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Asia

Asia(English: Asia , Latin: Asia[Annotation 1]) Is the worldOshuOne of. Now generallyEuropeexcept forEurasiaAlthough it refers to the whole, various definitions may be made depending on the difference in political and economic positions.Sub-state(Ashu).

Assyrianでto East MalaysiaIt has the etymology of "as" which means.Ancient timesSo nowAsia MinorPointed to

Overview

CurrentlyEurasiaNon-Europe, that is,Asia continent(islands-海域Includes)Six great statesone of. Asia occupies about 80% of the area of ​​the Eurasian continent, and it is said that the population is the largest in the world and about 60% of the world's population lives in Asia. Of the worldcityAmong them, the top eight cities in the metropolitan area are occupied by cities belonging to Asia (Ranking of world metropolitan populationSee).

The boundaries between Asia and Europe are a mixture of geographical boundaries and artificial boundaries from a Eurocentric point of view. Geographical boundariesUral mountains-Ural river-Caspian Sea-Caucasus Mountains-Black Sea-Bosphorus Strait-Marmara Sea-Strait of DardanellesOften. In addition, it should be notedAfricaAndSuez Jikyo,OceaniaAndNew GuineaSince it sandwiches the strait to the west, the geographical and artificial boundaries coincide with the two areas.

Asia is the largest of the six major states and is geographically diverse and varied. Most of Asia belongs to the Asian continent, but there are various differences in climate and topography within the continent. In addition, innumerable islands created by the activities of the Pacific Ring of Fire are scattered, especially on the eastern side of the continent, and there are nations with a large population in island nations such as Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia. From the eastern part to the southern part of Asia, it is blessed with heavy rainfall and fertile soil, so the population is extremely large since ancient times, and it is still the most densely populated area in the world even today.

RaceMuch aboutMongoloidBut in some areasEuropeBecause it is adjacent toCaucasianMay have the characteristics of.

Etymology

8th century BCから7th century BCAround the timeAncient mesopotamiaAssyriansAegean sea"Ass" to the east of asu (Meaning "east" and "sunrise"), "eleb" in the west ereb It is said that it started with the name (meaning "west" and "sunset"), and later became "as".LatinSuffix "Oia" ia With Asia Is said to have been born[2].[Needs verification]

Definition

The word "Asia" was originallyAncient greeceOr culturally influenced by GreeceAncient timesSeen from Rome, it was a word pointing to the east. The geographical knowledge of Greeks and Romans地中海Limited to coastal areas, Europe on the north coast of the Mediterranean and south coastAfrica, Part of the mediterraneanAegean seaThe eastern Mediterranean region separated by was designated as Asia.

After that, as the geographical knowledge of Europeans spread, the range of regions such as Europe, Asia, and Africa expanded. For Africa, there was a clear geographical boundary called the Isthmus of Suez, so the area south of the Isthmus of SuezAfrican continentA clear geographical definition has been established. On the other hand, with regard to Asia and Europe, which were once bounded by the Aegean Sea, there is no clear boundary because the region of Eastern Europe is now known. Therefore, geographicallyEurasiaAs Asia and Europe were treated as one.

Even so, the custom of treating Asia and Europe as separate regions remained, but they have not been established as geopolitical and racially distinct names, and their scope often differs depending on the position of use. For example, even in international organizationsIOC と FIFA Has not been established as a strict definition, as the scope of Asia is different.

Major geographic redefinition

  1. A theory that defines Southeast Asia and East Asia on the northeastern side of the Himalayas as "East Eurasia" and the Indian-Arab region on the southwestern side of the Himalayas as "Western Eurasia (including Europe)".
    Plate tectonicsAccording to the Himalayas as a boundaryIndian plateとEurasia plateThe ethnic groups of Southeast Asia and East Asia are also racially divided intoMongoloidOn the other hand, the ethnic groups in the Arab region of IndiaCaucasianTherefore, it is said to have high scientific validity.
  2. The above "West Eurasia" is further subdivided, and the Indian subcontinent / Arab region is separated from Europe to become "South Eurasia", "East Eurasia (Southeast & East Asia)", "South Eurasia (India / Arab)", "West". The idea of ​​dividing into three parts, "Eurasia (Europe)".
    Culturally, there is a large difference between India and the Arab region and Europe, so it is said to be highly relevant in that sense.

General definition

East of Turkey in European countriesMiddle East) Often refers to. HoweverロシアAsia region (Siberia) is often excluded.

In Arab countries, "Arab" is self-proclaimed, and Asia often refers to Southeast Asia and East Asia (Turkish, Arab, Indian (Aryan) are Caucasian races.White》 Is included).

JapanOn the contrary, oftenMiddle EastAlso excluded Central Asia and South Asia, and in extreme cases Southeast AsiaEast AsiaMay only refer to.

