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Mamoru Hosoda's latest work "Princess of Dragon and Soba" What is your favorite story?Visual & special news video release

 
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The Internet has many negative aspects such as slander and fake news, but I think it is a very good tool to expand the possibilities of human beings.
 

Mamoru Hosoda's latest film, "Ryu to Soba Kasumi no Hime," known for "Summer Wars" and "Mirai of the Future," will be released in the summer of 2021 ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Slander

Slander(Slander) was based on the fact that it was not trueAbusiveIt is an act that hurt others by saying[1][2][3][4].

It is easy to be confused with criticism and criticism that are basically legal, but criticism should be corrected in this way to the behavior itself to legal and ethical violators that "evaluation of the other party's behavior or counterargument to the other party's claim". It is a constructive point and advice.The criticism is to blame the fault or negligence that has a basis without suggestive content such as advice.[5]Is[6][2][3].

However, if the grounds themselves are incorrect in criticism and criticism, the degree of criticism is too high, and even in the case of objective facts, if the content is threatening or negative points to appearance are included. When prosecuted, you will be charged with the same crime as slander.[4][2]..Damage caused by slander due to easy dissemination of hoaxesインターネットHas been expanding since the general spread ofhuman rightsIn question[7].

Overview

"Slandering" is a word that combines "slandering" and "slandering."

  • "Slandling"-To say bad things to others. Procuring[8].
  • ``Slandering''-to hurt the honor of another person by saying something unfounded[9].

These two words may be expressed side by side as "slanders." "Slobbing" is a verb (StrangeIt can also be used as a "verb").

Slander on the Internet

インターネットWriting onAnonymousThey are more motivated and easier to express their opinions than other media. This may lead to acts such as carelessly writing a message containing slander or defamation on a bulletin board or a home page without considering the feeling of the reader.

Not only when these actions are incorrect, even if they are trueLibelIs an act that can be established. About slander on the netJapanese policeThe number of damage consultations sent to20012267 cases,2006Has increased 3.5 times to 8037, and the damage is increasing rapidly year by year. Some of the victims are in emotional distresssuicide・Some people attempt suicide. In many cases, the caller cannot be identified.

On the other hand, there are cases in which compensation was made after the sender was specified. Of the actress in 2020Spring flowersHaruna announced that the person who slandered her and her parents agreed to pay a settlement fee of about 300 million yen to Haruna.[10][11].

Measures/impact on slanderous slander on SNS

2020May 4, Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsDisclosure of personal information of the person who posted slander on the InternetProvider Liability Limitation LawThe first meeting of a study group (a study group on the ideal way of disclosing sender information) was held[12].. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications indicated that it plans to compile an interim report by the summer of the same year.[13].

Movement after the death of Hana Kimura

2020May 5Died inProfessional wrestler OfKimura flowerHas suffered slanderous damage from SNS,Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications-Sanae Takaichi TheMay 5In a press conference, he said, "It is unacceptable as an individual to act to slander someone anonymously." Showed intention to carry[14][15].. Also on the same day,LINEAnd TwitterSocial MediaCreated by businessSocial media use environment maintenance mechanism TheUrgent statementAnnounced and harassed on SNSLibelIt was stipulated in the Terms of Use as a prohibited matter, and if such behavior was understood, it was decided to take thorough measures such as suspension of use. If required by law to disclose information, we will provide necessary information within an appropriate range. PMDA has set up a special committee to consider further measures.[16]..In addition, the account that wrote slander to Kimura on SNS has been deleted one after another after Kimura's death.[17].

At the press conference on the 25thChief Cabinet Secretary-Yoshii KanAbout the information disclosure of the caller over slander on the InternetProvider Liability Limitation LawCiting what is stipulated inMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHas started discussions since last month. Based on that, we will take appropriate measures." There is a view that this statement is related to Kimura's death and slandering slander to Kimura on the SNS, and the opposition party side as well.Constitutional Democratic PartyDiet Countermeasure ChairmanAtsushi AzumiSaid to the reporters in the Diet that "anonymous, slanderous slander can hurt many people and lead to life-threatening situations."[18].

In response to this news, federated SNS ·MastodonIn Japan, "msdtn.jp", which is the second largest instance in Japan, and "mastodon.cloud", which is the third largest instance in the same company (operated by the joint venture decentralized social network organization), will continue to file lawsuits and disclosure requests against slander on the Internet. It is expected that it will become more general and that government agencies will give instructions to strengthen responses and strengthen legislation.2020May 6Announced that it will end the service. The reason for the closure is that it was judged that it was difficult to take appropriate measures due to the increased administrative burden.[12][19].

In December, it was revealed that a man will be sent documents on Twitter for insulting postings that slander Kimura.[20]..The content of the slander was "Is it worth living?" "When will I die?", All of which were in the form of a reply to Kimura on Twitter.[21].

responsibility

In some cases, the sender's responsibility was questioned.Smiley Kikuchi Schoolgirl concrete murder case19 of the 7 men and women who wrote slanderous comments in the comment section of the blog on the assumption that they were involved inLibelIn doubtDocument inspectionHas been (Smiley Kikuchi trauma damage case).In addition, there are lawyers who state that "those who agree with slander must also pay a compensation fee."[22]..Regarding the posting of slander on Twitter, it has been clarified that the man will be sent documents on suspicion of insulting posting content that slander Kimura Hana as mentioned above.[20].

Proceedings hurdle

In the article in 2020, a lawyer who is familiar with slanderous cases on the Internet said, "It takes about two years to identify the other party and finish the trial." "Even if you win the trial, the amount of damages should be 2 million yen. By the way, it costs hundreds of thousands of yen for legal fees. "" In reality, there are many cases where people who are unemployed and incapable of paying or underage write, and there are many cases where damages cannot be recovered. " Considering that you can register an anonymous account for free and write as many slanderous injuries as you like in a matter of seconds, the legal system is too unbalanced and unfair. "[23].

Other

In a more malicious case, a victim suffering slander may be involved in a criminal case and be tailored as a suspect in the criminal case.CelebrityIn this case, there are cases in which the information useful to the victim is rubbed out. Based on that experience,Public interestContribute toCorporationSome victims preside over[24], There are many examples in which life is greatly distorted by the effects of slander.

