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Passenger plane(Ryokuki, Ryokkaki[Note 1]) Is mainlypassengerThe輸送Made for civilian useairplane(Commercial aircraft). Used by small planes and companies owned by individuals and government agenciesBusiness jetIs not included.cargoIs mainly used for transportationFreighterGenerally, it is a combination that is operated by mixed freight passengers.[Note 2](Combination) or a convertible that can switch between passenger and freight transport specifications[Note 3] There is also an ambiguous difference from the above. Many private freight carriers are derived from passenger aircraft and manufactured.
AirlinerAircraft manufacturerManufactured byAirlinesOperates with passengers and cargo. Airline pays passengersFareIs the main income[Note 4].. The flight mode of the passenger plane was determined in advance.TimetableAccording toAirlinesIn addition to regular flights operated byCharter flightsThere is.21st centuryCurrently, there are no passenger planes that transport only passengers and not cargo..
AirlinerTrain,Automobile,boatIt can move faster and easily overcome surface terrain obstacles such as the sea and alpine.For this reason, not only international flights to and from foreign countries, but also domestic regions[Note 5]There are also many domestic flights connecting to Japan (for details, see "AirlinesSection).International Air Transport AssociationAccording to (IATA), the total number of air passengers in the world, including international and domestic flights, totaled about 2017 billion in 41, exceeding 40 billion for the first time in history..
Wright brothersWas the first man to succeed in powered flight1903 May 12Is. The first flightadventureClose to the general publicTravelWas not the level used for. The reliability of the aircraft will improve to some extent, and it will become an airliner.World War ILater.
Life-threatening Vehicle: Dawn
The history of airliners began after World War I.1919 OfEuropeBecause. Propeller type sold to aviators and civilians who retired from military service due to significant disarmamentMilitary aircraftPassenger transportation business was started by.Bomber,Reconnaissance aircraftCarried passengers, postal items, and other luggage with the modified aircraft.英国,FranceThe airframe made of wood is covered with a wooden frameBiplaneIs the main[Note 6],Germany[Note 7] , NetherlandsThe body of the cantilever wingMonoplaneExported to all over the world[Note 8].. 1919May 2,BerlinとWeimarThe world's first regular airline connecting the two was born. And 3 days lateParisとUKThe first international air route connecting Japan was born.1920 eraThroughout, the airframe of the aircraft remained the same as in the war period, and almost the same design technology was used even for new production, but only the engine was light and highly reliable.Air coolingStar engineWas put into practical use and installed. The cruising speed was about 150 km/h, about the same as it was during the war.
Passengers at the time were politicians, diplomats, and other civilians who were forced to save their planes for urgent purposes to expedite post-war processing, and the rich men who spend big money on their adventures. there were. Immediately after the war, there were aircraft that used reconnaissance aircraft and bombers as they were to transport passengers, and passengers in seats that received wind and rain were as safe as pilotshelmetとWindshieldI wore glasses. Eventually, a passenger aircraft in a sealed cabin that can be boarded in normal clothes will appear, but it is not safe yet and it is a dangerous vehicle. The mainstream of regular airmail services around this time was the transportation of luggage such as mail, and the transportation of passengers was sidestream. For those who want a safe and luxurious air travel,airshipResponded to that need[Note 9].
From the early 1920s to the latter half of the XNUMXs, the efficiency of passenger transportation including night flight, the increase in size of the aircraft, the engineoverhaulDue to the extension of the period, the operating cost per passenger has been reduced from 1/2 to 3/1.[Note 10].
- Falman F.60 Goliath : First flight1919 , Cruising speed 130km/h, 12-14 passengers. It is the world's first passenger plane with a closed cabin, which is a modified bomber. I connected Paris-London in 2 hours and 50 minutes, but it was an experimental flight and it was an irregular flight.
- Junkers F.13 : First flight1919 , Cruising speed 145km/h, 3-4 passengers (depending on passenger weight). It was the first aircraft in the world to be designed for passenger transportation and was an all-metal aircraft. Over 300 aircraft were produced and became the best-selling passenger transport aircraft of the 1920s.
Luxury and elegant rides: 1930s
1930 eraIs a time when air passenger transportation led by the United States has spread worldwide. Since World War I, improvements in aircraft reliability and safety have progressed, and passenger transport has become less of a "life-threatening flight" like in the early days. Nevertheless, the aircraft in the early 1930s in Europe did not have much improved movement performance since the war time, the cruising speed was less than 200 km/h, and the domestic and international regular air routes gradually expanded in the European region after the war. Met.
In the US,1915 OfNACA(NASAThe predecessor of1925 Airmail Law,1926 Until now, there was a backing from the US government to foster the aircraft industry by enacting the Aviation Business Law and the Air Corps Law. What helped me more than anything1927 OfLindbergbyNon-stop flight between New York and ParisIt was a success. Since this attracted people's attention to aircraft, it began to grow rapidly as a means of transportation over a wide area.1930 About half of the world's air passenger traffic is now in the US[Note 11].. In the United States, small and medium-sized airlines repeatedly merged from 1930 to 1931, and trans-American operations were also started.1933 と1934 ,1936 Entered serviceBoeingCompanyDouglasWhen the speed is achieved by the new machine of the company, the time is shortened and the operation cost is reduced.[Note 12], Even if there was no subsidy from the government for postal transportation up until then, business could be established solely by passenger transportation. At this time, the standard form of the current passenger aircraft, a streamlined body with an all-metal semi-monocoque structure, appeared.[Note 13].. In the US, where there are many mountains and highland airfieldsSuperchargerWith the adoption of, it became possible to maintain safety even when two engines are stopped even if one engine is stopped. In the 2sAutopilotA boot type deicer and an air-hydraulic leg shock absorber (Oreo) have been introduced for practical use, and the cabin environment has become more comfortable than before due to soundproofing and heating.
Also, in Europe, the airship that was the main force of air passenger transportation at that time,1937 OfHindenburg explosionThe danger was recognized as a result, it was not used due to the slow flight speed compared to the airplane, and the airplane began to be used in earnest.[Note 14].. Around this time, passengers using passenger planes were limited to some people who could pay high fees, and the seat class wasfirst classThere was only something equivalent to (first class). Meals served during flight were always cooked or heated just before being served, and silver tableware was used on a table with a white tablecloth, which was more luxurious than the current first class.
Long-distance routes across the ocean of this era allow for takeoff with a large amount of fuel for long cruising range.Flying boatWas used[Note 15].. At that time, there were few airfields, but they were undeveloped, and most were open spaces with a side length of about 1 meters, and paved runways were rare. Having a hull for the flying body was useless in terms of weight, but in the case of a flying boat it would be possible to take off and land if a pier was set up on the shore, and even if the aircraft became heavier with fuel, the length of the free water would be long. It was possible to take off and take off. It was also an advantage that we could expect rescue by landing in case of emergency.[Note 16].. This situation isSecond World WarRemained the same until many airports with long runways were built around the world[Note 17].. In addition,Soviet UnionButIlyushin,TupolevPassenger aircraft were manufactured in theCommunismUsed in each country.
- Handle page HP42 : First flight1930 , Cruise speed 160km/h, passengers 24-38. Eight aircraft were built with four biplane landplanes. In addition to luxury, it boasts zero operational accident safety
- Junkers Ju52/3m : First flight1932 , Cruising speed 245km/h, 15-17 passengers. Single leaf corrugated plate3 engineThe body was a metal truss, but the inside of the wing had a multi-girder structure. It was still a fixed leg but had a double-wing flap and engine cowling. It was also produced as a military transport aircraft until World War II, and the total number of production was more than about 4,800 military and civilian aircraft.
- Martin M130 : First flight1934 , Cruising speed 262km/h, 14-30 passengers.Pan American Airlines The Pacific OceanA four-flying boat purchased for three crossing routes. Although it can carry 3 passengers at short distances, it has a maximum capacity of 4 when crossing the sea, providing a relaxing trip.San Francisco-ManilaIt took 5 days to travel along the island, and passengers stayed at the hotels on each island every night and boarded again the next morning. The gorgeous journey has been narrated with the name "China Clipper"
- Douglas DC-3 : First flight1935 , Cruising speed 266km / hour, 21 passengers.Designed as a high-speed transcontinental aircraftPropriinerTwin-engine machine.LaterC-47Adopted by the US Army as a transport aircraft, during the warRoyal Air ForceIt is a best-selling machine that has been licensed to
- Nakajima AT-2 : First flight1936 , Cruising speed 310km/h, 8-10 passengers. Developed as Japan's first modern high-speed domestic airliner, and laterType XNUMX transport aircraftAsarmyWas adopted by.
- Kawanishi type four-engine flying boat : First flight 1936, cruising speed 222km/h, 10-14 passengers. OriginallyNavyMilitary transport flying boat (Type XNUMX flying boat), but a private type is also produced,MandateStarted regular service to Saipan Palau[Note 18].
- Mitsubishi MC-20 : First flight1940 , Cruising speed 320km/h, 11 passengers. As a successor to the Type 2 transport aircraft (AT-XNUMX),1937 First flightType 21 heavy bomber type XNUMX (Ki XNUMX-I)Of the Army developed based onType XNUMX transport aircraftHowever, a private type was also produced in parallel.Although it is inferior in loading capacity, it boasts a maximum speed of 430-470 km / h and cruising power that surpasses that of Western aircraft, and it was a domestic transport aircraft and passenger aircraft that represented Japan before the war in terms of total production.
