonion OfVariety) "Ark of taste" registered varieties
  • Satsuo(Variety of onions produced in Okadama area, Higashi-ku. Improved variety of Sapporo Huang)
  • Sapporo Grand Ball (produced in the largest sizecabbageVariety) "Ajino Ark" registered variety
  • Miyako Ohama Pumpkin (Yamaguchi district, Teine WardProduced inPumpkinVarieties)
  • Sapporo watermelon (produced in Yamaguchi area, Teine Ward)watermelonVarieties)
  • Polar Star (Kiyota Ward)Shinei-AriakeProduced in the districtSpinachVarieties)
  • Satohoro (developed by Sapporo Agricultural CenterStrawberryVarieties)
  • Sapporo Hakkou (of Hokkaido traditional vegetablescornVariety.Odori Park's specialty grilled corn varieties at the time of its founding, generally called "Hachijo Toukibi") "Aji no Ark" registered varieties
  • Sapporo Midori (Snow Brand SeedlingDeveloped by SapporoEdamameBreed of
  • Sapporo Nagacho Nanban (of Sapporo traditional vegetablesRed pepperVarieties)
  • Sapporo white burdock (of Sapporo traditional vegetablesBurdockVarieties)

Origin/related celebrities

Honor citizen

Hiragishi CemeteryThere are Hashimoto, Takaoka, and Itagaki cemeteries in the Honorary Citizen's area.

Famous people

Works set in Sapporo

"Sapporo Film CommissionIs a movie or TV program set in Sapporo,CMFor shooting etc.LocationWe provide various information such as weather, event information, application required for shooting, etc.[95]..Also, "JapanFilm commissionAs the head of the Hokkaido block, when shooting all over Hokkaido, I act as a contact point for each local government in Hokkaido and support the shooting smoothly.[96].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Tokyo,Osaka,Nagoya cityThis was the fourth subway opening in Japan after Japan.
  2. ^ A business area established by the Hokkaido Transport Bureau Director under the provisions of Article XNUMX of the Road Transport Law Enforcement Regulations.

Source

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Call center

Call centerTo the customerTelA business establishment / department that specializes in response operations, like a contact point for inquiries from major companies.telephone lineLarge-scale facilities with a large number and corresponding number of operators are often called "call centers". in Japan104 number guideOr 116 general receptionNippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation(NTT) Telephone Business Center and Private SectorTelephone agentIt originates in.

Depending on the company, we accept paid services or free services.Recently, not only telephone (voice call) but alsofacsimile(FAX) ・電子 メ ー ル-Social MediaSince there are many ways to contact and contact instead of voice calls, we receive inquiries by various means.Contact centerIn some cases, the contents are almost the same.

GeneralconsumerForMail order・Service industry・Manufacturing industryI doCompany(Company) often accepts complaints, various inquiries, and orders, and in the past, the main business was to respond to reception (inbound), but in recent years, new customers have been receiving new customers.PioneeringBusinessOutbound marketingIt is also used for.

As an example of special usage, from the one-on-one system,Clinical trialInDouble blindIt is also used to ensure the blindness of the study.

Business and the system that supports it

The business is roughly divided into two types: inbound, which receives calls from consumers, and outbound, which makes calls from companies such as sales. Some centers handle both, while others only handle either.

1990 eraTechnology and experience are required to build the entire system, such as mechanization to lighten the burden on the operator, and since it has become more sophisticated in terms of operations such as recruitment training for operators and extension of inbound reception time,ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グBecame the mainstream.

Inbound work flow

consumerIn case of accepting various inquiries and orders (inbound) from the other party,Phone NumberIs displayedNumber displayAnd linked with thisDatabaseThe system enables deeper collaboration with sales and product development(CTI; Computer Telephony Integration)It came to come off.

Inbound work is basically performed by the following procedure.