Related item

footnote

  1. ^ Digital Daijisen. “What is slanderous defamation”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/5/27Browse.
  2. ^ a b c "What is the difference between "slandering" and "criticism"?"Line drawing" and a solution to eliminate malicious posts (ENCOUNT) asked by a legal expert”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021/1/23Browse.
  3. ^ a b "A manga explaining "the difference between criticism and slander" became a hot topic on Twitter (posted March 2016, 3)”(Japanese). Livedoor news. 2021/1/23Browse.
  4. ^ a b From a criminal point of view, "defamation" and "insult" are applicable when the other party is slanderous to an individual, and "credit damage" and "business interruption" are applicable to a company (company / store) or organization.On the other hand, in civil cases, damages and consolation fees based on tort may be claimed.For example, if you write a slanderous defamation saying "die", you may get a compensation of hundreds of thousands of yen, and if you continue to write it relentlessly, you may get a compensation of 100 to 200 million yen.Also, depending on the content of the words, there are cases where it is cautious to ask criminal punishment, but expressions such as "die", "I wish I should die", "disappear", or "busy" and "fat" regarding the appearance of the other party. The word "old".If you post by name or write in the comment section of the other party's SNS, you may be held liable.
  5. ^ Unlike criticism, criticism does not include suggestive content such as why it is a problem and how it can be improved.In some cases, what is pointed out as a problem is not actually a problem, but is merely a belief of the person who pointed out.
  6. ^ "What is the difference between "criticism" and "blame"? The latter only points out shortcomings”(Japanese). Livedoor news. 2021/1/23Browse.
  7. ^ "The great price of slander on the net that can not be done with conscience”(Japanese). Security communication. 2020/5/27Browse.
  8. ^ "What is a slander”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/5/27Browse.
  9. ^ "What is defamation”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/5/27Browse.
  10. ^ Aya Deguchi (July 2020, 7). "Fuka Haruna concludes an agreement with the contributor of "Internet slandering". Consent fee: 315 yen". Lawyer dot com. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200720020605/https://www.bengo4.com/c_23/n_11484/ 2020/7/20Browse. 
  11. ^ “Fuka Haruna talks with the detractor and withdraws criminal charges”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2020, 7). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN7N5S6TN7NUTIL01L.html 2020/7/20Browse. 
  12. ^ a b "SNS “mstdn.jp” decides that it cannot withstand the increased administrative burden of dealing with slander and slander and will close on June 6 (Shuji Shinohara)-Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. 2020/5/27Browse.
  13. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Holding of "Study Group on Ideal Disclosure of Sender Information"”(Japanese). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2020/5/27Browse.
  14. ^ "Net slander "Correspondence by system revision" Takashi General Affairs Minister, "Teraha" Kimura dies: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2020/5/26Browse.
  15. ^ "Internet slander and simplification of identifying the contributor Takaichi, Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2020/5/26Browse.
  16. ^ "SNS operator makes an emergency statement after Hana Kimura's death". TBS NEWS. 2020/5/27Browse.
  17. ^ "Hana Kimura's slanderous account deleted one after another after death --Pro-wrestling: Nikkan Sports”(Japanese). nikkansports.com. 2020/5/27Browse.
  18. ^ "Net slanders, "appropriate response" Chief Cabinet Secretary: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2020/5/27Browse.
  19. ^ "mstdn.jp Information [Official] (@mstdn_jp@mstdn.jp)”(Japanese). mstdn.jp. 2020/5/27Browse.
  20. ^ a b "Hana Kimura slandered, posted by a man in his twenties to send documents, suspected of insult-Metropolitan Police Department: Jiji.com”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2020/12/16Browse.
  21. ^ "[Original] "Teraha" Hana Kimura commits suicide, "When will you die?" To send documents to a slandered man: Society: News”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 12). 2020/12/16Browse.
  22. ^ "Do you pay a solitude just for agreeing to write on the net?""Legal counseling service』(NTV series) (Retrieved December 2015, 12)
  23. ^ Internet slander What I want people who think "I will appeal to you" to know Hyundai Business 2020.06.02 (viewed September 2020, 9)
  24. ^ Intention by the founder who stated the history of general corporation.Retrieved February 2019, 2.


False news

False newsWhat is (Kyogihodo)?Mass media,Social mediaEtc. differ from the facts情报TheNews reportTo do, or point to such coverage itself.

Do it after recognizing that it is false from the beginningOverheadAbout intentional things, such as reporting the facts and speculations as factsFabrication reportIt is sometimes said that.

in English fake news However, in JapaneseFake news""Fake news,"News agencyAnd so onSocial mediaOften refers to false or false news that is sent to.

Overview

False reporting is broadFalse positiveCorresponds to[1], Legally, "misreporting" refers to negligence, whereas "false reporting" or "false reporting" refers to intentional[2].. EspeciallyCommon lawIn, it is false information to do with malicious intent.Bad faith(English: malicious falsehood) is a problem, but this is just a legal issue, and from the perspective of the receiver of the report, it is all "false report" whether it is intentional, negligent or malicious. .. Also, legally, an individual or legal entity (Media victim) Of the defamation and privacy infringement in court is important, but even if the false report is not related to a real person or corporation, the recipient of the report has the right to know accurate information. However, it can be a “report victim” due to false reports.

In the past, only the coverage of mass media such as TV, newspapers, magazines, etc., which was considered as "old media", could be false coverage, but in the age when social media developed, the hoaxes sent by individual people on SNS etc. News reports whose news sources are completely unknown can now be false reports. On SNS, no attention is paid to whether it is a "fact" or not, and "highly truthful information" sent from "trustworthy persons" such as friends is actively shared and disseminated explosively.[3].. Such reports that it is not the "fact" but the "truth" (Post truth, UK: Post-truth) is also false as long as it is not true.

