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🤖 | "Assault Lily Last Bullet" is now available!Stories and real things linked to anime ...


"Assault Lily Last Bullet" is now available!Stories and real things linked to anime ...

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The battle to operate "Lily" and fight against the unknown life form "Huge" progresses in real time.

Bushiroad offers the service of the iOS / Android app "Assault Lily Last Bullet" ... → Continue reading


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Wikipedia related words

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real time

real timeWhat is (Real time)?Japaneseso"Instantly"Or"at the same time","Real timeMeaningword.


Biology (Seibutsu) orCreatureWhat is (living thing)?Animal-Fungi-plant-AlgaeSuch asProtists-Archaea-BacteriaIt is a generic name for such things.In many casesウ イ ル スIs not included, but it may be included depending on the position.

地球There is a common ancestor for all the above organisms (Protocell-Common ancestor), As its offspring proliferate and replicategeneDue to various mutations in進化Is said to have occurred.result,BacteriaからHuman capitalTobiodiversityIs born, each other's existence (others) and the earthEnvironmentDepends on each other and is connected by a complicated relationshipBiosphereHas led to the formation of.ThatGaiaSome are also called.

It is said that there are hundreds of thousands of species recorded so far, of which more than 100 million species are animals and about 50 species of plants (including fungi and algae).[1].


There are various definitions of what is considered a living thing, and it is difficult to unify them.[2]..As for the abilities and characteristics that living things have and inanimate objects do not,Self-renewal ability,Energy conversion ability,Clear isolation between self and the outside worldIt is said that there is.to this進化Ability toOften added[3]..In addition, while living things have an open system that never ceases to interact with the outside world,HomeostasisHas the ability to maintain (homeostasis) and is constantly changing[4]..All living things細胞It is based on the above, and viruses that are not composed of cells cannot proliferate without parasitic cells.[5].

The virus "cannot grow autonomously without a host cell because it does not have a sufficient metabolic system itself."[6].

Living things and the global environment

Origin of lifeIs believed to be about 40 billion years ago[7]However, there are various hypotheses about how it happened.

CurrentEarth's atmosphereThe composition is such that nitrogen is 78%, oxygen is 21%, and carbon dioxide is 0.036%, but before the appearance of living things, carbon dioxide was the majority.ThatGreenhouse effectThe surface temperature was also high.By the appearance of living things herephotosynthesisProduction of organic matter and biological originLimestoneIs generated,Carbon fixationAs a result of this, the atmospheric composition was mainly nitrogen-rich, as it is now (however, the change in atmospheric composition is not due to living organisms alone.Earth's Atmosphere # "Evolution" of the Earth's AtmosphereSee also).

In addition, the oxygen-rich atmosphere formed an ozone layer, blocking cosmic rays and ultraviolet rays that are harmful to living things, and made it possible for living things to enter the land.In addition, due to the increase in oxygen in seawater, iron dissolved in seawater became iron oxide and settled, depositing a steel bed.

It can also be said that human beings are now making various major changes (if not as much as changes in atmospheric composition) to the Earth's environment.

Classification of organisms

One of the characteristics of living things is that each individual種It is forming a group called.Recognize the difference between speciesscientific nameTo put onSortIt is the work.It is said that the species currently classified alone are 200 million, but the unknown species are said to be 1 million or 1 million.There are several categories of classification, in descending order.boundary,gate,Rope,Eye,Branch,Genus, Is provided.The oldest living thing in historyplantとAnimalThere is a two-world theory (plant world, animal world) that consists of two worlds, and with the subsequent development of the view of living things, the three-world theory, the five-world theory, the eight-world theory, etc. have appeared.Currently, in general, the whole organismMonera(Prokaryotesincluding),ProtistsKingdom,plantKingdom,Bacteria,AnimalClassify into the worldFive-Kingdom TheoryIs widely disseminated, but this is a so-called artificial classification.TaxonomyIs still being researched with the aim of natural classification that reflects the strain.In recent years, as a framework above the world,domainIs provided, and the whole organism is prepared according to the cell characteristics.Eukaryote,Bacteria(Bacteria),ArchaeaThe three-domain theory classified as (archaea) is becoming known.

Biomaterials that make up living things

Wed,protein,Lipid,Polysaccharide,Nucleic acidIs a major constituent of living organisms[8].