Establishing long-haul international flights: 1940s
Passenger planeIs for civilian use in the United States during World War IITransport aircraftWas produced and used in large quantities, and the safety of the 4-engine large machine was confirmed. As a result, a large number of land-based aircraft have advanced to transoceanic routes, establishing a long-distance international flight with four land-based aircraft. After this, flying boats as passenger planes were no longer produced. After World War II, the demand for air travel increased in the United States, and the development of new equipment was actively pursued, resulting in faster and more comfortable aircraft. Until this era, passenger planes flew low without the need for oxygen masks, but they can provide a comfortable environment even at high altitudes.PressurizationThe room has been put into practical use, and it has become possible to fly at high speeds in the high skies with little air turbulence. Also, after World War II, it became a different model for military transport aircraft that demand performance and commercial aircraft that require safety and economy..
- Boeing Model 307 Strat Liner : First flight1938 May 12, Cruising speed 352km/h, 37 passengers. The company's bomberB-17A four-engine aircraft designed by diverting the main wings of the (Model 299). It is the first luxury passenger aircraft in the world to commercialize a pressure chamber.
- Lockheed 049 Constellation : First flight1943 , Cruising speed of 526km/h, 40-80 passengers. Japan's cruising speedType-XNUMX fighter4 faster. Provided full pressure and fast and comfortable travel. It features a loose S-shaped body on the top and bottom and three vertical stabilizers.
- Douglas DC-6 : First flight1947 , Cruising speed 494km/h, 50-100 passengers. Douglas's first practical 4-stroke pressurizer. DC-6 thenDC-7Evolved into a constellation and competed fiercely with a super constellation
- Boeing Model 377 Strato Cruiser: First flight1947 May 7, Cruising speed 480-544 km / h, 52-60 passengers.BomberB-294 engine that diverts the main wing of the. There was also a bar with a two-story torso where you could enjoy a drink while flying. It was a transitional period to the jet era, and due to frequent engine troubles, the production number was as small as 2 aircraft.
Birth of a jet airliner: 1950s
JetIn Germany and England during World War IIFighterWas put into practical use. The jet passenger plane, which can output nearly twice the speed of a propeller plane, is a medium-sized aircraft in the United Kingdom after the war.cometWas born as It was said that the airplane was comfortable and free of vibrations peculiar to propeller planes and was a revolutionary airplane at high speed. It was a half-finished aircraft such as limited to half of the aircraft. In the full-fledged jet era,Boeing 707Opened by the birth of. afterwardsJet engineHas poor fuel economyTurbo jetFuel economy fromTurbo fanAnd improved cruising performance significantly.
- Dehavilland Comet : First flight1952 , Cruising speed 720km/h, 36 passengers. The world's first practical 4-engine jet airliner. It was the world's first jet airliner, but due to repeated pressurization at low altitudeMetal fatigueCrash caused by (Comet consecutive crashes) Occurred frequently. The Comet 4, which solved these problems, entered service in 1958, but was stripped of the lead role by full-fledged jet airliners such as the following Boeing 707.
- Boeing 707 : First flight1957 May 12, Cruising speed of 973km/h, 140-200 passengers. A truly groundbreaking four-passenger jet aircraft with twice the speed and twice the loading capacity of the conventional four-propeller aircraft. It was a machine that would be profitable for the operating airline
- Douglas DC-8 : First flight1958 , Cruising speed Mach 0.82, 140-200 passengers. A four-engine jet airliner built to compete with the Boeing 707 and competed fiercely with the 4. The design was later, so new technology is used. Especially, the legs were long, and it was possible to significantly extend the body in the derivative type.
- Conveyor 880 : First flight1959 , Was developed as an alternative to the Boeing 707 and DC-8. Although it was selling the fastest speed among the early jet airliners, it did not deliver the performance it was aiming for, and it was also difficult to control. The maximum number of passengers is about 110. As a successor,Conveyor 990There is
- Sud Caravelle : First flight1955 , Cruising speed of 805km/h, 80 passengers. It was built as a twin-engine jet that often flies around the European continent. A part of the aircraft and the main wing are common with Comet, the engine is also made in the UK, but it is arranged in a triangular passenger window and engineFranceAn aircraft full of manufacturability. It is the first rear-mounted passenger aircraft for the engine.
Passenger plane popularization era: 1960s
1962 Started fromUS Air ForceNew transport aircraft development project[Note 20] Has developed a high bypass ratio turbojet engine. By increasing the conventional bypass ratio from 1 to 1.5 to 5 to 6 at a stroke, the fuel consumption rate was greatly improved.Boeing 747Represented byWide body machineThe emergence of the Aircraft also contributed to lower operating costs per passenger. In addition, in the West and Japan after World War II,Crude oil priceEconomic growth under.
From this, some of the wealthy people and company executives have beenBusiness tripAir travel by passenger plane, which was used only for the time being, is now available to the general public due to lower fares.Connect internationalLarge ocean routes such asCruise shipHas gradually transferred the leading role in passenger transportation to passenger planes, and finally, for the purpose of traveling to enjoy the cruise itself.Cruise linerWill remain. In addition, passenger planes that have expanded to medium and short distance routesTrainIn the US and Europe, the theory of long-distance train use was once advocated.
- FokkerF27 Friendship : First flight1955 , Cruising speed 480km/h, 56 passengers. Twin-engine for short distances produced by the prestigious Dutch company FokkerTurbo propMachine. in JapanANAIntroduced 25 aircraft and flew around Japan. High wing and good view from the window, well received by passengers
- Japanese aircraft manufacturingYS-11 : First flight1962 , Cruise speed 474km/h, 64 passengers. The only passenger plane that Japan developed independently after the war. A twin-engine turboprop aircraft designed with emphasis on takeoff and landing performance so that it can be used easily at regional airports. Japan Aircraft Manufacturing was founded to make the YS-11, but production was discontinued with 182 aircraft left in the red. Since the 40s, he has long been active on air routes connecting Japan's regions. Due to revision of lawsAir collision prevention deviceSince the installation is now mandatory,2006 Retired from commercial routes in Japan, but the design of the aircraft is excellent and sturdy
- Boeing 727 : First flight1963 , Cruising speed of 964km/h, maximum number of passengers 189. A full-fledged jet airliner that has appeared on medium- and short-haul routes. It has a characteristic layout in which all three engines are gathered at the rear of the aircraft, and it is a thin aircraft. To improve takeoff and landing performance, KrugerflapAnd slats are attached, and a triple slotted flap (a flap that opens like three blinds) on the trailing edge is a powerfulHigh lift deviceHave
- Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet: First Flight1969 , Cruising speed 910km/hr, 350-594 passengers. The Boeing Company, which was behind the Lockheed C-5A in the US Air Force's large-scale transport plan, based on its basic design,Pan American AirlinesIt is a four-jet aircraft that was produced in response to the request of. It was the first wide-body aircraft with two aisles in the cabin, and it was equipped with the latest equipment such as inertial guidance devices. A large aircraft with a cabin on the second floor at the nose, carrying a large number of passengers and greatly reducing the cost of long-distance international flights
The mystery of frequent aircraft accidents: 1960s-1970s
Passenger planes that went into service in the 1960s and 70s were inferior in terms of performance and efficiency from the present, but a design that could be said to be a model of modern passenger planes had already been established, and safety was relatively improved.
Also in the US1956 OfGrand Canyon aerial collision accident.. in Japan1971 OfAll Nippon Airways Shizukuishi collision accidentThe expansion of the radar network has been strengthened all over the world, and the risk of mid-air collision has been greatly improved.
However, aircraft accident rates remain high and finally1977 ToスペインAreaCanary islands OfTenerifeIt leads to the worst aircraft accident in history.Two aircraft on the runway at Tenerife AirportBoeing 747Clashed.Of the 644 passengers on both aircraft, 583 died in a catastrophe (Jumbo plane crash at Tenerife Airport).
The accident was caused by a combination of various factors such as poor visibility due to bad weather, crosstalk of communications, ground radar failure, and the location of the airport that allowed only one runway to be used.KLM Royal Dutch AirlinesIt was alleged that there was a gross negligence in the judgment of the captain.
The captain of the KLM aircraft was on the same runway, gliding the aircraft even though the takeoff clearance was not approved.Pan American AirlinesClashed with a Boeing 747.Immediately before this, the flight engineer of the KLM aircraft told the captain that "the Pan Am aircraft may be on the runway," but the captain and the co-pilot overheard it, leading to an accident.
Prior to this accident, there were multiple accidents in the United States due to disagreements between pilots (Eastern Airlines Flight 401 crash,United Airlines Flight 173 Running out of fuelEtc.), in the wake of the Tenerife accident, for training cockpit crews around the worldCrew resource managementHas come to be incorporated.
This will reduce accidents caused by passenger planes.
An era of harmony between economics and the environment: after the 1970s
1960 eraWith the success of our airlines, the demand for even faster airlinersSupersonic airlinerDevelopment has started to proceed in each country. AmericanSSTThe plan is1971 It was canceled by and was jointly developed by France and England.ConcordeHas been put to practical use1976 I entered service, but at that time1973 From the firstOil shockThe aviation fuel price had risen. In the midst of the global recession, few affluent people pay high airfares for narrow seats, and after disappearing after a short period of operation, the development of new supersonic civilian planes fell.
The direction of the new aircraft development will be to improve the fuel consumption rate and improve the comfort and safety of the aircraft, not the speed, because the economy will be significantly worsened by overcoming the sound velocity barrier. became. The introduction of standardized containers that make handling of underfloor cargo simple and quick, and the reduction of the burden on pilots and personnel by computerizing the equipment related to navigation and maneuvering, etc., and the engine also has a low fuel consumption rate and low Noise has made it possible to create high output, high bypass ratio engines.