False news does not include news that was clearly stated to be a "lie" from the beginning for purposes such as aiming and satire. Lie news is aimed at laughing from the headline rather than the text, and it is described in the text of the article, the company name, the company motto, etc. as "lie" "fiction" "(lie) XNUMX" "bana". However, there are many people who believe in these false news, and if the false news is spread as "truth" on SNS etc., the spread person himself/herself made false report. Being the representative of false news in the English-speaking worldThe Onion(In Japan, "Fictional newspaperThere are not a few people who truly receive lie news written outright and funny and spread as "truth".Media literacyLowness is said to play a part in the false reporting problem[4].

In English it is called "fake news". “Fake news” corresponds to “misinformation” (misinformation) or “disinformation” in a broad sense, and is also a type of “hoax” (fabrication). In the past, false reports in "journalism" by news media such as TV, newspapers and magazines were called "journalistic hoaxes" (faked articles), and "(net) lies news" was called "fake news". , In an era where many people read news feed articles that flowed on social media, even articles written by journalists in newspapers and magazines in paper media and articles that are only found on online lie news sites Since it flows into their own feeds without distinction, especially since 2017 when the US president gave the TV station, which is the "news agency", the approval of "fake news", without distinguishing either "fake news" Often called. From around 2016, it is a word that has become highly political as one of the important keywords in the "post-truth" era.

The right to make false news is guaranteed in the United States by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.[5],Japan alsoArticle 21 of the Constitution of JapanBased on even fake newsFreedom of speechIs guaranteed. On the other hand, if false information is reported, it may be subject to disciplinary action based on the civil code or may be judged based on the criminal code. The false reports of are appearing one after another. Therefore, it is impossible to prevent the occurrence of false news, but in order to detect false news,Fact checkIs valid (because there can be false information in Wikipedia, the fact check is also effective to detect it). Specialized in America since the 1990sFact check agencyThere is also a full-fledged fact check personnel in each media company. However, in some cases, it does not work, and in the 2016 United States presidential election, there is too much information that is unclear whether it is true or false, and the media that does the fact check is considered as "fake news", so the fact check is sufficient. It didn't work[6].. In addition, before trying to detect false news, false news is the same as rewarding the other party at the time of seeing, and the same as having contributed to false news when retweeting or sharing. Therefore, it is also important not to be “interested” and “not seen” in the first place for overtly sensational reporting.[7].

False news in the "post-truth" era (fake news)

False news has already been regarded as a problem in newspapers and magazines in the early 20th century.Yellow journalismOr political falsehood reportspropagandaWas called, but in the early 21st century when the Internet developed, after the 2000s,affiliateInviting viewers to click with deliberately sensational false news for financial purposes.Click baitOr, the Internet has emerged as a new arena for false reporting, with the advent of false reporting just for the purpose of attracting attention on the Internet without any financial or even malicious intent. In the 2010s when SNS developed,Search site OfalgorithmAs a result of too much optimization of "," only the "truth" that an individual wants to see can be searched forFilter bubbleAs a phenomenon occurred and false news spread explosively under the name of "truth" on SNS, false news came to the spotlight again as a problem in the "post-truth" era. ..

In the US, fake news exchanges on SNS2016 United States Presidential Election"A pizzeria in a town is a presidential candidateHillary Clinton``There is a suspicion that it is a base for child prostitution related to'', a man who learned on the SNS that he broke into the pizzeria with a rifle to know the truth ``Pizza gate case(November 2016) triggered discussions about fake news on SNS.[8](In the United States, some people think that "there is a fact that a pizzeria in a town is a hub for child prostitution that Hilary is also involved in the operation" is "true" and some people think it is "fake news". Some people think that it is "truth" that Hillary should be arrested for, whether or not this is a "fact"). Furthermore, it is said that he supported the candidate Hillary Clinton.CNNOn January 2017, 1Playing cardsWhen the president named him “fake news” at a press conference, the debate became even more active, involving the old media.

In Japan, in addition to coverage of the 2016 US presidential election,DeNAIt was discovered that such internet companies were raising a lot of affiliate information by publishing a lot of false information under the name of "curation site".Summary siteThe "problem" (December 2016) was the trigger for activating discussions on false media and media in the "post-truth" era.[9].

To establish the "post-truth" era,TwitterとFacebookThe spread of false news played a big role. In response to criticism of disinformation, Facebook implemented a fact check function in December 2016[10].

A concept similar to "post-truth", which refers to the fact that it is "truth" whether it is "fact" or not, is "another fact" that exists in parallel with "fact". MeaningAlternative factsThere is a word (English: alternative facts). This is January 2017, 1Kelly Anne ConwayIn the words spoken by the presidential adviser,George OrwellThe novel "1984It became a word that symbolized the "post-truth" era.

If the media's coverage disagrees with your perception, it is possible that the media is making false reports, but even if the media reports turn out to be "facts" as a result of the "fact check," If the recognition is "another fact", then my recognition is to say "a fact", and then the fact that the media reporting against the "fact" is a "false report" Definitely clarified (Thus, the idea of ​​believing in "another fact" while recognizing "a fact" is referred to as "1984" in the term "XNUMX".Double thinking"). In addition, Conway Presidential Advisor argues that "alternative facts" are "facts", but TV host Chuck Todd said "alternative facts"Lie”[11].

False news from major news agencies

MoreKyodo News # Suspicious news reports, etc.See
MoreJiji Press # ScandalSee

False news in major newspapers

MoreAsahi Shimbun #Reports with problems and doubtsSee
MoreMainichi Shimbun #Suspicious news, fabrication news, scandalSee
MoreYomiuri Shimbun # Suspicious news, fabrication news, scandalSee
MoreSankei Shimbun coverage #misinformation/scandalSee


News (Chinese)Here are some examples of false reporting in. Here are some typical false news cases, but many newspaper companies have had false news cases in the past. ).

1867 Hachinohe Incident (Chinese Chugai Shimbun)

Hachinohe Incident[12]It is,TongzhiFebruary 5 (1867In November)clearCountryGuangzhou OfNews (Chinese)"Hachinohe Junjun" published in "Chugai Shimbun"Hong KongResidentJapaneseContributed byConquest theoryTriggered by the articleJapanとMr. LeeAnd an incident that worsened diplomatic relations with Qing Dynasty. The theory of conquestEdo PeriodTerminal stage (Bakumatsu)ofYoshida Shoin,Katsu KaishuAlthough their ideas can be seen in this idea, this Hachinohe case was the first to affect the Nissin Dynasty as a real foreign policy issue.[13].. This case has been tailing for nearly 10 years since thenGanghwa Island IncidentIt even influenced the bilateral negotiations in the United States.

