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Surveillance camera(Kanshi camera) is an object for some purposeMonitoringin order toVideo cameraIs. mainlyA humanMonitor andcrimeThose that are installed in search of effects such as deterrencesurveillance cameraThose that monitor active volcanoes and the weather and seek disaster prevention effectsDisaster prevention cameraAlso called. In a broad sense, it may refer to the entire system including the functions of transmitting/processing captured images, recording, and displaying, rather than the camera itself.EnglishAlthough it is sometimes called video serveillance, it generally refers to video surveillance systems.Video signalIs a transmission method closed-circuit televisionUsing the abbreviation (closed circuit television)CCTVIs more often called. Security cameras are useful not only for deterring theft crimes, but also for arresting robbers, assaults, and rape criminals..JapanThen.PoliciesDue to the opposite reason, the number of installations is small, which is an incentive for theft damage from home and abroad..
"CCTV, Closed-circuit Television"cableClosed only between the camera and the TV tied withcircuitMeans TV. You can think of the TV camera itself as an open circuitRadio waveOpen to the public usingbroadcastIt was first used as a main purpose for business. After that, a camera with a limited use only for surveillance, which has a different purpose from broadcasting, appeared, and it was used as a surveillance in a closed circuit and range,Closed Circuit, CCTV Was called. But the internet andLANWith the advent and widespread use of network cameras that transmit images via the Internet, the number of cameras that are originally called CCTV in terms of specifications and functions is decreasing.
Information extraction from video
In the beginning, it was only to shoot and store images, but in recent years, a combination of image processing systems has appeared one after another. For example, if you install it on the road,License plateDetect images and extract as dataAutomatic vehicle number reader(Japan"The N system" used by the police is famous, but there are commercials as well. "F system" that identifies the car type from the video of the car,空港Take a picture of the traveler's face with a photo of the criminal's faceDatabaseAutomatically match withFace recognition systemetc2016As of (28), it has already been introduced.Estimate gender and age from face recognition,MarketingHas already been used to.
Furthermore, software that analyzes behavior patterns and detects abnormal behaviors has already been developed.In addition, people tremble (TremorA system that analyzes the psychological state from (etc.) has also been developed... Also, use gait features for individual identificationGait analysisHas also been doneUsed for criminal investigation. Also,IndividualIn addition to the analysis of the crowd, the analysis of the crowd is also performed, and it is possible to detect anomalies from changes in crowd density.Predicting congestionHas also been done. It is also done to display the stay time on a heat map.. Technology for tracking a person across multiple surveillance cameras has also been developed..Also, at ATMs to prevent fraudMobile phoneUsage detectionAndarmsDetection systems are also beginning to appear.. A smoke detection system is also being developed.
As of June 2016, large-scale monitoring by face recognition is difficult.米 国Then about 1.2 million face recognition databaseAlthough it is maintained, it boasts the highest specific rateGoogleFaceNet even has uncertainty in distinguishing a large number of faces (In addition, there is OpenFace as an open source implementation of FaceNet).However, it has one of the largest populations in the worldChugokuLarge-scale monitoring by face recognition is actively used in, and a face recognition database of about 13 billion people who are said to exceed Google's specific rate is maintained. JapaneseTokyoThen, in order to raise the specific rate, take a photo of the criminal's collation face after April 2016 (Heisei 28).3DIs going in.
Recording of accompanying information such as voice
The number of surveillance cameras that have sound collection microphones and are capable of recording voice is increasing. Further, even if the surveillance camera does not have a microphone, a sound collecting microphone can be separately installed. Some devices can detect suspicious sounds such as screams, glass breaking, machine breaking sounds, etc., and automatically notify/report... Sound is also used to measure liveliness.
Collection of mobile phone information
iPhoneThen.iOS8ThanMAC addressRandomization is performed so that the eigenvalues are not scattered.However, device anonymization is not sufficient, so it is still possible to track using sequence numbers and timing information..
Collection and use of depth information
The range image (depth information) can be used to measure actual dimensions and assist image analysis.Used in parking lots, ATM surveillance cameras, etc...Also, insectsAnimalIt is also used for the purpose of preventing false positives due to.
To acquire depth information, the depth is estimated by image processing from images from multiple synchronized cameras.PhotogrammetryOr near infrared lightlaserIrradiation and detection (TO DEALDepth camera () that calculates the depth by, Phase difference laser scanner, etc.).In photogrammetry,Stereo cameraSurveillance cameras equipped with are beginning to appear, and high-precision image analysis is being performed by 3D reconstruction of stereo images... There is also a system that estimates depth from multiple videos using multiple surveillance cameras... LIDAR has begun supplying TOF depth cameras for surveillance systems, etc... LiDAR is said to be effective when people overlap and it is difficult to distinguish them from images.