Conventionally, the reliability of the jet engine is low, and the reliability of the engine will improve even on routes where only three or more aircraft could be flown in consideration of the risk of engine stop during offshore flight.ETOPSBy[Note 21] You can now fly with two economical planes. In areas where land transportation is possible and in realistic distancesShinkansen,TGVRepresented byHigh speed trainAnd passenger planes are competing all over the world, and we have started a service battle that is welcome for passengers.
Every year, new technology is developed and improved in passenger planes, but the basic design and mechanism of jet airliners that appeared around the 1960s are fundamentally close to half a century, and even in the 21st century However, the size of the aircraft will differ depending on the flight distance and the number of passengers, but it is in the convergence period that the aircraft will look almost the same if the operation mode is the same. Since it flies in the high air while emitting exhaust gas, there is a suspicion that it may be one of the factors causing environmental damage.Therefore, not only noise problems around the airport but also reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are required. Are[Note 22].
- Douglas DC-10 : First flight1970 , Cruise speed 876km/h, 206-380 passengers. The engine was a three-engine wide-body model made by Douglas Corp. in the United States, with two engines on the main wing and one engine in the middle of the vertical stabilizer.There were several scandals, but in the end there was intense competition with Tristar. Won. Derived type for US Air ForceAerial refueling machineThere is KC-10, the successor is MD-11.
- Lockheed L-1011 Tristar : First flight1970 , Cruise speed Mach 0.85, passengers 255-326. It is a 10-engine wide-body aircraft designed under the same conditions as the DC-3. The central engine is installed at the rear end of the fuselage and has a cleaner design than the DC-10. advancedAutopilotIt was a high-tech machine equipped with, but in terms of sales, we could not compete with DC-10 and struggled. Trying to recoverDumpingWhen selling or selling to Japan,政治家UsedLockheed caseEtc.bribeAlthough they made an offensive, the sales did not grow and production was discontinued with 250 machines in the red.
- Airbus A300 : First flight1972 , Cruising speed 875km/h, 200-300 passengers. A twin-engine wide-body aircraft designed to fly with 300 passengers in Europe. European countries invested to produce this aircraftAirbus IndustryThe company was established. The machine name isAirbus300It originates from riding, but the aircraft developed after that are generally consecutive numbers in the 300s regardless of the number of passengers.
- Airbus A320Series: First flight1987 , Cruising speed 840km/h, 107-220 passengers. First commercial aircraft to be digitalFly by wireNarrow body machine that adopted the. From the cockpitControl wheelHigh-tech passenger aircraft that has introduced the latest technology, such as the elimination of the side stick system. With the great success of the A320 series, Airbus has grown to become one of the two major airliner manufacturers alongside Boeing.
- Airbus A380 : First flight in 2005, cruising speed 1041km/hr. The world's largest airliner, which entered service in 2007. It has two-story guest rooms and an underfloor cargo room. It is announced that the standard A2-380, which will be in service for the first time, will be able to seat around 800 passengers in 3 classes and 550 passengers in the all economy. "854" in the machine nameA340Since it has almost twice as much capacity as "2",
Modern passenger aircraft, there are two left and right aisles in the passenger cabin with 2-7 rows of wide-body seats side by side, and a single aisle in the center of the seat that divides the narrow-body aircraft into rows of 10 or less. Also called "1-passage machine" and "6-passage machine", respectively. Wide-body aircraft are long-distanceAirwayAnd it is applied to medium-distance air routes, narrow body aircraft is often applied to short-distance air routes and below. Commuter planes with several tens of seats are used on routes with less demand. In addition, some smaller propeller planes with several seats do not have an aisle in the cabin.
Below is a list of typical models by distance. Generally, large aircraft have a longer cruising range and short-distance transportation does not require much aviation, so large aircraft for long distances and smaller for shorter distances, but there are many exceptions.
Long- and medium-haul routes
Long-distance air routesOceanIn order to fly a long distance beyond, airlines are required to have passenger planes with a long cruising range, and in general, large aircraft with more than 300 passengers are available. Except for Europe, it is often handled as an international flight. 1970 engines since 4sBoeing 747With the advent of, the fare has been lowered and it has become popular.
In the past, assuming an engine failure in the ocean, it was a necessary condition to have three or more engines, so three enginesMD-11,DC-10, 4-engine Boeing 747Ilyushin Il-96Etc. were operated. Due to the improved reliability of jet engines in recent years, sufficient safety can be confirmed even with twin engines,Boeing 767,Boeing 777,Airbus A330Long-range twin-engine aircraft such as are being developed.
The old rule is that on a twin-engine, if one engine stops, within 1 minutesAlternative landingThere is an airport availableAirwayAlthough it was a rule that only ships could be operated, measures could be taken to relax this restriction under certain regulations. This mitigation measure is called ETOPS and is allowed up to 207 minutes depending on the model and other conditions. As a result, twin-engine aircraft became available on most routes, and the share of twin-engine aircraft increased dramatically. But in the winterSiberiaIn such cases, emergency airports are often unusable, in which case ETOPS twin-engine aircraft cannot be operated, and it will be forced to change to a detour route that passes around the usable airports and sometimes to cancel.
As of 2017, the longest airline in the world isQatar Airways OfDoha(Qatar)-Auckland(New Zealand) It's a flight. The Boeing 777-200LR connects 1 km in less than 4535 hours. Besides this, you can fly for 18 hours without landingAirbus A350-900ULR,Singapore AirlinesUS to open in 2018ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIt is scheduled to be put on a direct flight with. Again australiaQantas TheSydneyIn order to realize a direct flight between Europe and the United States, Boeing and Airbus are requesting the development of a new ultra-long-distance airliner. While these ultra-long haul lines save time and time for transits, some are concerned about health risks, especially for economy class passengers..
On medium-haul airways, wide-body twin-engine aircraft are mainly used with 200-400 passengers.Boeing 767,Boeing 777,Airbus A300,Airbus A310,Airbus A330,Tu-204And so on. On routes with little demand, smaller aircraft such as the Boeing 737 may be used with a reduced payload.
Short-distance air routes
For short-distance air routes, use narrow body aircraft for 100-200 passengers. Unlike long-distance air routes, the distance to the destination is short, and the flight time is shortened, so many airlines cannot afford to arrange seats.DC-9,Tupolev Tu154,Boeing 737,Boeing 757,Airbus A320and so on.
An air route that connects small airfields in a short distance with a small aircraft is called a commuter. Demand is not so high, but if other means of transportation are not convenient, air transportation is essential. Since there is no detailed definition of the law, a small jet of 20-75 people is used such as a business jet. In Japan, it is a twin-engine turboprop aircraft used for flights to areas without highways and remote islands, with some exceptions.Bombardier(OldDe Havilland Canada）DHC-8,Saab 340,Ilyushin Il-114and so on. But I hate the noise of turboprop aircraftRegional jet OfSukhoi Superjet 100,Bombardier CRJ,Embraer ERJ 145Some airlines are actively adopting such as. Not a regular lineCharter flightsThere is also.
In a country with a large land area such as Canada, a combination plane that can also be used as a freighter considering profitability (737-200CThere are also airlines that introduce local routes.
Use small aircraft with less than 10 passengers in North AmericaAir taxiThe business called is developing. Although the number of passengers, speed, and cruising range are inferior, the parking fee is low and it can be used on short runways, so you can call an airplane to the nearest airport and head directly to a regional airfield that does not have a regular service.TaxiIt can be used with a sense.
Airports with the most users in Japan (New Chitose,Haneda,Itami,Fukuoka,Naha), the so-calledMain lineFor short-haul flights to fly, wide-body aircraft for medium-haul air routes are used because the number of slots at the airfield is full and the number of flights cannot be increased despite the great demand. Smaller commuter planes may be used to increase the number of flights and to improve passenger convenience.
Jet fuelThe following two types are used for.
- Wide cut gasoline system
The fuel is kept warm with a pipe through which warm air does not fall below 10 degrees so that the water does not freeze in the tank, and in many engines, the fuel sent to the engine also serves to melt the ice in the fuel Used to cool lubricating oil before it is burned. By heating the wide-cut gasoline fuel in this way, it is required that vaporized components that are volatile even at low temperatures become bubbles and that vapor lock that blocks the supply system does not occur. In order to avoid such a danger, the fuel supply system that uses wide cut gasoline is always pressurized and kept above the vapor pressure..
As the fuel to be mounted, in addition to the consumed fuel that will be consumed from the time of takeoff at the departure point to the time of landing at the arrival point, spare fuel is mounted. Below is a breakdown of total reserve fuel, which is the sum of reserve fuels.
- Total reserve fuel
- Contingency fuel: The difference between the calculated fuel consumption amount and the actual consumption amount. Generally about 5-10% of fuel consumption
- Alternate fuel: Extra fuel consumed when diversioning to an alternate airport if you cannot land at the desired airport.
- Holding fuel: Fuel during a standby flight over an alternative airport
- Extra fuel: Fuel to be installed when the captain or the flight manager thinks that the efficiency of operation will be improved by adding extra fuel in addition to the above. It is a fuel that is used when there is a possibility that extra fuel will be consumed due to detours due to uncertain weather conditions in the route or at the target airport, or when it is necessary to install fuel due to procedures.
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight-Navigation Weight = Maximum Payload
Other indicators of passenger aircraft performance include maximum takeoff weight, maximum landing weight, and landing descent rate.
Most modern passenger aircraft carry more than 100 passengers and have good fuel economy.Turbofan jet engineHas adoptedJetIs. The cruise speeds of all these aircraftMachThere is no difference between 0.8 and 0.9. The major differences are the weight, number of seats, and cruising range, which are about 10 times different even within the range of turbofan jets. An example is shown below.