1890 Mt. Zao eruption false news report (Tokyo Asahi Shimbun, current Asahi Shimbun)

1890(Meiji23 years)May 1 OfTokyo Asahi Shimbun(CurrentAsahi Shimbun) In the morning newspaper,HiroshimaFukatsu-gunIchimura (currentFukuyama City(Zao Town)Mt. ZaoHowever, the eruption on January 1th at 16:8 pm ruptured the mountain body, and the debris flow spread to the south side and accumulated more than one (about 1 cm) in the Fukuyama city area, and it was reported to have been seriously damaged. According to the report, a brewer, Mizukoshi, in Senda Village (present-day Senda Town, Fukuyama City) north of Mt. did. However, Mt. Zao is not a volcano and no eruption occurred. Therefore, the following day, the article was completely canceled as "Factless", but the reason for the apology and false news was not posted, and the cause is unknown.

1891 Takamori Saigo's fake news incident (Tokyo Nichiichi Shimbun, now Mainichi Shimbun)

1891(Meiji24 years)May 3 OfTokyo Nichini Shimbun(To the current Mainichi Newspaper)Southwest WarShould have died in (1877)Saigo Takamori SiberiaThe article that he is alive is published in the newspaper, and it is reprinted in newspapers all over the country.Crown prince(AfteremperorNikolai II) Was supposed to come to Japan, and was rumored to have Saigo returning to Japan, but in reality Saigo could not have been alive. Because of thisOtsu IncidentIs occurring.

1917 Awaji Maru sinking false news incident (Hoho Shimbun)

1917(Taisho 6) October 3,Hochi ShimbunToNippon Yusen OfNorth ChinaThe ferry "Awaji Maru"Genkai SeaImmediately when it sank intelegramAnd the company immediatelyOutsidersIssued. Back thenWorld War IIs in the middle ofGerman Imperial NavyLaid bymineStock market was confused as it sank. Actually, Awaji Maru is safe and tried to get a huge amount of money by causing stock price turmoilscam事件Met. As a suspectTokyo Asahi ShimbunReporterMinetaro YamanakaとNational newspaperOf the reporter,Securities companyA group of employees was arrested.

1950 Ito Ritsu interview press incident (Asahi Shimbun)

1950(25)May 9AttachAsahi ShimbunIn the evening, at that timeRed purgeWas hiding undergroundJapan Communist PartyExecutiveRitsu ItoとTakarazukaAn article appeared that he had met in the forest of, but it was later found that the article was completely false. The Asahi Shimbun apologized three days later in a company announcement. The reporter in charge left the company, the director of the Kobe branch resigned, and the editor-in-chief of the Osaka head office was dismissed.

1952 Mokuhoshi-go crash and the story of a dead person (Nagasaki Tamitomo Shimbun)

1952May 4,Japan Airlines OfMartin 2-0-2型Passenger planeThe "Mokuhoshigo" ran out during the flight. next day,MiharaIt was discovered that the car had crashed and was severely damaged, and all the passengers and passengers were confirmed dead. But the day after the accidentNagasaki Minyu NewspaperMandanka who was a passenger inShiro OtsujiThe post-rescue story was published. Of course, Otsuji is already "Was deadIt was false, because the secretary who heard the false information of "Rescue all while drifting" was the early reason and made a quick contact with the newspaper company in Nagasaki to inform him of the safety.

1957 Prostitution Corruption Case (Yomiuri Shimbun)

1957(32)May 10,Yomiuri ShimbunThe social aspect of the morning edition was established in the previous yearProstitution Prevention LawOf prostitution that was opposed toRed lineFromUtsunomiya Tokuma-Atsushi FukudaAn article was published that both representatives were bribery. But this leaks information to the Yomiuri ShimbunMinistry of JusticeTo scour out the people involved,Prosecutor's officeWas false information set by the Ministry of Justice. The Yomiuri Shimbun was accused by the two representatives of factlessness, and the reporter Kazuhiro Tatematsu was arrested for defamation (later dismissed). Tatematsu later suffered from disciplinary leave and lost his life as a reporter[14].

1959 Report on North Korean Return Movement (Asahi Shimbun)

The Asahi Shimbun introduced North Korea as a paradise on earth in December 1959, and continued false reporting even after the actual situation was discovered. [15].

1980 Korean hunting coverage (Asahi Shimbun)

The Asahi Shimbun was published in the morning edition of March 1980, 3 (Kawasaki/Yokohama Eastern Edition).Seiji YoshidaBased on his interview, I posted an article that Korean hunting using violence was done on the Korean Peninsula to make it a labor force for Japan, but it was later discovered that it was forged [16].

1980 "The World of Jimmy" (Washington Post, USA)

1980May 9,America-Washington PostPaperJanet CookeSigned by a reporterJimmy's worldI reported a long article called (Jimmy's World).that isWashington CityOf 8 years living inheroinA picture of an addicted patient, his mother runs a dining room where heroin addicts hang out, whose mistress is a drug trafficker. Jimmy's arm left behind a post-injection report that was a live report of 2256 words. Heroin was a serious problem in Washington at that time, and there was growing interest in it.

The article shocked the public and received a great response. Washington police also raided Jimmy to protect him. But no such boy was found. The mayor and police were increasingly suspicious of Washington Post articles.

In this article, the Washington Post1981,Pulitzer PrizeWas awarded.

But soonAP communicationWhen Cook reports on Cook's career, many of themLieIt became clear that there is. The suspicious post editorial executive pursued Cook, admitting that she had written an all-lie article, honorably. "Jimmy" was a fictional boy. Cook did not disclose the identity and sources of the parties to his editor-in-chief, because "if leaked to others, it could put your life at risk." The Washington Post has declined the Pulitzer Prize and remains on the paperOmbudsmanA survey was conducted by an outside university professor.

