"BAMBOO DESIGN" -Bamboo design and future-
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At our university, we have focused on this material called bamboo and have been interacting with and researching Asian countries.
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Asia(English: Asia , Latin: Asia[Annotation 1]) Is the worldOshuOne of. Now generallyEuropeexcept forEurasiaAlthough it refers to the whole, various definitions may be made depending on the difference in political and economic positions.Sub-state(Ashu).
CurrentlyEurasiaNon-Europe, that is,Asia continent(islands-海域Includes)Six great statesone of. Asia occupies about 80% of the area of the Eurasian continent, and it is said that the population is the largest in the world and about 60% of the world's population lives in Asia. Of the worldcityAmong them, the top eight cities in the metropolitan area are occupied by cities belonging to Asia (Ranking of world metropolitan populationSee).
The boundaries between Asia and Europe are a mixture of geographical boundaries and artificial boundaries from a Eurocentric point of view. Geographical boundariesUral mountains-Ural river-Caspian Sea-Caucasus Mountains-Black Sea-Bosphorus Strait-Marmara Sea-Strait of DardanellesOften. In addition, it should be notedAfricaAndSuez Jikyo,OceaniaAndNew GuineaSince it sandwiches the strait to the west, the geographical and artificial boundaries coincide with the two areas.
Asia is the largest of the six major states and is geographically diverse and varied. Most of Asia belongs to the Asian continent, but there are various differences in climate and topography within the continent. In addition, innumerable islands created by the activities of the Pacific Ring of Fire are scattered, especially on the eastern side of the continent, and there are nations with a large population in island nations such as Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia. From the eastern part to the southern part of Asia, it is blessed with heavy rainfall and fertile soil, so the population is extremely large since ancient times, and it is still the most densely populated area in the world even today.
8th century BCから7th century BCAround the timeAncient mesopotamiaAssyriansAegean sea"Ass" to the east of asu (Meaning "east" and "sunrise"), "eleb" in the west ereb It is said that it started with the name (meaning "west" and "sunset"), and later became "as".LatinSuffix "Oia" ia With Asia Is said to have been born.[Needs verification]
The word "Asia" was originallyAncient greeceOr culturally influenced by GreeceAncient timesSeen from Rome, it was a word pointing to the east. The geographical knowledge of Greeks and Romans地中海Limited to coastal areas, Europe on the north coast of the Mediterranean and south coastAfrica, Part of the mediterraneanAegean seaThe eastern Mediterranean region separated by was designated as Asia.
After that, as the geographical knowledge of Europeans spread, the range of regions such as Europe, Asia, and Africa expanded. For Africa, there was a clear geographical boundary called the Isthmus of Suez, so the area south of the Isthmus of SuezAfrican continentA clear geographical definition has been established. On the other hand, with regard to Asia and Europe, which were once bounded by the Aegean Sea, there is no clear boundary because the region of Eastern Europe is now known. Therefore, geographicallyEurasiaAs Asia and Europe were treated as one.
Even so, the custom of treating Asia and Europe as separate regions remained, but they have not been established as geopolitical and racially distinct names, and their scope often differs depending on the position of use. For example, even in international organizationsIOC と FIFA Has not been established as a strict definition, as the scope of Asia is different.
Major geographic redefinition
- A theory that defines Southeast Asia and East Asia on the northeastern side of the Himalayas as "East Eurasia" and the Indian-Arab region on the southwestern side of the Himalayas as "Western Eurasia (including Europe)".
- The above "West Eurasia" is further subdivided, and the Indian subcontinent / Arab region is separated from Europe to become "South Eurasia", "East Eurasia (Southeast & East Asia)", "South Eurasia (India / Arab)", "West". The idea of dividing into three parts, "Eurasia (Europe)".
- Culturally, there is a large difference between India and the Arab region and Europe, so it is said to be highly relevant in that sense.
In Arab countries, "Arab" is self-proclaimed, and Asia often refers to Southeast Asia and East Asia (Turkish, Arab, Indian (Aryan) are Caucasian races.White》 Is included).