- Bombardier CRJ100 : Overall width 21.2m, overall length 26.8m, overall height 6.2m, maximum takeoff weight 21.5t, 50 passengers, cruising range 1,800km (so-called)Regional jet）
- Boeing 747-400 : Overall width 65.1m, overall length 70.7m, overall height 19.3m, maximum takeoff weight 360-390t, passengers 400-450 (international flights) / 560 or more (Japan domestic flights), cruising range 13,330 km (payload39,460 kg) / 10,370 km (payload is 65,250 kg)
Weight and range
The total weight of passenger aircraft is calculated by operating weight + paid weight + fuel weight.
- Own weight (British: empty weight):Empty weightAlso referred to as the structural weight of the aircraft, including the weight of basic equipment in the power plant.
- Operation own weight (British: operating empty weight, OEW): Lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, Pilot,Flight attendantCrew such as[Note 25],Drinking water,In-flight meal, The weight of toilet water etc. added
- Paid loading weight (British: pay load):payloadAlso called passengers and their baggagecargo"Weight for receiving and loading freight". The maximum paid payload is called Allowable Cabin Lods (ACL)
- Zero fuel weight(British: zero fuel weight, ZFW): Operation own weight + paid payload
- Loaded fuel weight (British: fuel weight): This is the weight of the fuel on board at takeoff. Install the fuel required for flight from the departure airport to the destination airport with additional fuel[Note 26].
- Gross weight(British: gross weight): Zero fuel weight + Onboard fuel weight
Large passenger aircraft as of the 21st century have a large cargo compartment under the floor of passenger cabins and can carry a large amount of cargo in addition to passenger baggage. This underfloor compartment is called "berry". Therefore, if you load as many passengers and cargo as possible and fly farther, sales will increase. However, a normal airplane is too heavy to take off when the fuel tank is full and passengers and cargo are loaded. Therefore, as in the Boeing 747-400 data above, lighten the payload and load more fuel when flying over long distances, and less fuel when flying over short distances, and load as many passengers and luggage as possible. Is desirable[Note 27].
- Maximum operating weight
- Maximum taxi weight (British: maximum taxi weight, MTXW): Maximum weight when starting to taxi before takeoff. Even the weight distribution of the front and rear legs is considered.
- Maximum takeoff weight (British: maximum takeoff weight, MTOW): Maximum weight when releasing the brakes for the runway at the runway edge for takeoff. It is usually the maximum taxi weight minus the fuel consumption weight during taxi travel. Immediately after takeoff, the strength of the landing gear and aircraft is considered so that the aircraft can land at a descent rate of up to 360 fpm (feet/minute).
- Maximum flight weight (British: maximum in-flight weight, MIFW): Considering the strength that can withstand a load up to a maximum load multiple of 2g even by exercise in the air
- Maximum landing weight (British: maximum loading weight, MLW): Consideration should be given to the strength of the landing gear and the aircraft such that it can land at a descent rate of up to 600 fpm (ft/min).
- Maximum zero fuel weight (British: maximum zero fuel weight, MZFW): Maximum weight that can carry passengers and cargo without fuel. When the fuel tank in the wing is empty, the wing side has a small inertia relative to the large body side inertia, and a large bending moment is applied to the base of the wing. Even with the flap raised, the strength that can withstand the load up to the maximum load multiple of 2.5 g is considered.
Passenger planes provide services according to fare by classifying passenger seats according to class, like other transportation systems.[Note 28].. In general, the seats are divided into three classes, from the advanced level to "first class""business class""Economy class"It is called. In addition to these, in the middle of business class and economy classPremium economy classThere are some airlines that have 4 classes[Note 29].. Even with the same aircraft,AirlinesThe seating arrangements for these classes differ depending on the route and route, and this seating arrangement is called "seat configuration". Generally, when flying a long-haul route such as an international flight, the seats are widened evenly in the same class, and the seats are loosely arranged. Domestic flights tend to be one or two classes, while international flights tend to have more or less business class, but less or less first class. [Note 30][Note 31] Each airline responds to the busy and off-hours of each route while exchanging its own equipment, and it is common to accommodate long-distance international aircraft on domestic routes. Seat pitches tend to get narrower year by year, and in 2016 a bill was submitted to set a minimum standard in the United States, but it was rejected because it is against deregulation.
- Economy class syndrome : Blood flow stasis in legs caused by sitting still in the seat for a long timethrombusCan be formed and thisPulmonary embolismIt causes a fatal obstacle such as. It started to become a problem from the 1980s, when the flight time became longer. Not only economy seats, but long sitting positions are the cause.
An aircraft is a vehicle in which a major stoppage in the air immediately leads to a serious accident, and among them, a passenger plane is a transportation machine that saves the lives of hundreds of passengers.Aviation accidentWhen such a situation occurs, it poses a great risk and damage to people on the flight route, so extremely high safety is required. On the other hand, there are contradictory requirements such as the importance of economy and comfort of guest rooms, so special ideas have been created in design, manufacturing, and operation.
Fail-safe on an airliner (British: fail-safe) Is to prevent the immediate safety of the entire aircraft from being compromised by a single problem by performing backup or multiplexing on the important function that leads to a serious accident immediately when it is lost. A typical example is multiplex of control system, propulsion engine, navigation device, etc. For example, two pilots do not eat the same meal menuFood poisoningIt is also a failsafe in a broad sense. Although safety is increased by multiplexing, redundant equipment not only increases the maintenance effort but also increases the frequency of malfunctions, and even if the aircraft as a whole maintains its function, it may not be able to operate to ensure safety.[Note 32].. Fail-safe in the structure is achieved by ensuring damage tolerance that allows the surrounding area to compensate for the strength decrease without expanding even the partial destruction of the structural member.[Note 33].. Although it is lightweight and secures the necessary safety because it has damage tolerance, it requires regular checking for damage and repairs, so it takes time, money, and time to operate, and it also affects the parts of the aircraft. Inspection holes are needed. Safe life is another concept different from fail-safe. Safe life (British: safe-life) Is also called a safety life structure. For each part of one model, the fatigue strength against fatigue damage is determined in advance as the safety life due to the upper limit value of the flight time and the number of flights, and damage due to fatigue does not occur until then. However, it is necessary to make it sturdy enough to secure a margin for fatigue on all aircraft, and it is still necessary to inspect to cope with damage due to causes other than fatigue Therefore, the safe life structure is practically applied only to the legs and the engine mounting portion, and the main structure of the other aircraft is the fail safe by the damage tolerant design. Even in computer systems that perform navigation and aerodynamic control, the quality of a specific computer can be improved by simply configuring multiple computers with the same computer and using different hardware and software configurations depending on the computer used by the manufacturer and the language used. It also has redundancy against failures caused by problems and software bugs. In this way, to achieve the same function, it is called "N version programming" that the software language and the program itself have multiple different configurations..
Fool proof on an airliner (British: fool-proof) Is for the purpose of eliminating human error in the manufacturing, inspection and repair stages, or operation, even if you try to make incorrect connections or installations, it is necessary to keep the shape from the beginning, Refers to keeping the device from accepting input..
Industrial structure of passenger aircraft
As of the 21st century, major aircraft, engines, electronic navigation devices and other flight equipment, and all outfitting in the cabin are required to manufacture passenger aircraft, and it is impossible for any one company to cover all of them. It has become. There are only a few aircraft manufacturers in the world that are capable of manufacturing passenger aircraft by comprehensively gathering manufacturers from various countries that manufacture these various components. In the manufacture and sale of large passenger aircraft, there are cases where each airline that operates a passenger transportation business contracts in units of tens to hundreds of aircraft, and the interior and other parts are manufactured to specifications that meet the requirements of each airline. In particular, even though the engine is the most important device unique to the aircraft, the aircraft manufacturer and multiple engine manufacturers can select from several engines manufactured by 1-2 engine manufacturers. Cooperation from the design stage of[Note 34].. The seat configuration is also specified as interior by the airline before manufacturing. It expanded at the end of the 20th century, and now the degree of tightness has increasedAllianceTherefore, when selecting a new aircraft, it becomes necessary to consider the mutual maintainability between the member airlines.
For each airline, rather than cash payment purchases to get the aircraft to useleaseDue to (dry leasing), the number of operations is nominally increasing while renting aircraft from other companies. Dry leases include finance leases and operating leases. Finance leases are actuallyInstallment saleIn the case of an installment sale, the ownership immediately transfers to the purchaser even with an installment debt, but in a finance lease, ownership is transferred to the airline that is the user after the expiration of the lease. Since the finance lease does not require cancellation, the remaining debt will be paid in a lump sum at the time of cancellation. The operating lease has a strong tendency to rent an aircraft, and the residual value of the aircraft during the lease period and after the lease period is calculated, and the difference between that value and the original purchase price will be paid each period. Cancellation is possible with an operating lease, and the airline company cannot obtain ownership after the lease, but the monthly lease fee is low due to the residual value, so it is the latest rather than continuing to use a used aircraft. This is a method that has many advantages for airlines in developed countries that often switch to a different model. In the case of such a leasing, a finance company specializing in leasing would purchase an airliner from the manufacturer on behalf of the airline company. If you purchase it, it will be a depreciation expense in terms of taxation, but you must have some cash. Considering maintenance of maintenance equipment, it is better to have fewer types of models, so it is better not to spend too much time when updating to a new model, but purchasing many aircraft in a short period deteriorates financial standing Fear.. Also, while dry leasing is a means to rent only the aircraft, in addition to the aircraft, rent including the flight crew and in-flight servicesWet leaseThere is. Wet leases will be leased from other airlines for a certain period of time including not only the aircraft but also human resources and support system.
