Broadcast on February 2 [The most useful in the world! Adult social studies tour] ~ Century project! Hayabusa28 Secret of success ...
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This program is a social tour of the sacred sites related to the asteroid explorer "Hayabusa48" by the teacher, Keisuke Okada, and the students, Anna Iriyama (AKB48), Yuka Ogino (NGT2), and announcer Kasumi Mori.
"The most useful in the world! Adult social studies tour" will be broadcast on TV TOKYO from 2:28 pm on Sunday, February 4th. ... → Continue reading
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Space probe(Uchutansaki,English: Space probe)ProbeIs a kind of地球Other thanCelestial bodyOutside the earth's orbit for the purpose of exploringSpaceSent toSpacecraftAnd mostDroneIs.Observation of outer space itself (solar wind, magnetic field, etc.), or惑星,satellite,(I.e.,comet,小 惑星For the purpose of exploration.Currently from the limit of technologySolar systemWhile only exploring within, some scientists are thinking of flying the spacecraft out of the solar system in the distant future.
History of space exploration
Human space exploration is the closest to humankind and is actually the closest to humankind.MonthIt started from.Mankind's interest in the moon has been a story for a long time ("Taketori story”, Etc.), and the rapid technological development after the Industrial Revolution can be investigated by sending a space probe directly around (or the surface of) an extraterrestrial celestial body in order to satisfy the intellectual curiosity of humankind. It came to be.
The closest extraterrestrial "moon"
The first spacecraft in human history to aim for celestial bodies other than the EarthSoviet Union OfLuna 1Is.Luna 1 approached the moon for the first time, and although it was originally planned to collide, it took a course that deviated from the orbit and grabbed the moon, and went around the sun as it was.Artificial planetIt became.nextLuna 2Reached the moon for the first time in human history and succeeded in a collision.furtherLuna 9The world's first successful soft landing on the moon.Although the research results were small only after landing, the achievement of landing on another celestial body for the first time is great.Furthermore, the Luna series continues,Luna 16 TheMoon soil sampleWith an unmanned spacecraftTake out,Luna 17Is unmannedLunar trolleyI ran (Lunokhod) and conducted various investigations.
on the other hand,Cold WarSpace technology lags behind the Soviet UnionThe United States of AmericaAgainst violentlySpace development competitionWill be held.America isPioneer Plan-Ranger planStarting withSurveyor 1Soft landed on the moon and sent unmanned spacecraft one after another. Manned in the 1960sApollo projectChallenge,Apollo 11Finally sent mankind to the moon.failed13 No.except17 No.A total of 12 people walked on the moon.Soviet UnionManned month travel planHowever, it failed due to the failure to develop a large rocket.
Exploration of the inner solar system
Space exploration of the inner solar system was also conducted mainly in the United States and the Soviet Union in parallel with the lunar exploration competition.
America isMariner spacecraftUsingVenus-Mercury-火星I approached and took a picture.Also on MarsViking No. 1-2 No.Succeeded in landing in succession, took pictures of the surface of Mars, and conducted various surveys.
One Soviet Union on VenusVenera spacecraftSucceeded in a soft landing, and succeeded in taking a picture of the surface of Venus for the first time.It also measured the temperature and atmospheric pressure of Venus and made the world aware of its environment.On Mars at the same timeMars 3I sent in and succeeded in a soft landing, but failed because the signal was cut off 20 seconds later because I landed in the middle of a large sandstorm.
1990 eraFrom the second half, the United States started exploring Mars again.First1997ToMars PathfinderSucceeded in landing, on the groundデ ジ タ ル 写真In addition to photography, rock composition analysis was performed.1998ToMars Global SurveyorStarted making detailed maps in orbit around Mars.1999Mars Surveyor 99, due to arrive, failed to insert into orbit,2004ToSpiritとopportunityTwo aircraft successfully landed, indicating that there was a sea on Mars.2012ToCurio cityIs investigating the possibility of successfully landing and sustaining life.
In the latter half of the 1990s, Japan and Europe also made a full-scale entry into planetary exploration.
