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😷 | New Corona, XNUMX new infections


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New corona, XNUMX new infections

 
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An additional 63 cases of outbreaks in dancehalls were confirmed, bringing the total to 250.
 

On November XNUMX, the Center for Health Protection of the Special Zone announced the number of new cases of coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-XNUMX) ... → Continue reading

 Hong Kong Post

"Hong Kong Post" was first published in June XNUMX as Hong Kong's first full-scale Japanese newspaper. We provide Japanese residents in Hong Kong and Japanese readers with seasonal information that supports business and life through Hong Kong in tabloids and electronic media.


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infection

infection(Kansen,British: infection) IsBiology OfInside the bodyOr more on the surfacevolumeSmall ofmicroorganismEtc.Pathogen ParasiticThen,ProliferationThings to do[1].. Also, such as intrusionprocess[2].. It happensdiseaseTheInfectionThat.

Unicellular organismAlsoウ イ ル スBe infected by. Also,ParasiteThe length ofHostSometimes exceeds.

Terms similar to infection

Similar terms to infection are contagious and epidemic. These are often confused, but strictly speaking

  • Infection: One person (one individual)HostTarget
  • Contagion: Infection of two (two) hosts from one to the other
  • trend(English: epidemic): Infection between multiple hosts (society)

Is made. In addition, among epidemics, those that occur widely across multiple countriesPandemic(English: pandemic), what happens in an area smaller than that is called a local epidemic (English: endemic)[3].

In addition, in the case such as before the entry of microorganisms (for example, just adhered to the skin surface)汚染Is distinguished[4].

Overall flow from infection to post-onset

Infection process

Invasion of pathogen into living body
A pathogen (so-called parasite) invades a part of the living body (so-called host) that should be sterile. The place where the infection is caused by the pathogen or the host (infection site) is limited, and in order for the infection to occur, the pathogen is specific to the specific entrance (entrance gate).Transmission routeIt is necessary to reach a sufficient number of infected sites via (invasion route). For example,Food poisoningIs one of the causes ofSalmonellaIs contained in the living body such as bactericidal components contained in saliva, white blood cells of esophageal mucosa, gastric juice, etc. in the process of entering the mouth (=entrance door) through food from the hand and passing through the digestive tract (=entrance route) from there. It is the site of infection that escapes various attacksIntestineReach the M cells of the body, then enter the bloodstream through the mucous membrane and systemically infect[5].
Colonization and parasitism of pathogens in the living body
The host attempts to eliminate the pathogen, but the elimination persists or fails to catch up and persists. Alternatively, the host does not intentionally exclude it, and the host and the parasite coexist. The state at this point is called “parasitic”. The relationship between the host and the parasite is established as host = parasite. Clinically, at this pointCarriage(Both are colonization). For example, a state in which indigenous bacteria parasitize the living body is beneficial to the living body, such as preventing the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the living body.[6].

Process until onset

Growth of microorganisms in the living body
The coexistence of the host and the parasite collapses, and the force relationship becomes host <parasite. The host tries to eliminate or multiply the microorganism, but is unable to suppress it[7].
Onset in the living body
Even if infection by a pathogen is established, that is, stable growth occurs in vivo, it does not always cause illness.[8].. Of the proliferated microorganisms, for the hostPathogenicityIt is divided into those with and without (English: virulence), and it is caused by those with pathogenicity. Onset refers to the case where the host causes some medical condition by the actions of both the host and the parasite. Since the host has a medical condition,InfectionIs defined as Or in medical termsOvert infectionAlso called[3].. On the other hand, if the infection has been established but the disease has not developed,Subclinical infectionと 呼 ば れ る[3].. Details are left to the item.
  1. The immune system of the living body is insufficient, and parasites destroy the tissues of the host or impair the function of the host.
  2. Mechanisms by which the host suppresses parasite growth or eliminates parasites (generallyImmunologyIs called) causes some condition to the host.

Flow after onset

There are three main trends after the onset of infection by a pathogen.

  1. When the parasite beats the host → death of the host
  2. When the host beats the parasite → Elimination of microorganisms by the host. In so-called clinical medicinehealingIs called.
  3. The host and parasite coexistence is maintained. →Infection is persistent, but no symptoms appear, a so-called subclinical infection. Because the infection is persistentLatent infectionAlso called.

There are three ways to develop[8].