ThermographyThere is also a surveillance camera system equipped with temperature measurement by a camera,Immigration controlSuch as companies and eventsInfectionUsed for countermeasures, forest fire measures, etc..
In addition, a surveillance camera with a far-infrared camera is also under development to find people hidden behind things..
Technology has been developed that combines images from multiple surveillance cameras and displays them from a bird's eye view that is easy to view..
Monitor a wide area,TV station,インターネットThings that are shooting images that can be published in real timeLive cameraAlso called. In addition, the InternetURLWithout publishingLoginof timeUser nameとPasswordIf you keep it in a company or organization, or in an individual or family, you can monitor distances over the Internet regardless of distance.
Factory production line monitoring,Nuclear power plant,Thermal power plantIt is used in laboratories to monitor abnormalities in places where people cannot enter, and to monitor and record conditions such as dams, rivers, and volcanoes. "Kaguya, Etc.,Artificial satelliteSurveillance cameras are also used for things whose state is difficult to grasp.
Monitoring of various facilities such as shops and premises, street, railwaystation,Railroad crossing,空港,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,GangsterThe office, Individuals and sets住宅There are a wide variety of monitoring services.
JapanEach prefectural police department ofDowntownSuch asCrime preventionAs part of this, surveillance cameras are installed in downtown areas, on the streets, and around streets.Metropolitan Police DepartmentThe surveillance camera system that is operated in 5 districts is called "street security camera system", and it is installed in the downtown area of Tokyo, a crowded area, and a parking violation area. Many railway companies have also installed it for the purpose of countering terrorism and checking the status of each station. It is also being installed inside the train cars.. However, there are some voices from anti-surveillance cameras that each railway company in the metropolitan area has not published a rule to operate surveillance cameras and should disclose this rule..
The main purpose of crime prevention is to see shops (retail stores) andbankな どFinancial institution,GangsterThe office,エ レ ベ ー タ ー, Of public institutionsceilingThere are things set in various places. In the case of financial and public institutions, the purpose is toSuspicious personMonitoring and recording ofbreach of trustIt is also to deter the act. Elevators are used for various purposes, such as detecting abnormal passenger behavior and stopping on a nearby floor. For shops, it depends on face recognitionShopliftingAddiction offenders are also monitored.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSince there are frequent thefts by freighters at airports, it is considered to attach surveillance cameras to freighters..
In the case of gang offices, it is installed to monitor mischief, conflicting parties and police personnel. Not only in the facility but also in the cityHeapSurveillance cameras are being installed on the roads of Japan. Surveillance cameras are being installed on school roads and school gates, as well as on-campus surveillance cameras...Also, as the price of cameras drops,IndividualAnti-theft in your home parking lot, etc.Running awayIn some cases, inexpensive surveillance cameras are installed for the purpose of prevention.("#Installation location and purpose/effectSee also)
A system has also been developed that can easily retrieve and extract only the necessary information from the video of the surveillance camera..
Police provided by multiple surveillance cameras and individualsSmartphoneThere is also an effort to analyze the video taken at and track the escape destination of the criminal case by "relay method" and lead to arrest.2020(2nd year of Reiwa)SapporoChuo-kuAround 4:13 am on April 7th, I was walking with my 30 and 7 year olds in both hands to pick up and drop off my children.FemaleThanks to the surveillance camera, the 51-year-old unemployed who kicked his abdomen by saying "It's an obstacle"ArrestI have to.
In Japan, the percentage of suspects identified by images acquired by security cameras has increased, and2019In (31 / first year of Reiwa), 1% of the arrests were due to camera images...Hard to leave evidenceSpecial fraudIn the investigation such as, the image of the security camera is important.
Installation location and purpose/effect
In the case of surveillance cameras installed for crime prevention, there are cases where the crime deterrent effect by "monitoring" is sought, and cases where the purpose is "securing evidence when a crime occurs".In the former case, it is installed in a conspicuous place, and in the latter case, it is installed in an inconspicuous place.PoliciesIn some cases, a sign such as "surveillance camera is in operation" announces that a surveillance camera is installed to avoid criticism that it will lead to infringement.In this case, the former purpose is sought exclusively.
Dummy cameras without shooting function are also sold for crime prevention.
Since it is possible that the cameras will be destroyed, multiple cameras may be installed in combination. The surveillance camera body is photographed by another surveillance camera. Also, as a method of camouflage,light bulb OfsocketBuilt-in surveillance cameraLED bulbAlso exists. Also,TMJ,vending machineMany of these machines are equipped with surveillance cameras.