JapaneseJapan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is a Mars probe (Hope), But eventually due to troubles due to prolonged operation to recover from insufficient thrust due to poor valve opening.Mars orbitAbandoned the introduction to the planet and became an artificial planet. Venus probe in June 2010Dawn) Was launched, and the launch into the orbit of Venus scheduled for December of the same year failed, but the re-challenge conducted in December 12 was successful, and observations were made while orbiting the orbit by 2015. It is being implemented.Also,European Space Agency Mercury probe in collaboration with (ESA)Bepi Colombo) Is scheduled to be sent.
India in September 2014Mars Orbiter MissionIt succeeded in putting (Mangal Yarn) into the orbit around Mars, and became the first country in Asia to succeed in the Mars probe.
Yinghuo-1 (Yinghuo-1)-The People's Republic of China was launched synergistically with Russia's Fobos-Grunt on November 2011, 11, but failed to orbit the earth.Tianwen-9 --- Launched by Long March 1 from the Wenchang Koten Rocket Launch Site in Hainan Province on July 2020, 7, and entered orbit around Mars on February 23, 5.Following the above "Tianwen-2021", a plan to send a Mars probe in 2 has been revealed in 10.
United Arab Emirates is launched from Tanegashima Space Center by Japanese H-IIA rocket on July 2020, 7, on the plane to Mars. I got on.
Exploration of the outer solar system
Space exploration farther than Mars has become America's sole field.Pioneer 10-11 No.とVoyager 1In quick successionJupiterとSaturnI approached and took a picture.And nextVoyager 2After shooting and investigating Jupiter and SaturnUranus-海王星Explored for the first time..According to these surveys, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune have the same "Saturn".ringWas confirmed, and there are many Voyager programs.satelliteWas taken.With the hope that these four spacecraft will eventually reach other solar systems,Message to aliensIs loaded.As much as possible, we have devised a way to scientifically clarify the history regardless of the customs unique to the earth, but it was loaded on Pioneer 10/11.Message boardThere was a lot of debate over these messages to aliens, including the illustrations of male and female nudes engraved on.
When Voyager crosses Neptune's orbit and switches to an interstellar exploration program, the United States heads for Jupiter again.GalileoThespace shuttleFired from.Upon reaching Jupiter, Galileo dropped a spacecraft into Jupiter's atmosphere and sent data to Earth for tens of minutes before being crushed by atmospheric pressure.
On the other hand, with the disappearance of the Soviet Union, the entire space business was taken over.ロシアCan't afford to explore space.
The United States also collaborates with the European Space AgencyCassiniLaunched and approached Saturn.Further satellitesTitanSpacecraftHuygens probeWas dropped and landed successfully.Voyager was the only one who did not explorePlutoAnd spreads further outsideEdgeworth Kuiper BeltEven if you turn to2006ToNew HorizonsWas launched, and Pluto was approached in 2015 for exploration (Pluto is from the planet.Dwarf planetIt was changed to about half a year after the launch).
In 20, the exploration of the outer planets, which was the sole field of the United States until the end of the 1997th century, was a form of international collaboration with the United States, which already has abundant achievements. The entry into the planetary exploration began, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is also planning to enter the outer planetary exploration by the Jupiter space probe around 3 as a three-institution international joint project with the United States and Europe..
1986ToHalley's CometApproaching the earthEuropean Space Agency( ) AndJapan OfInstitute for Space Science(Punch,Suisei) Began to send full-scale space probes, and the Soviet Union also sent comet probes (Vega 1 and 2), But the United States did not send a spacecraft dedicated to Halley's Comet, but a solar system spacecraft that was operated jointly with the European Space Agency (ice) Was placed in an orbit approaching Halley's Comet, and joint observations were conducted by three countries and one region.These Halley's Comet spacecraftHalley fleetWas called.Then Americadeep Impact,StardustEtc. have been sent to comets, and their results are being achieved.