After the illness, if the infection cannot be treated by the biological infection defense mechanism or medical measures, the biological defense mechanism fails and the host has a death outcome. Conversely, when the defense mechanism overcomes the pathogen, the pathogen is eliminated from the body and heals. At the same time, the hostImmunologyOften get[9].

On the other hand, some pathogens escape the biological defense function and hide themselves to avoid elimination, and may continue infection for a long time. Such an infectionLatent infectionCall.Herpes simplex virusSome viruses, etc.Mycobacterium tuberculosisSeen in. Many latently transmitted pathogens are difficult for the immune system to reachNerve cell,lymphocytesThey evade immune surveillance and elimination by lurking inside the cells of their cells and keeping their own growth and metabolism as low as possible, but they are activated when the host's resistance decreases due to another infection or aging. By getting sick again,Opportunistic infectionCause Especially when there are repeated latent infections and attacksRecurrentCall[10].

Classification and type of infection

Infection,EpidemicSee also section.

  • Classification by pathogen[11]: Eubacteria, viruses, fungi, protists,Parasite,Viroid,Prionな ど
  • Classification by entrance gate[6][12]: Oral, respiratory, transcutaneous, wound, contact, urinary, mucosal, placenta, etc.
  • Transmission routeClassification by[6][12]: Food infection, waterborne infection, airborne infection, droplet infection, vector infection, blood infection, breast milk infection, birth canal infection, etc.
  • Classification by time of onset[8]: Acute infection, subacute infection, chronic infection, delayed infection, persistent infection, recurrent infection, etc.
  • Classification by infection site[8][13]: Systemic infection, local infection, ectopic infection, superficial infection, deep infection, intracellular infection, etc.
  • Classification by transmission mode[6] : Vertical transmission(Maternal infection),Horizontal infection

Special infection

Bacteremia,septicemia, Viremia
The invasion of pathogens into the bloodstream is called bacteremia, and the serious disease that results in systemic infection is called sepsis. Often due to weakened immunity or failure of the biological defense mechanism[14].
Opportunistic infection
A non-pathogenic or weakly virulent pathogen that causes only colonization and colonization in healthy people and causes infection in response to a decrease in host immunity[15].
Nosocomial infection(Hospital infection), community-acquired infection
Infections that occur as a result of contact with the source of infection during a stay at a medical institution or during treatment are called nosocomial infections. EspeciallyDrug resistanceBacteria and opportunistic infections become major problems[16].. Infections caused by the use of ventilators, central venous catheters, and indwelling bladder catheters used for medical treatment in medical institutions are also called iatrogenic infections, but are broadly included in nosocomial infections. In contrast to nosocomial infections, infections that occur outside the medical facility in the general environment (community environment) are called community-acquired infections.
Intrinsic infection, extrinsic infection
When symptoms are caused by microorganisms that are resident in the host, it is called endogenous infection (endogenous infection).[14].Compromised hostHappen toOpportunistic infection,Bacterial alternation, Ectopic infection corresponds to this. On the other hand, what is caused by infection with microorganisms from outside the body is called extrinsic infection (exogenous infection).[14].
Primary infection, secondary infection
When an infection with one pathogen occurs first, followed by an infection with another pathogen, the former is called a primary infection and the latter is called a secondary infection. Secondary infections are often opportunistic infections. Infections that occur in the first host that are seen in infectious diseases are sometimes called primary infections, and infections that are transmitted from there to the next host are sometimes called secondary infections.[17].
Mixed infection (combined infection, multiple infection)
Infects two or more pathogens simultaneously[18].
Persistent infection, chronic infection, latent infection
Both of these are infected for a long time[19].. The case where the pathogen stops growing almost completely during the infection and is asymptomatic is called latent infection, the case where the pathogen continues to grow slowly is called chronic infection, and the case where some symptoms continue to appear for a long time is called persistent infection. The usage is not clear.
Local infection, systemic infection
Local infection (local infection) Refers to the case where the infection is localized to only a certain part of the body, while the case where the pathogen flows in the blood and spreads throughout the body is systemic infection (generalized infection)[8].
Ectopic infection
Infection of indigenous bacteria at a site other than the original colonization site. Infection of Escherichia coli in the ureter and endocarditis due to streptococcus are known.[6][20].
Intracellular infection
Infection of pathogens inside cells. Virus,Chlamydia,rickettsiaSuch asObligate intracellular parasiteIn addition,Salmonella typhi,Legionella,ListeriaIt is also found in some bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and these bacteria are called intracellular parasitic bacteria.[21].