Wearable surveillance cameras installed on people areAnd body-worn CCTV, etc.AmericaとThe United Kingdom,Hong KongIt is rapidly spreading in police such as.. Tried to use it in school, The largest body camera in the United StatesAxonAnd the largest droneDJITeamed up to monitor for policeDroneIs selling.. Even in Japan, surveillance cameras are being installed in drones for civilian crime prevention... In addition, police in China equipped with a surveillance camera function.Mech robotHas been deployedEquipped with surveillance camera functionSunglassesType ofWearable computerIs also using.懐 中 电灯The function of the surveillance camera is also installed in the.
The United KingdomIn 20057/7Happened tobus-subwayTargeted atLondon simultaneous bombingThe reason why the arrest of the criminal was carried out promptly depends on the records of the surveillance camera. EspeciallyPurposelyA deterrent effect on crimes is expected. Even in Japan,Narita International AirportとKIXToFace recognition systemThere is a surveillance camera with,Also2007(19) February 7Tokaido/Sanyo ShinkansenStarted commercial operation inN700 seriesEven in public transportation, surveillance cameras are being installed at public transportation, especially at all passenger entrances and exits and driver's entrances and exits in Japan.
Traffic flow (highwayEtc.), speed enforcement (Automatic speed control device),License plateRecord the registration number of (Automatic vehicle number reader(Popular name"N system"),Travel time measurement system(Aka "T system")) and so on.
It is also used as evidence that conflicts with statements..
PreviouslyMagnetic tapeWas stored in thehard disk,Flash memoryThere are many examples of being stored in. The image is a continuous still imageMotion JPEGAnd Motion JPEG 2000, differential compressionMPEG4,H.264It is usually saved as long as there is enough storage area. After the capacity is insufficient, it is common to delete old records,Storage deviceThe capacity of is selected in consideration of the required storage period. Image qualityMagnetic tapeBetter quality.
The image quality or compression rate of differential compression is higher than that of continuous still images.2016As of (28), the compression rate is highH.264 Surveillance cameras adopting High Profile are increasing, and surveillance cameras adopting H.265 have also appeared..
To prevent overexposure and underexposure, it supports auto white balance and combines multiple exposures.High dynamic range (HDR)There are also surveillance cameras that have a shooting function. There are also surveillance cameras that can save still images in the RAW image format before tone mappingHowever, it is not often saved in RAW video format.In addition, since color reproducibility is not so important for surveillance cameras and 18% gray cards and color checkers are not used, it is not possible to record correct color information excluding the effects of light such as lighting and sunlight. Can not.However, there are surveillance cameras that perform color correction according to the face detected by face recognition.In addition, a surveillance camera that supports fog image correction (fog reduction) that reduces the effects of weather such as fog and rain, and a surveillance camera equipped with a polarizing filter / polarizing lens that removes diffused reflection of light.Also exists.
analogThere is a lot of transmission noise in surveillance cameras,InterlaceSince it is a moving image, it will have a large capacity when stored digitally. A digital surveillance camera is not affected by transmission noise and is a progressive moving image, so the capacity is small. In the case of differential compression, the capacity can be further reduced by reducing CCD noise, physical/software motion stabilizer, and heat haze removal. Also,Background difference,Human sensorBy detecting moving objects such as, recording can be started from a few seconds before that, only when a moving object is detected in the shooting range of the camera, instead of always saving the image, and the capacity can be saved.In addition, there are surveillance cameras that can improve the image quality only in a specific area in the video frame and lower the image quality in encoding.
The number of shooting frames is usually 1 per secondTopOr it is common to set it as a 30-frame video, butTMJIn corners, etc., shooting 1 to 1 frames per second tends to prolong the storage period.Record by dropping the number of framesVTRIs "Time-lapse VTR"Called.
Police may request the installation of surveillance cameras to provide images. In this case, depending on the model and software used, general video software may not be available and dedicated software may be required. Mostly for image storage servermemory card(CF etc.)interfaceThere is, and it is possible to output to the outside. Of course, on the video tape while playingdubbingIt is also possible to do so.
Surveillance cameras do not allow information to be leaked due to an administrator's failure to properly manage them, and how long recorded data is retained and who can view the recorded data is unclear. Often, multiple privacy issues have been pointed out.
There are also cases where some churches and others used a surveillance camera with a face recognition system and became a problem..
Also, surveillance cameras are interconnectedFace recognition systemIn combination with the current Chinese "Sky netLarge-scale monitoring system such asEnglish: Mass Surveillance)”,Freedom of expression,PoliciesIt has also been pointed out that there is a risk of being infringed.
20161,ロシア OfWebsiteIt was revealed that "" allows anyone to peek at the images from surveillance cameras around the world. On this site, video from surveillance cameras in 120 countries around the world is distributed in real time.JapanHowever, more than 6,000 cameras (2016 on the site as of January 28, 1) were targeted.