  1. Automatic voice responseAt the first reception, the pushbutton signal (DTMF), etc. to select the message.
  2. Auto answerIf you are satisfied withAutomatic voice response deviceCorrespondence is completed only.
  3. If operator support is required, it will be assigned to the selected operator specializing in the matter.Even in that case, most of the standard response parts such as company name and operator name are pre-recorded.
  4. If the operator is unable to respond (the reception desk while seated is occupied), the user is notified by an automatic response that there is congestion.
  5. When the operator starts handling, the identity of the inquirer (customer identification) is first performed. It is said that the confirmation is often made mainly by the customer's first and last name, registered address, registered telephone number, customer number, etc.
  6. After the talk between the operator and the inquirer is over, the operator writes down and saves the conversation with the inquirer to the terminal.Repeat these series of operations.

Outbound business flow

Outbound work is basically performed by the following procedure.

  1. Automatic predictive dialing (predictive dialing) by predicting the operator's call termination and customer situation to the telephone number recorded in the database.
  2. Only the calls answered by the customer are distributed to the operator.
  3. The operator responds while referring to the customer information database.

In many business establishments, it is performed when there is a high probability that the customer will stay at home and there is no inconvenience, and there is little inbound work, and the operator is vacant.

Call center business system

Although there are some differences, most call centers have the following configuration.

In the server room

The following devices are placed in a room isolated from the operator from the viewpoint of personal information protection management, and the room is called a server room, a machine room, or the like.It is a shared facility in the call center.Multiple of these devices will be installed depending on the size of the call center.

Databaseserver
Customer information, product information, order information, reception history, etc. are recorded.It is generally installed outside the call center, but it may be cut out and copied to the system inside the call center.
ACD (Private branch exchange)
The incoming call is distributed to each operator. It has a routing function such as changing the number of telephones to be distributed according to the operator's ability and work style, and in cooperation with a database server, distributing telephones from customers requiring attention to experienced operators. Dialer to automatically call customers for outbound operations[1]Is used.
The ability to record various statistical information and provide it as an analysis report is also essential.
Recording all calls
A device that records all the contents of a call.Evidence when complaints or troubles occur, or operatorEducation, Used for recording/verifying call contents.
CTIserver
ACDA server for linking with other systems. For exampleACDA typical example is to link the caller / incoming phone number with the business system together with the event from, and display the customer and its related information and response history on the business system based on this.It is also common for business systems to link phone numbers to make calls.

Operator desktop equipment

The following equipment is installed for each operator seat.From the viewpoint of business efficiency and prevention of personal information leakage, call centers shared by adjacent operators are rare.

Private branch exchange desktop terminal
Receive a call, hang up, put on hold. A box-shaped device with buttons for basic phone operations such as operator login, logout, and leaving the phone, to which a headset is connected. In addition, there is an SV call button for calling the person in charge (SV; Supervisor). Depending on the equipment, these buttons are displayed on the screen and operated with a mouse or keyboard.
headset
Use a headset to operate the computer with both hands while talking to the customer.Call center business headsets are equipped with a special microphone () that collects only the voice of the mouth, making it difficult to pick up conversations with the operator next door.This is to ensure a clear conversation with the other party when many operators are present, but it is also useful from the viewpoint of preventing personal information leakage.

Network isolation

In order to completely separate the network that stores personal information from the business processing network, each terminal device (oftenPersonal computerDivert) is placed. Normally, it is not possible to print from terminals belonging to the personal information network, and it is necessary to prevent leakage of personal information. At the same time, update and editing of display contents are also prohibited at some call centers, and personal information is prevented from being altered intentionally or by mistake. As the two types of networks are physically separated and used as shown on the left, one operator seat has twoconsole(With display deviceInput deviceSet) is placed.