The results of the survey were published in detail on five pages. The survey results clarified the fabrication process and internal problems, and pointed out the following points.

  • Despite the suspicion of the executive, he neglected the strict pursuit.
  • The way of working to trust reporters has exceeded the limit. The boss didn't even check the source of the interview and ask.
  • The negative effect of excessive merits of expecting was strong inside the company.

And so on.

1982 Korean comfort women forcedly reported (Asahi Shimbun)

The Asahi Shimbun, September 1982, 9,Seiji YoshidaBased on his lecture, published an article that he directly commanded and forcibly took XNUMX Koreans, including comfort women, to Japan. [16].. After that, he continued to publish fabrication articles related to Seiji Yoshida for more than ten years.

1984 "Tenshi of Hijidoko" incident (Mainichi Newspaper)

1984May 1 OfMainichi NewspapersIn the evening edition, the article "Eccle is Shotoku Prince? Horyuji Kankan" was published. It was serializing at the timeRyoko YamagishiShoujo manga "Tenshi of Hijisho]Prince ShotokuA homosexual depiction ofHoryuji templeThere was also a counter-argument comment by the author and the editor-in-chief of the serialized magazine that the concerned people considered the problem and was considering a protest, but all of them were created by a young journalist at the Nara branch of Mainichi Shimbun, 2 An "Owabi" article that acknowledges the error was published on March 4.

In fact, a reporter who visited Horyu-ji on the day before the article was posted was talking about "There is such a cartoon, but it is a problem", but Horyu-ji says "I do not know such a cartoon, do not read it I can't say anything about it." However, the reporter, who thought that he was able to communicate with him, also created the articles of the author and editorial staff who were refused coverage.

1989 Coral Graffiti Press Report (Asahi Shimbun)

1989May 4 OfAsahi ShimbunIn the evening paper, "OkinawaIriomote IslandThe coral of "KY" has been scribbled. However, after that, the Asahi ShimbunMay 5An apology article is posted, saying that "there was too much coverage."May 5FinallyFabricationI admitted that it was. Of the partiesYoshiro HondaThe photographerDisciplinary dismissalAnd other parties also suspended,Asahi ShimbunThe president OfToichiro IchiyanagiResigned.

1989 Glico Morinaga's criminal interrogation and fabrication (Mainichi Newspaper)

1989May 6 OfMainichi NewspapersAtGlico Morinaga IncidentA scoop article was published stating that the criminal was being interrogated, but all were found to be false. Along with that,Takao IwamiThe editor-in-chief (at that time) resigned.

1989 Miyazaki Tsutomu's hideout fabrication (Yomiuri Shimbun)

1989May 8 OfYomiuri ShimbunAtTokyo/Saitama consecutive kidnapping murder caseIs the suspect ofMiyazaki TsutomuAn article about the discovery of a hidden hideout was published. However, the content of the article was false, and the name and disposition of the reporter in charge of the article were not announced.

1992 Military compulsory compulsory women's compulsory removal report (Asahi Shimbun)

On January 1992, 1, the Asahi Shimbun, entitled "Materials for Comfort Station Military Engagement," "forcibly took Korean women under the name of Teshintai. The number was 11. It is said that it is said that it is a million, but the body corps is merely a factory worker, and it was found that forced detention was also forged.[16].

1995 Fabrication of articles by Stephen Glass

Stephen GlassFrom 1995 to 1998en: The New Republic』And other articles were fabricated. Discovered in 1998, he was fired. Later this case wasNews genius(Shattered Glass)” was made into a movie.

2000 Who are you? Fabrication reports (Mainichi Newspaper)

May 2000, then prime ministerMoriIs the US PresidentBill ClintonIt was reported at the end of July that he made a casual English greeting toKyushu/Okinawa SummitAlong with the ridicule toFriday, Reported by Weekly Bunshun[17].. In addition,Weekly AsahiWas skeptical of this story from the beginning[18].. The fact is that the Mainichi Shimbun editorial staff[19], This is the forestFalse rumorIs criticizing[20]

2005 Akishinomiya "Words" fabrication case (Sankei Shimbun)

2005May 4AttachSankei ShimbunSocially,Akishinomiya FumihitoWhen he attended the 14th Global Environment Awards CeremonyFuji Sankei GroupThe article was published as a reference to "Organization of", but there was no such fact (royalIt should be refrained from praising the activities of private companies in order to prevent the statements from being used). Sankei confirmed the error at a later date and withdrew the relevant part.

2005 Manufacture of New Party Japan (Asahi Shimbun)

2005May 8 OfAsahi ShimbunAt that timeYasuo TanakaRegarding the rumor that the Governor of Nagano was rumored to form a new party, an article was posted by a reporter from the Directorate General of Nagano, but it was discovered that Yasuo Tanaka was not interviewed, and the fabrication of the article was discovered. did. Reporter punished by punishment, Asahi Shimbun issued an apology statement on August 8[21].

Report on the shooting of a famous rap singer in New York in 2008 (Los Angeles Times)

1994About this incident that happened inLos Angeles Timesof"Federal Bureau of InvestigationThe special news article that "managers are involved" based on the "material obtained fromPulitzer PrizeIt was discovered in March 2008 that the work had been made by an award-winning author reporter. The paper fully acknowledged that it was false and apologized and withdrew the article.

2008 Mainichi Daily News English Column False Report (Mainichi Shimbun Mainichi Daily News)

Mainichi Shimbun English news mediaMainichi Daily News("Daily Daily News)) started serialization in October 1989 of the daily newspaper era, and in the column “WaiWai” that was inherited even when the website was moved in the spring of 10, an article of vulgar content based on falsehood about Japanese people was posted and distributed. Had a problem. It surfaced in 2001, closing the column, disposing of reporters and bosses in charge,WebsiteDeveloped to publicize the results of in-house surveys on distributed content.

2011 Kyoto University Entrance Examination Leak Report (Sankei Shimbun)

2011End of May,Kyoto UniversityOccurred in several universities includingUniversity entrance examination question online posting caseでSankei ShimbunReported on March 3 in the evening edition of the electronic version and the Kansai version as "information from investigators" that "two high school students in Tokyo were involved and the Kyoto Prefectural Police has already been identified." Was a prep school student living in Sendai. On the 2th, a full withdrawal of the article and a notification of apology were posted.