The target countries for installation of surveillance cameras are Russia, the United States,France,Japan,(I.e.,クウェート,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,(I.e.Over 120 countries. The highest in the United States is 7645, and Japan is second with 6291.イタリアWas the third place with 1992 units. in Japan,Mental hospitalIsolation ward,dental clinic, A famous coffee chain store,convenience store,Mobile phoneshop,Conveyor belt sushi restaurant,Department store,Massage shop,Barber shopIt was widely collected regardless of industry. The reason for the leak was because when the camera was purchasedPasswordIn many cases, it was easily discovered because it remained as it was. The site also makes it possible for manufacturers of surveillance cameras to understand.
2018 OfUS-China trade warAnd with the People's Republic of Chinatrade frictionIn the United States, the world's number one surveillance camera market sharewasHike visionAnd second placeDarfa TechnologySurveillance cameras of Chinese companiesPeterson Air Force BaseSecurity concerns that it will be installed in various places in the United States such as US military bases have become a problem, May 2018, 8 (NDAA 2019) enacted, prohibiting purchases by US federal agencies.
Also, the majority of surveillance cameras are banned from government procurement by the Defense Authority Act.HuaweiSubsidiary ofHISILICONUsing other chips was also seen as a problem.. Although the US federal agency is required to remove these surveillance cameras made in China,Florida OfUS NavyThe problem was the purchase of bases and the fact that nearly 3,000 Chinese surveillance cameras had not been removed at multiple U.S. military bases and government facilities..
America'sWas disguised as a "Made in the United States" surveillance camera made in China and delivered it to the U.S. military for a long time..Republic of ChinaTaichung CityHowever, more than 100 Chinese surveillance cameras in the city have been removed for privacy and security reasons., As wellToyohara StationFace Recognition and Chinese Surveillance Cameras Removed from Next Generation Surveillance System.
False arrests and false charges
The video of the surveillance camera, which should be "conclusive evidence",False arrest-False accusationIt has caused an incident. Regarding the background, one active police officer said, "One image of a security camera is by far the strongest evidence than we make 100 investigation reports. I feel relieved because I confiscated the security camera, a little too proud." ( There is nothing to say if you look at the whole image (of the security camera), but even if you see it quickly, it is the limit of human power. I think that it is safe to make mistakes." Testifying.
The following is an example of misapproved arrest caused by surveillance camera footage.
- 2012(24) --Midnightconvenience storeCash inrobberyAn incident occurred. A surveillance camera captures the situation of the crime, the criminal was wearing a mask,Automatic doorWas touching.Police said based on this video and the testimony of the victim's store employees that their eyes were similar.OsakaIzumiotsu City OfMaleTheArrestdid. Also, from the outside of the damaged store's door,fingerprintWas found. The man insisted, "I was with my friend at home at about the same time as the crime," and showed the photograph taken at that time to the police, but he could not get them to hold it.ProsecutionWas done.ProsecutionAt the trial, he asked an expert to appraise the video, and it was determined that "the similarity between the male and the criminal" was high. But thenLawyerObtained a video from a surveillance camera and checked it one week back from the day of the incident.The video five days before the incident showed a man touching the place where his fingerprint was detected when shopping. Then, it was concluded that "it cannot be concluded that the fingerprint of the automatic door was attached on the day of the incident," and the man said.無罪I was sentenced.Men were detained for 300 days.
- October 2012, 24-FormerChina broadcastingAnnouncerYasuishi HiroshiBut,Hiroshima citySouth wardOn September 9th of the same yearemployeeSuspected of stealing an envelope containing 66,600 yen that was misplacedHiroshima Prefectural PoliceHiroshima South Police StationWas arrested by. Fuseki was subsequently charged and convicted in the first and second trials,Supreme CourtWas convicted of reversal.
- 2014(26) June- Yamaguchi A male customer left it on the table at a pachinko parlorWalletThe next day, I sat right behind the man.Female theftOn suspicionYamaguchi Prefectural PoliceWas arrested by. The surveillance camera showed that a woman touched the top of the table when seated and moved to another table one minute later, and Yamaguchi Prefectural Police decided that the woman had stolen his wallet and left. However, after that, a wallet stolen from the trash can in the corner of the store was found, and a surveillance camera there showed another person throwing away the wallet, and misapproved arrest was discovered. The woman was released the morning of the seventh day of his arrest. In addition, when the police again confirmed the surveillance camera at the incident scene, the person who threw away the wallet stole the wallet 1 hour 7 minutes after the woman left the seat..
