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😷 | Osaka Prefecture 150 new infected people

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Osaka Prefecture: 150 new infected

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Osaka Prefecture announced on the 28th that 150 people have been infected with the new coronavirus.

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Wikipedia related words

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New coronavirus

New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important.[1][2][3][4].

In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in.

(Human) Coronavirus against humanityEndemic diseaseIs believed to becoldCauses (common cold) -like symptoms,(English editionIs prevalent as a serious infection, often accompanied by pneumonia[1][2][3][4].

Virus type

The following viruses were called new coronaviruses before their official names were given.

Types of new coronaviruses that are pathogenic to humans
Formal name Other names Susceptible host[† 1] First discovery location (discovery year) Infection
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2][5][6] 2019-Ncov

SARS virus 2

Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)

Bat,Scale armor Chugoku-Wuhan(2019) New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3][4][7]
MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4] Middle east virus

MERS virus

Camel flu virus

camel,Bat サウジアラビア-Jeddah(2012) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)[8]
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) New Haven Virus[9] A mouse Hong Kong (2005) Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2] SARS virus Chinese cabbage,Bat Chugoku-Foshan(2002) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  1. ^ (English editionMay not be succeeded.
  2. ^ a b This virus is not a different speciesSARS-related coronavirusIs considered to be one of the stocks of.
  3. ^ Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia,Wuhan pneumoniaThere is a syndrome.
  4. ^ (English edition,(English editionIncluding stocks of.

All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.


Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention of a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOIt complies with the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by.[10] [11] [12]

Historically, pathogens have often been named after location, individuals, or specific species, but these practices are no longer endorsed by WHO.[10] [11] [12]

The permanent official names of viruses and diseases are, respectively.ICTVWHO OfInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD)Is determined by.

Detailed explanation


  1. ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
  2. ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
  3. ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
  4. ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
  5. ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
  6. ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51466362 .
  7. ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
  8. ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
  9. ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
  10. ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
  11. ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
  12. ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301. https://www.jmir.org/2020/5/e19301/. 
  13. ^ Host jump capability may not persist
  14. ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
  15. ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
  16. ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013

Related item


Osaka(Osaka Prefecture,British: Osaka Prefecture) IsJapan OfKinkiに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural officeAnd the largest city isOsaka.


The prefectural office is located in Osaka City.Regulatory country OfSettsuEastern (7county)andKawachi countryIzumi countryIt consists of the whole area ofSetagawa IzumiIt is also called (impossible), but from Kyoto PrefectureKashidaWhole area andKameokaPart ofTransboundary transferSince 1958Tamba countryThe southeastern part (a small part) is also included. In addition,Sakai prefectureFrom 1881 of transfer to 1887 of Nara re-installation,YamatoIt also included the entire area of.

KinkiEconomy-TransportationIs the center ofTokyo,KanagawaHas the third largest population in Japan afterTokyo 1,351, Kanagawa 5,000, Osaka Prefecture 883 people, 9,000 national census),Daytime populationas well as the The population densityIs the second largest in Japan after Tokyo.Prefecture gross productIs nominally the third largest in Japan after Tokyo and Aichi prefectures, and is second in reality (3 billion yen in 29) after Tokyo (105 billion yen in 3,768).Economist Intelligence UnitIn the ranking of ``Most livable city'' by, Osaka Prefecture in 2019,Vienna,Melbourne,SydneyRanked 4th after[1].

Ancient times,Emperor JimmuWent to Naniwasaki before his coronationIkutama ShrineFounded.Kofun period,Emperor OshinNamba Osuminomiya andEmperor Nintoku OfNamba Takatsunomiya (Nanowa Katsukanomiya),Emperor KinmeiThe Naniwa Shrine Tsumiya (Naniwano Furitsunomiya) was run. Namba Takatsunomiya is simply Takatsumiya. PresentTakatsunomiya (Takatsu Shrine)Is said to have begun by exploring the ruins of this palace, building a shrine there, and performing a ritual.Osaka CastleWas around[2].. ),Emperor Kotoku OfDifficult wavelength pattern Tonomiya(First half of Namba Palace),Emperor Shomu OfNamba Palace(Late Namba Palace) etc.,NagaokakyoConsistently until the capital movedcapital,ShadoWas treated as a (vice capital).

The names "Osaka" and "Osaka" appeared in the Middle Ages, leading to the Meiji era.Osaka(OsakaWas revised." "Slope"Uemachi PlateauIt is said to be derived from. In addition, the old name of "Naniwa (Naniwa, Namba, Naniwa, Naniwa)," which is a transliteration of "Namihaya", is still often used as another name for the city of Osaka.

For Osaka before modern timesOsakaSee also.


Osaka Prefecture is located in the central part of the Kinki region and borders Kyoto Prefecture, Nara Prefecture, Hyogo Prefecture and Wakayama Prefecture. Since ancient timesAboveIt is a key point for water transportation leading to. SouthwestOsaka Bay.

Formerly the smallest prefectures (46th isKagawa), but on October 1988, 10Geographical Survey InstituteReviewed the calculation method,OkayamaTamano-shiKagawa Prefecture where there is an undecided part betweenNaoshima TownBecause the area of ​​Kagawa prefecture (14.2 km²) was not included in the total area of ​​the prefecture, the area of ​​Kagawa prefecture decreased and it was reversed to Osaka prefecture, and it was ranked 46th.[3][4].. Then in OsakaKIXLand reclamation was promoted due to the opening of the port and the development of the western part of Osaka City, etc.[5].


The whole area of ​​Osaka prefectureSeto Inland Sea climate, Which is warm throughout the year, has few rainy days in Japan, andHeat islandThe phenomenon is remarkable, and it is difficult for the nighttime temperature to drop. In the winter, the plains often have little snow, even a few centimeters.

nature Park

Adjacent municipalities


Currently, there are a total of 33 cities, 9 cities, 1 towns and 43 village in Osaka Prefecture.MunicipalitiesThere is (of these,Government-designated city2 cities,Core city7 cities,Special city at the time of enforcement2 cities). The way to read the town is "chou". There is only one village, Chihaya Akasaka Village, and the village is read as "mura". Osaka Prefecture has 1 cities with a population of 10 or more, the largest number in Japan. If Osaka is divided into 22 areas, it will be Toyono area, Mishima area, Osaka city, Kitakawachi area, Nakakochi area, Minamikawachi area, Senboku area, Sennan area. On April 8, 2006, Sakai City moved to an ordinance-designated city,FukuokaAfter Kanagawa Prefecture, it became a prefecture with multiple ordinance-designated cities. In addition, on April 4 of the following year, following Osaka Prefecture,ShizuokaIs also a prefecture with multiple ordinance-designated cities.

