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😷 | Corona sickness, educational training finally started Prefectural high school, refusal to accept is puzzled by trainees


Photo A state of educational training by third-year students of the Faculty of Education of Kumamoto University.登校しない実習生には、「Zoom」を介して授業の様子を伝えた=9月、熊本市中央区For trainees who did not go to school, the state of the class was communicated through "Zoom" = September, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto City

Corona sickness, educational training finally started Prefectural high school, refusal to accept is puzzled by trainees

 
If you write the contents roughly
Rina Miyamura (20) of the Department of Health and Physical Education said, "I was relieved to be able to practice.
 

Educational training, which had been postponed due to the effects of the new coronavirus, is being conducted at elementary and junior high schools in Kumamoto Prefecture.Corona measures ... → Continue reading

 Kumamoto Daily Newspaper

The Kumamoto Nichinichi Shimbun is a local newspaper in Kumamoto. Full of information about Kumamoto such as news and sports.


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physical education

physical education(Physical education)SportsAnd variousmotionThrough aiming for healthy physical and mental growth, as well as self-reliancebodyTo learn and nurture the mechanism of the system.

History

Ancient times

Around the 8th century BC, in Athens as a training facility for military purposesGymnasiumWas created[1]..紀元前6世紀以後にはAfter the XNUMXth century BCOlympiaWith the rise of the four major competition festivals held in four cities, physical education has moved away from military purposes, and people have come to gymnasium as a culture for the general public.[1]..アテネでは調和的人間の形成が理想とされ、音楽の修学とともに体育が重視されたIn Athens, the formation of a harmonious human being was ideal, and physical education was emphasized along with studying music.[1].

However, in the latter half of the classical period, knowledge education became more important, the importance of music and physical education declined, and the number of mercenaries increased rapidly, so physical education of the general public was also neglected.[2].

Modern

Practical physical education activities were carried out in Italy during the Renaissance, but they did not spread throughout Europe.[3]..しかし、啓蒙思想家たちによってギリシャ・ローマの体育思想が復活し、フランス革命や産業革命の影響も背景に、教育において体育が実践されるようになったHowever, the Enlightenment thinkers revived the idea of ​​physical education in Greece and Rome, and with the influence of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, physical education began to be practiced in education.[3].

JB Basedou (1723-1790) established Panai Gakuin in 1774 and advocated a shift from church-dominated education to state-dominated education, with children's developmental stages such as play, crafts, gymnastics, and outdoor activities. Incorporated educational content and educational methods according to life experience[4]..汎愛学院の教師だったWas a teacher at Han-ai GakuinCG Salzman(1744-1811) established a school with the same purpose in Schnepental and is the principal of the school, where all the students run, jump, and jump according to their abilities under the guidance of a physical education instructor and assistant chief in a dedicated playground. A prototype of subject physical education for throwing and averaging exercises was created[5]..ザルツマンの学校に体育主任として着任したAppointed as a PE chief at Salzmann's schoolJCF Goods Mouts(1759-1839) is said to be the person who theorized physical education as an independent area by means of educational exercise, rather than the conventional comprehensive physical education, and is called the "founder of modern physical education".[6].

School physical education

Physical education activities at school are called school physical education.In school physical education, the absolute monarchy collapsed with the establishment of the modern nation-state in Europe, and the people (general citizens) as sovereigns are obliged to defend the nation.Johann Gottlieb FichteAnd Franz Nahategal came to explain the importance of physical education, and modern national physical education (school physical education) was formed.[7]..一方、近代資本主義の発展により労働者の健康が深刻な問題となり、婦人や児童の健康の問題とあわせて新たな体育論が展開されたOn the other hand, the development of modern capitalism has made the health of workers a serious problem, and a new theory of physical education has been developed along with the problem of the health of women and children.[7].

School education in Germany

In Germany(English edition)(FLJahn, 1778-1852) is called the "father of German gymnastics (Turnen)" and practiced physical education education using the concept of Turnen as an alternative concept to Gymnastik.[7].. FLヤーンは水曜日と土曜日の午後に諸学校の生徒を集めてあらゆる身分的差別を排除したて体育活動を行いのちの体育会活動の基礎を作ったFL Yarn laid the foundation for athletic activities after gathering students from schools on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons to eliminate all discrimination and perform athletic activities.[8]..Turnen's activities are aimed at raising fellowship and public awareness.Vienna conferenceWas banned in 1820 after being cracked down,February RevolutionActivity resumed before and after[8].