- 2017(29) June- SaitamaFukayaIn the apartment, 1,000 yen in cash was stolen, and a woman in her 30s who came home was injured.Saitama Prefectural PoliceFukaya Police StationConcludes that the man in his thirties is a crime based on the video of the surveillance camera, and this man is in NovemberRobbery,Forced obsceneArrested and detained for 20 days on suspicion of such as (the man denied the suspicion and then released on hold)2018A man in his twenties, who was arrested in another robbery case in May (30), admitted his involvement in this case and contained information that only the criminal could know, so the Fukaya office announced on August 5. Re-arrested the man and apologized to the man.
Number of installations in each country
The number of surveillance cameras installed is increasing in each country. As of 2014, the number of surveillance cameras installed throughout the United Kingdom reached 590 million (11 in 1 people)..In the United States, it is said that more than 2016 million units (3000 in 10.8 people) have been installed as of 1..
AsiaThe number of installations is also increasing.The number of surveillance cameras in China2017As of December, 12 million units (1 in 7000 people)Artificial intelligenceAlso equipped with (AI)Sky netThe world's largest surveillance camera network called,2019At that time, eight of the ten cities with the most surveillance cameras in the world were said to be in China...In korea2015It is estimated that 12 million units (800 in 6.4 people) have been installed as of December..
In Japan, it is estimated that more than 2016 million units (28 in 500 people) are installed as of 25.4, but less than in other developed countries..in JapanShopping districtRegarding the installation of surveillance cameras in public places such asPortrait right-PoliciesThe installation is not proceeding due to the large opposition from the Communist Party and some civil society groups, who are reluctant to do so because of the relationship with the company and the image being monitored.On the contrary, the Komeito, which has been actively promoting it, answered that it did not oppose it even though it was pointed out that "the Communist Party has been opposed to crime prevention and surveillance cameras in the city all the time."Akira KoikeLawmakers claim to have lied.[Source required]1996Communist Party member served as mayor for 8 years from (16)TokyoKomaeThen, because he refused to conclude a "Memorandum of Understanding on Promotion of Regional Safety Activities" with the local police station, Mayor Kunihiko Takahashi, who is next to the mayor of the communist mayor, said, "No security cameras will be installed on public roads in the city. The abnormal situation continued. ".In South Korea, Japan is known to have few surveillance cameras,ForeignerThere is no end to those who come to Japan for crimes[Source required].. Places without surveillance cameras are likely to be targeted as places where crime is likely to occur.. In Japan, as a legal regulation, the "Act on the Appropriate Installation of Surveillance Cameras by Administrative Agencies" draft (2003(July 15, 7)House of RepresentativesIt was submitted to, but it was abandoned because the deliberation was not completed.
- In Japan, depending on the local government, TokyoSuginamiIn some cases, it sets its own standards for camera installation.However, there is no unified standard as of 2016 (Heisei 28).Even so, despite the opposition and resistance of the Communist Party in many parliaments, each local government has included "installation of security cameras" in the ordinance for crime prevention from around 2003, so the area is better than before. It was one of the opportunities for the installation of security cameras to proceed..
- ^ a b "I heard that there are few security cameras in the countryside of Japan, and I visited Japan three times in nine prefectures. XNUMX burglars were "as expected" (Kobe Shimbun NEXT)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
- ^ "A XNUMX-year-old man was arrested on suspicion of being raped XNUMX years ago with two weeks remaining until the statute of limitations: Domestic: News: Yomiuri Shimbun Online". archive.is (September 2020, 6). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Explain all the reasons why the rape case is "not prosecuted"”(Jp). Opinion site "iRONNA". 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ ""I told you to be distracting but it was cheeky." "2 months pregnant" with two children kicking the mother in her 7s... 20-year-old man arrested (Hokkaido News UHB)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
- ^ a b "Is it safe to take security cameras and images of passengers on railways? |”(Japanese). 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン (September 2015, 9). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ ""일본이 한국 보다 털기 쉽다" Sun 서 원정도 둑질 70 대의 고백" (Korean). n.news.naver.com. 2020/10/15Browse. “In South Korea, there are surveillance cameras in small alleys, and in residential areas, there are as many cameras as in big cities in Japan. They cannot be stolen.”
- ^ "Night security camera image, car model is perfect even if it is unclear". YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (November 2016, 1). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 1.
- ^ “Security cameras, the forefront of video analysis”. NHK NEWS WEB (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). (January 2012, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 4.