Main display
A display for displaying the information entered by the operator, such as customer inquiries and orders. It also displays the call time with the customer who is on call and the total call time for the day. In some cases, an operation panel with the function of a desktop terminal is displayed.
Sub display
Of responding customerspersonal informationAlso, information about customers who are currently responding, such as past order details and response details, is displayed. Depending on the call center, you can divert the light shield hood or use a privacy filter that allows the display to pass through only from the front (Polarized lightA filter is attached to prevent operators from seeing through the seats next to them to prevent leakage of personal information, and at the same time reduce the suspicion of leakage of personal information to the operator.
Keyboard, mouse
A general keyboard is connected to enter order details. Although it is often possible to perform all operations with only the keyboard, in recent years, in order to reduce the educational cost of operating the device, a mouse is connected so that it can be operated more visually or a display is used instead of the mouse.Touch panelIn some cases, it is a formula.

Location conditions

Traditionally,工場Etc. were directly managed, and employees of each company were in charge of the call center,Free dial,Navi dialSuch asAdvanced telephone serviceBegan to expand1995From around that time, in rural areas where wage costs were relatively low, to call center operating companiesア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グHas increased.For this reason, when talking to a call center operator, the geographical sense may shift (when the inquirer talked with the intention of calling to Tokyo, the call center on the receiving side was in Okinawa, so the operator I don't know the geography of Tokyo, and as a result, it takes time to explain the location).

Exceptionally, NTT104 can retrieve data from all over the country with a computer, so if you know the address, you can handle any phone number without any problem, and there are centers all over the country.

If you open a call center in a rural area, it is far from big cities such as Tokyo and Osaka,Leased line-IP phone(IP Centrex) Etc. together to reduce the communication cost of companies that open call centers (when viewed in Okinawa, it is adjacent due to the exception of remote islands)MAIs considered a districtKagoshimaExcept for, all farthest distance calls will be very expensive. Also,Local governmentSince it spends a certain amount of subsidies on telephone charges and initial investment, the overall cost is considered to be low.

eachGovernment-designated city,Prefectural office locationCall centers are set up around the area, but especiallySapporo,Sendai cityIs one of the districts where many call centers are located because the language is close to the standard language and the local government is enthusiastic about attracting.In recent years, the population of women and students has increased, and from the perspective of risk avoidance after the Great East Japan Earthquake,Fukuoka CityThe number of center establishments in is increasing.

Overseas

Moreover,international callIs cheapIP phoneIn order to use the time difference for 24 hours, there are call centers in multiple countries where labor costs are low, and there are businesses that outsource the work, and the number of companies outsourcing is increasing. From the point of view of the receiving country, there is the advantage that foreign currency can be earned by exporting the service.

English-SpanishThere is a lot of support inJapaneseSome services are available.

The typical one isChugokuso,DalianIsDELL,hp,GE,Optical communication,MI Communications,Masterpiece groupSuch asBPOCall center,Contact centerIs installed,北京市Then,Tele performanceIs a Chinese corporation.

またKingdom of ThailandHowever, the BOI (Thailand Government Investment Commission Secretariat) established the call center as an investment encouragement industry on October 2002, 10 (in February 30, the name of the encouragement industry wasBPORenamed to expand the scope of encouragement)Asia Dynamic Communications(Currently, the company name is “Masterpiece Group (Thailand)”), which has received the investment incentive benefit.

Personal information protection, measures against information leakage

Since the call center handles a large amount of customer's personal information and confidential information, strict protection of personal information is required.Information leakageMeasures are thorough.However, the following measures are not taken at all call centers.

