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😷 | The possibility that a new corona existed in Italy in the summer of 2019-Chinese media


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The new corona may have existed in Italy in the summer of 2019-Chinese media

 
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Of these, 16 samples were "positive" for IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibody.
 

The Italian newspaper "Corriere della Serra" dated 15th, according to the results of a study recently published by the National Cancer Institute of Milan ... → Continue reading

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Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G(Men-eki globulin G, Immunoglobulin G, IgG)ImmunoglobulinIt is one of the classes of, and is a monomeric immunoglobulin consisting of two heavy chains γ and two light chains.Two for each complexantigenHas a binding site.It is the most abundant of immunoglobulins.HumanserumOccupies 75% of immunoglobulins[1], All over the bodyblood,Interstitial fluidExists in.

birdsIgG is often called IgY, with serumegg yolkSeen in[2].

Features

IgG is humanplacentaIs the only isotype that can pass throughImmune systemUntil the first week of life to establishFetusI'm protecting.Maternally-derived IgG continues to remain for some time after the birth of a newborn baby, while the immune system of the newborn baby is still underdeveloped. During this period, newborns are vulnerable to illness.

IgGウ イ ル ス,Bacteria,FungusVarious types such asPathogenAs an antigen,complement,Opsonization[3]byPhagocytosis, Protects the living body by neutralizing toxins.

In addition to IgG, IgM also activates complement.[4], Promotes phagocytosis.In addition, "neutralization" in immunology has a different meaning from "neutralization" of chemical acid alkali, and "neutralization" in immunology is the binding between a pathogen and a receptor of a host (human body, etc.). It means to stop the infection by stopping the infection.[5].

Specific IgGFood allergyIt also exists for those who are notFood allergyIts usefulness in diagnosing is not established

mechanism

Among various immunoglobulins such as IgM in addition to IgG, IgG has a particularly long remaining period, and it is said that IgG remains for several years, and in some cases, for a lifetime in a healthy adult with established immunity.On the other hand, IgM has a short remaining period, and it is said that the remaining period is several months.

In the immune system, IgM is produced first, and IgG is produced later.

IgG and IgM have similarities, and both of them are opsonized to attach these immunoglobulins to the surface of microorganisms such as pathogens, and promote phagocytosis such as phagocytosis by macrophages.Macrophages have the complement receptor CR1 as a receptor for detecting opsonization.[6], This has detected opsonized bound microorganisms.

Subclass

Five classes of immunoglobulin Ig are known and classified into five types, of which IgG is further classified by subclass.

In humans, IgG has four known subclasses.[7],

TypesProportionPlacenta passageActivation of complementBinding of phagocytic cells to the Fc site
IgG166%ToSecond highesthigh
IgG223%do not doSecond highestExtremely low
IgG307%Tohighesthigh
IgG404%Todo not doMedium

The number of subclasses varies depending on the animal species.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Junqueira, Luiz C .; Jose Carneiro (2003). Basic Histology. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0838505902 
  2. ^ Chicken Antibody Frequently Asked Questions
  3. ^ Masayuki MiyasakaOthers "Standard Immunology", Igaku-Shoin, 3rd Edition, February 2016, 2, 1rd Edition, 3nd Edition, p. 2
  4. ^ Masayuki Miyasaka et al., Standard Immunology, Igaku-Shoin, 3rd Edition, February 2016, 2, 1rd Edition, 3nd Edition, p. 2
  5. ^ Masayuki Miyasaka et al., Standard Immunology, Igaku-Shoin, 3rd Edition, February 2016, 2, 1rd Edition, 3nd Edition, p. 2
  6. ^ Masayuki Miyasaka et al., Standard Immunology, Igaku-Shoin, 3rd Edition, February 2016, 2, 1rd Edition, 3nd Edition, p. 2
  7. ^ Masayuki Miyasaka et al., Standard Immunology, Igaku-Shoin, 3rd Edition, February 2016, 2, 1rd Edition, 3nd Edition, p. 2

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