The definition of Asia is not established worldwide due to the origin of the word, but in the pastRaceTargetPeopleFrom the standpoint of emphasizing the perspective, the position of subdividing Asia into the Near East, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia has been emphasized. However, recently, Asia has been broadly defined from the perspective of emphasizing economic merits and political stability (economically, the wider the scope of free trade and the larger the population, the better, and politically, " The politics of the region will be more stable if there is a sense of solidarity and companionship such as "the same Asians"), and the countries of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent are naturally defined as Asia including Oceania and Polynesia. Even the case came out.

The reason why the definition of Asia is so diverse is that the word Asia is not a concept defined based on the same culture / civilization or race / ethnicity, but the origin is all the eastern regions other than Europe. Since it was a meaning, it is thought that it is derived from the fact that as a result, the area where different civilizations are separated is defined in one word.Samuel P. HuntingtonThe book "Civilization clashAccording to, in AsiaJapanese civilization-Chinese civilization-Hindu civilization-Islamic civilizationIs said to exist.

Member countries / regions and their classification

Generally, the region of Asia is East Asia (Far East),Southeast Asia,South Asia,Central Asia(Turkestan),West Asia(Middle East-Near East). However, recently, in terms of economic exchange, international affairs, research institute names, etc.Northeast Asia(Northeast asiaThe term (corresponding to the combined areas of East Asia and North Asia below) is being used more and more. In addition to thisNorth Asia,Northwest Asia,Southwest Asia(Southwest AsiaWords such as) are also used.

Below isUnited NationsClassification by[3]Is. There are other classification methods, but this is used for convenience. However, non-member countries are classified in the same way as neighboring countries.

East Asia

Also known as the Far East. The geographical range isJapanese archipelago,Mainland China,Korean Peninsula,Mongolian plateau,Taiwan IslandAnd so on.

Cultural division (Kanji culture area), The following countries also belong to East Asia.

Southeast Asia

The geographical range isIndochina Peninsula,Malay Peninsula,Philippine IslandsAnd so on. 10 countries except East TimorAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsIs composed of.

North Asia

The geographical range is the Asian region of Russia.

Regions belonging to Europe and North Asia as classified by the United Nations

In terms of geographical division, the following countries and regions also belong to North Asia.

South Asia

The geographical range isIndian continent,Ceylon Island,Maldives Islands,Andaman Islands,Nicobar IslandsAnd so on. 8 countries except IranSouth Asian Regional Cooperation UnionIs composed of.

In terms of geographical division, the following regions also belong to South Asia.

Regions that may be included in South Asia

Central Asia (Turkestan)

The geographical range is Turkestan.

In terms of geographical division, the following regions also belong to Central Asia.

West Asia (Middle East / Near East)

The regional range of West Asia is in JapanNorth africaOften referred to as the Middle East. The geographical range isArabian Peninsula,Anatolia(Asia Minor),Cyprus islandRange andIranian Plateau-Hindu Kush MountainsThe Asian continent. However, in some cases, the countries of the former Soviet Union south of the Caucasus Mountains (CaucasusThere is also a definition that includes (countries).

In terms of geographical division, the following countries and regions also belong to West Asia.

• Arabian Peninsula region

• Central Asia

  • Tajikistan flagRepublic of Tajikistan
    • Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Prefecture

• The countries of the former Soviet Union (Cafcus countries) south of the Caucasus Mountains are often classified as Europe.[4].