After that, there was a physical education controversy in Germany, but the introduction of physical education into schools was achieved by theories such as A. Spies (1810-1858) and A. Maul (1828-1907).[8]..ドイツではまず1860年頃から男子の中等学校や師範学校に体操科が導入されたが、初等学校に導入されたのは19世紀末から20世紀にかけてであるIn Germany, gymnastics was first introduced in boys' secondary and normal schools around XNUMX, but it was introduced in primary schools from the end of the XNUMXth century to the XNUMXth century.[8].

School physical education in Japan

in JapanDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularInLesson OfSubjectorSubjectsIt is one of.

保健Field ・SubjectsWithHealth and physical educationAs a school subject, it is sometimes referred to as (hokentaiiku).primary schoolThen "physical education",Junior high schoolThen "health and physical education",high schoolThen.Ordinary education"Health and physical education" is a subject (ordinary subject) related toProfessional education"Physical education" is a subject (specialized subject) related toexistare doing.保健ではIn healthSex education,Health,Environment,welfare,家族Education will be provided.

Physical education is a newly introduced subject in postwar educational reform as a translation of English physical education.Health and physical education is a translation of physical and health education. (However,Tokyo Universitygraduate SchoolGraduate School of EducationSo, instead of calling it the Health and Physical Education Laboratory, it is called the Physical Education Laboratory. )

Costumes are basically except for classes such as physical education theory and healthGym clothesIs used and underwater (Playing in the water Floating / swimming exercise æ°´ æ³³In)School swimwear(Swimming swimmingIn some cases), in martial artsRoad(Sumo isTurning) Is used.

RoughEducationThe goal is for each school typeCourse of StudyStipulated in.

Elementary school "Physical education"

aims

In the course of study, "HeartAnd the body as one, with proper exercise experienceHealth-SafeFamiliarize yourself with the movement for life through an understanding of資質,能力To cultivate the basics of health and maintain and improve healthPhysical strengthIs fun and brightLifeFoster an attitude of running. It is stipulated.

The grade goal isLower Grade-Middle school year-Upper gradesIt is divided into three stages.

In the lower grades, the content emphasizes compliance with rules and cooperation, and forms the basis of subsequent activities.From the middle grades, a unit of "health" will be added, and it will be required to acquire knowledge through classroom lectures.The upper grades are required to challenge the record.

Message

Many sports are introduced in the supplementary readers of physical education, but surprisingly few are required in the course of study.By not clarifying the event, it is possible to devise a place and set local rules according to the actual situation of the class.

Lower Grade
  • Body building exercise
    • Easy exercise and rhythmic exercise
    • Exercise to create various movements
  • Exercise play using instruments
    • Climbing up and down using fixing equipmentoverhangTransition / walking / jumping down
    • マ ッ トRoll in various directions, hold and rotate your body by supporting it with your hands
    • Horizontal barSupport up and down, hanging and easy rotation using
    • Vaulting boxJumping and jumping down, straddling and jumping with your hands
  • Running / jumping exercise play
    • Running is low, running in various directionsObstacleRun over
    • Jumps jump forward, upward, or continuously
  • Playing in the water
    • WedSoak or move, float or muffle in water, or exhale in water
  • ゲーム
    • ballThe game is a game that hits the target or a game that is offensive and defensive by simple ball operation and movement when not holding the ball.
    • Demon playEscape, chase, fight for positions, etc. in a certain area
  • Expression rhythm play
    • The expression captures the characteristics of familiar subjects and dances with the whole body
    • Rhythm play dances with a light rhythm

Of the above, physical exercise is taken for two years, and other items are taken for either first or second grade or for two years depending on the school.