The definition of Asia is not established worldwide due to the origin of the word, but in the pastRaceTargetPeopleFrom the standpoint of emphasizing the perspective, the position of subdividing Asia into the Near East, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia has been emphasized. However, recently, Asia has been broadly defined from the perspective of emphasizing economic merits and political stability (economically, the wider the scope of free trade and the larger the population, the better, and politically, " The politics of the region will be more stable if there is a sense of solidarity and companionship such as "the same Asians"), and the countries of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent are naturally defined as Asia including Oceania and Polynesia. Even the case came out.
The reason why the definition of Asia is so diverse is that the word Asia is not a concept defined based on the same culture / civilization or race / ethnicity, but the origin is all the eastern regions other than Europe. Since it was a meaning, it is thought that it is derived from the fact that as a result, the area where different civilizations are separated is defined in one word.Samuel P. HuntingtonThe book "Civilization clashAccording to, in AsiaJapanese civilization-Chinese civilization-Hindu civilization-Islamic civilizationIs said to exist.
Member countries / regions and their classification
Generally, the region of Asia is East Asia (Far East),Southeast Asia,South Asia,Central Asia(Turkestan),West Asia(Middle East-Near East). However, recently, in terms of economic exchange, international affairs, research institute names, etc.Northeast Asia(Northeast asiaThe term (corresponding to the combined areas of East Asia and North Asia below) is being used more and more. In addition to thisNorth Asia,Northwest Asia,Southwest Asia(Southwest AsiaWords such as) are also used.
Below isUnited NationsClassification byIs. There are other classification methods, but this is used for convenience. However, non-member countries are classified in the same way as neighboring countries.
- People's Republic of China(China)
- DPR Korea(North Korea)
- South Korea(Korea)
- Republic of China(Taiwan）
Cultural division (Kanji culture area), The following countries also belong to East Asia.
- Brunei Darussalam
- Kingdom of Cambodia
- Lao People's Democratic Republic
- Republic of Singapore
- Kingdom of Thailand
- Timor-Leste Democratic Republic
- the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
The geographical range is the Asian region of Russia.
Regions belonging to Europe and North Asia as classified by the United Nations
- Russian Federation(Asia Russia）
In terms of geographical division, the following countries and regions also belong to North Asia.
- Republic of Kazakhstan
- Northern region
- Islamic Republic of Afghanistan(Northern region is Central Asia)
- Kingdom of Bhutan
- Republic of India
- Republic of Maldives
- Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
- Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
In terms of geographical division, the following regions also belong to South Asia.
Regions that may be included in South Asia
- Republic of Tajikistan
Central Asia (Turkestan)
The geographical range is Turkestan.
In terms of geographical division, the following regions also belong to Central Asia.
- Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
West Asia (Middle East / Near East)
The regional range of West Asia is in JapanNorth africaOften referred to as the Middle East. The geographical range isArabian Peninsula,Anatolia(Asia Minor),Cyprus islandRange andIranian Plateau-Hindu Kush MountainsThe Asian continent. However, in some cases, the countries of the former Soviet Union south of the Caucasus Mountains (CaucasusThere is also a definition that includes (countries).
- Kingdom of Bahrain
- Republic of Cyprus - GreekThere are many people of the descentEuropean UnionIs a member of.
- Israel ――Jewish descendants who migrated from Europe, America and the Middle East in the 20th century are in the leading position.
- Kingdom of Hashemite, Jordan
- Qatar country
- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
- Syrian Arab Republic
- Turkey --MegacityIstanbulThe center isBosphorus StraitTo the west of, including thisEast ThraceThe region belongs to Europe.
- United Arab Emirates
- Palestine Autonomous Region
- Yemen Republic
- Islamic Republic of Iran
In terms of geographical division, the following countries and regions also belong to West Asia.
• Arabian Peninsula region
• Central Asia
• The countries of the former Soviet Union (Cafcus countries) south of the Caucasus Mountains are often classified as Europe..