- ^ Supporting the creation of street advertising models and urban development based on people's interests and behaviors--, Fujitsu's AI image analysis solution --Impress 2020(Reiwa2 years) April 2
- ^ Canon monitors an online camera and detects abnormal behavior --Nikkei Digital Health 2015(27) April 7
- ^ Development of artificial intelligence technology that enables surveillance cameras to detect suspicious behavior........NTT Com RBB TODAY 2015(27) April 10
- ^ Visualize the mental state of humans with a surveillance camera.. crime prevention surveillance system "DEFENDER-X" --RBB TODAY October 2015, 27 (Heisei 10)
- ^ Certification rate 99% "Arukudake" tells you so far! Gait analysis project with 9 people walking --JBpress 2016(28) April 6
- ^ "Walking" is identified by AI. Image comparison, used as a weapon for criminal investigation. -"Mainichi Newspapers"2017(29) April 12
- ^ Utilized for "gait authentication" investigation = Powerful for turtle prevention and wide area surveillance-Also high accuracy with AI [Broken link] - Newsletter 2018(30) April 5
- ^ Something strange... "Crowd behavior analysis technology" that senses and tells "abnormalities" from the images of security cameras - The Huffington Post Japan 2015 year (Heisei 27 year) 11 month 10 day
- ^ Real-time analysis of surveillance camera images, highly accurate prediction of congestion - ITmedia 2016(28) April 8
- ^ Surveillance camera changing from "defense" to "offensive", its outlook and challenges (1/2) --ITmedia March 2016, 28 (Heisei 3)
- ^ Tracking suspicious persons by combining surveillance cameras with AI technology --Nikkei Technology Online April 2016, 28 (Heisei 4)
- ^ a b NTT, LiDAR improves detection accuracy of real-time person monitoring - Nikkei BP 2016 year (Heisei 28 year) 2 month 20 day
- ^ Hitachi, technology capable of real-time person detection and tracking by AI image analysis - My Navi News 2017(29) April 3
- ^ Saga Bank, AI camera to prevent fraud nationwide first installation from June -"Saga newspaper" 2019(ReiwaFirst year) March 5
- ^ It's sweet for surveillance cameras... A new system that automatically detects and warns of shooting by AI - GIZMODO 2019(First year of Reiwa) December 5
- ^ Surveillance camera automatically detects fire!? Smoke detection using image analysis --RBB TODAY October 2016, 28 (Heisei 11)
- ^ a b Face recognition system struggles with million face database --TechCrunch June 2016, 28 (Heisei 6)
- ^ Police use database of "1.2 million face photos" of Americans: research results - WIRED.jp 2016(28) April 10
- ^ “China Building a Face Recognition System for 13 Billion People, Human Rights Issues Asked There”. Fujitsu(July 2018, 4) 2019/3/3Browse.
- ^ Face of suspect shot in 3D -"Mainichi Newspapers』January 2016, 28 (Heisei 1)
- ^ A surveillance camera that catches suspicious sounds and automatically reports --ITmedia News 2008(20) April 6
- ^ Built-in monitoring camera microphone that can detect sharp and abnormal noise -"Nihon Keizai Shimbun"2019(31) April 2
- ^ a b NEC conducts smart city demonstration tests at Grand Front Osaka, such as grasping crowd flow and detecting abnormal sounds - Impress 2019(31) April 2
- ^ “NEC, Incident/Accident Prediction Detection System-Integrated analysis of temperature and odor in addition to surveillance cameras”. "Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun" (Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun). (June 2014, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 7.
- ^ Sound, odor, temperature detection & face recognition …… AI-equipped robot-type security camera --RBB TODAY October 2015, 27 (Heisei 10)
- ^ "IOS 8" makes it impossible to identify users using MAC address
- ^ (PDF 2015. KB) --P.11 Mathy Vanhoef, Célestin Matte, Mathieu Cunche, Leonardo S. Cardoso, Frank Piessens 2016
- ^ a b (PDF 2015. KB) ――P.3 ―― 4 Brain Vision
- ^ XNUMXD recognition LiDAR price destruction (lower) Active "light eyes" at the station at the station, detecting home door and umbrella, safeguarding (from Nikkei BP magazine) [Broken link] - Nikkei 2017 year (Heisei 29 year) 3 month 17 day
- ^ Reduction of false positives with stereo camera... 3D recognition security camera released --RBB Today December 2015, 27
- ^ "Hitachi, technology development to estimate human behavior/attribute with high accuracy immediately-stereo camera 3D analysis". "Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun" (Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun). (June 2015, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 3.
- ^ Toshiba's reference exhibit for "infrastructureless" monitoring system with embedded technology --ITmedia March 2016, 28 (Heisei 5)
- ^ Stereo camera [Broken link] --Enegate
- ^ "Starting sales of intelligent 3D TOF camera development kit that enables rapid development" (Press release), Tokyo Electron Device Co., Ltd., (April 2016, 4) 2017/3/9Browse.