Middle school year
  • Body building exercise
    • Easy exercise and rhythmic exercise
    • Exercise to create various movements
  • Instrumental movement
    • Mat exercise is a basic rotation techniqueHandstandDo the trick
    • The horizontal bar movement is a basic ascending technique, supporting rotation technique, and descending technique.
    • The vaulting box exercise is a basic support jumping technique.
  • Floating / swimming exercise
    • Floating exercises have various ways of floating and stretching
    • Swim exercises include kicks, strokes, and breathing elementary swims with assistive devices.
  • ゲーム
    • The goal-type game is an easy game with basic ball operations and movements when the ball is not held.
    • Net-type gamesRallyPlay an easy game by continuing to play or connecting balls
    • Baseball type games play easy games by kicking, hitting, catching, throwing, etc.
  • Expression movement
    • The expression is to capture the characteristics of familiar subjects and dance by combining and repeating movements that contrast.
    • rhythmダンスDances with the whole body on a light rhythm
  • 保健
    • 3rd grade Healthy life
    • Growth and development of the 4th grade body

Of the above, physical exercise and health will be taken for two years, and other items will be taken for either third or fourth grade or for two years depending on the school.

Upper grades
  • Body building exercise
    • Easy exercise and rhythmic exercise
    • Exercise to increase body softness and skillful movement and exercise to enhance strong movement and ability to sustain movement
  • Instrumental movement
    • Mat exercise is a basic rotation techniqueHandstandPerform techniques in a stable manner, perform advanced techniques, repeat and combine them
    • In the horizontal bar movement, the basic ascending technique, supporting rotation technique, and descending technique are stably performed, and the advanced technique is performed, and these are repeated or combined.
    • In the vaulting box movement, the basic support jumping technique is stably performed, and the advanced technique is performed.
  • Athletics
    • SprintrelayRuns a certain distance with full power
    • Hurdling runs over hurdles rhythmically
    • The long jump jumps from a rhythmic run-up
    • The high jump jumps from a rhythmic run-up
  • Ball movement
    • Goal type (mainlybasketball-サ ッ カ ー) Is a simplified game where you attack and defend by manipulating the ball and moving to receive the ball.
    • Net type (mainlyvolleyball) Is a simplified game where you attack and defend by team cooperation.
    • Baseball type (mainlysoft ball) Is a simplified game in which you attack and defend by hitting the ball back and defending in a formation (some schools may not take it).
  • Expression movement
    • The expression captures the image you want to express from various subjects and dances with improvisational expressions or simple group expressions.
    • Folk danceCaptures the characteristics of how to dance and dances to music with simple steps and movements
    • Rhythm dance is also taken at some schools
  • 保健
    • 5th grade Mental development and anxiety, coping with worries andInjuryPrevention of
    • 6 å¹´ 生 sickPrevention of

Of the above, physical exercise and health will be taken for two years, and other items will be taken for either third or fourth grade or for two years depending on the school.

Junior high school "health and physical education"

The course of study states, "By grasping the mind and body as one, understanding exercise, health and safety, and rational practice of exercise, we will develop qualities and abilities to be familiar with exercise throughout our lives and practical ability to maintain and improve health. To foster a bright and prosperous life by fostering and improving physical strength. "