List of municipalities

Ordinance-designated cities, core cities, and special cities at the time of enforcement市町村Are arranged in order of enforcement. Area classification is defined by Osaka Prefecture[6] by.

Osaka Toyono Mishima Senboku Sennan Kitakawachi Nakakochi Minamikawachi
Government-designated city
Core city
Special city at the time of enforcement
Other municipalities

Administrative region of ordinance-designated city

Osaka City is now 4 wards as of November 5 after undergoing 2017 reorganizations from the original 11 wards. It is the largest number of administrative districts in ordinance-designated cities. In addition, at the maximum, it was 24 wards, which is two more wards.

City Year Administrative district
  • Chuo-ku(Prefecture building location)
  • Kita(City Hall location)

Wide bowl(Kobo

According to the Geographical Survey Institute's national prefectural areas by area, Osaka Prefecture has an area of ​​1905.14 square kilometers.[7].

The ends of north, south, east, and west of Osaka Prefecture are as follows:[8][9].. North endTenno PassNear the south endOsaka Prefectural Route 751The west-southwest and eastern end of the Saruzaka Pass isTanabe Nishi InterchangeThe southwest and western ends are just west of Sumiyoshi Shrine in Misaki Town. AlsoStatistics BureauAccording to the 22 census, the population center of gravity is near 1 Tsuruhashi, Ikuno-ku, Osaka[10].

Center of gravity
34°37′34′N 135°30′30′E

Northern end
35°03′05′N 135°21′06′E
Center of gravity
34°39′47.55′N 135°31′53.29′E
West end
34°18′54′N 135°05′36′E
Osaka Prefectural Government Office Location
34°41′11′N 135°31′12′E
Eastern end
34°48′06′N 135°44′48′E

Southern tip
34°16′19′N 135°06′41′E


Before modern times

Mr. Otomo,Mr. MonobeIs the place whereAncient timesIt was a port city and was the center of domestic distribution.Seto Inland SeaNear the Sumiyoshi Taisha Shrine (Sumiyoshi Ward, Osaka City) as the end point of the route passing throughSumiyoshitsu,NambatsuWas working. SumiyoshitsuYamato kingshipSumiyoshi Taisha, which was in charge of managing Sumiyoshitsu, had a deep connection withShrinewas. Emperor JimmuIs in Naniwasaki before the coronationIkutama ShrineFounded.Kofun period,Emperor OshinNamba OsuminomiyaRecord of Ancient Matters"Or"Japanese calligraphy"according toEmperor NintokuSet the capital in Namba and named it Namba Takatsunomiya,Uemachi PlateauToEmperor KinmeiThe Namba Shrine Tsumiya (Naniwa no Furitsunomiya),Emperor Kotoku,Emperor Shomu OfNamba Palace (Naniwanomiya) was run. (#OverviewSee also)Anti-Emperor OfTanbi Shiba Umiya,Emperor KeitaiThe camphor tree (Emperor Keitai #Imperial Palace),Emperor SatatsuBaekje Oimiya (Emperor Satada # Imperial PalaceThe current land of Osaka Prefecture, etc.Palace,Miyakonojo,PalaceAnd the capital were placed. Daisen Tomb (Emperor Nintoku/Sakai City)Mozu Bird Burial Mounds,Old city tombsLarge and smallTomb of the Emperor/Old tombWas built around the Kawachi area.Emperor SuikoNew Year (593年) Is the Ikutama Shrine andSumiyoshi TaishaIs said to be the oldest in Japan on the Uemachi plateau whereTempleIsShitennoji(Tennoji Ward, Osaka City) was built,Otomi's strange(DahuaFirst year645年>) Later, Emperor KotokuTransfer of capital, Difficult wavelength patternThe first half of the year(Chuo-ku, Osaka City) was built, and after that, with the use of the national name of JapanEraIs said to have begun to be used. After that, Namba Palace (Late Namba Palace) And so oncapital,Sub capitalWas placed.

Heian periodIs located at the mouth of the Yodo River,京都Tied with water transportation (Watanabe Tsu), then the relationship via this water transportMeiji EraWill continue until the railway is laid. In the early Heian periodConqueror General OfSakaue Tamura MaroThe third son ofHirono Sakagami SettsuSumiyoshi-gunHiranoshoBecame the lord of (Hirano Ward, Osaka City) and said to be the descendantMr. SakagamiThe clan was responsible for the autonomy of the plains of the Middle Ages.

In the middle of Heian period,GenmanchuEldest son ofYorimitsuIs Tada of Settsu (currently:HyogoKawanishi CityNear), the third sonTrustIs Tsuchii in Kawachi (currentHabikino) Respectively. Of this,Gen Seiwathe first classGen KawachiBecame known and was known as Yorinobu's grandson, Taro HachimanOriginatorBecame the master of the samurai following the Bando warriors, and Minamikawachi in Osaka PrefecturesamuraiBecome the center of The XNUMXth generation descendants of this source familyKamakura ShogunateopenYoritomo GengenIs. Also, start with Minamoto no YorimitsuGenji SettsuAt the Noro Party,Gen Saga OfSourceDraw the flow ofWatanabe TsunaAncestorMr. WatanabeNear the current NakanoshimaWatanabe TsuWas the headquarters. [In the latter half of the Heian period, it was called Motosuga in the middle of KawachiHiraoka ShrineBecame a samurai group fromMr. MizusashiA clan emerged and became a major force by controlling the water transportation of the Yamato River and its tributaries.

Kamakura PeriodFrom the endNorthern and Northern DynastiesTo KawachiVillainOf a local Australian calledMasanari SuzukiCame out and played an active part. Mr. Kusunoki, including Masanari,Southern DynastyOften used by Kawachi as a leading military commanderTakashi AshikagaEt al.North morningBut MasanariBattle of MinatogawaAnd that childStraight lineAlsoBattle of ShijonawateHe died in battle and eventually weakened his power.