Footnote/Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Norio Yanagishita. “infection". Complete Encyclopedia of Japan(Shogakukan). Yahoo! Encyclopedia. 2013th of February 4Browse.
  2. ^ "infection". Mypedia(Hitachi Solutions). Koto bank (June 2010). 2013th of February 4Browse.
  3. ^ a b c Ikuya Yano (edit), Yoshio Kumazawa (edit), Takehiko Uchiyama (edit), "Pathogenic Microbiology", page 53, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin, November 2002.
  4. ^ Jacquelyn G. Black, Translated by Hideo Hayashi, Aikichi Iwamoto, Shigeru Kamiya, Hidemi Takahashi, "Black Microbiology 2nd Edition", 408 pages, Maruzen Publishing Division, January 2007
  5. ^ Ikuya Yano (edit), Yoshio Kumazawa (edit), Takehiko Uchiyama (edit), "Pathogenic Microbiology", page 75, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin, November 2002.
  6. ^ a b c d e Masanobu Higashi, Keiji Oguma, "Simple Microbiology", 42 pages, Nankodo; 3rd revised edition, October 2000
  7. ^ Masanobu Higashi, Keiji Oguma, "Simple Microbiology", 44 pages, Nankodo; 3rd revised edition, October 2000
  8. ^ a b c d e Masanobu Higashi, Keiji Oguma, "Simple Microbiology", 43 pages, Nankodo; 3rd revised edition, October 2000
  9. ^ Watanuki Tsutomu (editor), Namiki Tsuneo (editor), Wakasa Haruki (editor), Onishi Yoshihisa (editor), "Simple Pathology", 59 pages, Nankodo; Revised 3rd Edition, March 1999
  10. ^ Masanobu Higashi, Keiji Oguma, "Simple Microbiology", 249 pages, Nankodo; 3rd revised edition, October 2000
  11. ^ Watanuki Tsutomu (edit), Namiki Tsuneo (edit), Wakasa Haruki (edit), Onishi Yoshihisa (edit), "Simple Pathology", pages 59-61, Nankodo; Revised 3rd Edition, March 1999
  12. ^ a b Ikuya Yano (edit), Yoshio Kumazawa (edit), Takehiko Uchiyama (edit), "Pathogenic Microbiology", page 58, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin, November 2002.
  13. ^ Ikuya Yano (edit), Yoshio Kumazawa (edit), Takehiko Uchiyama (edit), "Pathogenic Microbiology", page 125, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin, November 2002.
  14. ^ a b c Ikuya Yano (edit), Yoshio Kumazawa (edit), Takehiko Uchiyama (edit), "Pathogenic Microbiology", page 59, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin, November 2002.
  15. ^ Izumi Nakajima (Author), Yasunobu Yoshikai (Author), Toshiada Takahashi (Author), "Simple Immunology", pages 144-147, Nankodo; Revised 2nd Edition, 2001
  16. ^ Masanobu Higashi, Keiji Oguma, "Simple Microbiology", 77 pages, Nankodo; 3rd revised edition, October 2000
  17. ^ Tottori Prefecture Official Page
  18. ^ Yu Shi, and Osamu Tokunaga, Multiple Infections and Atherosclerosis: Co-infection of Chlamydia Pneumoniae, and Herpesviruses in the Aorta is Related to Atherosclerosis J. Jpn. Coll. Angiol., 2003, 43: 667 - 671.
  19. ^ Ikuya Yano (edit), Yoshio Kumazawa (edit), Takehiko Uchiyama (edit), "Pathogenic Microbiology", pages 53 and 60, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin, November 2002.
  20. ^ Kobe University Research page contributing to the identification of pathogenic factors in extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC)
  21. ^ Masanobu Higashi, Keiji Oguma, "Simple Microbiology", 46 pages, Nankodo; 3rd revised edition, October 2000

Related item

外部 リンク

dance hall

dance hall (Dance hall) isダンスA place to enjoy, or a store that provides that place.Some also serve as a dance class and a dance practice area.

America

History

Main dance hall

France

History

Main dance hall

Chugoku

History

Main dance hall

  • Paramount (zh: Paramount)
    ShanghaiTo1932There is an Art Deco dance hall "Paramount" that opened in[3].. In the first half of the 20th century, it was called the number one dance hall in the Far East as a social gathering place for the upper class.[3].