National forces of each country
In Asia, in EuropeEuropean UnionAnd africanAfrican Unionlike,Asia continentAiming for Asian integration made up of most of the countriesIntergovernmental organizationIs nowAsia Cooperation DialogueOnly exists. However, there are multiple international organizations by region. The main ones are shown below.
- Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building in Asia
- East Asian Community
- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
- ASEAN + 3
- ASEAN Regional Forum
- ASEAN Economic Community(AEC)
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
- Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP)
- South Asian Regional Cooperation Union (SAARC)
- Central Asian Union
- Independent state community
- Eurasian Union
- Eurasian Economic Community
- Economic Cooperation Organization
- Gulf Cooperation Council
- Arab Union
- Arab Oil Exporting Organization (OAPEC)
- Islamic State Council
- Shanghai Cooperation Organization
- Indian Ocean Rim Association
Asia, for exampleKöppen climate classificationIf you use, it contains so diverse geographic conditions that most climatic types are included. The northern end faces the Arctic Ocean andTundra climateWilderness spreads out. To the south of Siberia inlandTaigaThere is a large coniferous forest called. South Asia, Southeast Asia and the eastern part of East AsiamonsoonIt is an area that is strongly influenced by.
|Ranking||Country||Unit: $ 100 million|
Throughout AsiaDeveloping countriesAlthough there are still many, the economic scale of the East Asian region isEurope,North AmericaIt is as big as.GDPThe largest are the People's Republic of China and Japan, which are the second and third largest in the world. Next is the Republic of Korea, which ranks around 2th. Southeast Asian countries and India are also growing year by year and increasing their presence.
Asian currency crisisIn East and Southeast Asian countriesChiang Mai InitiativeAiming for economic stability. Also, because of the high oil production in Western Asian countries,Oil moneyHas strengthened its global voice.
On the roadAsia HighwayAlthough they are connected by, the road maintenance status is different.
As a raceMongoloid,Caucasian,AustraloidCan be seen. Caucasian races are abundant in the western part centered on West Asia, and Mongoloids are abundant in the eastern part such as East Asia and Southeast Asia. Australoid is found in southern South Asia. Caucasian and Mongoloid in Central Asia and western North Asia, Caucasian and Australoid in northern South Asia, Southeast Asia (especially)Malay Archipelago), Mongoloid and Australo-Melane are mixed.
- English(Official language in India, Singapore, Philippines, etc.)
- Russian(Including RussiaCISOfficial language in each country)
- Chinese/ Mandarin (official language in China, Republic of China, Singapore)
- Korean(In North Korea, South Korea, and China)
- Hindustani(Official language in India and Pakistan)
- Bengali language(Bangladesh, official language in India)
- Persian language(Official language in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan)
- Arabic(Used in Arab countries and the cultural language of Islamic countries)
- Malay(Official language in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore. De facto official language in East Timor)
- Tamil(Official languages such as Sri Lanka and Singapore)
The following languages have a particularly large number of speakers.
- Bengali language
- タイ 語(LaosLaoIs closely related)
Official languages of other Asian countries
- Mongolian language(Official language in Mongolia)
- Khmer language(Official language in Cambodia)
- Sinhala(Official language in Sri Lanka)
- Dhivehi(Official language of Maldives)
- Dzongkha(Official language in Bhutan)
- Nepali(Official language in Nepal)
- Armenian(Official language in Armenia)
- Greek language(Official language in Cyprus)
- Tetum(Official language in East Timor)
- Portuguese(Official language in East Timor)
- Hebrew(Official language in Israel)
The main languages spoken in Asia are classified as follows.