2012 SDF training refusal report (Sankei Shimbun)

2012January,Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceDuring the disaster initial response training conducted bySankei ShimbunHowever, “in some ward offices”Camouflage clothingHe said, "Don't show the figure to the inhabitants, he was refused admission." The correspondence training was accepted only when he was told to camp. 25 wards reported to have refused made a protest statement and false offer, and Sankei apologized[22].

2014 Yoshida report (Asahi Shimbun)

Asahi Shimbun, May 2014, 5, after the 20 Fukushima nuclear accidentYoshida recordAbout "9% escaped in violation of the director's order" [23].

2014 High school baseball support activities by fictitious people (Ibaraki Shimbun)

Ibaraki newspaperPublished in a paper on July 2014, 7 that an 27-year-old woman who is a manager at an adult baseball club in Ibaraki prefecture is engaged in activities to support high school children while fighting leukemia. However, in a subsequent interview, it was discovered in October that the female manager did not actually exist and was a fictional character created by a woman in her 18s living in the Chubu region. Ibaraki Shimbun made a correction and apology on October 20[24][25].

2017 Japanese rescue report from an accident by Okinawan soldiers (Sankei Shimbun/Yaeyama Nippo)

The Sankei Shimbun was on December 2017, 12, in an article titled "Dangerous Japanese rescued Japanese Marines unconscious of salvation through a brave action behind the former U.S. military judgment". Stationed in OkinawaUS Marine CorpsIt was written that Sergeant Sato rescued a Japanese person through his own injury, and Okinawan news media companies said that he silenced it.Freedom not to report"Oh, the Okinawa Times and the Ryukyu Shimpo are named," he says, "I am not qualified to claim the media and the press. It's a shame as a Japanese." However, when a falsehood was discovered, the Sankei Shimbun published an apology article on February 2018, 2.[26]

False news on TV

False reports from comments and telops

False news on TVYaraseOften have a close relationship with. For televisions with video/audio (camera, microphone, lighting in some cases), more elaborate means than printed media such as newspapers and magazines, so-calledYarase(Performance by the performer) is often involved, and even if the performer does not get involved, the creator may intervene to take a good picture and modify the situation in the scene (example: The situation is complicated, for example with quicksand in “Mustan”.

First, as a simple false report similar to newspapers and magazines, "false comment (Narration)" FalsetelopThere is. This is false news that does not fall under the so-called "yarase." For example1992ToJapan Broadcasting CorporationAired onNHK Special"Oku Himalayan Forbidden Kingdom Mustang'[27]In this case, a boy monk prays for rain during the interview, but despite the slight amount of rain, "the boy monk's wishes were too bad, and no rain fell," he said. Commentary in narration). This was also false in the survey report.

Apart from this, NHK's "Mustan Survey Report" said that there was no problem, but in the program it was as if "Mustang"Butindependent officialkingdomThere are also cases where comments and edits were made as if they were. actually"Nepal(At that time)”. There is a view that this is a false comment.

False reporting by so-called "Yarase"

journalist OfKoichi BabaClassifies "Yarase" and cites "simple reproduction", "malicious reproduction", and "fabrication". Baba takes the stance that "simple reproduction" is permitted and "malicious reproduction" is not permitted, but it is difficult to draw a line between "simple reproduction" and "malicious reproduction".

In Mustang, a staff member who suffered from altitude sickness acted for altitude sickness under the direction of the director after recovery, but the director demanded that the staff perform a more exaggerated performance. This may be viewed as a "simple reproduction", but it can also be viewed as a "malicious reproduction" from the perspective of making it as accurate as possible without exaggerating or distorting the facts.

In addition, there were cases where it was intentionally caused the quicksand phenomenon, but strictly speaking, this is a reproducible act without harassment, and whether it is allowed or not is delicate.

It is arguable that the harassment involving "fabrication" is false news. Speaking of "Mustan", this is the case where "anatomy of a goat" was performed as a science lesson in an elementary school. Since this kind of thing is not done at this elementary school on a daily basis, it is clear that it is a "fabrication", as it is not a reproduction act.

False reporting by editing video and audio

The video shot on TV is not broadcast as it is. I cut out only the necessary parts from the images I shot and edit it by connecting with many other images. For example, in the case of an interview, the preconditions may be cut off and only the conclusions may be broadcast, which distorts the true meaning of the speaker, and is sometimes reported in the opposite sense.

Also, even if it is not an interview, it is possible to convey a certain meaning to the viewer by editing and connecting unrelated videos (montage), so nonverbal false reporting is also possible.

False news on the Internet

Further, in recent years, Internet news made up of false information has become a problem. Mainly refers to false articles that are transmitted and spread on the Internet, but may include personal posts for the purpose of slander. In addition, news media such as televisions and newspapers spread frequently without confirming the authenticity of individual posts. False news on the Internet has the effect of being transmitted and spread on SNS, but even if it is false, it is often awkward to apologize.

August 2016, 8,CyzoAn article that suggests fabrication in the program was posted on the net news of the affiliated website as a statement by NHK officials, but there was no fact of coverage, and the answers of the officials were fictitious. The man in his 20s who wrote the article had no experience of interviewing or writing the article before signing the contract. The company's editor-in-chief, including three employees, received the manuscripts of about 3 external authors and distributed about 30 articles a day, but did not confirm the authenticity of the content. President Ken Ibi explained, "I completely trusted the posts on the internet," and said, "There was a lack of balance between the volume of articles and the check system. In order to earn PV without cost, I will try to cover with the number of articles There is also a structural problem with free net media," he pointed out problems with net media as a whole.[28].

Incidentally,Japan Junior ChamberAccording to the data leaked at the time of (JC) Uyo-kun's burning incident, there are companies and professionals who use internet media such as Twitter to carry out work activities, and it is said that it will cost millions of yen.[29].

movies"Curse”, the fictitious journalist Masafumi KobayashiHome PageInternet archiveOf Kobayashi fansBlogEtc. could actually be browsed on the Internet. In this case, it is easy to imagine that the movie itself is a fiction, so opening a page on the Internet can be considered as a production for increasing the reality of the movie.