Muromachi PeriodWhen you enter KawachiMr. HatakeyamaHowever, in Settsu and IzumiMr. HosokawaRespectivelyGuardianWas entrusted to. However, both houses are three of the ShogunateJurisdictionIt is a family name that is named after the house, and the actual political affairs areGuardian feeWas often held byHigo countryKumamoto DomainMr. Hosokawa, who is the master of each, is a branch of the family that served as Izumi guardian).

Onin's rebellionrear,Sengoku periodWhen entering, both Mr. Hatakeyama and Mr. HosokawaFamilyI was extremely confused by the battle over. At this time, Sakai (Sakai City) IsCongregationWealthy calledTownspeopleHas formed a self-governing city centered around, and replaced Hyogo MinatoNichimei TradingProsperous as a relay port oftea ceremonyIs nurturing such a culture. Settsu Kuni Plain is alsoConqueror General OfSakaue Tamura MaroOf the childHirono SakagamiIs said to be a descendant ofSueyoshiIt flourished as an autonomous city by the townspeople around the Hirano seven famous households, and in Ishiyama of SettsuHokkeI left Kyoto because of the conflict with my followers.Jodo Shinshu OfLotus Ishiyama HonganjiErected. On the other hand, it is the vassals of Mr. Hosokawa who newly gained power in this area.AwakuniMr. Miyoshi, who was originally from Japan, was once proud of his power as a backing for the general,Nagayoshi MiyoshiAfter his death, he was weakened by the struggles of his family and then emerged.Oda NobunagaSuccumbed to. Was the head of the Jodo Shinshu sect for Nobunaga, who is expanding power in this regionObviousCalled on uprising to followers all over the country, and also held himself at Ishiyama Honganji Temple to confront Oda. thisIshiyama battleLasts for 10 years, but in the endTensho8 years(1580年The end was reached by surrendering the Honganji Temple.

After Nobunaga's death, he inherited that territoryHideyoshi ToyotomiStarted the construction of Osaka Castle, which is their residence, on the site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple. This castle uses the terrain that originates from the mouth of the Yodo and Yamato rivers, and even the castle town is surrounded by a moat to be part of the castle.Delicate structureIt was a huge one. Its unrivaled firmnessOsaka winter teamIt was proved by, and at this time, the gatherer couldn't get inside. However, the moat was reclaimed until the summer, and the castle lost its function.ToyotomiWas destroyed.

Edo PeriodUpon entering Osaka, Osaka prospered again as a major economic and commercial center of the country.World kitchenWas called. Osaka, where routes from all over the country are gathered, is lined with warehouses of various domains, and since it was also a gathering place for products from various countries, we handle them.YodoyaA big merchant also appeared. Above all, it was a concentrated area of ​​annual tribute riceDojimaThen the world's first public establishmentFutures tradingSword "Dojima Rice ChamberIs opened,NakanoshimaWith it became the center of the Osaka economy. In an environment that matures as an economic city, various arts have also grown and developed. The center of the upper culture gradually moved from Kyoto to Osaka,Ibara NishitsuruAnd playwrightChikamatsu MonzaemonSuch a writer,Akinari Ueda-Tominaga NakamotoHas produced a number of excellent scholars who have a name in the history of posterity. It also originated from the Uemura Bunrakuken play that emerged in the same period.Bunraku(OsakaNingyo JoruriPlay)2009年(Heisei21 years)UNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageRegistered in.Tempo8 years(1837年)Positive studyWas holding a private school, Senshin-dongHeihachiro OshioFor poverty reliefHeihachiro Oshio's RebellionCausedBakumatsu,Ogata KoanWas openVocational schoolFromFukuzawa Yukichi,Masashiro Omura,Keisuke OtoriAnd so on, it created the talent that represented the Meiji era. [In addition, the clan placed in the Edo period has Osaka Castle (Settsukuni) under the direct control of the Shogunate,Takatsuki Domain,Asada Domain, In KawachiTannan Domain,Sayama DomainHowever, in Izumi countryHakuta Domain,Kishiwada Domainwas there. ]

Transition of local system in the first year of the Meiji era

Keio4 years/MeijiFirst year1/22(1868年On February 2th, the Meiji governmentOsakazindaiDecided to install.1/27The Osaka Court was set up in Osaka[Annotation 1]Was renamed. April Establishment of the Agricultural Bureau in the Osaka Court, which has jurisdiction over the surrounding area excluding town areas. May 4, established in Osaka Prefecture. May 5, established in Nara Prefecture. June 2 The Osaka Prefectural Agriculture Department splits north and south. June 5, established in Sakai Prefecture. Meiji 191/20(1869年(February 2) Hokuji Agricultural BureauSettsu prefecture, Nanji Agriculture BureauKawachi PrefectureRenamed to. May 5 SettsuToyosaki PrefectureRenamed to. August 8 Merged Toyosaki prefecture into Hyogo prefecture and Kawachi prefecture into Sakai prefecture. September 2, Former Sumiyoshi-gun, Toyosaki PrefectureTosei District-Nishinari-gunIncorporated. December 12 Merged Sayama domain into Sakai prefecture. 26rd year of Meiji2/27(1870年3/28) Sakai prefectureIshikawa-Nishikibe-gunPart ofGojo prefectureTransferred to. 4th year of Meiji7/14(1871年8/29Abandoned Domain.11/20(February 12)Takatsuki Prefecture,AsadaMerged with Osaka Prefecture. Former Toyosaki PrefectureShimakami-gun-Shimashita-Toshima-Nose-gunIncorporated. November 4, 11 〈1872年January 1〉)Kishiwada-Haku prefecture-Yoshimi Prefecture-TannanAnd a part of Gojo prefecture was transferred to Sakai prefecture.1876年(Meiji 9) April 4, merged Nara Prefecture into Sakai Prefecture.1881年(Meiji 14) February 2 Merged Sakai prefecture into Osaka prefecture.1887年(20th year of Meiji) Nara prefecture was relocated on November 11th. (The date until 4 is the lunar calendar, and the current Nara prefecture area is an outline)

The area of ​​jurisdiction at the time of the establishment of Osaka Prefecture was 61 villages in Tosei-gun, Settsu-gun (Osaka Town Magistrate34 villages,Osaka castle22 villages,Kyoto office2 villages,Odawara Domain5 villages), 132 villages in Nishinari-gun (117 villages in Osaka Prefecture,Flag territory6 villages,Tayasu Tokugawa family9 villages,Kannomiya2 villages in the family territory, 37 villages in Sumiyoshi-gun (17 villages in Osaka, 14 villages in Sumiyoshi Taisha, 8 villages in the Odawara domain), Kawachi countryKatano-gun1 villages (Kano DomainDepository)Met.