Galileo 1991と1993As they pass through the asteroid belt, respectively (951) GaspraAnd (243) IdaIt was the earliest asteroid exploration that took a picture of and sent the video.Full-scale asteroid exploration1996Launched in February1997In July (7) MatildeApproaching,2000In July (2) ErosReachedNEAR shoe makerIs the first.Following JapanHayabusa (MUSES-C)2003Launched in February2005In July (9) ItokawaReached and2010I returned to Earth in June.
Also in the United StatesDawnThe spacecraft is (1) Ceres(Dwarf planets) and (4) VestaAiming for2007It was launched in September.further,New HorizonsAlso in the asteroid belt on the way to Pluto (132524) APLIn addition to shootingCentaurBelongs to (83982) CrantleWas explored.
From an asteroidSample return"Hayabusa" tried for the first time in the world.More than 1500 samples were collected inside the capsule that returned to Earth, although they were fine particles, and it was confirmed that these were derived from asteroids..
The sample return is the American spacecraft launched in 2016 ``Osiris Rex, And the "Hayabusa" launched in 2014 as a successor.Hayabusa 2It is also planned for both spacecraft.The Osiris-Rex sample will return to Earth in 2023, and the Hayabusa2 sample will return to Earth in 2020.There is also information that China is planning to launch an asteroid sample-return spacecraft in the first half of the 2020s..
To the moon again
1990 eraEntering, Japan one after anotherLunar exploration plan(Hiten(1990)/LUNAR-A(Plan canceled) /Kaguya(2007-2009)) Announced and implemented in Europe (Smart 1(2003-2006)) And China (Jealousy No. 1(2007-2009)) and India (Chandrayaan-1(2008-2009))) will also send its own lunar probe.ChinaJealousy No. 3In (2013), we succeeded in the soft landing on the moon next to the former Soviet Union and the United States, and the operation of the unmanned lunar rover (Tama Rabbit).The United States is also sending a large number of lunar explorers from the lunar resource exploration, manned bases, and the stepping stones for Mars manned exploration.
International cooperation system
The first full-scale cooperation systemHalley's CometPerformed during the exploration (Halley fleetSee).After that, there was no large-scale international cooperation,2007May 3To京都Made inKyoto Workshop on International Space Exploration StrategyIt was confirmed that the 2007 space agencies that participated in the workshop on future solar system exploration, including lunar exploration after 14, will establish an international cooperation system at an early stage.
List of spacecraft / exploration plans
The United States of America
- Pioneer Plan: Approaching the moon
- Ranger plan: Take a photo while plunging into the moon
- Lunar Orbiter Program: Lunar orbit
- Surveyor plan: Landing on the moon, taking pictures, sending surface data
- Apollo project: Manned flight to the moon
- Mariner program: Exploration of Mercury, Venus, Mars
- Viking plan: Landing on Mars
- Pioneer Venus Project: Exploration of Venus and Halley's Comet
- Pioneer 10/11: After passing through Jupiter and Saturn, go out of the solar system
- Voyager plan: After observing through Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, go out of the solar system
- Clementine plan: Lunar exploration plan
- Magellan: Venus orbit
- Galileo:asteroidIdaas well as the GaspraApproaching, orbiting Jupiter, dropping probe
- Mars Observer
- Mars Global Surveyor
- Mars Climate Orbiter
- Mars Polar Lander
- 2001 Mars Odyssey
- Mars Exploration Rover : Spirit,opportunity
- Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Mars polar orbit. Launched in August 2005, reached Mars in March 8
- Mars Telecommunications Orbiter: Plan cancellation
- Discovery Program: Low-cost and efficient space exploration plan utilizing off-the-shelf
- NEAR shoe maker:asteroidErosExploration
- Mars Pathfinder: Mars exploration
- Lunar Prospector : MonthInvestigate the existence of ice
- Genesis : Solar windCollect the dust contained in
- deep Impact : Tempel 1Exploration