Once upon a time, the British manufacturers and the FrenchSud Aviation,America'sLockheedUsed to manufacture large passenger aircraft, but these manufacturersAirbusBecause it was integrated intoMcDonnell DouglasAfter being absorbed by Boeing, the manufacturer of large passenger aircraft (wide body aircraft) wasUSSR OfIlyushinとTupolev,America'sBoeingAnd EuropeanAirbusThere are only 4 companies. Among them, Boeing and Airbus are the only rivals that survived other than the former Soviet Union, and are in equal terms in order competition. AgainChinese commercial aircraftIs a large passenger aircraft in 2020C929Currently under development aiming for the first flight.
There are several other commuter class passenger aircraft manufacturers. Especiallyカナダ OfBombardier AerospaceCompanyBrazil OfEmbraerThe company is selling small jets well, and is now struggling to sell the smallest models of both Boeing and Airbus. Also, a small jet (Regional jet) Is expected to continue to be in high demand.Sukhoi(Sukhoi Superjet 100),JapaneseMitsubishi Heavy Industries(Mitsubishi SpaceJet) Or ChineseShenyang Aircraft Industry Group(ARJ21) And other manufacturers have entered.
Most airlines earn major revenue from operating their own aircraft on regular airlines. We aim to increase profits by purchasing passenger planes that can safely carry a large number of passengers at the same time as cheaply as possible, or by leasing and operating at the lowest possible cost. Also, if there are vacant seats in the passenger seat, profitability deteriorates, so comfort in the cabin can be improved,Mileage serviceWe are trying to attract customers by doing things such as. On the other hand, in the middle of the night when passengers are not expected to be used, carry only cargo without passengers.Berry flightsThere are also times when you fly.
Regular airline routes can be classified into domestic and international routes.
- Domestic flights
- Domestic flights are airlines that fly between domestic airports. Unlike the long-distance routes that connect international routes, routes that are relatively short-distance in each country and that have large demands for connection between large cities do not compete with other transportation means for price and convenience. Due to exposure and competition among multiple airlines, active airliners do not need long range capabilities and should fly between as many airports as possible in the day to carry as many passengers as possible. Therefore, an aircraft that can reduce the operating cost per person is required.
- Even if you try to shorten the flight time to fly between more airports, the fuel consumption rate is economically optimal at a flight speed of about Mach 0.80-0.85 near the speed of sound, which is an improvement. There isn't much room for airlines to focus their efforts mainly on the ground. At a spot with an entrance/exit at the airport terminal, it is important to unload passengers, refuel and inspect in parallel while cleaning the cabin and installing new equipment, and shortening the series of time for the next passenger to board.[Note 35].
- International flights
- International flights are airlines that fly between airports in multiple countries. In general, the flight time is longer than that of domestic flights, so the aircraft requires a smaller fuel consumption rate in a larger cabin than the flight frequency. It may be necessary to provide food and drinks to passengers, enhance video and audio services, and may also require a rest space for crew members and seats for substitutes.
By air, the shortest route between airports can carry passengers faster and with less fuel consumption, but it is realistic to connect all of the myriad airports around the world directly by air. is not it.There is a need to organically connect a large number of airports over a wide area, regardless of whether they are international or domestic, with minimal waste.One answer to this question is the "Hub and spokeType[Note 36] Although the route network system of the above tends to be adopted relatively widely in the world, some airlines adopt the "point-to-point" type route network system.
Most of the propulsion engines for passenger planes are turbofan jet engines with a high bypass ratio, but there are only three companies that can produce engines that can propel large planes.
Besides, riceAllied signalCompany, riceAlisonGE/ of international joint developmentSnake bearCompany,CFM InternationalCompany, Engine Alliance Company (General Electric Company + Pratt & Whitney Company), Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Company,International Aero EnginesOf MTR (MTU + Turbomeca + Rolls-Royce), RussiaAvia de VigateriThere is a company.
In reciprocating engines for aircraft,Lycoming EnginesCompany[Note 37][Note 38]Continental MotorsAlthough the two companies are almost monopolized, the engines produced by the two companies are mainly for single-engined light aircraft, and jet engines and turboprop engines are generally installed in small aircraft and twin-engine aircraft. In part, the reciprocating engine aircraft is a relatively minority passenger aircraft.
The following is the procedure for passenger flights. In the case of freight flights (berry flights), passenger-related procedures are omitted.
Pilot[Note 39] Is weather informationNOTAM Receive (NOTAM). Pilots (cockpit crews) and flight attendants (cabin crews) perform briefings called show-ups before boarding or on board to check cautions. The captain and co-pilot look around the fuselage for a simple visual inspection, then board the aircraft, get on the cockpit, adjust the seating surface, and start checking the equipment. The cabin crew will also board and board and guide passengers on board. Loading a container containing passenger baggage into the cargo compartment[Note 40].. Even if the electricity is supplied from the ground equipment, the aircraft'sAPUWhen the power is stabilized by starting the, disconnect the connection cord. Upon completion of passenger boarding, the door will be closed and the door mode will be changed to automatic. The flight attendant explained to the passengers the emergency response and was written in more detail.Safety bookmarkIs recommended.
- Just before takeoff
wireless[Note 41] Request for flight approval based on the flight plan previously submitted to the control tower clearance delivery in[Note 42]Get a 4-digit Squawk number as a transponder code with flight approval. Automatic response device (transponder) Set this number. Next, the wireless channel is switched to the ground control of the control tower, and permission to move on the ground is requested. It usually asks for a pushback to move back from the parked spot. If you get permission, turn on the anti-collision light and call on the ground crew such as an airline, and release the parking brake by stepping on the pedals of both feet,Towing tractorRetract the machine by[Note 43][Note 44].. Start the main engine with the high pressure air of APU starting from No. 4 on the right end.[Note 45].
When the vehicle reaches the taxiway and is stopped by the brake pedal, the intercom cable with the ground operator is also instructed to be removed, and the towing tractor is released, and the aircraft becomes self-propelled. Prepare for takeoff by instructing the Captain's "Flap One"flap Prepare.Ask the Grand Control for permission to move to the front of the runway, and the Grand Control will give you permission to move along with the directions for the taxiway.All jet enginesIdlingThe vehicle is in a state of being in motion, and simply by releasing the brake, it slowly starts to run on a taxiway called taxing. The front wheel steering handle, which is only on the captain's side and is called the tiller, controls the direction of the front wheels to proceed on the designated taxiway. Since the captain's one hand is blocked by the steering operation, the co-pilot is mainlyAileron(Aileron) andElevatorCheck the (elevator) and finallyRudderCheck the (ladder) with two people. Moving the rudder affects the direction in which the aircraft moves, so two people work together. Adjust flaps, etc.
When approaching the runway, ground control (ground control) tells you to speak with tower (airfield control). The tower is also a department that performs control within the control tower and is in charge of managing the use of the runway for takeoff and landing. Switch channel to tower and ask for runway entry and takeoff clearance. If the runway is empty, you can get permission to enter and take off without waiting too long. Turn on the strobe lights on both ends of the wing before approaching the runway.Air collision prevention device Turn on (TCAS). Have plenty of roomSeat beltNotify you of the wearing of the on-board display. There are two ways to take off from the runway: a standing takeoff that temporarily stops at the end of the runway, and a rolling takeoff that starts from the taxiway and starts accelerating without stopping. Follow the tower instructions.
- take off
When the captain decides to take off, he increases the output while paying attention to the engine sound, vibration, and instrument display. Release the brake after confirming that the engine output rises normally to some extent during standing take-off. The aircraft starts accelerating for takeoff and proceeds on the runway. The co-pilot is watching the speedometer,knot(About 140 km/h), announce "Aity", and the captain confirms this with a meter. This confirms that both speedometers are correct. Called V1Takeoff decision speedIf the pilot exceeds, the co-pilot will say "Vuin", and eventually "VIR" (rotation speed), the captain will pull the control stick or control stick to lift the nose, and the aircraft will soar in the air. When the co-pilot confirmed that the climb was going smoothly, he announced that he was "positive rate", and the captain ordered "gear up," and the legs were retracted.
When the tower sees a successful climb, it tells the aircraft to take subsequent control from departure control (or exit control). Repeat and switch the channel to departure control. Departure control and approach control are the departments that control the flight control in the airspace around the airfield by radar in and around the control tower.
While receiving control from the departure control, continue climbing toward the instructed airway, adjust flaps, etc., and switch to control by the autopilot. After takeoff, the equipment is checked on the instrument panel, and when it climbs to a certain level and there is little shaking, the seat belt wearing sign is erased.
If all goes well, the departure control will tell you to speak to the air traffic control department that controls each air route. This is a department that performs flight control within a wide air space by dividing the country into several parts by radar. Switch the channel to the control department, proceed to the designated air route,BEFORE,RNAV,GPSWhile confirming one's position by, fly in it. If necessary, fly in multiple control airspaces and receive control of each airway control each time.
When cruising over long distances, fly while adjusting the engine output and altitude to optimize the fuel consumption rate according to the aircraft that has become lighter due to fuel consumption.[Note 46].