Since modern times

Meiji RestorationAfter that, the capital function is from KyotoTokyoDue to the move to and the elimination of the need for a kurayashiki, the building temporarily declined. During the Meiji era, Osaka was hit hard by the Meiji government's disposition of the clan in Tokyo, but commerce and industry developed mainly in the light industry sector including textile-related industries,ManchesterAnd “Toyo's best commercial and industrial area”[11] Is called, and the company that survives as a large company has risenMecenatWas actively done. In this eraHanshin ModernismIs called.1925年(TaishoIn 14, Osaka City merged with the surrounding area and expanded the city area (Great Osaka era) So, this big OsakaGreat Kanto EarthquakeWas hit byTokyo cityThere was also a period when it was the city with the largest population in Japan, surpassing that of Japan.

During the warThe city was attributed to Kaijin due to a thorough bombing of a machine shop in Amagasaki, a Mint in Chuo Ward, a commercial district in the center, and a port facility. In addition, a factory was relocated to the prefecture to avoid air raids during this period, which became the basis of industry in the post-war satellite city.

After the war,High economic growthEntering the period,Hanshin Industrial AreaThe economy of Osaka prefecture, where the ratio of light industry was high, began to look like a blockage. Heavy industry, which was a flower industry at the time, was demilitarized after the war.Osaka Artillery ArsenalIt has been hit hard by the disappearance of many (small and medium-sized enterprises as a complementary function, although there are still rooted companies), attracting and increasing the size of shallow coastlines such as Osaka Prefecture. It was said that it was difficult (in evidence that there are many large ships such as between Hanshin and easy to enter, heavy industry exists), and that it was relocated to another land as a measure against pollution.

Also, due to the post-war legislation, the system of servants unique to Osaka has declined, and the commercial capital has moved to Tokyo. As a result, donations from the wealthy people who supported Osaka culture due to the soil bones that do not rely on the government (doshobon, demeanor) are reduced, and the culture level is significantly increased due to poor government leadership. Fell.

So as to overthrow these,1964年(Showa39 years)Factories Restriction Law, Industrial Relocation Promotion Act in 1972, 1973Factory location methodSuch asFactory three methodsWas enacted one after another. In 1966Central Region Development and Maintenance ActWas established and the manufacturing industryKinki areaからChukyo areaIt became a trigger to leak to and was a blow to Osaka.

Under these circumstances, in 1970, at the Senri hill in Suita CityJapan World ExpositionWas held. this is1964 Tokyo OlympicsTogether with this, it is said to be an event that symbolizes the reconstruction of postwar Japan. The venue at this time is currentlyExpo Memorial ParkHas been maintained as.

1995年(Heisei7 years)Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeThen, the seismic intensity is about 4 in Osaka city[Annotation 2] Although there was little direct damage in the area, strong earthquakes hit areas such as Toyonaka City, killing 9 people and causing major damage to homes. Other,life lineThere was a considerable amount of impact such as the suspension of traffic and paralysis of transportation. Small earthquake swarms are still observed off Wakayama and Hokusetsu.

A large office district spreads out around Umeda and Nakanoshima, one of the city centres.skyscraperIs a densely populated area with tall buildings. Until the end of the Showa period, old merchant houses were scattered, but nowadays they are hardly seen. Although modern architecture in the early Meiji and Taisho era often disappears due to aging, there are still many things still existing and used in the highly maintainable Semba area.

2008年Summer olympicEven though he ran for July 2001IOC General AssemblyLost in (Details). In 2002FIFA World CupPart of was held at Nagai Stadium. The games held will be England and Japan, where the final tournament was decided, and the quarterfinals.

It was once the second largest prefecture in Japan after Tokyo, but on May 2, 2006, Kanagawa prefecture exceeded the population of Osaka prefecture, so the current population is third. But,Daytime populationThe population density is still second only to Tokyo. One of the reasons is that Hyogo, Nara, Wakayama andShiga, Kyoto PrefectureMieSuch,Land priceIs cheapSuburb Of住宅It is believed that he bought and moved there. Moreover, since it is a small area of ​​46th in the whole country, the population density is the second largest in the country after Tokyo. The ratio of habitable area is 2%, the highest in Japan.

In 2007, the 2007 World Athletics Championship was held at Nagai Stadium in Osaka.SportsMany people from all over the world visited Osaka as an international convention. It is said that the prefecture was able to once again appeal the city of Osaka to the world through this tournament.

2018年6/18ToNorthern Osaka EarthquakeOccurs,OsakaKitaChayamachi,Takatsuki,Ibaraki City,Hirakata,Minoh CityA seismic intensity of less than 6 was observed. It was the first time in the prefecture that an earthquake observing a seismic intensity of less than 6 occurred, since the start of collecting statistics.


2015年CensusLooking at the population increase and decrease since the previous survey, it can be seen that the distribution of population in Osaka city is extremely uneven, and the decrease at the northern and southern ends is remarkable. The highest increase rate of 72 municipalities that divided Osaka city and Sakai city into wards,

  • 1st = Chuo-ku, Osaka, 2nd = Naniwa-ku, Osaka, 3rd = Kita-ku, 4th = Nishi-ku, Osaka, 5th = Tennoji-ku, Osaka, 6th = Fukushima-ku, Osaka

On the other hand,

  • 1st = Nose Town, 2nd = Chihaya Akasaka Village, 3rd = Toyonocho, 4th = Misaki Town, 5th = Nishinari Ward, Osaka, 6th = Taisho Ward, Osaka

Was in order[12].

By the way, Moriguchi City, which had been in a declining population for a long time, started to increase in population for the first time in 45 years due to social increase due to over-migration, and Suita City and Settsu City also have more births than deaths and are increasing in population. On the other hand, Kawachinagano City and Tomitabayashi City in the south have been suffering from unexcessive excess migration since around 2000, and the population is gradually decreasing.