- ^ Industry First IP Time of Flight Camera (3xLogic) (English) --IPVM April 2016, 4
- ^ Thermal camera + 3D laser radar for more advanced video surveillance --RBB TODAY October 2016, 28 (Heisei 7)
- ^ A number of swivel cameras for outdoor surveillance that meet high security needs --RBB Today December 2016, 28
- ^ Pandemic solution Nippon Avionics
- ^ Keirin Kobayashi's Drone Frontline-Vol.30 Telefonica's Wildfire Early Warning Drone --PRONEWS 2019(First year of Reiwa) December 7
- ^ Image with AI such as NEC that reflects people even in backlight and shadows-Utilizing visible light and far infrared rays --Nikkei Newspaper June 2017, 29 (Heisei 6)
- ^ a b Home security camera that can be intimidated by sound with light --RBB Today December 2016, 28
- ^ Installed security cameras and "Hello" XNUMX shopping mall group size of Kiryu is [Broken link] - Tokyo Newspaper 2020(2nd year of Reiwa) May 1
- ^ a b Parking Management [Broken link] Hikvision Digital Technology
- ^ Integrate multiple surveillance camera images for a bird's eye view! Mitsubishi Electric unveils new technology --RBB Today December 2016, 28
- ^ Tsunami monitoring with surveillance cameras! Earthquake countermeasures using NTT DoCoMo base stations --RBB Today December 2016, 28
- ^ Do you have any trouble in the car? Swiss Federal Railways surveillance camera - Swissinfo 2015(27) April 10
- ^ Even in the Hokuriku Shinkansen, we will always record in the guest room from 15th onwards -"Nihon Keizai Shimbun』January 2016, 28 (Heisei 3)
- ^ “Security cameras at all metro stations... Privacy is a challenge”. YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (November 2010, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 4. 2010/4/26Browse.
- ^ Shoplifting addicts come to our store automatically detected by face recognition Junkudo Shoten --"Nihon Keizai Shimbun" November 2015, 27 (Heisei 11)
- ^ Proposal to attach surveillance camera to freight carrier at airport, crackdown on theft --VIETJO Daily Vietnam News October 2015, 27 (Heisei 10)
- ^ A threatening sentence to Tohoku Gakuin University, a current student arrested from a security camera was arrested --RBB Today 2014(26) April 12
- ^ 4 security cameras in school, concern about student privacy UK - AFPBB News 2012(24) April 9
- ^ "I saw a red car!" Technology to quickly find out from surveillance camera images --RBB TODAY October 2016, 28 (Heisei 9)
- ^ [Scope] Don't miss the Shibuya light tiger rollover camera / Collect all Halloween images / Decide on arrest of 4 suspects -"Nikkei"Evening paper,2018(30) December 12 (social aspect)2019(First year of Reiwa) Retrieved September 9rd.
- ^ ""I told you to be distracting but it was cheeky." "2 months pregnant" with two children kicking the mother in her 7s... 20-year-old man arrested (Hokkaido News UHB)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
- ^ Shinpachi Yoshida (February 2020, 2). “The number of suspects identified by camera images and 1% of arrests increased year by year”. Asahi Shimbun 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "3D Face Appraisal: The spread of security cameras that can't escape the criminal and its power for special fraud Prefectural Police Only deployed in Kyushu-Fukuoka Prefecture". "West Japan Newspaper" (Nishi-Nippon Shimbun). (April 2016, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 8.
- ^ [100-yen verification] You can buy such a security camera for 100 yen ...!With two AA batteries and a light blinking function at 3 second intervals !! "Dummy camera for security"Rocket news 24 -(2018(Heisei 30) February 3)2020(Reiwa 2nd year) Retrieved October 10th.
- ^ Camouflage surveillance camera with LED bulb --Mynavi News November 2015, 27 (Heisei 11)
- ^ “Hong Kong police attach uniforms to video camera for the first time in Asia”. AFPBB(July 2012, 8) 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ All Grampian Police officers to wear CCTV cameras clipped to chest [Broken link] --STV News July 2012, 7
- ^ Met police to issue body cameras to majority of officers by next year - The Guardian 2015/6/3
- ^ Justice Dept. will spend $ 20 million on police body cameras nationwide The Washington Post -XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X Day
- ^ Iowa school district asks principals to wear body cams --Ars Technica July 2015, 7
- ^ All Houston School Police To Wear Body Cameras Next Year [Broken link] --Houston Public Media February 2015, 2
- ^ "The police's sense of science fiction is accelerating. DJI works with Axon, a taser gun, to sell police drones". Gizmodo(July 2018, 6) 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ “The Next Frontier of Police Surveillance Is Drones”. Slate(July 2018, 6) 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ Detecting a drone 300m ahead and recognizing an image on a surveillance camera--Panasonic's technical application capabilities --ZDNet Japan March 2016, 28 (Heisei 3)
- ^ The world's first autonomous small flight monitoring robot for private crime prevention "SECOM Drone" service provision started - SECOM
- ^ "Police robot appears at Zhengzhou East Railway Station, the first high-speed railway in China". People's network (September 2017, 2). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Chinese police face authentication sunglasses are completely SF. Find only one criminal in a crowd of 5". GIZMODO (September 2018, 4). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Anti-terrorism measures for the Olympics Exhibition of security equipment". NHK NEWS WEB (NHK). (April 2016, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2016, 7.