When the destination approaches, enter the information necessary for landing in the FMS. Eventually, the control will be taken over from the air traffic control to the approach control that is in charge of the airspace around the airfield, and will descend in response to the descent instruction from there. Unless the passenger plane is a reciprocating plane, it is usually guided by a straight-in system that faces the runway straight from the stage of approaching the airport, but if there are many aircraft that want to land at the airport, you must wait in the air in the standby route Sometimes[Note 47].. Gradually descend the aircraft and receive the guided radio waves of ILS and VOR/DME to get on the landing approach course to the destination airfield[Note 48][Note 49].. Eventually, the approach control will take over to the control of the tower, which will control the runway in the airfield at the destination, and will ask for landing permission, and along with the landing permission, the runway number, wind direction, wind speed, and road condition will be notified. Turn on the seat belt sign inside the aircraft. If you gear down at an altitude of about 500 feet and cancel the autopilot, you will only have to land at the correct runway position, angle, and speed using the instruments and visual inspection.[Note 50].. At an altitude of about 200 feet determined to land, the copilot tells the captain, "Minimum". The captain replies "landing" or "go-around" and declares whether the landing maneuver should be continued or restarted. In front of the runway, even at night, it will be a visual check and manual operation including the entry angle indicator light, landing light, runway light, etc.[Note 51], Enter the runway while slightly raising the nose. Eventually, land on the tire of the main landing gear. Simultaneously with landing, push the thrust lever to the reverse position to reverse-propel the engine. When the thrust detects the rotation of the tire in the reverse position, the spoiler on the wing will automatically stand up and reduce the lift, so that the legs will support the aircraft and prevent it from jumping up and bouncing again. The automatic brake works with ABS and also brakes the tires.
- get off
When the engine reached the end of the runway and the engine was idling and the flaps were retracted, control was taken over from the tower to the ground control, and instructions for taxiways and spots were received. Follow the instructions and slowly proceed to the spot in the apron with the engine injection in the idling state[Note 52].. At the spot, a guideman called an airline marshaller swings the paddle and guides it to a fixed position. The aircraft is stopped and the car is stopped. At the same time when the aircraft stopped at the spot, the seatbelt sign inside the aircraft was erased and the flight attendants started preparing. The door mode is changed to manual. If you use a GPU, the cable will be plugged in and then the engine will shut down according to the checklist. Stopping the jet engine is also work that requires attention. The pilots pass the report on the aircraft to the maintenance personnel and get off the aircraft. In many cases, such as domestic flights, the aircraft is approaching the time of the next flight, so cleaning the cabin, exchanging meal carts and beverage tanks, unloading cargo containers including baggage cargo and loading new cargo, fuel Supply is done quickly.
In-flight meals are generally different depending on the class, and there are some routes where juice is not served at all over short distances, but long-distance meals are served with one and a half to two meals, generally 1 hours. The interval is set for each meal. Cheap air routes may be charged separately, but many are included in the fare. Depending on the airline and route, if you make a reservation in advance,Veg,Halal(MuslimFor),HinduFor Kosher (JewishFor), low salt, low calories, children,Diabetes mellitusIn some cases, special meals may be provided corresponding to each correspondence[Note 53].. Most beverages are free of soft drinks, alcohol tends to be charged in economy class, and alcohol is generally free in business class and first class. Alcoholic drinks offered in first class are said to be relatively expensive. Tableware as well as ingredients has a different sense of quality depending on the class.
Some of the passenger planes that appeared in the 1970s are based on the basic aircraft that was originally designed and manufactured, and have undergone many improvements over the decades, and have a variety of derivative types.[Note 54][Note 55] As still in the 21st century, it still occupies a major part of jet airliners. In these derivative types, the volume is changed by extending or shortening the fuselage, the structural members are changed, and the engine, navigation system, and control system are improved.
For example,Boeing 777Then, the first aircraft produced was called "777-200", and then the following variants were made.
- 777-200ER: Aircraft with increased fuel capacity of 200 and increased maximum takeoff weight
- 777-200LR: The aircraft with increased fuel capacity and maximum takeoff weight of 200ER has the longest cruising range in the world.
- 777-300: 200 fuselage extended from 63.7m to 73.9m
- 777-300ER: Aircraft with increased fuel capacity of 300 and increased maximum takeoff weight
The 777-200 and 777-300ER differ considerably in performance and appearance. vice versaBoeing 747There are many derivative types after 35 years have passed since the start of production, but there is not much difference in size except SP, and the appearance of -100 and -200 or -300 and after SUD is very similar.
Role and transition of airframe painting
To fly over at high speed(I.e.,dustSince it can be scratched by things such as paint, painting not only has a visual design but also protects the aircraft.. About 747 to 500 liters of paint is used in the case of the Boeing 600, for example... In order to reduce the weight, there is also a case where it is treated without coating and only with a surface protective coating. At Japan Airlines, repainting is performed once every five years, along with a detailed inspection of the outer skin of the aircraft.
The design of passenger aircraft is the same as the technology of the aircraft.Industrial designWe have followed the changes in line with the trends and trends in painting technology. Initially, it was a simple thing to write the company name on the aircraft, but as the aircraft became larger, it began to draw the company logo and put lines.
In the 1960s, industrial designersRaymond LowybyUnited airlinesThe flow of aircraft design that continues to the present has started due to aircraft design such as,1965 OfBraniff AirlinesAs with the "The End of the Plain Plane" campaign by Yahoo! Also,Landor AssociatesA major design firm likeBrand strategyI'm starting to design as part of.
From the end of the propeller era to the early jetization of the 1960s to the 70s, most airlines had a white paintwork, and the line of the window (the cheat line) was used to paint. The nose at the tip of the machine is retractedradarDielectric paint was applied to improve the transmission of radio waves, but since the dielectric paint at that time was only black, the nose part was painted black..
However, in the 1980s, the black paint on the nose became unnecessary due to technological development of radar., The designs have diversified. A large company name on a white background has become commonplace since this era.logo("Billboard style" Is called), first of allUTAAdopted by and laterPan American AirlinesWas adopted worldwide by the.
Since the 1990s,DecalDue to the evolution of technology etc.Air CanadaThe number of pearl-based paints has increased... In addition, various designs such as special painting machine, reprint painting of old design, advertisement painting are born. on the one hand,American airlinesSome airlines, such as (old paint), have adopted the design of the metal ground color, which is called polished skin.
Of "polished skin"American airlinesBoeing 777
- ^ There is no way to read "Ryokaku" in the dictionary.Daijirin : Ryokuki,Daijisen : Ryokkaki
- ^ British: combination
- ^ British: convertible
- ^ JapaneseAviation lawIt is classified as "Transportation T" as "Airplane suitable for air transportation business" in the category of air resistance.
- ^ Over 300km.There is no route that is less than this.However, Remote islandIf it is a place that cannot be reached by land, it operates even for short distances of less than 300 km.The shortest regular air route in JapanKitadaito AirportとMinamidaito AirportThe straight line distance is 13km.
- ^ The biplane was a thin blade with a blade thickness ratio of several%, but the wind speed was slow in the wind tunnel experiment at that time, andReynolds numberIs not well understood, and it was not known how the difference between the model size and the actual size differs in the behavior of the fluid.Wind tunnelThe best results were obtained in the experimentWing cross sectionThe shape was chosen. With thin blades, the technology of those days would be too heavy to maintain the strength of the blades only with the internal structural members, so by stacking multiple blade surfaces one above the other and connecting them with columns or tension wirestrussWith the structure. Not only was the performance reduced by the thin wings, but also the stanchions, tension lines, and increased air resistance by the fixed legs hindered the improvement in flight speed.
- ^ Germany after the First World War,JunkersThe aircraft was made of all metal and had low wings.
- ^ Junkers of Germany is a company that covers the truss structure with corrugated skin.金属It produced a monoplane with a low-wing, thick cantilever wing, and exported it to the world. The all-metal fuselage and low wing layout were excellent for maintenance, but the legs were still exposed and fixed, and the corrugated outer plate increased surface area.resistanceThe speed was about 150km/h, the same as the others. At that time, the fuselage and wood fuselage protected trees and cloth from wind and rain, especially at the joints.adhesiveSince it was required to pay attention not to expose the water to water and it was troublesome to adjust many lines in the biplane, a Junkers machine that was easy to maintain and maintain was welcomed in the remote areas. With only one model, hundreds of machines were mass-produced and exported to the world,米 国,Japan,USSRHowever, he produced an aircraft that imitated and introduced the technology.
- ^ The airship was alreadyZeppelinThe airship had a record of carrying as many as 35,000 passengers without accident.
- ^ If you look at the change in the engine,Second World WarPeriodWater coolingSince I was using the line-type engine as it was, I had to overhaul the engine about every 50 hours.Air coolingStar engineIt was an overhaul about every 300 hours.
- ^ In the early days of air passenger transportation in the United StatesFokkerCompanyFordThe company was producing passenger aircraft,Fokker The1931 After withdrawal from the thundercloud and turbulence in the air during an accident that caused the airframe to become vulnerable, it withdrew from the US market. Ford was also aiming for mass production of all-metal aircraftGreat recession from 1929Was hit hard by1932 Withdrew from the aircraft industry.
- ^ Of the Boeing Company in 1933Boeing 247And in 1934, 1936 DouglasDC-2Is all metal semiMonocoqueStreamlined body with structure and retractable legs, variable pitchpropeller,Supercharger付エンジンなどによって、エンジンの馬力が変わらないのに巡航速度が300km/h近くに向上し、フォード機の運航費と比べて10席の247では4/5程に、14席のDC-2では2/3程になった。1936年のダグラス社のDC-3With 21 seats, it was about half the operating cost of Ford/Focker aircraft.
- ^ 1940 The previous fuselage structure is a truss beam structure, which is also called a frame structure like Ford / Fokker aircraft,MonocoqueAlthough it was a structure, the monocoque structure using metal for the outer panel was too heavy, so most of the monocoque was wooden. 1920s EuropeanJunkersThe company succeeded in using a monocoque structure with metal corrugated plates, but it disappeared with the advent of the semi-monocoque structure because of its high air resistance.20st centuryIn the latter half of the century, most of all metal aircraft were used, but as of the 21st century, conversely, the core material is foam or honeycomb, and the surface isComposite materialThe number of monocoque structures that use sandwiches in the form of sandwiches is increasing in small machines.