  • Body building
    • Easy exercise and rhythmic exercise
    • (1st and 2nd grade) Exercise to improve physical softness, skillful movement, strong movement, ability to sustain movement, and work on exercise planning by combining them (3rd grade) Maintaining and improving health Plan and work on exercise to improve harmonious physical fitness
  • Instrumental exercise (1st and 2nd grades take 2nd or more, 3rd grade takes 1st or more depending on the school)
    • In the mat exercise, (1st and 2nd grades) perform basic techniques of rotating and skill systems smoothly, and perform techniques and advanced techniques with different conditions (3rd grade). Basics of rotating and skill systems. Perform various techniques smoothly and stably, perform techniques with different conditions, and develop techniques, and compose and perform them.
    • Horizontal bar exercise (1st and 2nd grade) smoothly performs basic skills of support system and chin-up system, and performs techniques and development techniques with different conditions (3rd grade) Basic skills of support system and chin-up system Perform smoothly and stably, perform techniques with different conditions, perform advanced techniques, compose and perform them.
    • Balance beamFor exercise, (1st and 2nd grade) perform basic gymnastics and balance skills smoothly, and perform techniques and development techniques with different conditions (3rd grade). Basic gymnastics and balance skills. Perform smoothly and stably, perform techniques with different conditions, perform advanced techniques, compose and act
    • The vaulting box exercise (1st and 2nd grades) smoothly performs the basic techniques of turning and rotating systems, and performs techniques with different conditions and advanced techniques (3rd grade). Basic techniques of turning and rotating systems. Smoothly and stably, perform techniques with different conditions and advanced techniques
  • Athletics
    • (1st and 2nd grade) Sprint / relay runs fast with smooth movement, long-distance running keeps pace and runs a certain distance (3rd grade) Sprint / relay connects to intermediate running Run fast by smoothing, etc., and run at a pace that suits you for long-distance running
    • Hurdling (1st and 2nd grade) smoothly crosses hurdles from rhythmic running (3rd grade) hurdles are crossed low from running that maintains speed
    • The long jump is a quick jump from a speedy run-up (1st and 2nd grade) and a powerful jump from a speedy run-up (3rd grade).
    • The high jump (1st and 2nd grade) jumps from a rhythmic run-up with a powerful jump (3rd grade) from a rhythmic run-up with a powerful take-off and a smooth spatial movement.
  • Swimming (1st and 2nd grades take 2nd or more including crawl or breaststroke, 3rd grade takes 1st or more depending on the school)
    • The front crawl (1st and 2nd grade) balances hands and feet and breathing and swims fast (3rd grade) balances hands and feet and breathing and swims long and fast at a stable pace
    • Breaststroke (1st and 2nd grade) balances hands and feet and breathing and swims long (3rd grade) Keeps hands and feet and breathing balanced and swims long and fast at a stable pace
    • backstroke·バ タ フ ラ イ(1st and 2nd grade) swim with balanced hands and feet and breathing (3rd grade) Keep balanced hands and feet and breathing and swim at a stable pace
    • Multiple swimming styles or relays
  • Ball games (1st and 2nd grade students take all courses, 3rd grade students take 2 or more courses depending on the school)
    • Goal type (basketball depending on the schoolhandball・ Some of soccer) develops offense and defense in front of the goal by stable ball operation and movements such as running into the space (1st and 2nd grade) (3rd grade) Creating stable ball operation and space, etc. Develop offense and defense from invasion in front of the goal by movement
    • Net type (volleyball depending on the schoolTable tennis-Tennis-badminton(Some of them) develops offense and defense over vacant places by manipulating balls and tools according to their roles (1st and 2nd grades) and moving to return to their home positions (3rd grade) Balls according to their roles Develop offense and defense over vacant places by movement linked with operation and stable operation of tools
    • Baseball type (softball) develops offense and defense by basic bat operation (1st and 2nd grade), attack on base, ball operation and defense at fixed position (3rd grade) Stable bat operation Develop offense and defense by attacking on the base, ball operation, coordinated defense, etc.
  • Martial arts (take one or more classes depending on the school, and depending on the schoolNaginataOther martial arts such as)
    • judo(1st grade, 2nd grade) From the basic movement according to the opponent's movement, develop offense and defense such as throwing and suppressing using basic techniques (3rd grade) From the basic movement according to the opponent's movement , Using basic techniques, special techniques and communication techniques, develop offense and defense such as breaking the opponent and throwing or suppressing
    • kendo(1st and 2nd grade) From basic movements according to the opponent's movements, develop offense and defense such as hitting and receiving using basic techniques (3rd grade) Basics according to changes in the opponent's movements From the movement, using basic techniques and special techniques, develop offense and defense such as breaking the opponent's stance and approaching and responding
    • Sumo(1st grade, 2nd grade) From basic movements according to the opponent's movements, using basic techniques, develop offense and defense such as pushing and approaching (3rd grade) Basics according to changes in hand movements From the movement, using basic techniques and special techniques, develop offense and defense such as destroying the opponent, throwing and twisting
  • Dance (take one or more classes depending on the school)
    • Creative dance (1st and 2nd grade) captures the image you want to express from various themes, improvises by changing the movement, or dances as a group of changes (3rd grade). Capture an image suitable for the theme you want to express, and dance by improvising with individual or group movements and how to use the space, or by putting them together in a simple work.
    • Folk dance(1st and 2nd grade) captures the characteristics of the dance style and dances with characteristic steps and movements to the music (3rd grade) captures the characteristics of the dance style and captures the characteristic steps and movements to the music Dance with how to assemble
    • Modern rhythm dance captures the characteristics of rhythm (1st and 2nd grade), combines changing movements, and dances with the whole body on the rhythm (3rd grade) Captures the characteristics of rhythm, and changes and unites. Attach and dance with your whole body in rhythm
  • Physical education theory
    • About the variety of first grade exercises and sports
    • Second grade Significance and effects of exercise and sports
    • Significance of sports as a third grade culture
  • 保健
    • 1st grade Development of mental and physical functions and mental health
    • Second grade health and environment, prevention of injury
    • Third grade Healthy life and prevention of illness