- ^ "Asahi Shimbun"2002(14) December 12, Western Headquarters version, etc.
- ^ Accident with XNUMX people injured Security camera and driver's statement are inconsistent [Broken link] - Every day broadcasting(MBS)
- ^ Surveillance camera system compatible with the next-generation compression standard H.265/HEVC --RBB TODAY October 2016, 28 (Heisei 5)
- ^ Sony, ISO 409600 compliant 4K camera that captures people and numbers even in the dark. Can be mounted on a robot --Impress September 2016, 28 (Heisei 9)
- ^ Don't miss unauthorized people! Polarized lenses for traffic surveillance cameras that can be used 365 days a year --RBB Today December 2016, 28
- ^ British: time lapse VTR
- ^ "You're being secretly tracked with facial recognition, even in church" (English). Splinter. 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ ASCII. “1.7 billion surveillance cameras connected by surveillance or crime prevention or artificial intelligence | China”(Japanese). ASCII.jp. 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ Network live IP video cameras directory Insecam.com
- ^ Surveillance video footage leaked! Video from 120 countries was broadcast online - East SportsWeb January 2016, 28 (Heisei 1)
- ^ "Surveillance camera world's top Kaiyasu rapid growth". "Nihon Keizai Shimbun" (September 2017, 12). 2019/1/27Browse.
- ^ a b "[FTChinese-made surveillance cameras are in operation at US military bases near ban] ”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2019, 7). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Surveillance cameras made in China, "eyes" everywhere in the United States". "Wall Street Journal" (September 2017, 12). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ US and China studying embargo on major surveillance cameras -"Nikkei"2019(First year of Reiwa) December 5
- ^ "Huawei products, built-in chip in countless surveillance cameras nationwide even if locked out from the United States". Bloomberg (September 2019, 1). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Many U.S. military surveillance cameras made in China are banned by law U.S. lawmakers question the Secretary of Defense". Sankei News (September 2019, 11). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "A Military Camera Said'Made in USA' The Screen Was in Chinese". New York Times (September 2019, 11). 2020/10/15Browse. (English)
- ^ "Taichung City to remove Chinese surveillance cameras installed on main roads". Epobody (September 2019, 7). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Controversy over Taiwan Railway's next-generation monitoring system, adoption of Chinese products". Chuotsusha (September 2019, 11). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ a b c "Pitfalls of security cameras-Sequential misapproved arrests-". "Close-up modern +" (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). (November 2014, 10) 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
- ^ "Saitama Prefectural Police arrested for misconception, detained for XNUMX days, apologized to men in their thirties". Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun). (November 2018, 8) 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ F-Secure releases Japanese version of national mass surveillance report [Broken link] - F-Secure 2014/11/13
- ^ From “record” to “reaction”. A new generation of surveillance cameras that autonomously processes data --TechCrunch April 2016, 4
- ^ "China's surveillance network instantly identifies people Surveillance cameras with AI nationwide". with the BBC (September 2017, 12). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ Navlakha, Meera (August 2019, 8). “Eight Of The Ten Most-Surveilled Cities In The World Are In China" (English). Vice. 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "Chinese city with world's heaviest surveillance has 2.5 million cameras" (English). South China Morning Post (September 2019, 8). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ 800 million cameras are monitored... Korea was the world's number one "republic of surveillance cameras" P.3 --S-KOREA December 2016, 12
- ^ "Natoku Money "Money circumstances of security cameras"". Everyone's News Wonder.-- Kansai TV broadcasting (February 2016, 6). As of February 10, 2016オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ Security camera video full view! Leaked in 5000 places in real time nationwide... at home and in stores - J-CAST 2016(28) April 1
- ^ a b "The Communist Party has opposed the installation of security cameras. Saito Prefectural Parliamentarian Komeito Kazutoshi Hagiwara official website”(Japanese). 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ a b "Communists hate security cameras!? | Komei News (2017/6/15)”(Japanese). Komeito. 2020/10/15Browse.
- ^ "I heard that there are few security cameras in the countryside of Japan, and I visited Japan three times in nine prefectures. XNUMX burglars were "as expected" (Kobe Shimbun NEXT)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
- Network camera
- Video camera
- convenience store
- Hard disk recorder
- OpenCV -An open source library that supports face recognition.
- Surveillance society
- Sex good theory-Sexism
- drive recorder