- ^ In Europe in the 1930s, Junkers of Germany,DornierThe company, a manufacturer like the company, formed the aviation industry that continued from the First World War, and introduced new aircraft in Europe along with France and the UK. However, no aircraft that has been upgraded as innovatively as in the United States has emerged.For example, in 1931, Imperial Airways in the United Kingdom provided long-distance air routes to the Eastern colonies.Handle page HP42With a relatively low speed of four at 160 km/h, a huge biplane with fixed legs was newly launched.
- ^ 2010 The world’s largest aircraft is still1947 Made the first flight toSpruce gooseIs the largest in the world with a wingspan of 97.6m.
- ^ In the first place, a retractable landing gear for large aircraft was not yet developed at the time, and even if it was manufactured, it became heavy, complicated and costly. In order to carry the wealthy passengers who were using airships and luxury passenger ships, it was convenient to have a wide cabin depending on the hull.
- ^ Even as of the 21st century, the restrictions on the length of the runway determine the airway, airframe, cruising range, and cargo volume.
- ^ Japan's first civil aviation pioneering story of this machine is "Bouquet of the south seaIt became a movie.
- ^ Trying to fly fast with a propeller engineReciprocating engineSuch ashorsepowerEven if you increase the, the flight speed of the aircraft will rotate considerably before the speed of sound, from near the tip of the propeller wingSpeed of soundSince most of the driving force exceedsshock waveThe efficiency is reduced by being deprived of the occurrence of.
- ^ The US Air Force's new transport development project was "Project Forecast." It also included advanced composite materials development, reusable spacecraft, super-large transport aircraft, and high bypass ratio turbojet engines. This engineGETF39 of the companyLockheedCompanyC-5AWas installed in. Boeing, which failed to win the development contract for the new transport aircraft, created the B-747 and also lostP & WCompany made JT9D.
- ^ 1995 The in-service B-777 is a model that has received type design approval for ETOPS.
- ^ From the image of the power of modern jet airliners to fly at high speed at high speed, it seems that they consume more fuel than propeller aircraft, but except for early jet airliners, propeller aircraft from the 1930s to 1960s Fuel consumption per capita is lower than that.
- ^ It is said that the Federal Aviation Sheriff is secretly boarding in the United States, and each country isSky marshallThe system has begun. It is said that the cockpit doors have also been strengthened.
- ^ US Federal Aviation SheriffFederal Aviation Security AdministrationBelong to.
- ^ The standard weight of crew and passengers, including baggage, is 1 pounds per person, but may vary by airline and cabin class.
- ^ Fuel for jet airlinersJet fuelIs. Fuel is the bodyWingWill be installed in the fuel tank ofTailIn models with fuel tanks and underfloor cargo compartmentsAdditional tankThere are models that can be equipped with. The purpose of the tail fuel tank is not only to increase the tank capacity, but also to move the fuel forward and backward with a pump to balance the weight of the aircraft and adjust the angle of attack without operating the control surface.trimIt has the purpose of adjustment. The specific weight of fuel depends on the type and temperature, so it is taken into consideration during calculation.
- ^ Boeing 777-200So, the own weight of operation is 139 tons, the maximum payload is 51 tons, the fuel can be loaded about 80 tons, and the total is 270 tons. However, it is decided that this aircraft should not take off at a total weight of 229 tons or more. This limit is called the "maximum takeoff weight". 270-229 = 41 tons will fly by adjusting the payload and fuel weight according to the flight route. Frequently, the short take-off weight is less than the maximum take-off weight. Further, since the airport landing fee is determined based on the maximum takeoff weight, in many cases, the aircraft dedicated to short-distance routes is intentionally registered with a weight less than the original maximum takeoff weight.Maximum landing weightIs mainlyLanding gearPerformance for reasons of strengthMaximum takeoff weightMuch less than. Therefore, in an emergency landing with full fuelFuel dumpingFuel consumption is required for (damping) or turning over.
- ^ The method of classifying passenger seats according to the class is just like the classification of passenger cabins on passenger ships, and was introduced from the 1950s when passenger transportation began in earnest.
- ^ In addition to the previous two-class system, first class and economy class, for passengers who boarded the economy class in the 1970s at Pan American Airlines at a regular price without using a group discount, a new clipper class higher than the economy class I set it up. This is the current business class, and "C" in ticket notation comes from "Clipper". Although Singapore Airlines is in the upper class of A2 in business class, it has a seat in a private room called "suite class" to provide more services than the conventional first class.
- ^ When classifying in the guest room, the seats used differ depending on the class, the more advanced the room, the more spacious the seat and armrests, and the wider the front-back and left-right spacing between seatsfirst classIn addition to reclining horizontally at about 60-80 inches (152-203 cm), there are also things that can be made into a semi-private room state by a partition,business classSome 40-60 inch (102-152 cm) seats recline deeply, and some recline horizontally.Economy classThe degree of reclining is small at about 31-34 inches (79-86 cm).
- ^ Japanese domestic flights are mainly economy class, and the three major companiesAdvanced class with a slightly wider special seatIt has a 2-class configuration or a 3-class configuration. In the case of the above Boeing 777-200, it is 3-305 seats in the international class 328 but it can be set to mono class 440 seats if it is packed up. As of 2007, the number of seats of the aircraft (domestic aircraft) operated by domestic airlines is 2 seats in 415 classes in ANA and 3 seats in 375 classes in Japan Airlines or 2 or 397 seats in 380 classes. Since there are restrictions on the escape time in an emergency in an aircraft, it is not possible to increase the number of seats unless there is enough room for the entrance and emergency exits even if there is enough seat space.
- ^ If it is not possible to fly unless the aircraft is in perfect condition, it will be a huge financial burden for airlines, and passengers will also be disadvantaged in the form of increased airfares and sudden cancellations. The rule that allows minor defects within the range that does not affect safety to be repaired after flight is ATA (British: air transport association) "Operational acceptance criteria" (British: minimum equipment list,HONEY) Has been specified in detail for each device, based on this list consult with the mechanic, the captain makes a final decision on whether to fly.
- ^ In the fail-safe structure that obtains damage tolerance, by providing multiple structures that support the load called "multi-load path structure", even if one breaks, it will be supported by the remaining structure until repaired by discovery by inspection etc. There is a structure called "crack stagnation structure" that suppresses the growth of large cracks to a certain extent and does not expand rapidly.
- ^ In the 21st century, considering the cost, there is a tendency that only one or two engines are supported for each model.
- ^ Routes that operate with relatively high frequency at relatively short distances are called "shuttle service," "air shuttle," and "shuttle flight."
- ^ The "hub and spoke" type route network system is a wide area that connects regions by connecting a single base airport with multiple local airports around it in a radial local route. It refers to the method of connecting each base airport with each other as a route. Passengers using regional airports need to change passenger planes at the base airport many times, but if you try to connect many small regional airports finely, if you can not expect the number of passengers going to each other, you can reduce the frequency of arrivals and departures. Inevitably, there are many disadvantages and inconveniences for both airlines and users, but the hub-and-spoke route system that consolidates at the base airports has great advantages for both sides. At the hub airport, consideration is given to the time setting for transferring from an arrival flight to a departure flight, and it also functions as an aircraft maintenance base for airlines. If the hub airport is closed for any reason, it will be operated by an alternative airport, which is generally more difficult than the hub and spoke method. Due to the geometrical similarity with the wheels in this method, the hub airport is called the "hub", which means the center of the wheels, and the surrounding local airports are called the "spokes." Similar to the hub-and-spoke hub airport, there is a gateway airport. The gateway airport is considered to be a hub airport having an immigration control function and acts as an intermediary between international and domestic flights. Therefore, the hub airport is generally located inland, whereas the gateway airport is located near the border. It accepts passengers on relatively long-distance international routes and distributes them to surrounding domestic routes, and, on the contrary, works to send them out from surrounding domestic routes to international routes. A gateway airport is also one that is located at both ends of a long-haul international flight such as the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, and distributes it to a relatively short-haul international flight to surrounding countries.
- ^ British: Lycoming engines
- ^ Company name changed from Textron Lycoming in 2002Lycoming EnginesChanged to.
- ^ In Japan, pilots are required to have the qualification of "pilot for regular transportation" and a limited license for each model, and the same applies to other countries.
- ^ In addition to containers, passenger baggage may also be bulk loaded in the cargo compartment into shapes that are not suitable for container loading. When using a container, it is normal to pay the weight of about 1 people for one person, to finish the weight calculation, and to load it in the cargo room at the end. Passenger baggage is also the first to be taken out of the cargo hold after the aircraft reaches its destination. If there is a passenger who does not show up at the boarding gate after checking in and checking in his/her baggage, after delaying the departure for a while such as by calling, the passenger's baggage that does not show up will be searched for and taken out from the cargo. This is not only a convenience for passengers who do not appear, but also a precaution against bombs.
- ^ AM waves are used for radio for air traffic control. You can expect a smooth conversation because the FM wave transmits the voice more clearly, but with the FM wave, weak signal waves are hidden by strong signal waves and cannot be heard, so try to communicate from a distance in an emergency. Is more likely not to be recognized. AM waves generally have a lot of noise in the received signal, but since the magnitude of the signal wave becomes the loudness of the received and reproduced sound as it is, it is possible to receive with a small sound even if the signal wave is weak in the distance. Air traffic control uses Greenwich Mean Time, which often differs from local time.