Population distribution by age in Osaka and Japan (2005) Osaka Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Green-All over Japan

Changes in the population of Osaka Prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan


Prefectural government

Osaka Prefectural Government

Since fiscal 2014, Osaka Prefecture has implemented a business to provide health information such as medicines, infectious diseases, specific medical examinations, and incurable disease subsidy programs to 185 pharmacies in the prefecture to support the health promotion of residents. Satisfaction of visitors is also "Generally well received"[13].

Administrative and financial reform

Currently, we are in financial difficulty and our debt has reached 4 million yen (estimated in fiscal 3,004), and the amount is about 6,100 trillion yen in Tokyo,HokkaidoThis is the third largest after about 5 trillion yen, and the real debt service ratio in FY2,000 was 3%, the 18th in Japan.[14].. Therefore, if the current level of progress is maintained in 2007,Fiscal rebuilding organization(In a private company, "bankruptcy)) was specified. It seemed that the fall of the fiscal consolidation group in fiscal 2007 was avoided due to the progress of administrative and financial reform, but some repayment of prefectural bonds (debt) was postponed and a total amount of about 3 billion yen was generated in three years. However, the problem has not been radically resolved. In addition, the huge debt associated with huge projects such as the second stage construction of Kansai International Airport is highly likely to lead to the fall of the fiscal consolidation group. Moreover, in January 2600, the problem of "hidden deficit" was discovered.

Since 2004, Osaka Prefecture has postponed the repayment of debt, making it appear that the deficit is less than it actually is. However, due to the repayment deadline, prefectural bonds increased sharply. "I had no intention of hiding it," said an executive of the prefecture. "I had to take this approach in order not to fall into a reconstruction organization." Regarding the repayment method of local bonds, according to the notification of the former Ministry of Home Affairs, repay 10% of the principal in the 42th year and refinance the rest[Annotation 3] It is supposed to be[15].Extraordinary financial measures bond[Annotation 4] Temporary financial measures bonds increased from 1 billion yen to 7167 billion yen. Government bonds outstanding decreased from 2 billion yen to 2853 billion yen[16].. January 2008, 1, Governor of Osaka PrefectureFusae OtaOfficially acknowledged the facts, saying, "Measures to prevent becoming a reconstruction organization. It may be inappropriate, but it was unavoidable."[17].

2008 year 2 month,Tohashi HashishitaBecame the governor of Osaka Prefecture. "Osaka Metropolitan conceptDouble administrationThe aim is to become a “developing Osaka” by taking advantage of efficiency improvements such as the elimination of the above. Osaka Prefecture and Osaka City estimated that the “annual effect created by the city plan” would be 916 billion yen at maximum.[18].. In the second year after taking office, we achieved a financial surplus in Osaka Prefecture.[19].. Under the bridgeOsaka mayor electionAccompanied by a race2011 Osaka Governor ElectionThen, Hashishita will be the representativeOsaka Restoration SocietySecretary-General Ichiro Matsui was elected (Hashishita was elected mayor of Osaka).

In 2012, the repayment of more than 5500 billion yen of prefecture debt (prefecture bonds) was achieved, and the savings of the prefecture, which was 10 billion yen, increased to 800 billion yen.[20].

In addition, during the period of high growth, intensive urban infrastructure development was carried out in line with the World Expo, so Osaka Prefecture is facing the issue of urban revitalization and renewal.

Successive elected governors
Tenure Name Number of wins
1947/4/12 - 1959/4/22 Bunzo Akama(Akaman Bunzou 3 times
1959/4/25 - 1971/4/22 Yoshitoshi Sato(Ginsen Sato 3 times
1971/4/23 - 1979/4/22 Ryoichi Kuroda(Kuroda Ryoichi 2 times
1979/4/23 - 1991/4/22 Kishi Masaru(Kishikae 3 times
1991/4/23 - 1995/4/22 Kazuo Nakagawa(Nakazu Kazuo 1 times
1995/4/23 - 1999/12/27 Yamada Isamu(Isamu Yamada(Knock Yokoyama) 2 times
2000/2/6 - 2008/2/5 Fusae Saito(Saito(Fusae Ota) 2 times
2008/2/6 - 2011/10/31 Tohashi Hashishita(Toru Hashimoto 1 times
2011/11/28[21] - 2019/3/24 Ichiro Matsui(Ichirou 2 times
2019/4/8 - Yoshimura Hirofumi(Yoshimura Hirofumi 1 times

Osaka Prefectural Assembly


Heisei 30 year
Heisei 19 year
  • Fiscal strength index 0.79
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 17nd out of 2 municipalities
Heisei 18 year
  • Fiscal strength index 0.75
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 16nd out of 3 municipalities
  • Standard financial scale ¥1 billion
  • General account revenue 3 billion yen
  • General account expenditure 3 billion yen
  • Real balance of general account △135 million yen (deficit) It is rare that the real balance of the prefecture is in the red.
  • Current account ratio 96.6% (prefectural average 92.6)
  • Real debt service ratio: 16.7% (prefecture average: 14.7%) *Note: The figures are not accurate because the figures were used during the period of governor Ota.
  • Municipal bond per capita current outstanding amount 49 yen (prefectural average 6296 yen)
  • Personnel expenses per person, property expenses, etc. settlement amount 10 yen (prefectural average 6621 yen)
  • Number of employees per population 100,000: 977.61 (prefecture average: 1,173.11)
  • Laspeyres index 97.0 (Prefecture average 99.6)

Balance of local bonds, etc.

  • Local account balance of local account 4 million yen
  • Local government bond (corporate bond) balance of special account such as public enterprises 5312 million yen
  • Debt balance of the third sector (including foundations) 3 million yen
    • Major breakdown: Osaka Prefecture Housing Supply Corporation 1390 million yen Osaka Prefecture Highway Corporation 6000 million yen Osaka Prefecture Land Development Corporation 1218 million yen

Total of local bonds, etc. 5 million yen (consolidated accounting)

  • Balance of local bonds, etc. per Osaka citizen 58 yen (consolidated accounting)
    • In terms of the amount of local bond outstanding per citizen of the prefecture, for example, there are prefectures with more severe financial conditions than Osaka prefecture, such as Shimane prefecture 140 yen and Tottori prefecture 3407 100 yen.
Heisei 17 year
  • Fiscal strength index 0.71
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 10nd out of 3 municipalities
Heisei 16 year
  • Fiscal strength index 0.69
    • I Group (Financial Power Index 0.5 or higher) 8nd out of 3 municipalities

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 19.House of CouncilorsThen, 1 ward is constructed in all prefectures.