2014 Mt. Ontake eruptionThen.Democratic PartyFactless fabrication information disseminated on the Internet related to policies during the administration[30][31]At the time when I believedLDPThe fabrication information is used by the members of the House of Councilors as materials for criticizing other parties.TwitterSpread in[32], Which led to dispute between the parties and the Democratic Party's request for an apology from the Democratic Party, after which the LDP lawmaker who promoted the spread of fake news officially apologized after deleting the tweet and criticized unreasonably. The Democratic Party on the side accepted and settled[33].

False media coverage in other media

Documentary movie

Documentary movie,videoIn the same way as in TV, there are problems with video and audio. For example, a masterpiece of an early documentary movieFlah teaThe director "Alan"アイルランド OfAran IslandsIt is a record of the harsh life of people living in the island, but it says that it recreates the life of the island 50 years ago before the shooting[34].. On TVYaraseThe origin of was already hidden in documentary films.

In addition,Reni RiefenstahlDirector'sBerlin olympicThe recorded movie ofOlympia],Ko IchikawaDirector'sTokyo OlympicsThere is also a reproduction image in ". It sacrificed factuality to pursue artistic images.[34].. For example, in "Olympia"Shuhei NishidaとOe Jixiong OfPole vaultThe confrontation (commonly called the "friendship medal") is a reproduction image. In the case of "Tokyo Olympics" (not the competition itself)Mount FujiRun in the backgroundTorch relayIs a reproduction image at a later date, and most of the sound effects of the competition are retrofitted.

radio

radioIn recent years, false news has not always come to the surface, but since it deals with voice, not only simple false comments but also false news by so-called “yarase” that involves the performers to perform is performed. Some point out the possibility. Audio is much easier to process than video, and it has the characteristic that the edited trace is different from the video and cannot be seen. AlsoOnomatopoeiaCan also be used. Since detailed editing is easy without being constrained by the image, false reporting by editing is easy.

April Fools Coverage

In the UK every yearMay 4Is a false news on TV news show from newspapers but full of humorApril FoolIt is customary for each press to report all the news.British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC)1991For Japan in the morning and eveningShort waveradioでJapanese broadcasting(BBC World ServiceSee also)May 4Was broadcast April Fool's news.1980"Big benSince the watch has been digitally displayed and the hands are no longer needed, we will present it to all listeners as a gift."[35].. Willful but not maliciousユ ー モ アViewers were deceived by the report based on. By the way, "Big Ben's Digital Clock" was published in April Fool's News by the British Daily Express in 2008.

In Japanese media,1955English newspaper "Nippon Times" dated April 4 (current:Japan Times) “Soviet bomber landed at Haneda Airport”[36]When I posted the April Fool's news saying that it became a fuss that the Metropolitan Police Department and some foreign news agencies called for inquiries[37].

For the April Fool's joke show on TV,Third choice(Alternative 3)" (produced by Anglia TV) has been influential to the present day. Detail isApollo conspiracy theorySee section.

False reporting background

There are various reasons why false reports are endless.

Differences between interviewers and editors' ideas/ideas and facts/actualities

The fundamental reason is that before the reporter/director or the news gathering team starts the news gathering, they calculate the expected value of the evaluation of the article and make their own prospects and aspirations. Especially in documentary programs and movies, it is natural that the planner creates the scenario before the filming. As a matter of course, unexpected situations may occur due to the progress of interviews and filming, and unexpected facts and actual situations that conflict with one's ideals and ideas may be revealed. If the interviewer/planner accepts it and can revise the prospects and scenarios that he/she assembled by himself in line with the facts that were interviewed, it would not be false. However, if you distort the facts by pushing forward as it is, editing the images and comments in a way that suits your intentions, or by letting the interviewee make the statement of the content requested by the interview team instead of the statement of himself. Fall into false reporting.

Time/budget constraints

It is said that the reason for not being able to change the scenario or hypothesis set up before the interview as described above is due to time and budget constraints.[38].

Disposal difference

In addition, depending on the media, there are considerable differences in the dispositions of employees involved in false news.DismissalThere are some companies that face severe punishment, while others that require only "verbal attention" in their verbal disposition, and their corporate constitutions are considered to be strongly related.

False reporting of the organization and its response-False reporting at the national level

The Ito Ritsu press conference, "Jimmy's World" report, royal speech report, etc. are all false reports made by individuals within the organization due to their merits and demerits. Nor.

On the other hand, it is criticized that the reporter will not be able to improve his constitution because he will not be able to revise the editor and the media as a whole who should proofread, saying that he is solely responsible for the reporter alone. On the contrary, the Washington Post, which made a thorough investigation into the cause and made a clear apology, gained a reputation.

In an emergency, there are cases where large-scale false news reports are made under the utilitarianism of pursuing national interests and high-ranking government officials at the national level.Dainichi this empire OfGreat East Asian WarInLarge headquarters announcementOr under the occupation after the defeatGHQbySpeech controlIn the report below, the report was intentionally modified. AlsoChugoku-north koreaAnd militaryMyanmar-Middle EastCountries etc.DictatorshipCountryMedia,LiberalismEven in the countryIraq warInThe United States of AmericaThere are still examples, such as the external announcement of.