Education to prevent information leakage
In the training at the time of joining the company, we will educate from basic knowledge such as "what is personal information", "what is information leakage", and "what happens if information is leaked".
Have them write a pledge that "if information is leaked intentionally or negligently, we will be liable for the damage" and "we will not say anything about our business even after retirement".
Access control
ID cardBiometricsEntrance and exit management is performed using, and the appearance of entering and leaving the room is taken by a security camera.
Peep measures
In many cases, a privacy filter is applied to the display of the operator's desk so that the characters displayed on the screen cannot be discriminated from an oblique direction.
headset
Professional headsets used in call center operations are designed to pick up only sound within a range of tens of centimeters around the microphone.Even if you speak louder at a remote location in the center, it is difficult for the other customer to hear the content.
Countermeasures for illegal acquisition of information
In order to prevent the operator from acquiring unnecessary personal information for business, the personal information displayed on the screen is only the personal information of the person with whom he is currently talking, and the personal information of other customers can be searched arbitrarily. It is rare to be there.Even if the database can be searched, the search history is recorded.
Away management
If an IC card reader for inserting an ID card is installed in each operator console, the operator console cannot be used unless the ID card is inserted, and the operator console is locked when the ID card is pulled out. There are also cases. By providing a rest space and entrance to the toilet outside the operator room and forcing ID card authentication when leaving the operator room, the ID card can be reliably pulled out when leaving the operator. I try not to keep my personal information displayed on the desk.
Electronics,Removable mediaNo carry-on
In the room where the operator worksfloppy disk,USB memory,CD-RRecording media such as smartphones, digital cameras,IC recorderIt is prohibited to bring in such electronic devices at all (if it is unavoidable to use it, it is necessary to obtain permission from the person in charge in advance).This is intentional or negligentComputer virusIt is also useful in preventing the infection of.
In addition, in the personal computer installed in the operator's seat, a floppy disk drive orMemory card reader/writer,optical drive(CD-ROM,DVD-ROMEtc.) are removed or changed to a "read-only" drive, and the USB port is also blocked.
DHCPServer not used
From the viewpoint of preventing personal information leakage and computer virus inflow, it is extremely rare that a DHCP server is used in building a network within the center.

problem

  • The only way to make inquiries from customers is by phone.電子 メ ー ル,Website内 のCounterfeit(Mail form),facsimileMany companies do not have alternatives such as.
    • If you only respond to inquiries by phone,Deaf person,Speech impairedThere may be a problem in dealing with such things.
    • Similarly, if the means of telephone inquiries are abolished, beginners who cannot master PCs and smartphones (Information vulnerable) May interfere with inquiries and support.
    • If you can respond to inquiries about "text information" such as emails and chats, you will be able to take a closer look at the points you want to inquire in advance.File to email (photo, PCscreenshot, Videos, etc.) can convey more accurate information, but many companies do not accept emails with attached files as part of anti-virus measures.
  • Depending on the company's budget and business conditions, the number of operators that can be deployed is limited, so there are call centers that do not easily connect to the telephone.
  • There are cases where users are frustrated by the difficulty of connecting and become emotional and desire to respond to unreasonable complaints.
  • The good thing about toll-free numbers is that you have to deal with malicious prank calls all the time.
  • Year-roundInevitably because it is operated inShift workOn Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, there are almost no holidays (as an alternative, weekdays may be closed).
    • It is difficult to maintain motivation (motivation to work) because many workers suffer from stress and mental disorders because they can handle complaints and work without rest on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays.TurnoverIs high.
    • TurnoverBecause it is a high-level job, there are few regular employees hired,Part-time job-(I.e.Such asNon-regular employmentMost of the operators are (short-term employment on a monthly basis).
  • Different operators have different skills and proficiency, and they may be told that they are completely different when they call again.
  • There are too many divisions, so push (DTMFOften users are confused when making a selection in ).
    • When customers who are connected to inappropriate departments are instructed to redistribute to appropriate departments, some customers feel this is a nuisance.
  • If you call a different department, the operator may not be able to understand the response information in the previous department from the viewpoint of personal information protection, and the customer may need to explain the situation again (in the previous department, It is possible that you are entering a correspondence log).
  • If the only way to contact us is by telephoneMobile phoneWhen used from, the radio wave is often cut off and the call may be cut off. Even if the call is redone, the call is not always connected to the operator who was in the middle of the conversation.
    • Problems such as misunderstandings and differences in interpretation between the customer and the operator can often occur, but this can be avoided to some extent by equipping the telephone equipment with a call recording function.

Major call center companies

footnote

  1. ^ "PDS Contact Center/BPO Terminology”. KDDI Evolva. 2020/5/23Browse.

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