- Messenger: Mercury Exploration
- Stardust : Comet 2P / WildApproaching, sample return
- : Investigation of the relationship between the Martian atmosphere and the solar wind
- CONTOUR : Comet Encke (2P),Comet 3 Schwassmann-Wahman Exploration of (73P) (failure)
- Dawn: Dwarf planetCeres,asteroidVestaClose-up survey
- Kepler: Exoplanet exploration
- GRAIL: Observation of the gravitational field of the moon
- : Space,Solar system,lifePlan to investigate the origin of
- New Millennium Program : 21st centuryPlan to establish the technology required for the exploration plan of
- New Frontiers Program: Low-cost space exploration plan with relatively many newly developed elements
- Mars Scout: Mars Exploration Plan
- JIMO : EuropaSpacecraft for the purpose of investigating the sea (cancelled)
Soviet Union / Russia
- Luna plan: Moon exploration
- Zond program: Moon exploration
- Venera plan: Venus exploration
- Mars program: Mars exploration
- Phobos program: Mars exploration (failure)
- Vega program: Venus, Halley's Comet Exploration
- Mars 96 plan: Mars exploration (failure)
- Phobos-Grunt: Mars exploration
- Punch: Halley's Comet, Interplanetary Space Exploration
- Hiten, Hagoromo: MoonSwing by・ Aero brake demonstration, lunar orbit
- Hayabusa, Minerva: Asteroid "ItokawaExploration, sample return
- LUNAR-A: Moon exploration (cancelled)
- Kaguya, Okina, Ouna: Lunar orbit
- IKAROS : Solar power sailDemonstration, interplanetary space exploration
- PLANET plan
European Space Agency
- : Halley's Comet Exploration
- Mars Express: Mars orbit, lander Beagle 2 (failure)
- Smart 1: Moon exploration
- Rosetta: Asteroid / comet exploration
- Venus Express: Venus exploration
- Aurora program: Mars exploration
- Chang'e Plan: Moon exploration
- First question: Mars exploration
- Kuafu Plan: Solar exploration (cancelled)
International joint mission
- Halley Armada: (Japan, US, Europe and Soviet Union) Halley's Comet Exploration
- ISEE-3 / ICE: (US / Europe) Solar wind / comet
- ユ リ シ ー ズ: (US / Europe) Solar polar orbit probe
- Cassini: (US / Europe) Saturn orbit / TitanHuygens probeDropped (jointly with ESA)
- Bepi Colombo: (Japan and Europe) Mercury Exploration
- Hayabusa 2: (Japan and Europe) Asteroid exploration, sample return (small lander MASCOT developed by Germany and France)
- Laplace: (Japan, US and Europe) Jupiter and its satellites (especiallyEuropa) Exploration
- : (US / Europe) Saturn and its moons (especiallyTitan,Enceladus) Exploration
- Fireworks No. 1: (China-Russia) Mars exploration (failure)
- Al-Amal: (Hia) Mars exploration
- ^ Originally the Voyager program was at the end of the 20th centuryPlanet seriesIt started as a "Grand Tour Plan" to explore from Jupiter to Neptune at once using, and the original plan wasPlutoWas also included.The plan was reduced due to the review of space development in the United States, and although No. 1 took an orbit capable of exploring Pluto and Uranus and Neptune, the budget was only allowed for exploration to Saturn at the launch stage.After that, Voyager 2 became Saturn's moon.TitanAlthough it deviated from the orbit toward Pluto in order to observe in detail, Voyager 2 was to be explored as originally planned because the budget for the extension of the mission was approved.
- ^ Initially, it was planned as a joint project between Japan and Europe, but in the end it was decided to jointly with NASA, which has a wealth of experience in exploring the outer planets.
- ^ International Joint Jupiter Area Comprehensive Exploration Plan WG Establishment Proposal (pdf)
- ^ "About finding out the origin of fine particles in Hayabusa capsules”. JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (November 2010, 11). 2020/8/12Browse.
- ^ "Is China planning an asteroid exploration to launch in 2022?”. Moon Exploration Information Station (November 2015, 11). 2020/8/12Browse.
- List of space probes
- Mars probe
- Aeroshell - Lander
- Radio control
- Swing by
- Artificial planet
- List of artificial planets