Economic and industrial

Bubble economyAlthough the local economy was sluggish due to the impact of the collapse and the worsening of financial conditions in the prefecture and Osaka City, signs of recovery are beginning to appear. The gross domestic product exceeds 40 trillion yen,Of Denmark and MalaysiaGDPHas an economic scale that exceeds[22].


Gross domestic product
年度 nominal Substance Certainty
Heisei 15 38 billion yen 40 billion yen Confirmation
Heisei 16 38 billion yen 40 billion yen Confirmation
Heisei 17 39 billion yen 41 billion yen Early estimation
Heisei 21 35 billion yen 38 billion yen Confirmation
Heisei 26 38 billion yen 37 billion yen Confirmation
Heisei 28 38 billion yen 37 billion yen Confirmation
Heisei 29 40 trillion0XNUM X billion 38 billion yen Confirmation
Source: Osaka Prefectural Accounts[23]


Main industrial parks in Osaka

Main companies with head office and head office in Osaka Prefecture

Following the Tokyo metropolitan area, there are the second largest companies with their head office and head office in Osaka Prefecture.

Electric machinery
Content industry, entertainment, sports
Fiber products
Construction/civil engineering
Housing/real estate industry
Cars and related
Other industries
Foundations, corporations, etc.

Life and transportation





Tokyo·Kanagawa-Nara-OkinawaLike all railroad lines in the prefectureElectrificationHas been done. However,West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan) from OsakaBantan LineLimited Express viaHamakazeFrom OsakaTakayama Main LineLimited Express via(Wide view) Hida"When,京都Departs and stops at Shin-Osaka Station, Osaka Station,Sanyo Main Line-Chizu Express-Cause lineLimited express viaSupermarketIsTokaido Main LineTo pass through the prefecture, but to pass the non-electrified section outside OsakaRailcarIs used. All JR lines are the same as in Kanagawa, Kagawa and Shiga prefectures.Main lineso,Local transportation lineDoes not exist. In addition, mainly in the suburbs of Osaka on the JR WestUrban networkIC in the areaBoarding cardof"ICOCAHas been introduced (except for some routes/sections).

The railway network in Osaka prefecture has a large proportion of private railways,Private Railway Kingdom/KansaiIs called. In addition, the electric railway companies in Osaka areDepartment store,HotelWe carry out diversified management such as. Furthermore, in October 2006Business integration between Hankyu and HanshinThen,Hankyu Hanshin Toho GroupWas born. Private railway companies andOsaka City High Speed ​​Electric Orbit(Osaka Metro) and others, Kansai common card system "Surutto KANSAI""PiTaPa"(All except some routes/sections) are available. Also,Automatic ticket gateHas a high maintenance rate,Kitasenri StationIs the first station installed in Japan. The only railroad track in JapanTransportation IC card nationwide mutual use servicePrefectures that can use IC cards compatible with.

ShinkansenShin-Osaka Station is the only station in the prefecture. However, in the northeastern areas such as Takatsuki and Hirakata,Tokaido ShinkansenThe main way to transfer to is to use Kyoto Station in Kyoto Prefecture. Run in Osaka cityOsaka Metro Midosuji LineAnd JROsaka Loop LineThere are severalTerminal stationIs formed, and not only is it a wide area for access within the prefecture, but it is also a base for access to neighboring prefectures. For example,Railway station in Umeda area(Osaka station, Umeda station, etc.) is the largest terminal station in western Japan,Kobe City・To each downtown area of ​​Kyoto,Sannomiya20 minutes at the shortest (using JR),Shijo KawaramachiYou can go to (use Hankyu) in about 40 minutes.

Terminal station
Contact within Osaka Prefecture
Contact to neighboring prefectures
Contact to major cities in Japan


In addition to this, the local government operates by consigning it to a private company.Community busThere is also.


During the winter, roads in the plains of Osaka Prefecture are rarely covered with snow, so car tires are available all year round.Radial tireYou can drive in.

toll road
General national road
Main local roads/general prefectural roads


KeihanshinMetropolitan areaIs the main airport ofKansai three airportsOf these, 2 airports exist in Osaka Prefecture. The other one isKobe AirportIn KobePort IslandIt exists offshore.

  • Osaka International Airport(Osaka Airport/Itami Airport)-"Osaka Second Airfield" opened in 1939. An airport that spans Toyonaka, Ikeda, and Itami, Hyogo prefectures. Following the opening of Kansai International Airport,international"Airport" is the official name, with a few exceptions[Annotation 11] There are no international flights except for, and it is used as a main airport exclusively for domestic flights.
  • KIX(Kansai Airport/Kanku)-In 1994QuanzhouOpened offshore. Only one of the three Kansai Airports has regular international flights, and millions of passengers serve as the gateway to Japan's air in Kansai every year.[Annotation 12] OfForeignerTourismCustomers visit. Although it has fewer flights than Osaka International Airport, it has a well-developed domestic network.
  • Yao Airport -In 1933 the current Hanshin Flight SchoolTraining facilityInstalled as. No regular flights at small and medium-sized airports[Annotation 13] But,General aviationIt is a base ofwealthy classIs also used.SDF-Osaka Prefectural PoliceIncluding,公共 機関Also use.


Sort Port
International strategic port
International base port
Important port
Local port
  • Two-color port
  • Izumisano Port
  • Quanzhou Port
  • Ozaki Port
  • Awawa Port
  • Shenzhen Port
Fishing port
  • Sakai (Dejima) fishing port
  • Ishizu fishing port
  • Takaishi fishing port
  • Kishiwada fishing port
  • Sano Fishing Port (Sano Food Complex)
  • Tajiri fishing port
  • Okada fishing port
  • Nishi Tottori fishing port
  • Shimoso fishing port
  • Awawa Fishing Port
  • Fukaichi Fishing Port
  • Kojima fishing port

Medical and welfare

  • Osaka Restoration SocietyWith the cooperation of Osaka Cancer Circulation Prevention Center, based on the analysis result of the receipt data, reviewed the management of the hospital in order to generate the budget necessary for improving medical services.[24]
  • In 2019, the first system in Japan to cover "treatment costs for childhood cancer patients" at public expense was established.Osaka Heavy Ion Therapy CenterNow, let's concentrate the radiation on the cancer cellsHeavy ion radiotherapyHowever, public medical insurance is not currently applied to "treatment costs for childhood cancer patients".[25]. 