National forces of each country

National flagNational emblemCountrypopulation
area
(km²)
capital
Afghanistan flagNational emblem of Afghanistan.svgアフガニスタン30,419,928647,500Carble
Armenian flagCoat of arms of Armenia.svgアルメニア2,970,49529,743Yerevan
Azerbaijan flagEmblem of Azerbaijan.svgアゼルバイジャン9,493,60086,600Baku
Bahrain flagEmblem of Bahrain.svgバーレーン1,248,348760Manama
Bangladesh flagNational emblem of Bangladesh.svgバングラデシュ150,039,000147,570Dhaka
Bhutan flagEmblem of Bhutan.svgブ ー タ タ716,89638,394Thimphu
Brunei flagEmblem of Brunei.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu408,7865,765Bandar Seri Begawan
Myanmar flagState seal of Myanmar.svgMyanmar54,584,650676,578Naypyidaw
Cambodia flagRoyal arms of Cambodia.svgCambodia14,952,665181,035Phnom Penh
Flag of the People's Republic of ChinaNational Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svgPeople's Republic of China1,343,239,9239,596,961Beijing
Cyprus flagCyprus coat of arms 2006.svgCyprus1,099,3419,251Nicosia
East Timor flagCoat of arms of East Timor.svg東 テ モ ー ル1,143,66714,874Dili
Georgia (country) flagGreater coat of arms of Georgia.svgジ ョ ー ジ ジ4,260,00069,700Tbilisi
Indian flagEmblem of India.svgIndia1,210,193,4223,287,263New Delhi(Federated States of Delhi)
Indonesian flagNational emblem of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svgIndonesia248,645,0081,904,569Jakarta
Iran flagEmblem of Iran.svg(I.e.78,868,7111,648,195Tehran
Iraqi flagCoat of arms of Iraq (2008–present) .svg(I.e.31,129,225438,317Baghdad
Israeli flagEmblem of Israel.svgイ ス ラ エ ル7,590,75820,770Tel Aviv
Japanese flagImperial Seal of Japan.svgJapan127,368,088377,915Tokyo
Jordan flagCoat of arms of Jordan.svgJordan6,508,88789,342Amman
Kazakhstan flagEmblem of Kazakhstan.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu17,522,0102,724,900Nursultan
Kuwait flagEmblem of Kuwait.svgクウェート2,646,31417,818Kuwait City
Kyrgyz flagEmblem of Kyrgyzstan.svgキ ル ギ ス タ ン5,496,737199,951Bishkek
Laos flagEmblem of Laos.svgLaos6,586,266236,800Vientiane
Lebanese flagCoat of arms of Lebanon.svgLebanon4,140,28910,400Beirut
Malaysia flagCoat of arms of Malaysia.svgMalaysia29,179,952329,847Kuala Lumpur
Maldives flagEmblem of Maldives.svgMaldives394,451298Male
Mongolia flagState emblem of Mongolia.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu3,179,9971,564,116Ulaanbaatar
Nepal flagEmblem of Nepal.svgネ パ ー ル29,890,686147,181Kathmandu
Democratic People's Republic of Korea flagEmblem of North Korea.svgDPR Korea24,589,122120,538Pyongyang
Oman FlagNational emblem of Oman.svgOman3,090,150309,500Muscat
Pakistan flagState emblem of Pakistan.svgPakistan190,291,129796,095Islamabad
Palestinian flagCoat of arms of Palestine (alternative) .svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu4,279,6996,220Gaza/Ramallah
Philippines flagCoat of arms of the Philippines.svgフィリピン100,940,000300,000Manila
Qatar flagEmblem of Qatar.svgQatar1,951,59111,586Doha
Saudi arabia flagEmblem of Saudi Arabia.svgSaudi Arabia26,534,5042,149,690Riyadh
Singapore flagCoat of arms of Singapore.svgSingapore5,353,494697Singapore
Sri Lanka flagEmblem of Sri Lanka.svgSri Lanka21,481,33465,610Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
Republic of Korea flagEmblem of South Korea.svgSouth Korea51,069,375100,210Seoul
Syrian flagCoat of arms of Syria.svg(I.e.22,530,746185,180Damascus
Taiwan flagNational Emblem of the Republic of China.svgRepublic of China(Taiwan)23,261,74736,193Taipei
Tajikistan flagEmblem of Tajikistan.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu7,768,385143,100Dushanbe
Kingdom of Thailand flagEmblem of Thailand.svgThailand67,091,089513,120Bangkok
Turkish flagEmblem of Turkey.svgトルコ79,749,461783,562Ankara
Turkmenistan flagEmblem of Turkmenistan.svgトルクメニスタン5,054,828488,100Ashhabad
United Arab Emirates flagEmblem of the United Arab Emirates.svgUnited Arab Emirates5,314,31783,600Abu Dhabi
Uzbekistan flagEmblem of Uzbekistan.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu28,394,180447,400Tashkent
Vietnam flagEmblem of Vietnam.svgEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu91,519,289331,212Hanoi
Yemen flagEmblem of Yemen.svgYemen24,771,809527,968Sanua

Politics

In Asia, in EuropeEuropean UnionAnd africanAfrican Unionlike,Asia continentAiming for Asian integration made up of most of the countriesIntergovernmental organizationIs nowAsia Cooperation DialogueOnly exists. However, there are multiple international organizations by region. The main ones are shown below.

Geography

Asia, for exampleKöppen climate classificationIf you use, it contains so diverse geographic conditions that most climatic types are included. The northern end faces the Arctic Ocean andTundra climateWilderness spreads out. To the south of Siberia inlandTaigaThere is a large coniferous forest called. South Asia, Southeast Asia and the eastern part of East AsiamonsoonIt is an area that is strongly influenced by.