footnote

  1. ^ False and false reports
  2. ^ Middleton, John (December 1996, 12). “Japanese law approach and common law approach of false alarm victim relief law". Hitotsubashi University. 2014/9/18Browse.
  3. ^ Did Social Media Ruin Election 2016? - National public radio
  4. ^ As fake news takes over Facebook feeds, many are taking satire as fact - The Guardian
  5. ^ Who's to blame for fake news and what can be done about it? -USC News (University of Southern California)
  6. ^ US presidential election: Fact Check is a topic in the press, effective for power monitoring -Mainichi Newspaper
  7. ^ Will Fake News War? !! -Newsweek Japan version
  8. ^ Pizzagate: What to Know About the Conspiracy Theory -Time.com
  9. ^ Door to tomorrow Age of "post-truth" Heavy questions to the media - Shinano Mainichi Shimbun
  10. ^ Facebook and fact-check agency unite over "fake news issue" -Wired
  11. ^ "Facts" and "alternative facts" of the Trump administration -WSJ
  12. ^ It is unclear how to read the article "Jun-Hachinohe" who wrote the article that caused the incident. For more informationHachinohe Incidentreference
  13. ^ * Jang Jin-suk, "Political Change in the Han Dynasty, Power Struggle in XNUMX" (1990,Simul Publishing,ISBN-978 4377108606) 259.
  14. ^ Honda Yasuharu"Unfair Arrest", Kodansha, 1983
  15. ^ North Korea return business All media were deceived as "North Korea is heaven"NEWS Post Seven
  16. ^ a b c I will correct the article and explain apologize Asahi Shimbun Newsletter for comfort women, third party reportAsahi Shimbun
  17. ^ "Kuradashi Special Story: A True Story Like a Lie Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori's English Conversation That Was Disliked by the Leaders at the Summit," Weekly Bunshun, August 2000, 8
  18. ^ Mariko Nakamura "Prime Minister Mori to Clinton's "Fu A You" Truthfulness of the Affirmation", "Weekly Asahi," August 2000, 8
  19. ^ "Bush re-election and future US-Japan relations""The 141st Ryukyu Forum"Ryukyu ShimpoCompany August 2004, 8
    In this lecture, Takahata acknowledged that it was a creation.
  20. ^ "The 387-Day War with the Media", "Shincho 45," June 2001
  21. ^ Seiji Asahi Kimura's faceless editorial dismissal in false news while he was the editor-in-chief...zakzak
  22. ^ July 7 About the article on Self-Defense Forces training in the Sankei Shimbun Chuo-ku, Tokyo,
  23. ^ "Yoshida record"Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL
  24. ^ "This July report, a project to support a baby with a sunflower, a woman with a fighting illness does not actually exist". Ibaraki newspaper(November 2014, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141028013000/http://ibarakinews.jp/news/newsdetail.php?f_jun=14141235033085 2017/8/14Browse. 
  25. ^ “The person in the article doesn't really exist”. NHK News (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). (January 2014, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141024111148/http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20141024/k10015678301000.html 2017/8/14Browse. 
  26. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2018, 2). “Okinawa US soldier rescue report”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2019/8/1Browse.
  27. ^ 1992May 9-"Entering the 1st phantom castle",May 10-"2nd pray to the extreme earth"
  28. ^ "Misinformation about online media: Make sure that you are aware of the impact and are ready to check."Mainichi Shimbun. (August 2016, 9). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20160919/ddm/004/040/006000c 
  29. ^ “Dappi (@take_off_dress), which strikes the opposition party with hoaxes and music, is operated by a company organization or is a complete shift system between 8am and 21pm on weekdays.”(July 2018, 4). https://buzzap.jp/news/20180422-dappi-take-off-dress/ 
  30. ^ "Is the spread of damage to Mt. Ontake caused by the Democratic Party, who has classified "volcanic observation"? "Assortment person, Katsuma, is just right". J-CAST(July 2014, 9). http://www.j-cast.com/2014/09/29217026.html 2014/10/3Browse. 
  31. ^ “Democratic protest against LDP by posting Mt. Mitake, requesting apology from Mr. Satsuki Katayama”. Kyodo News(July 2014, 10). http://www.47news.jp/47topics/e/257917.php 2014/10/3Browse. 
  32. ^ “Mr. Satsuki Katayama acknowledged “Issuing based on false positives” by Mr. Satsuki Katayama “UPDATE” on a tweet saying “I was missed due to business sorting” on Mt. Ontake.. Huffington post(July 2014, 10). http://www.huffingtonpost.jp/2014/09/30/satsuki-katayama-ontakesan-tweet_n_5910730.html 2014/10/3Browse. 
  33. ^ “Mr. Katayama, the Foreign Relations Defense Commission “has caused some inconvenience””. Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20141002-OYT1T50086.html 2014/10/3Browse. 
  34. ^ a b Tsutomu Konno "Uncovering TV Lies"
  35. ^ "Japanese Majimedesune!! The BBC's April Fool's broadcast, which becomes the digital clock of the Eiji Parliament, protests and "Please give me unnecessary needles.""Asahi Shimbun] Tokyo evening edition, April 1980, 4, 7 pages.Innocent April Fool, Word Magazine (Asahi Shimbun Digital), September 2014, 4.
  36. ^ The original text of the headline is "Russian Multi-Jet Bomber Lands at Haneda Airport". By the way, this article was signed by "SHIGATSU UMASHIKA" (= April idiot).
  37. ^ "April Fools" "Soviet bomber to Haneda" Japan Times report surprises readers both inside and outside "Asahi Shimbun" April 1955, 4 Tokyo evening edition, 1 pages.Innocent April Fool, Word Magazine (Asahi Shimbun Digital), September 2014, 4.
  38. ^ Akira Ikegami “Chapter 38 Writing Business Documents” 5.(2007) “Gentle deduction”, “Speaking”, “Writing” and “Listening” abilities change work! Ability to communicate” PHP Research Institute, April 4 18 Day.ISBN 978-4-569-69081-0.

References

  • Fumiyasu Goto, “False News-The Blind Spot in Newspaper Coverage” (Iwanami Shinsho, 1996) ISBN 4004304466 The author is a judge of the Newspaper Association
  • Hiroshi Fujita"American Journalism" (Iwanami Shinsho, 1991) ISBN 4004301831 The author is a former Kyodo News reporter and is currently a visiting professor at Waseda University.
  • Tsutomu Konno "Uncovering lies on TV" (Shincho Shinsho, 2004) ISBN 4106100886 The author is a director of TV Man Union and a professor at Musashino Art University.
  • Shoji Otsuka "The Newspaper's Aging-The Fourth Power to Decay" (Toyo Keizai Inc., 2007) ISBN 9784492222775 The author is formerNihon Keizai ShimbunReporter (venture market manager). Although he was accused of disciplinary dismissal due to in-house fraudulent accounting problems, he was reconciled as a result of the trial.

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