Japan

History

As a business dance hall1918(Taisho7 years)Kagetsuen(Current横 浜 市Tsurumi kuThe dance hall opened in) is the first.Then of the dancetrendWith the gradual increase in dance halls,1933(ShowaIn 8), it increased to about 50 locations nationwide.

In June 1925, the Metropolitan Police Department cracked down on creating a ledger of dance hall attendees' addresses, names, and occupations.[4].

On November 1928, 11, the Metropolitan Police Department enforced a dancehall control order, banning men and women under the age of 10 from admission.[5].

On October 1940, 10, the dance halls in Tokyo were closed for that day, and each hall was overcrowded.[6].

Pacific WarJust before the start of the war1940A dance ban was issued in 15, and the dance hall was closed during the war.[7].

Although a dance hall for stationed soldiers opened shortly after the end of the war, it was general.JapaneseCouldn't enter.1945(Showa 25) In MarchSaitamaSaitamaFirst after the warBallroomAfter the opening of the "Roof Garden", dance halls specializing in Japanese people have been opened one after another.But,Customs businessWith the increase of dance hallscabaretThe distinction between the two became ambiguous, and dance halls were also subject to regulation.Tokyo OfOrdinanceBut1954In (Showa 29), the distinction between dancehall and cabaret disappeared,1959Dance hall and cabaret in (34)Night clubIs revived[8]..In the Showa periodBallroom dancingThere were many dance halls all over the country due to the trend of dance halls, but in recent years the number of dance halls has been decreasing due to the decrease in the ballroom dance population, and there are only two dance halls in Tokyo where.Also, the movie "Shall we dance?It became the location ofOsaka-UmedaDancehall "World"2001It is closed at the end of January.

Main dance hall

  • Toho Dance Hall(Tokyo,Yurakucho)
    Founded1969(Showa 44) May.TohoIt was born as a dance hall run by Toho Enterprise Co., Ltd., an affiliated company of the corporation.HibiyaLocated in a prime location in the theater district.It is famous as a prestigious dance hall that represents Japan with a history of nearly half a century. The museum closed on the end of November 2019.
  • Dance Hall New Century(Tokyo,Uguisudani)
    It was relocated and opened in Uguisudani in June 1969 (Showa 44).It has a history of nearly half a century along with the Toho Dance Hall, but only these two dance halls remain in Tokyo.It is also known to have become the stage model for the movie "Shall we Dance?"[9][10][11].. Long time agoSFCGWas the founder ofKenshin OshimaWas run by his father, Masayoshi Oshima. The Toho Dance Hall will be closed from December 2019, so it will be the only one in Tokyo.
  • Dancehall Moon River(Nagoya)
    OnceFamous HallThe "Moon River" that was inside2002The end of theNagoya Asahi Kaikan(Asahi Shimbun Nagoya Head OfficeIt moved to the building where the building is located, and since then it has been operating as a "winter garden".But,2013May 10ToCBC TVBroadcast of "Gogosuma -GO GO!Smile!-]Kintaro.Reported the relocation of the store in the same yearMay 12The business at Nagoya Asahi Kaikan was closed.2014May 1Nagoya cityNaka-kuOpened a dance shop on the 8th floor of the Fushimi Nakakoma Building in Nagoya Hirokoji, and reopened in early February of the same year as the dance hall "Moon River" on the 2th floor of the same building.[12].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Former site of Savoy Ballroom JTB, viewed May 2017, 5
  2. ^ a b Moulin de la Galette JTB, viewed May 2017, 5
  3. ^ a b Paramount JTB, viewed May 2017, 5
  4. ^ Customs Police Theory and Practice Tadayasu Shigeta
  5. ^ Metropolitan Police Department Tokyo Prefectural Public Relations Showa 3
  6. ^ Asahi Shimbun
  7. ^ Ballroom Dance (Social Dance) Reference Room: Dance History (2)[Broken link]
  8. ^ Ballroom Dance (Social Dance) Reference Room: Dance History (3)
  9. ^ Dance Hall New Century: About Hall(Official site)
  10. ^ Dance Hall New Century(Haunting! Ad street paradise Broadcast on September 2006, 10)
  11. ^ Right half of Tokyo: Nippori Dance Dance Dance XNUMX(Roadside diaries May 2010, 5)
  12. ^ Misako Yasui, Member of the House of Councilors, Aichi Prefectural Election District: Activity Report February 2014

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