Economy

Asia's Nominal GDP Ranking (2018)
RankingCountryUnit: $ 100 million
1Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku13,407,400
2Japanese flag Japan4,971,900
3Indian flag India2,716,700
4Republic of Korea flag South Korea1,619,400
5Indonesian flag Indonesia1,022,400
6Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia782,000
7Turkish flag トルコ766,000
8Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand457,600
Source:CIA[5]

Throughout AsiaDeveloping countriesAlthough there are still many, the economic scale of the East Asian region isEurope,North AmericaIt is as big as.GDPThe largest are the People's Republic of China and Japan, which are the second and third largest in the world. Next is the Republic of Korea, which ranks around 2th. Southeast Asian countries and India are also growing year by year and increasing their presence.

Asian currency crisisIn East and Southeast Asian countriesChiang Mai InitiativeAiming for economic stability. Also, because of the high oil production in Western Asian countries,Oil moneyHas strengthened its global voice.

Transportation

On the roadAsia HighwayAlthough they are connected by, the road maintenance status is different.

Race/ethnicity

As a raceMongoloid,Caucasian,AustraloidCan be seen. Caucasian races are abundant in the western part centered on West Asia, and Mongoloids are abundant in the eastern part such as East Asia and Southeast Asia. Australoid is found in southern South Asia. Caucasian and Mongoloid in Central Asia and western North Asia, Caucasian and Australoid in northern South Asia, Southeast Asia (especially)Malay Archipelago), Mongoloid and Australo-Melane are mixed.

言语

variousLanguage groupとIsolated languageIs used. The main languages ​​used as official languages ​​in multiple countries are:

  • English(Official language in India, Singapore, Philippines, etc.)
  • Russian(Including RussiaCISOfficial language in each country)
  • Chinese/ Mandarin (official language in China, Republic of China, Singapore)
    • Cantonese(Official language in Hong Kong and Macau, Guangdong Province, China)
    • Minnan Language(Taiwan'sFormosan, Southern Fujian, China, Southeast AsiaSingapore, Many have immigrated to Malaysia and Thailand)
  • Korean(In North Korea, South Korea, and China)
  • Hindustani(Official language in India and Pakistan)
  • Bengali language(Bangladesh, official language in India)
  • Persian language(Official language in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan)
  • Arabic(Used in Arab countries and the cultural language of Islamic countries)
  • Malay(Official language in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore. De facto official language in East Timor)
  • Tamil(Official languages ​​such as Sri Lanka and Singapore)

The following languages ​​have a particularly large number of speakers.

Official languages ​​of other Asian countries

Language classification

The main languages ​​spoken in Asia are classified as follows.

Religious

It is a religion with many believers in the worldキ リ ス ト 教,Islam,Hinduism,BuddhismAll originate in Asia. this house,BuddhismとHinduismOriginates in India, and Christianity and Islam originate in West Asia. Besides this, in West AsiaJudaism, South AsiaSikhism, East AsiaConfucianism,Taoism,ShintoThere are various religions. In modern times, Islam is widespread in most parts of West Asia, where it originated, and Central Asia is also almost Muslim. In addition, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives in South Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei in Southeast Asia are nations that are dominated by Islam. Also in ChinaXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,Ningxia Hui Autonomous RegionIslamic majority. Christianity is the origin of Christianity There are only a few believers in the West Asian region, and the Philippines is the only country in Asia where Christians are the majority. However, North Asia is a ChristianRussianMoved east and settled,Russian Orthodox ChurchThe majority of the believers. India and Nepal are the only Hindu-majority nations, and the majority of believers are also in northern Sri Lanka (TamilThe majority of India's population is Hindu, and the number of believers is almost one in India, which is higher than that of Buddhists in the world. Buddhism has passed away in its birthplace, India, and has a small majority in Bhutan, but as Buddhism spread to the east, it has a large sect in Southeast Asia and East Asia. However, the Buddhist denominations of East Asia and Southeast Asia are different, and Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and southern Sri Lanka in Southeast Asia (SinhalaIn the area), Theravada Buddhism is worshiped.On the other hand, Mahayana Buddhism is worshiped in East Asia and Vietnam.However, Mahayana Buddhism in East Asia is not the only belief, Confucianism and Taoism in China, and in the Korean Peninsula.Celestialism, Shinto has a great power in Japan, and it is effectively a mixed area with these religions.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Classical LatinThen "Asia", but modernLatinThen it is also pronounced "Asia".

Source

  1. ^ a b "List of --Biggest Cities in the World, Highest Mountains, Deepest Spot in the Ocean, Longest Rivers”. Worldatlas.com. 2017/5/10Browse.
  2. ^ Akira Hoshino "Chapter II 1 Monsoon Blowing Continent" "A geography book traveling the earth 2 Asia] P.10
  3. ^ United Nations, "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", United Nations Website
  4. ^ International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. Springer, 24 November 1979, [1]
  5. ^ [:in]

References

Related literature

  • Tatsuki Kataoka, Shinjiruto, Hitoshi Yamada (eds.) "Anthropology in Asia" Shumpusha Publishing, April 2013.ISBN 978-4-86110-357-5

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