The state of being alive is innumerableChemical reactionIt can be said that it is the sum of.It provides a place for these chemical reactions to occur.WedIs.Organisms are special in waterPhysical propertyIt depends on many things and is a very important and major component.About 70% of the body of any living thing is water, and other substances make up about 30%.[9].

One of the substances that symbolizes the complexity of living thingsproteinIs.20 kinds of proteinsamino acidIs a combination of dozens to hundreds ofpermutationThere are tens of millions of types depending on the combination.Some proteins undergo a chemical reactioncatalystTo酵素Some of them work as skeletons that support the structure of living things, and so on.

Robert HookA cell refers to a compartmentalized space, as the small compartment found by observing the cork under a microscope was named a small chamber (cell).This section isCell membraneAndLipidIs its main component.LipidsEnergyAs efficient as[10]It is also a good substance to store.

Organisms are partitioned spaces, but they are not completely isolated from the outside world.From the outsideEnergyIs taken in and consumed internally, and a substance is produced by a chemical reaction.[11]..For energy distribution between living thingscarbohydrateIs important and mainlyplant photosynthesisProduced by.

Dawkins saidThe selfish geneIt happens to be self-replicating分子As a result of the existence and the creation of an environment that continuously supports it, it was said that living things were born.Nucleic acid ThegeneAlthough it is an entity ofNucleic acidForm a complementary strandIs the important essence of living things[Source required].

Extraterrestrial life

地球No other cases of life being discovered have been recorded.on the other hand,地球It has not been denied that there may be organisms similar to or different in nature other than Earth.Solar systemEven in火星It has been pointed out that life may exist in.It is believed that there was likely a life-friendly environment, at least in the past.[Source required]..Even now, if liquid water and heat sources still remain, some archaea (Methane bacteria) Is said to be in good condition for survival, and exploration of water and heat sources is often carried out in Mars' exploration program.Observations of extrasolar planets are mainly carried out, butSpectrumObservations are also being made little by little.2007Found inグ リ ー ゼ 581cIt has been expected that there will be an environment in which living things can survive. As of 2008, the observation results of not only Jupiter planets but also terrestrial planets are gradually increasing.

Organisms whose components are other than organic matter are also envisioned.Such a virtual theory is "Alternative biochemistry"It is called.Relatively often mentionedcarbonon behalfSiliconOrganisms with a metabolic system centered onSilicon-based life).SFIn the world ofgas-Electromagnetic waveOrganisms consisting of will appear.Other pureIntellectual,精神Or consciousness that does not depend on matter appears, but now科学In, the consciousness that does not depend on the material substance has not been confirmed.



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注 釈


  1. ^ Shigeo KimuraWritten by "Thinking about Biological Evolution" Iwanami Shoten "Iwanami Shinsho (New Red Edition) 19" 1988, page 2
  2. ^ "How far did you know the origin of life? Approaching from the deep sea and space" p148-149 Ken Takai ed. Iwanami Shoten March 2018, 3 15st print issued
  3. ^ "Origin of Life: Chemical Evolution in Space and Earth" p11-p12 Kensei Kobayashi Kodansha May 2013, 5 First print issued
  4. ^ "Biochemistry Mastered Alone" p23 Saya Kamei Kodansha September 2015, 9 First print issued
  5. ^ "Biochemistry Mastered Alone" p4 Saya Kamei Kodansha September 2015, 9 First print issued
  6. ^ Quoted from The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan https://www.pharm.or.jp/dictionary/wiki.cgi?%E3%82%A6%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9
  7. ^ "How far did you know the origin of life? Approaching from the deep sea and space" p46-47 Ken Takai ed. Iwanami Shoten March 2018, 3 15st print issued
  8. ^ "Biochemistry Mastered Alone" p3 Saya Kamei Kodansha September 2015, 9 First print issued
  9. ^ "Biochemistry Mastered Alone" p3 Saya Kamei Kodansha September 2015, 9 First print issued
  10. ^ "Biochemistry Mastered Alone" p206 Saya Kamei Kodansha September 2015, 9 First print issued
  11. ^ "Biochemistry Mastered Alone" p23 Saya Kamei Kodansha September 2015, 9 First print issued

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