Disaster base hospital



  • In Osaka Prefecture, private high schools are basically free.Osaka Restoration SocietyAchieved a free of charge by "reducing the number of members of the Osaka Prefectural Assembly" and "disposing of problematic staff."[26].
  • As an organization for the purpose of exchange between universities in Osaka prefecture, exchange with the Osaka business community, exchange with high schools in Osaka prefecture, dissemination of internships, etc.University Consortium OsakaThere is. Also, as a similar organization by universities and junior colleges in the South Osaka area,South Osaka Area University ConsortiumThere is.


National University Corporation
Public university corporation
private university
Branch of foreign university

other than thisFudan universityIs reported to be opening a base[27].

Junior college

College of technology

Vocational school

Special school

high school

Junior high school

primary school



Mass media

Newspapers and news agencies


National internet programsOf course, for Kansai 2 and 4 prefecturesLocal showActively produced,Audience,listenerGot a certain rating from. Also,"Kansai localThe production capacity of these programs, including the ones of ", is very high. Most of thisQuasi-key station.

Wide area broadcasting, prefectural broadcasting, foreign language broadcasting

NHK Osaka (Comprehensive/FM), TV Osaka and FM Osaka, FM802Osaka PrefectureOnly for. The otherKinki wide areaIs the service area. Also, in Osaka BayKii ChannelAcrossSpilloverThere is only one commercial TV station due toTokushimaHowever, there are many areas where you can watch and listen.

Broadcasting stations in neighboring prefecturesNHK Kobe Broadcasting Station(1ch) andSun TV(Kobe City·Independent station.. 3ch) can be viewed throughout Osaka[28] so,NHK Kyoto Broadcasting Station (1ch) KBS Kyoto(Kyoto City, Independent Bureau. 5ch) can also be viewed mainly in the Hokusetsu and Kitakawachi regions. Further south of Izumisano CityNHK Wakayama Broadcasting Station (1ch)TV Wakayama (Independent station. 5ch) and Tokushima prefectureShikoku Broadcasting(1ch. NTV/NNN/NNS system)NHK Tokushima Broadcasting Station (3ch) is also available for viewing. In addition, in Takatsuki City, Shimamoto Town, Hirakata City, Shijonawate City, Minamikawachi Region, etc.NHK Nara Broadcasting Station (1ch) andNara TV (Independent station. 9ch) can also be received. AM radio from daytimeRadio kansai (558 kHz) can be received all day in most areas of the prefecture, and KBS Kyoto (1143 kHz) can be received well, especially in the northern part of the prefecture.At the southern end of FuWakayama Broadcasting (1431 kHz), but in the southwestern part of the prefectureShikoku Broadcasting(1269 kHz) is audible.

FM radio is in HyogoKiss FM KOBE, Kyoto Prefectureα-stationCan be heard in most of Osaka Prefecture. In the neighboring Wakayama and Nara prefectures, local FM radio stations have not yet opened (as of March 2019).

Community broadcasting

Cable TV

Operates in OsakaCable TVHas been consolidated and integrated into the following groups.

In Osaka prefecture, HFC cable TV cannot be watched only in Takaishi City, Toyono-gun (Nose-cho/Toyono-cho), Minamikochi-gun (Henan-cho/Taishi-cho/Chihaya-Akasaka-mura), the mountains of Hirakata and Ibaraki. In these areas, FTTH eo optical television can be viewed as an alternative. Hirakata City was onceKay CatWas discontinued due to the merger with K Opticom and the aging of HFC facilities.



Food culture:

local cuisine

Traditional crafts

Traditional crafts designated by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry

Traditional crafts


Folk song

Local song



Cultural property

Special historical site

Historic site

  • Itsuke old tomb
  • Abuyama Tumulus
  • Aman Ruins
  • Itsusuka burial mounds
  • Ruins of Kawachiji Temple
  • Kaikaiji Ruins
  • Kannonzuka Tumulus
  • Sumiyoshi Gyomiya Ruins
  • Kanshinji precinct
  • Iwaya


  • The city of Sakai, Fujiidera and Habikino"Mozu Kofun Group and Furuichi Kofun Group"On July 2019, 7world Cultural HeritageRegistered in.[30].

Mozu Bird Burial Mounds

Etc., 47 units.

Old city tombs

Etc., 123 units.

Important traditional buildings preservation area

Natural treasure

Scenic spot

Important intangible folk cultural properties

Selected Intangible Folk Cultural Property

  • Kami Kamiya no Odori
  • Nose Joruri

Important Tangible Folk Cultural Property

  • Private house (Shirakawa Gassho structure)
  • Backpack carrier collection
  • Oshirasama Collection

National treasure (building)

National treasure (arts and crafts)

56 (as of November 2010)[Annotation 14]

Important cultural property (building)

98 cases 169 cases (as of November 2010)
List of important cultural properties of buildings in the Kinki region# OsakaSee

Important cultural property (arts and crafts)

597 (as of November 2010)

Registered tangible cultural property

513 (as of November 2010). Most in each prefecture[33].


Kita Ward, Osaka City
Chuo Ward, Osaka City
Tennoji Ward, Osaka City
Naniwa Ward, Osaka City
Osaka Abeno Ward/Sumiyoshi Ward/Higashi Sumiyoshi Ward/Hirano Ward
Osaka City Konohana Ward/Minato Ward
Suminoe Ward, Osaka City
Out of Osaka

Cultural theater

Cultural facility

Foreign relations

Friendship Exchange City

Osaka PrefectureFriendship Exchange CityIs as follows[34].

Country/Name Years
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku-Shanghai 1980
Indonesian flag インドネシア-East Java 1984
French flag France-Val d'Oise 1987
Australian flag オーストラリア-Queensland 1988
Russian flag ロシア-Primorsky Territory 1992
United States flag America-California 1994
Italian flag イタリア-Lombardy 2002
United Arab Emirates flag アラブ 首長 国 連邦-Dubai city 2002
Vietnam flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Ho Chi Minh City 2007

Other exchange cities

In addition, we are promoting substantial exchanges with the following cities[35].