First and second graders take all of the above, and take physical exercise, physical education theory, and health for two years (the other six items are taken for either first or second grade or for two years depending on the school). In the third grade, all students take physical education, physical education theory, and health, and take one or more of instrumental exercise, athletics, swimming, and dance, and one or more of ball games and martial arts (physical education).・ Except for physical education theory and health, the items to be taken differ depending on the school).

High school ordinary subject "health and physical education"

The course of study states, "Through rational and systematic practice of exercise, you can deepen your knowledge, improve your skills, enjoy the joy and joy of exercise, and improve your physical fitness according to your own situation. To foster the qualities and abilities to foster fairness, cooperation, responsibility, participation, ensure health and safety, and continue a rich sports life for a lifetime. "

The content of physical education is physical education, instrumental exercise, athletics, swimming, ball games, martial arts, dance, and physical education theory, and physical education and physical education theory are taken at all schools for all grades. First-year students take one or more of instrumental exercise, athletics, swimming, and dance, and one or more of ball games and martial arts (the items to be taken differ depending on the school). After the second grade, take two or more items of instrumental exercise, athletics, swimming, and dance (the items to be taken differ depending on the school).

The content in health

  • Modern society and health
  • Lifelong health
  • Social life and health

High school specialized subject "Physical education"

In high school, "physical education" as a specialized subject is set in addition to "health and physical education" as a regular subject."Physical education" as a specialized subject is mainly taken in "Physical education".In the course of study, "The mind and body are considered as one, and it contributes to the development of a healthy mind and body through independent, rational, and systematic practice aimed at specialized understanding of sports and acquisition of advanced skills. , Foster the qualities and abilities that contribute to the promotion and development of sports throughout life, and foster an attitude of living a bright, prosperous and energetic life. "

Department of physical education

Department of physical education(What do you think about it?)High school establishment standard(16 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ordinance No. 20)Departments specializing in specialized educationType 1 of.Among the subjects belonging to the specialized subject "Physical Education", "Physical Education Theory", "Physical Education" and "Physical Education"outdoor activities"But,High school curriculum guidelinesIt is designated as a course in principle by (Ministry of Education Notification No. 11, 58).

ACCIDENT

According to a survey by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 1998 accidents occurred during physical education activities (classes, club activities, physical education events, etc.) nationwide during the 2009 years from 12 to 590.傷病の内容は突然死が359件、頭部外傷78件、脊髄損傷67件となっており運動部の活動が活発な中学と高校の発生件数が全体の約90%を占めているSudden death was XNUMX cases, head injury was XNUMX cases, and spinal cord injury was XNUMX cases, and the number of cases of junior high school and high school where the activity of the athletic club is active accounts for about XNUMX% of the total.[9].

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, p. 14
  2. ^ Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, pp. 14-15
  3. ^ a b Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, p. 77
  4. ^ Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, pp. 77-78
  5. ^ Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, p. 79
  6. ^ Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, pp. 79-80
  7. ^ a b c Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, p. 81
  8. ^ a b c d Yoshitsugu Kimura, "Introduction to the History of Physical Education and Sports," Ichimura Publishing, 2001, p. 82
  9. ^ Concussion of sports accident "Knowing the danger to leaders" Request to Nagano Prefectural Board of Education BLOGOS March 2016, 11

外部 リンク

Ministry of education
Course of Study

 

 

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