- Indo-European : Hindi,Urdu,Bengali language,Nepali,Sinhala,Dhivehi,Persian language,Dali,Tajik,Kurdish,Pashto,Armenianな ど
- Afro Asian : Arabic,Hebrewな ど
- Ural languages : Mansi,Nenetsな ど
- Altay languages : Mongolian language,Kazakh language,Turkish,Azerbaijani,Turkmen,Uzbek,Kyrgyz,Evenkiな ど
- Caucasian languages : Georgian languageな ど
- Paleosiberian languages : Ket,Nivkh,Yukaghir,Chukchiな ど
- Dravidian : Tamilな ど
- Sina Tibetan : Chinese,Burmese,Tibetan,Dzongkhaな ど
- Austronesian : Taiwanese languages,Filipino,Malay,Indonesian,Tetumな ど
- Austronesian : Vietnamese,Khmer languageな ど
- Thai-Kadai language : タイ 語,Laoな ど
- Miao Yao language : Miao,Yaoな ど
- Andaman languages : Jarawas,Sentineleseな ど
- Japonic : Japanese,Ryukyu
- Arunachal's isolated language and independent language family
It is a religion with many believers in the worldキ リ ス ト 教,Islam,Hinduism,BuddhismAll originate in Asia. this house,BuddhismとHinduismOriginates in India, and Christianity and Islam originate in West Asia. Besides this, in West AsiaJudaism, South AsiaSikhism, East AsiaConfucianism,Taoism,ShintoThere are various religions. In modern times, Islam is widespread in most parts of West Asia, where it originated, and Central Asia is also almost Muslim. In addition, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives in South Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei in Southeast Asia are nations that are dominated by Islam. Also in ChinaXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,Ningxia Hui Autonomous RegionIslamic majority. Christianity is the origin of Christianity There are only a few believers in the West Asian region, and the Philippines is the only country in Asia where Christians are the majority. However, North Asia is a ChristianRussianMoved east and settled,Russian Orthodox ChurchThe majority of the believers. India and Nepal are the only Hindu-majority nations, and the majority of believers are also in northern Sri Lanka (TamilThe majority of India's population is Hindu, and the number of believers is almost one in India, which is higher than that of Buddhists in the world. Buddhism has passed away in its birthplace, India, and has a small majority in Bhutan, but as Buddhism spread to the east, it has a large sect in Southeast Asia and East Asia. However, the Buddhist denominations of East Asia and Southeast Asia are different, and Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and southern Sri Lanka in Southeast Asia (SinhalaIn the area), Theravada Buddhism is worshiped.On the other hand, Mahayana Buddhism is worshiped in East Asia and Vietnam.However, Mahayana Buddhism in East Asia is not the only belief, Confucianism and Taoism in China, and in the Korean Peninsula.Celestialism, Shinto has a great power in Japan, and it is effectively a mixed area with these religions.
- ^ a b "List of --Biggest Cities in the World, Highest Mountains, Deepest Spot in the Ocean, Longest Rivers”. Worldatlas.com. 2017/5/10Browse.
- ^ Akira Hoshino "Chapter II 1 Monsoon Blowing Continent" "A geography book traveling the earth 2 Asia] P.10
- ^ United Nations, "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", United Nations Website
- ^ International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. Springer, 24 November 1979, 
- ^ [:in]
- Akira Hoshino, Yasuo Hase, Yoshiro Matsumura, Hiroyuki Miyake "Book of Geography Traveling the Earth 2 Asia"Otsuki Bookstore, February 1992.ISBN 4-272-50162-3.
- Tatsuki Kataoka, Shinjiruto, Hitoshi Yamada (eds.) "Anthropology in Asia" Shumpusha Publishing, April 2013.ISBN 978-4-86110-357-5
- Koa theory
- Hydrangea issue
- Asian ethnic group
- Asian Games
- Annual report on Asian trends
- Asian Monetary Fund
- Asian Development Bank
- Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
- Boao Forum for Asia
- List of Asian food
- (Inside Asia): One of the historical geographic concepts. It is mainly used as a term / concept to refer to East Asia and North Asia, which are part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
- Asiatic Exclusion League
- Expulsion of Asians: Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAn Indian-Pakistani Asian was expelled from Uganda in a racial discrimination incident in Uganda. In the background of the incidentIdy AminPropaganda under the administration is deeply involved
- Specific Asia: A coined word that refers to the aforementioned "Asia that refers only to East Asia" with political intent.