Flag of the People's Republic of China China·Jiangsu

Works set in Osaka Prefecture



[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ A court as a local administration,judicialExercise right裁判 所Has a different personality. For more information, seeCourt (local system)See.
  2. ^ In the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,Osaka District Meteorological ObservatoryThe seismic intensity observed at 4 was because the meteorological observatory was located on the strong Kamimachi plateau.In most areas of Osaka city, the actual seismic intensity is equivalent to a little over 5 when converted to the current standard ( The seismic intensity was less than 6 in some areas such as Nishiyodogawa Ward).
  3. ^ Refinancing bonds To
  4. ^ Extraordinary financial measures bonds are issued by the country to local governmentsLocal allocation taxAlternative system.
  5. ^ Registered head office is Kyoto PrefectureAyabe City
  6. ^ The registered head office is Okayama PrefectureKurashiki
  7. ^ The registered head office is Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture.
  8. ^ From 2008, Bayer Co., Ltd., a holding company in Japan, also moved its headquarters to Osaka City.
  9. ^ Head office is in Tokyo
  10. ^ Officially, it is part of the Takano Line,Kishizatamade StationThe operation has been divided in, and the direct operation to the Koyasan area is not possible due to the wiring.
  11. ^ Important personUse and at Osaka International AirportMaintenanceFlying in purpose, specialCharter flightsAnd so on.
  12. ^ See Kansai International Airport section.
  13. ^ However, in the pastNitto AirlinesWas operating a regular flight.
  14. ^ Includes 4 items owned by Kinki Nippon Railway Co., Ltd. (stored in Yamato Bunkakan, Nara Prefecture)


  1. ^ “The world's most livable city” ranking announced Japan ranks high. with the BBC(July 2018, 8). https://www.bbc.com/japanese/45178865 2018/8/16Browse. 
  2. ^ Namba Takatsunomiya -Visiting the tomb (October 2017, 10 5:3 pm (JST) Browse)
  3. ^ 63 Area adjustment (PDF) -GSI
  4. ^ Kagawa -Tokyo Books
  5. ^ Area as of October 25, 10 (PDF) -GSI
  6. ^ Osaka Prefecture top page
  7. ^ Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages nationwide Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 11 reading
  8. ^ The north, south, east, and west end points of the Kinki region and the latitude and longitude of the center of gravity Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 2 reading
  9. ^ Longitude/latitude (world geodetic system) of government offices/municipal offices in Osaka Prefecture and north, south, east, and west end points Geographical Survey Institute March 2013, 2 reading
  10. ^ Center of Population in Japan-From the 22 Census Results- Statistics Bureau March 2013, 2 Reading
  11. ^ As a self-proclaimedOsaka City Song』(1921年Taisho10 years> enacted, lyrics: Shuan Horizawa)
  12. ^ "Heisei 27 year census". Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau (September 2016, 10). 2017/7/22Browse.
  13. ^ “[Osaka Prefecture] 14 “Health Information Center Promotion Project”-Providing results such as information provision”. Pharmaceutical Daily(November 2015, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150423122333/http://www.yakuji.co.jp/entry43080.html 2015/4/21Browse. 
  14. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 18 Calculation Results of Real Debt Service Ratio (Preliminary Report) PDF,Same HTML
  15. ^ "Osaka Prefecture, XNUMX billion yen "Hidden deficit" Aiming to avoid reconstruction groups". Asahi Shimbun(November 2007, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2007, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20071230181725/http://www.asahi.com/politics/update/1229/OSK200712290039.html 2012/10/15Browse. 
  16. ^ Financial Highlights-Trends in Osaka's main financial situation 2007-2010 (22)
  17. ^ “"Improper, but unavoidable" Governor Ota with hidden red letters". Asahi Shimbun(November 2008, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150423124501/http://www.sankei.com/west/news/140307/wst1403070005-n1.html 2014/4/15Browse. 
  18. ^ "[Re-choice mayor selection] Mr. Hashishita, appeal of the financial effect of the Tokyo plan". Asahi Shimbun(November 2014, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150423124501/http://www.sankei.com/west/news/140307/wst1403070005-n1.html 2014/4/15Browse. 
  19. ^ Yoichi Takahashi, The Truth of Osaka Restoration, Chukei Publishing, 2012, 155 pages.ISBN 9784806144632.
  20. ^ Yoichi Takahashi, The Truth of Osaka Restoration, Chukei Publishing, 2012, 156 pages.ISBN 9784806144632.
  21. ^ 平成23年(2011年)11月28日大阪府選挙管理委員会告示第176号「平成23年11月27日執行の大阪府知事選挙における当選人の決定」:『大阪府公報』 平成23年(2011年)11月30日 第3510号
  22. ^ World Economic Outlook Database
  23. ^ "29 Osaka Prefectural Accounts (confirmed report)Information Planning Group, Statistics Division, General Affairs Department, Osaka Prefecture (February 2020, 2). 2020/9Browse.
  24. ^ Shin'ichi Ueyama, Kaoru Kida, "Verification Osaka Restoration Reform: Trace of Hashishita Reform," Gyosei, 2015, 328-354.ISBN 978-4-324-10064-6.
  25. ^ "A system that subsidizes the maximum amount of heavy ion beam treatment for pediatric cancer-Osaka Prefecture is the first in Japan". MBS News(July 2019, 4). https://www.mbs.jp/news/kansainews/20190402/GE000000000000027209.shtml 2019/4/3Browse. 
  26. ^ Yoichi Takahashi, The Truth of Osaka Restoration, Chukei Publishing, 2012, pp. 160-161.ISBN 9784806144632.
  27. ^ A master's program professor base will be established in Kita-ku, Osaka from 2008
  28. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2005, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2005/10/29Browse.
  29. ^ Nationally designated cultural property database Historic sites Scenic natural monuments: Osaka
  30. ^ Habikino City Home Page
  31. ^ Important cultural property of Osaka
  32. ^ Important cultural property of Osaka
  33. ^ Buildings in Osaka, scent of history: Most registered tangible cultural properties (Nikkei)
  34. ^ International Affairs Division, Urban Attractiveness Creation Bureau, Department of Culture, Osaka Prefecture
  35. ^ International Affairs Division, Urban Attractiveness Creation Bureau, Department of Culture, Osaka Prefecture

Related item

外部 リンク

Osaka Town Magistrate (Machikata)

Takatsuki prefecture / Asada prefecture

Sakai prefecture

Changes in administrative districts
1868- (Osaka Court → Osaka Prefecture)
Next generation:

Nara Prefecture (Second)


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