- ^ Most wireless communications, such as air traffic control, are conducted in English, even on domestic flights in Japan.
- ^ Pushback occurs almost everywhere except a few spots. Even at the "Oki stop spot" that cannot be reached in the terminal building, it is still pushed back to the taxiway by pushback. This is because making a taxiway in the forward direction takes up more space.
- ^ JapaneseIbarakiでJapan Air Self-Defense ForceShared withIbaraki AirportSome airports do not push back to save money, but park sideways in front of the terminal building and move in a straight line by themselves.
- ^ In the past, when engines were complex, they started starting them while passengers were on board. As with passenger ships, the left side (port side) of the passenger plane is the boarding gate, so we started with the engine at the far right side (starboard side) farthest from the passenger. Even now, that style still remains, starting from No. 4 engine on the far right.
- ^ Aircraft lighten over time as they consume fuel during flight. The lighter aircraft will change its optimum speed and altitude for economical fuel consumption. For this reason, in passenger aircraft equipped with FMS, the flight speed is gradually reduced and the engine output is adjusted to achieve optimum fuel consumption (exactly, the cruising range is 1% less than the optimum value). Also, at a short distance, the same altitude is followed by a constant altitude cruise system according to air traffic control, but when flying at high altitude for a long distance, it is called a step-up cruise system, so that the altitude is as close as possible to the optimum altitude, According to air traffic control, cruise while climbing step by step in airways with altitude differences for each airway divided every 1,000 feet.
- ^ If there is a plane that takes off and lands first on the target runway, you may be left waiting in the air. This is the "holding", which is to make a turning flight in the designated airspace with a holding pattern.
- ^ The procedure of the officer in charge of approach control varies depending on the airport, but at large airports in Japan, it is taken over and guided by the three-step officers of “approach”, “feeder”, and “final”.
- ^ There is an audio meteorological broadcast called VOLMET (VOice Language METeorological report), which broadcasts weather information around the airport in the short-wave and ultra-high-wave bands. can get.
- ^ If conditions such as the accuracy of the ILS facilities on the airport side, ILS equipment on board, and qualifications of pilots are met, landing using automatic piloting by ILS alone can be performed. Even in this autopilot landing, the pilot will always monitor the flight for correct flight and immediately take over if there is an abnormality.
- ^ When landing, the aircraft can also be landed on the runway with control left to mechanical guidance if conditions are met.
- ^ The entire place where an aircraft is parked on the airfield is called an "apron", and the parking spot in the apron is called a "berth". The designated berth is a "spot", and the spot is sometimes called a "bay" or a "stand".
- ^ There is information that the cost of in-flight meal is about 1-1,200 yen per meal, 1,300-3,000 yen for business, and 3,800-5,000 yen for first meal.
- ^ To a successful aircraft family,Boeing 737,Boeing 747,DC-9There is.
- ^ For example,AirbusAnd oldMcDonnell DouglasThen,BoeingOr oldDouglasIn that case, even if the branch number is changed, there are cases where the name is given as a new model. Also,Airbus A320The short body typeAirbus A319And further shortenedAirbus A318, Long body typeAirbus A321There are also such things. In the DC-9 series, which was manufactured while the company name changed to Douglas, McDonnell Douglas, Boeing, many derivative types were made under the name DC-9-XX in the Douglas era, and in McDonnell Douglas, Derived type made, final type is Boeing 7X7 free numberBoeing 717There is an example.
- ^ a b c d e Team FL370, "How Passenger Airplanes Fly," Nova Publishing Co., September 2009, 9, first edition,ISBN 9784405071179
- ^ "Air passengers for the first time over 40 billion people / 7% increase in the world last year Asia towing IATA""Nikkei MJ』September 2018, 9 (Asia and Global) Viewed September 17, 2018.
- ^ a b c d Shinji Kuze, "History of Passenger Aircraft Development", Japan Aviation Technology Association, September 2006, 9, 11st edition, 1st edition,ISBN 4902151146
- ^ Koji Hoashi, "The Age of Flying Boats", published by Ikaros, published September 2005, 9,ISBN 4871497372
- ^ Asami Konan, "The Legend of Passenger Airplanes", Sankaido, Issued the first edition on December 2001, 12,ISBN 4381104161
- ^ Kenji Aoki, "Boeing VS Airbus", published September 2004, 9, Icarus Publishing,ISBN 4871495892
- ^ 【NIKKEI ASIAN REVIEWFrom: Sydney World's longest route / Direct flight connecting Sydney and NY / Australian Qantas, aiming for serviceNikkei Sangyo Shimbun』November 2017, 11 Asia Global
- ^ Japan Aviation Technology Association, "Aircraft Systems", Japan Aviation Technology Association, March 2008, 3, 31rd edition, 3th edition,ISBN 9784902151237
- ^ a b Japan Aviation Public Relations Department, "Aviation Practical Handbook", Asahi Sonorama, 2005st edition issued on January 1, 31,ISBN 4257037059
- ^ Japan Aeronautical Engineering Association, "Aerodynamics II Jet Transport," April 2008, 4, 18th edition, 4nd edition,ISBN 9784930858344
- ^ Shunji Akimoto, "Airbus A380 Marugoto Commentary," SoftBank Creative Co., Ltd., March 2008, 3, first edition, first edition,ISBN 9784797346718
- ^ Japanese passenger aircraft 2007-2008 (2007, Icarus Publishing,ISBN 978-4-87149-979-8）
- ^ Mikio Aoyama, et al., "Aviation and IT Technology", Kyoritsu Publishing, March 2001, 3, first edition, first edition,ISBN 4320029739
- ^ Tsuru Yori, Shinji Kuze, "Structural Design of Airplanes", Japan Aviation Technical Association, March 2007, 3, 31st edition, 1th edition,ISBN 9784930858771
- ^ a b c Kenji Aoki's supervision, “Carefully selected basic aviation terms 800”, Ikaros Publishing, first edition issued on September 2006, 9,ISBN 487149845X
- ^ Shinichi Takahashi, Sho Tobita, "How the Airplane Works", Nova Publishing Co., December 2006, 12, first edition,ISBN 4405106568
- ^ Naoki Nakayama, Akira Sato, "Basics and Mechanisms of Airplanes", Shuwa System, May 2005, 5, 6st edition, 1st edition,ISBN 4798010685
- ^ a b Yoshihiro Misawa, "All about Airplanes", Shuwa System, published on February 2005, 2, first edition,ISBN 4534038631
- ^ Akira Mimori, "Turbine Engine", Japan Aviation Technical Association, 2008st edition, 3st edition, March 1, 1,ISBN 9784902151329
- ^ Akira Mimori, "Airplane Structure," Japan Aviation Technical Association, 2008nd edition, 3nd edition, March 1, 2,ISBN 9784902151220
- ^ Japan Aeronautical Technology Association, "Aircraft Materials", Japan Aeronautical Technology Association, March 2008, 3, 31st edition, 1th edition,ISBN 9784902151244
- ^ Koji Sonoyama, "Science of Air Traffic Control", Blue Bucks, Kodansha, 2003st edition issued on January 1, 20,ISBN 4062573997
- ^ Akai Koumi, "Passenger Aircraft Naruto Keyword", Sankaido, January 2003, 1, first edition, first edition,ISBN 4381104595
- ^ How heavy is the paint that colors an airplane?
- ^ What are the airline's torturous measures in the event of high fuel prices?
- ^ a b c d e f g Charlie Furusho "The Airline 100 of the World Selected by Design", Shogatsu Publishing Co., Ltd.ISBN 9784777906833
- ^ "Monthly Airlines" June 2009 issue, Ikaros Publishing June 6, 2009
- Master machine 100 Separate volume Aeronautical information Enlarged and revised version 2000 Totosha Mitsuo Nakamura
- Glorious Wings 2 Aviation Information Separate Volume 1991 Shotosha
- Flying flight, Flying flight, Flying flight, 2000 Yasuo Sanuki, Mitsutosha
- Hikoki's Mind, Sequel Hikoki's Mind, Sequel Hikoki's Mind 1995 Mitsutosha Saneo
- John,Newhouse.The Sporty Game: The High-Risk Competitive Business of Making and Selling Commercial Airliners 1982. ISBN-978 0394514475
- The Truth of Airbus-High-Tech Operation Beyond Boeing Kodansha ISBN-978 4062566346
- Boeing VS Airbus-2 battle without a righteousness of a large airliner manufacturer Icarus Publishing ISBN-978 4871495899
- Why did the Airbus A320 crash?-Due to the pilot or due to the airplane Kodansha ISBN-978 4062079228
- Super Giant Airliner Airbus A380-Dream Airliner, 2-story 850-seater World Photo Press ISBN-978 4846525347
- Boeing vs Airbus-passenger maker glory and frustration Ariadne planning ISBN-978 4384025231
- Sporty Games-Inside the International Business War John Newhouse Translation by Aircraft Industry Research Group Gakuseisha (1988/12) ISBN-978 4311600142
- World Aircraft Yearbook 1999 and 2007-2008 Separate Volume Aviation Information Shotosha
- Changes in aircraft design
- Charlie Furusho, "The 100 Airlines of the World Selected by Design," 2007 枻Publisher + * Charlie Furusho, "The 100 Airlines of the World Selected by Design," 2007 枻Publisher 6-8 pages, 52 pages, 108 pages
- "Monthly airline] June 2009 issue "Airliner Coloring Encyclopedia", Ikaros Publishing June 6, 2008
- List of airliners
- Commercial aircraft
- Airliner cockpit
- Flight attendant
- Aircraft symbol(= registration code)
- International Civil Aviation Organization